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Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(11): e11293, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339446


There are many medications available to treat spasticity, but the tolerability of medications is the main issue for choosing the best treatment. The objectives of this study were to compare the efficacy and adverse effects of tolperisone compared to baclofen among patients with spasticity associated with spinal cord injury. Patients received baclofen plus physical therapy (BAF+PT, n=135) or tolperisone plus physical therapy (TOL+PT, n=116), or physical therapy alone (PT, n=180). The modified Ashworth scale score, the modified Medical Research Council score, the Barthel Index score, and the Disability Assessment scale score were improved (P<0.05 for all) in all the patients at the end of 6 weeks compared to before interventions. After 6 weeks, the overall coefficient of efficacy of the intervention(s) in the BAF+PT, TOL+PT, and PT groups were 1.15, 0.45, and 0.05, respectively. The patients of the BAF+PT group reported asthenia, drowsiness, and sleepiness and those of the TOL+PT group reported dyspepsia and epigastric pain as adverse effects. When comparing drug interventions to physical therapy alone, both baclofen plus physical therapy and tolperisone plus physical therapy played a significant role in the improvement of daily activities of patients. Nonetheless, baclofen plus physical therapy was tentatively effective. Tolperisone plus physical therapy was slightly effective. In addition, baclofen caused adverse effects related to the sedative manifestation (Level of Evidence: III; Technical Efficacy Stage: 4).

Humans , Spinal Cord Injuries/complications , Tolperisone , Muscle Relaxants, Central/adverse effects , Baclofen/adverse effects , China , Retrospective Studies
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 255-261, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827061


Preclinical studies suggest that the GABA receptor is a potential target for treatment of substance use disorders. Baclofen (BLF), a prototypical GABA receptor agonist, is the only specific GABA receptor agonist available for application in clinical addiction treatment. The nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) is a key node in the circuit that controls reward-directed behavior. However, the relationship between GABA receptors in the AcbSh and memory reconsolidation was unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of intra-AcbSh injection of BLF on the reconsolidation of morphine reward memory. Male C57BL/6J mice were used to establish morphine conditioned place preference (CPP) model and carry out morphine reward memory retrieval and activation experiment. The effects of intra-AcbSh injection of BLF on morphine-induced CPP, reinstatement of CPP and locomotor activity were observed after environmental cues activating morphine reward memory. The results showed that intra-AcbSh injection of BLF (0.06 nmol/0.2 μL/side or 0.12 nmol/0.2 μL/side), rather than vehicle or BLF (0.01 nmol/0.2 μL/side), following morphine reward memory retrieval abolished morphine-induced CPP by disrupting its reconsolidation in mice. Moreover, this effect persisted for more than 14 days, which was not reversed by a morphine priming injection. Furthermore, intra-AcbSh injection of BLF without morphine reward memory retrieval had no effect on morphine-associated reward memory. Interestingly, administration of BLF into the AcbSh had no effect on the locomotor activity of mice during testing phase. Based on these results, we concluded that intra-AcbSh injection of BLF following morphine reward memory could erase morphine-induced CPP by disrupting its reconsolidation. Activating GABA receptor in AcbSh during drug memory reconsolidation may be a potential approach to prevent drug relapse.

Animals , Baclofen , Conditioning, Classical , GABA-B Receptor Agonists , Locomotion , Male , Memory , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Morphine , Nucleus Accumbens , Opioid-Related Disorders , Reward
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762667


OBJECTIVE: To investigate dosage changes in intrathecal baclofen during long-term treatment of patients with severe leg spasticity. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of 49 patients treated with an intrathecal baclofen pump (ITB) because of severe leg spasticity, for a minimum of 7 years. Eight patients were excluded due to catheter/pump failure or factors aggravating spasticity. Of the remaining 41 patients, 19 had spinal cord injury (SCI) and 22 were diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS). Among the SCI patients, 15 had cervical and 4 thoracic SCI, with 7 patients showing the American Spinal Injury Association impairment scale (AIS) A and 12 patients with AIS B–D. The dose was regulated by discussion among the patients and their physicians, usually 4–10 times annually, to reduce leg spasticity and also avoid leg/trunk weakness. RESULTS: After 1 year patients on ITB needed a median dose of 168 mg/24 hr (range, 30–725 mg) for an optimal effect. After 7 to 10 years the dosage needed to reduce leg spasticity in the MS patients was significantly increased compared with the initial dose (mean 157%, n=22 and mean 194%, n=18). In contrast, the SCI patients needed only a modest increase (mean 113% and 121%). The difference between MS and SCI patients was significant (t-test p=0.006 and p=0.004). CONCLUSION: The increased dosage in MS patients compared with patients diagnosed with SCI probably reflects the progressive disease course. The need for a large dosage increase in patients with SCI suggests possible pump failure, triggering factors for spasticity or progressive spinal disease.

Baclofen , Humans , Infusions, Spinal , Leg , Multiple Sclerosis , Muscle Spasticity , Retrospective Studies , Spinal Cord Injuries , Spinal Cord , Spinal Diseases , Spinal Injuries
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762639


Deep brain stimulation (DBS) in internal globus pallidus is considered to be a good option for controlling generalized dystonia in patients with this condition. In this relation, it is known that DBS has already been shown to have significant effects on primary dystonia, but is seen as controversial in secondary dystonia including cerebral palsy (CP). On the other hand, intrathecal baclofen (ITB) has been known to reduce spasticity and dystonia in patients who did not respond to oral medications or botulinum toxin treatment. Here, we report a patient with dystonic CP, who received the ITB pump implantation long after the DBS and who noted remarkable improvement in the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey, Dystonia Rating Scale, Modified Barthel Index, and visual analog scale scores for pain after an ITB pump implantation was used as compared with DBS. To our knowledge, the present case report is the first to demonstrate the effects of an ITB pump on reducing pain and dystonia and improving quality of life and satisfaction, compared with DBS in a patient with CP.

Baclofen , Botulinum Toxins , Cerebral Palsy , Deep Brain Stimulation , Dystonia , Dystonic Disorders , Globus Pallidus , Hand , Health Surveys , Humans , Muscle Spasticity , Quality of Life , Visual Analog Scale
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 18(4): 835-845, Oct.-Dec. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013110


Abstract Introduction: the Aicardi syndrome (SA) is characterized as a rare syndrome identified in the presence of three classic characteristics: corpus callosum agenesis, chorioretinal lacunaeand infantile spasms. Description: data collection involved information reported by the mother and the accompanying physiotherapist describing the patient's clinical history andmajor complications according to clinical evolution, treatment, and therapeutic response. At two months of age, the child presented a delayed neuropsychomotor development and infantile spasms.However,the diagnosis of the syndrome was only performed at six months of life, involving brain magnetic resonance imaging where corneal body agenesis was observed. A multidisciplinary treatment was assembledwith a neuropediatrician, a physiotherapist, a psychologist, a nutritionistand a speech therapist, besides drug treatment with baclofen and phenobarbital. Discussion: through the established treatment, the child displayedmotor gain, cervical control, improvement of the respiratory condition, and no need forhospital admissions;these outcomescharacterizea good clinical evolution associated with the physiotherapeutic intervention focused on prevention and minimization of respiratory alterationsthatare frequently associated with morbidity and mortality in these cases. The results obtained point out the fundamental role of multidisciplinary intervention in coping with this condition.

Resumo Introdução: a Síndrome de Aicardi (SA), caracteriza-se como uma síndrome rara identificada na presença das três características clássicas: agenesia de corpo caloso, lacunas coriorretinianas e espamos infantis. Descrição: a coleta de dados envolveu informações relatadas pela genitora e pelo fisioterapeuta acompanhante da paciente, descrevendo assim a história clínica da paciente, as principais complicações de acordo com a evolução clínica, o tratamento e resposta terapêutica. Aos dois meses de idade a criança apresentou atraso no desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor e espasmos infantis, porém o diagnóstico da síndrome foi realizado somente aos seis meses de vida envolvendo um exame de ressonância magnética de encéfalo onde foi observada agenesia de corpo caloso, iniciando-se tratamento multidisciplinar com neuropediatra, fisioterapeuta, psicólogo, nutricionista e fonoaudiólogo, além do tratamento medicamentoso com baclofeno e fenobarbital. Discussão: através do tratamento estabelecido, a criança obteve ganho motor, controle cervical, melhora da condição respiratória e sem internações hospitalares, caracterizando uma boa evolução associada particularmente à intervenção fisioterapêutica que teve enfoque na prevenção e minimização de alterações respiratórias frequentemente associadas à morbidades e mortalidade nestes casos. Os resultados obtidos apontam o papel fundamental da intervenção multidisciplinar para o enfrentamento desta condição.

Humans , Infant , Aicardi Syndrome/complications , Aicardi Syndrome/diagnosis , Aicardi Syndrome/drug therapy , Phenobarbital/therapeutic use , Spasms, Infantile/complications , Baclofen/therapeutic use , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Chorioretinitis , Agenesis of Corpus Callosum
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713143


Hiccup is an intermittent, involuntary and erratic contraction of the diaphragm, immediately followed by a laryngeal closure. Persistent and intractable hiccups are rare but severe, keeping a person from doing daily activities; these can result in depression, fatigue, impaired sleep, dehydration, weight loss, malnutrition, and aspiration. Therefore, proper treatments are necessary. We present a case with intractable hiccup treated with an unusual treatment. A 61-year-old man presented with intractable hiccups, which started 6 years ago after subarachnoid and intraventricular hemorrhage. Conventional pharmacologic treatments including metoclopramide, gabapentin, and baclofen were unsuccessful. Cooperating with cardiothoracic surgeons, phrenic nerve clipping operation was done under intraoperative electrophysiologic monitoring. This method was successful that the symptoms were relieved. Reversible clipping done under intraoperative electrophysiologic monitoring can be a promising therapeutic method for persistent and intractable hiccups in patients with stroke.

Baclofen , Dehydration , Depression , Diaphragm , Electromyography , Fatigue , Hemorrhage , Hiccup , Humans , Malnutrition , Methods , Metoclopramide , Middle Aged , Phrenic Nerve , Stroke , Surgeons , Weight Loss
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716372


OBJECTIVE: Baclofen is a promising treatment for alcohol use disorders (AUD), although its clinical response in humans is mixed. The present study aimed at investigating the impact of baclofen treatment on cue-induced brain activation pattern and its relationship with relapse outcomes. METHODS: Twenty-three inpatients with AUD underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging cue-reactivity task before beginning medication with baclofen and 2 weeks later. Twelve additional inpatients with AUD, who did not receive any anticraving medications, formed the control group. All subjects were prospectively followed up for 90 days post-discharge or until lapse to first alcohol use. RESULTS: Whole-brain linear mixed effects analysis revealed a significant group-by-time interaction with greater activation of the bilateral dorsolateral pre-frontal cortex and right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) following baclofen treatment in comparison with the control group. Further, cox regression analysis revealed that increased activation of ACC and deactivation of insular cortex (IC) was associated with longer time to first alcohol use only in the baclofen treatment group but not in the control group. CONCLUSION: This study provides preliminary evidence for the neural predictors of baclofen treatment response in AUD. Baclofen treatment in AUD was associated with changes in cue-reactivity at critical brain regions within the incentive-salience network. Importantly, baclofen treatment-related specific activation of regions involved in cognitive control (ACC) and deactivation of regions involved in reward anticipation (IC) prolonged the time to first alcohol drink.

Baclofen , Brain , Cerebral Cortex , Gyrus Cinguli , Humans , Inpatients , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Prospective Studies , Recurrence , Reward
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714054


Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) pump implantation can be used to control dystonia and severe pain associated with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) with or without a spinal cord stimulator (SCS). A 45-year-old female patient had gotten an SCS to control the pain of CRPS. However, she suffered from chronic intractable pain in her left ankle and foot despite paresthesia in the entire painful area because the effectiveness of the SCS gradually diminished over time. In a trial of intrathecal drug administration, baclofen was superior to morphine for pain relief, had fewer side effects, and was superior in terms of patient satisfaction. To achieve the greatest degree of pain relief from the ITB pump, the tip of the intrathecal catheter was carefully placed in relation to the SCS. Over a one-year follow-up period, the patient experienced mild pain without any adverse effects.

Ankle , Baclofen , Catheters , Dystonia , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Foot , Humans , Middle Aged , Morphine , Pain, Intractable , Paresthesia , Patient Satisfaction , Spinal Cord Stimulation , Spinal Cord
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739450


No abstract available.

Acta neurol. colomb ; 33(supl.1): 25-31, jul.-set. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-989181


RESUMEN Para el manejo médico de la distonía se han utilizado tradicionalmente varios fármacos encaminados a disminuir esta condición y a mejorar la calidad de vida. Las terapias orales solas o combinadas proporcionan control parcial de los síntomas y en la mayoría de los casos hay que recurrir a terapias invasivas.

SUMMARY During the last years, several drugs has been tried in order to try to diminish the impact of this condition and improve the quality of life of patients who suffer from dystonia. Oral therapy alone or in combination, generates only partial symptom relief and most of the cases end up requiring other more invasive therapies.

Baclofen , Cholinergic Antagonists , Dystonia
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 46(1): 19-27, ene.-mar. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-901198


Introducción: el baclofeno se indica como relajante muscular para el alivio de espasticidad grave y ejerce sus efectos como agonista selectivo del receptor GABA-B. Objetivo: caracterizar las intoxicaciones por baclofeno según reportes al Servicio de Información de Urgencia del Cenatox entre 2011 y 2015. Métodos: se realizó un estudio observacional retrospectivo con un universo de 16 notificaciones, en las que se estudiaron: el centro de salud que asistió al paciente, provincia de procedencia por año de estudio, grupo de edad, sexo, circunstancias del evento, manifestaciones clínicas y severidad de la intoxicación. Resultados: el año 2014 aportó la mayor cantidad de reportes y los niños las mayores frecuencias absolutas, no hubo diferencias en relación al sexo, aunque entre los hombres predominó la causa accidental y entre las féminas las intencionales suicidas. Todas las notificaciones procedieron de atención secundaria, aunque cinco de los pacientes habían sido previamente asistidos en áreas de salud. Todos los afectados presentaron manifestaciones neurológicas, la mayoría fueron reportados de grave y la mitad de los casos presentaron alteraciones cardiorrespiratorias con inestabilidad hemodinámica que llevó a la asistencia ventilatoria. La recuperación fue completa en todos los pacientes y no se reportaron fallecidos por esta causa durante el período de estudio. Conclusiones: la sobredosis de baclofeno es más común en niños y cursa con manifestaciones de neurotoxicidad e inestabilidad hemodinámica(AU)

Introduction: Baclofen is indicated as a muscle relaxant for the relief of severe spasticity and exerts its effects as a selective agonist of the GABA-B receptor. Objective: To characterize baclofen poisonings according to reports to the Cenatox emergency information service between 2011 and 2015. Methods: A retrospective observational study with a universe of 16 notifications, in which the health center that attended the patient and province of origin was studied by year of study, age group, gender, circumstances, clinical manifestations and severity of intoxication. Results: The bigger number of reports and the highest absolute frequencies occurred in the year 2014, there were no differences with regard to sex, although among the men, the accidental cause was predominant, and among women the suicides attemps were predominant. All reports came from secondary care, although five of the patients had previously been assisted in health care areas; all affected had neurological manifestations, most were reported as severe and half of the cases presented cardiorespiratory alterations with hemodynamic instability leading to ventilatory assistance. Recovery was complete in all patients and no deaths were reported for this cause during the study period. Conclusions: Baclofen overdose was more common in children and was characterized by neurotoxicity and hemodynamic instability(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Poisoning/complications , Baclofen/administration & dosage , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Observational Study
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-203960


Baclofen is a gamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor agonist used as an anti-craving agent for treatment of alcohol dependence. It has gained popularity in the recent times because it is well tolerated even in patients with hepatic impairments. Herein we are summarizing the latest literature about baclofen induced hypomania and are reporting a case of baclofen abuse because of its mood elevating property in a patient of alcohol dependence with comorbid major depressive disorder. Literature review and case study of a 36-year-old male with alcohol dependence with comorbid major depressive disorder was prescribed with tablet baclofen as an anti-craving agent along with antidepressant medicines. The patients who did not improve with conventional antidepressant therapy started feeling better in terms of his mood symptoms on taking tablet baclofen. Owing to the mood elevating property he started abusing baclofen. Despite its safety profile in hepatic impairment, one must be very cautious in prescribing baclofen because of its mood altering property which may account for its abuse potentiality.

Adult , Alcoholism , Baclofen , Depressive Disorder, Major , Depressive Disorder, Treatment-Resistant , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid , Humans , Male
Gut and Liver ; : 232-236, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-194965


BACKGROUND/AIMS: Neurologically impaired patients frequently suffer from gastrointestinal tract problems, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). In this study, we aimed to define the risk factors for GERD in neurologically impaired children. METHODS: From May 2006 to March 2014, 101 neurologically impaired children who received 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring at Severance Children’s Hospital were enrolled in the study. The esophageal pH finding and the clinical characteristics of the patients were analyzed. RESULTS: The reflux index was higher in patients with abnormal electroencephalography (EEG) results than in those with normal EEG results (p=0.027). Mitochondrial disease was associated with a higher reflux index than were epileptic disorders or cerebral palsy (p=0.009). Patient gender, feeding method, scoliosis, tracheostomy, and baclofen use did not lead to statistical differences in reflux index. Age of onset of neurological impairment was inversely correlated with DeMeester score and reflux index. Age at the time of examination, the duration of the disease, and the number of antiepileptic drugs were not correlated with GER severity. CONCLUSIONS: Early-onset neurological impairment, abnormal EEG results, and mitochondrial disease are risk factors for severe GERD.

Age of Onset , Anticonvulsants , Baclofen , Cerebral Palsy , Child , Electroencephalography , Esophageal pH Monitoring , Feeding Methods , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Gastrointestinal Tract , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Mitochondrial Diseases , Risk Factors , Scoliosis , Tracheostomy
Iatreia ; 29 (4): 478-484, Oct. 2016.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-834642


La espasticidad puede causar inmovilidad, postración, dolor crónico, úlceras, infecciones, trombosis y neumonías; los objetivos del tratamiento son controlar el dolor, mejorar la movilidad y la calidad de vida y reincorporar al paciente a sus actividades cotidianas por medio de medicamentos antiespásticos orales; sin embargo, los pacientes con espasticidad severa pueden requerir altas dosis orales de estos medicamentos y presentar efectos adversos, por lo que se ha planteado el uso del baclofeno por vía intratecal; en Colombia no se ha usado ampliamente esta intervención y no existen protocolos sobre las indicaciones para llevarla a cabo. El objetivo de esta serie de casos es presentar la experiencia de la Fundación Cardiovascular de Colombia en el tratamiento con bombas intratecales de baclofeno de cuatro pacientes con espasticidad severa, que no habían evolucionado favorablemente con antiespásticos orales, incluyendo altas dosis de baclofeno. Tres de ellos presentaron mejoría importante del dolor, la espasticidad y la calidad de vida, mientras que el otro cursó con síndrome de tolerancia a este medicamento. La bomba intratecal de baclofeno es una intervención útil y segura para pacientes con espasticidad severa que presentan mala respuesta al tratamiento oral o efectos adversos del mismo.

Spasticity may cause immobility, prostration, chronic pain, bedsores, infections, thrombosis and pneumonia; the purposes of its treatment are to control pain, improve mobility and quality of life, and reincorporate the patient to its daily activities by means of oral anti-spastic drugs; however, patients suffering from severe spasticity may require high oral doses of these medications, which may lead to adverse effects. In such cases, intrathecal baclofen has been proposed as a solution. This procedure has not been widely used in Colombia, so that protocols to perform it have not been established. We report the results obtained with the intrathecal administration of baclofen in four severely spastic patients, who had not previously responded to oral anti-spastic drugs, including high doses of baclofen. Pain, spasticity and quality of life significantly improved in three of them. The remaining one presented tolerance to the medication. Intrathecal baclofen pump is a useful and safe procedure for patients with severe spasticity and poorresponse to oral treatment.

A espasticidade pode causar imobilidade, prostração, dor crônico, úlceras, infeções, trombose e pneumonias; os objetivos do tratamento são controlar ador, melhorar a mobilidade e a qualidade de vida e reincorporar ao doente a suas atividades cotidianas por meio de medicamentos anti-espásticos orais; embora, os pacientes com espasticidade severa podem requerer altas doses orais destes medicamentos eapresentar efeitos adversos, pelo que se há planteado o uso do baclofeno por via intratecal; na Colômbia não se há usado amplamente esta intervenção e não existem protocolos sobre as indicações para levá-la a cabo. O objetivo desta série de casos é apresentar a experiência da Fundação Cardiovascular de Colômbia no tratamento com bombas intratecais de baclofeno de quatro doentes com espasticidade severa, que não haviam evolucionado favoravelmente com anti-espásticos orais, incluindo altas dose de baclofeno. Três deles apresentaram melhoria importante da dor, a espasticidade e a qualidade de vida, enquanto que o outro cursou com síndrome de tolerância a este medicamento. a bomba intratecal de baclofeno é uma intervenção útil e segura para doentes com espasticidade severa que apresentam má resposta aotratamento oral ou efeitos adversos do mesmo.

Male , Adult , Female , Anesthesia, Spinal , Baclofen , Infusion Pumps , Muscle Spasticity , Therapeutics
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-276699


<p><b>INTRODUCTION</b>Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) therapy is a proven, effective treatment for disabling cortical spasticity. We describe the first local series of five patients with acquired brain injury (ABI) who received ITB and were followed up for 63.8 months.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A retrospective review of medical and rehabilitation records of patients who received ITB therapy was carried out. Data studied included baseline demographic and injury variables, implantation data, spasticity and function, ITB dosage over time and complications.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>From 2006 to 2010, a total of five patients received ITB therapy via implanted pumps about 39.4 months after ABI. Four out of five patients experienced significant reductions in their lower limb spasticity scores and improvements in global function and dependency. One patient had minor adverse events associated with baclofen-related sedation. The mean ITB dose at one year was 182.7 ± 65.6 mcg/day.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Our preliminary study showed encouraging long-term outcomes and safety for ITB therapy after ABI-related intractable spasticity. Individual ITB responses over time were variable, with gender differences. The outcomes experienced by our centre were comparable to those in the general ABI population, supporting the efficacy of ITB therapy for chronic disabling spasticity.</p>

Baclofen , Brain Injuries , Drug Therapy , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infusion Pumps, Implantable , Injections, Spinal , Male , Muscle Relaxants, Central , Muscle Spasticity , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Singapore , Epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers , Treatment Outcome
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-81726


BACKGROUND: Baclofen is a gamma-aminobutyric acid B-receptor agonist, which is usually used for patients with spasticity or patients with nerve injury inducing both spasticity and neuropathic pain. Both oral administration and intrathecal injection via a continuous infusion pump are common treatment methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a series of three individual injections of intrathecal baclofen for neuropathic pain without spasticity. METHODS: Thirty-one patients with neuropathic pain were treated with a series of three monthly individual injections of intrathecal baclofen without pump implantation A dose of 50 µg of baclofen was used. 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS) scores of spontaneous pain, allodynia, and hyperalgesia were recorded a week after each injection. Vital signs were monitored to detect any hemodynamic changes, and a myelogram was performed to detect any undesirable cerebrospinal fluid leakage. All patients were hospitalized for at least one day following each injection for close observation and to control any adverse effects. RESULTS: VAS scores of spontaneous pain, allodynia, and hyperalgesia decreased significantly (P < 0.001). The major complications were general weakness, sleepiness, and urinary retention; most of these resolved within one day without any further serious symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: A series of three individual intrathecal baclofen injections was effective for those patients who suffered from neuropathic pain without spasticity or dystonia; no serious complications were observed. However, the average satisfaction score recorded for spontaneous pain was lower than those for allodynia and hyperalgesia.

Administration, Oral , Baclofen , Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak , Dystonia , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid , Hemodynamics , Humans , Hyperalgesia , Infusion Pumps , Injections, Spinal , Muscle Spasticity , Neuralgia , Urinary Retention , Visual Analog Scale , Vital Signs
Rev. Salusvita (Online) ; 35(3): 321-338, 2016. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-832880


Introdução: o baclofeno, uma droga agonista seletivo de GABA B, tem sido apontado como uma nova opção de tratamento do etilismo. Neste estudo avaliou-se o efeito do baclofeno no consumo etílico em ratos Wistar. Materiais e Métodos: o experimento ocorreu em quatro fases: exposição, abstinência, reexposição e tratamento. Os animais foram alocados em grupos: 1, 2, 3 e 4 (n=5 por grupo), expostos à água pura, solução hidroalcoólica (SHA) 5% e SHA 10%; grupo 5 (subdividido em A, B e C N =5 por subgrupo) e grupo 6 (n=5), ambos expostos a apenas água pura. A administração de baclofeno via intraperitoneal destinou aos grupos 1, 2, 3 e 5 em diferentes doses. Nos demais grupos, administrou-se placebo. Aferiu-se o consumo das soluções em todas as fases, para fins comparativos. Resultados: o baclofeno, na dose de 1mg/Kg, reduziu o consumo de SHA 10% no grupo 1, que apresentou maior consumo etílico durante o experimento. Os demais grupos apresentaram menor consumo das SHA ofertadas, sem redução da ingesta etílica após administração da droga nas doses de 2 e 3mg/Kg. Conclusão: baclofeno reduziu etilismo apenas em animais com maior consumo etílico prévio à sua administração. O peso dos animais não foi fator determinante na resposta à droga. A dose efetiva no tratamento dos efeitos da privação alcoólica foi a de menor concentração (1mg/kg).

Introduction: Baclofen, a GABA B agonist, has been pointed as a new drug on the alcohol consumption treatment. This study has evaluated baclofen ́s effect on ethanol consumption in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: four phases protocol: exposure, abstinence, re-exposure and treatment. Animals were allocated into groups: 1, 2, 3 and 4 (n=5 per group), exposed to pure water, 5% ethanol solution and 10% ethanol solution. Group 5 (subdivided into A, B and C, n=5 by subgroup) and group 6 (n=5), exposed to pure water. Baclofen intraperitoneal administration was destined to groups 1, 2, 3 and 5 (A, B and C) in different doses. The remaining groups received saline solution as control. Solutions consumption was assessed in all phases for comparative purposes. Results: Baclofen at 1mg/Kg reduced the 10% (vv) water-alcohol consumption in animals from Group 1, which also presented greater ethanol consumption during the experiment. The other groups showed a lower water - alcohol consumption and did not show an ethanol intake reduction after the drug administration in both 2 and 3mg/Kg doses. Conclusion: Baclofen only reduces alcoholism in animals with higher ethanol consumption. Animals weight is not a determining factor in ethanol consumption or in baclofen response. The effective baclofen dose in treating the deprivation alcohol effects was observed in the lowest concentration, corresponding to 1mg/Kg dose.

Animals , Male , Baclofen/administration & dosage , Baclofen/adverse effects , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Receptors, GABA-B/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Models, Animal
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 104(2): 144-151, 02/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741140


Background: In pathological situations, such as acute myocardial infarction, disorders of motility of the proximal gut can trigger symptoms like nausea and vomiting. Acute myocardial infarction delays gastric emptying (GE) of liquid in rats. Objective: Investigate the involvement of the vagus nerve, α 1-adrenoceptors, central nervous system GABAB receptors and also participation of paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus in GE and gastric compliance (GC) in infarcted rats. Methods: Wistar rats, N = 8-15 in each group, were divided as INF group and sham (SH) group and subdivided. The infarction was performed through ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. GC was estimated with pressure-volume curves. Vagotomy was performed by sectioning the dorsal and ventral branches. To verify the action of GABAB receptors, baclofen was injected via icv (intracerebroventricular). Intravenous prazosin was used to produce chemical sympathectomy. The lesion in the PVN of the hypothalamus was performed using a 1mA/10s electrical current and GE was determined by measuring the percentage of gastric retention (% GR) of a saline meal. Results: No significant differences were observed regarding GC between groups; vagotomy significantly reduced % GR in INF group; icv treatment with baclofen significantly reduced %GR. GABAB receptors were not conclusively involved in delaying GE; intravenous treatment with prazosin significantly reduced GR% in INF group. PVN lesion abolished the effect of myocardial infarction on GE. Conclusion: Gastric emptying of liquids induced through acute myocardial infarction in rats showed the involvement of the vagus nerve, alpha1- adrenergic receptors and PVN. .

Fundamento: Distúrbios da motilidade do intestino proximal no infarto agudo do miocárdio podem desencadear sintomas digestivos como náuseas e vômitos. O infarto do miocárdio ocasiona retardo do esvaziamento gástrico (EG) de líquido em ratos. Objetivo: Investigar se existe a influência do nervo vago (VGX), adrenoreceptores α-1, receptores GABAB do sistema nervoso central e participação do núcleo paraventricular (NPV) do hipotálamo no esvaziamento gástrico (EG) e complacência gástrica (CG) em ratos infartados. Métodos: Ratos Wistar (n = 8-15) foram divididos em: grupo infarto (INF), sham (SH) e subdivididos. O infarto foi realizado por ligadura da artéria coronária descendente anterior. A complacência gástrica foi estimada com curvas pressão-volume. Realizada vagotomia por secção dos ramos dorsal e ventral. Para verificar a ação dos receptores GABAB foi injetado baclofeno por via intra ventrículo-cerebral. Simpatectomia química foi realizada com prazosina intravenosa (iv), e na lesão do núcleo paraventricular do hipotálamo foi utilizada corrente elétrica de 1mA/10s, com esvaziamento gástrico determinado por medição da retenção gástrica (% RG) de uma refeição salina. Resultados: Não houve diferença significativa na CG. A vagotomia (VGX) reduziu significativamente a %RG; no grupo INF, o tratamento intra ventrículo-cerebral (ivc) com baclofeno reduziu significativamente a % RG; não houve conclusivamente envolvimento dos receptores GABAB em retardar o EG; o tratamento intravenoso com prazosina reduziu significativamente a %RG no grupo INF. A lesão do NPV aboliu o efeito do infarto do miocárdio no EG. Conclusão: O nervo vago, receptores α-adrenérgicos e núcleo paraventricular estão envolvidos no retardo do esvaziamento gástrico no infarto agudo do miocárdio em ratos. .

Animals , Male , Gastric Emptying/physiology , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus/physiopathology , Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1/physiology , Receptors, GABA-B/physiology , Vagus Nerve/physiopathology , Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Baclofen/pharmacology , GABA-B Receptor Agonists/pharmacology , Gastroparesis/physiopathology , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Prazosin/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Time Factors , Vagotomy
Salud pública Méx ; 57(1): 22-28, ene.-feb. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-736458


Objetivo. Explicar la variación de la desnutrición infantil (DI), entendida como baja talla para la edad (0 a 5 años) entre 1999 y 2006. Material y métodos. Se emplearon estimaciones estatales de DI y diversos indicadores que reflejan las probables causas subyacentes del fenómeno como la pobreza, el producto per cápita estatal, la educación de las mujeres y los accesos a infraestructura de salud y de drenaje. Para el análisis de datos se utilizaron los métodos de regresión con datos panel de efectos fijos y aleatorios. Resultados. Se encontró que la carencia de salud y drenaje, así como la pobreza, empeoran la DI, mientras que la educación de las mujeres la disminuye. Conclusiones. El estudio muestra que las variables de infraestructura explican en buena parte la variación reciente de la DI entre estados, y que el crecimiento económico no es una condición suficiente para reducir la DI.

Objective. Explain the variation in child malnutrition (CM), understood as low height for age (0 to 5 years old) for the period 1999-2006. Materials and methods. State estimations of child malnutrition and several indicators of subjacent probable causes of CM were employed, such as poverty indices, state product per capita, women scholar attainment and access to health and the sewage system. Panel data regression analysis with fixed and random effects were used to analyze the data. Results. The results indicate that the lack to access to health and sewage systems and poverty worsen CM, whereas women education helps to diminish CM. Conclusion. The study shows that infrastructure variables explain a significant part of the recent variation in DI across Mexican states, and that economic growth is not a sufficient condition to diminish DI.

Animals , Male , Mice , Brain/metabolism , G Protein-Coupled Inwardly-Rectifying Potassium Channels/biosynthesis , G Protein-Coupled Inwardly-Rectifying Potassium Channels/genetics , Neurons/metabolism , Baclofen/pharmacology , Brain/drug effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , In Vitro Techniques , Mice, Knockout , Neurons/drug effects , Neurons/ultrastructure