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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(6): 408-413, dic. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1342850

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Staphylococcus aureus es uno de los agentes infecciosos más prevalentes en niños y puede causar un variado espectro de presentaciones clínicas. La bacteriemia por S. aureus se asocia frecuentemente con complicaciones y metástasis infecciosas. Los datos epidemiológicos y clínicos sobre esta entidad, y sus complicaciones en pediatría son escasos. Objetivos. Describir la epidemiología, frecuencia, distribución y tipo de metástasis infecciosas en una serie de pacientes pediátricos con bacteriemia por S. aureus y evaluar posibles factores de riesgo para su aparición. Población y métodos. Estudio de corte transversal de pacientes pediátricos internados con bacteriemia por S. aureus en un hospital pediátrico de La Plata entre enero de 201 y junio de 2019. Resultados. Se analizaron 112 episodios de bacteriemia por S. aureus. La tasa de infección metastásica fue del 34,8 %; el pulmón fue la localización más frecuente. Los factores de riesgo principales para el desarrollo de metástasis infecciosas fueron la bacteriemia por S. aureus meticilino resistente (OR : 2,95; IC95 %: 1,19-7,83; p = 0,015) y la persistencia de hemocultivos de control positivos a las 48 horas (OR: 3,17; IC95 %: 1,22-8,46; p = 0,012). Conclusión. La tasa de metástasis infecciosas en pacientes con bacteriemia por S. aureus fue del 34,8 %. Los factores de riesgo asociados fueron la bacteriemia por S. aureus meticilino resistente y la persistencia de hemocultivos de control positivos a las 48 horas. Los órganos más afectados fueron el pulmón, el sistema osteoarticular, la piel y partes blandas.


Introduction. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most prevalent infectious agents in children and may cause a wide variety of clinical presentations. S. aureus bacteremia is frequently associated with complications and metastatic infections. The epidemiological and clinical data about S. aureus bacteremia and its complications in pediatrics are scarce. Objectives. To describe the epidemiology, frequency, distribution, and type of metastatic infections in a series of pediatric patients with S. aureus bacteremia and assess possible risk factors for its development. Population and methods. Cross-sectional study of pediatric patients with S. aureus bacteremia admitted to a children's hospital of La Plata between January 2016 and June 2019. Results. A total of 112 S. aureus bacteremia events were analyzed. The rate of metastatic infection was 34.8 %; the lung was the most common infection site. The main risk factors for the development of metastatic infections were bacteremia due to methicillin-resistant S. aureus (odds ratio: 2.95; 95% confidence interval: 1.19-7.83; p = 0.015) and persistent positive control blood cultures at 48 hours (odds ratio: 3.17; 95 % confidence interval: 1.22-8.46; p = 0.012). Conclusion. The rate of metastatic infections among patients with S. aureus bacteremia was 34.8 %. Associated risk factors were bacteremia due to methicillin-resistant S. aureus and persistent positive control blood cultures at 48 hours. The most common organs affected included the lungs, the osteoarticular system, and the skin and soft tissue.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Pediatrics , Argentina/epidemiology , Staphylococcus aureus , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Hospitals, Pediatric
2.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(supl.2): 13-20, oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355755

ABSTRACT

Abstract | Bacillus clausii is a gram-positive rod used as a probiotic to treat diarrhea and the side effects of antibiotics such as pseudomembranous colitis. We report a case of B. clausii bacteremia in a non-immunocompromised patient with active peptic ulcer disease and acute diarrhea. The probiotic was administered during the patient's hospitalization due to diarrhea of infectious origin. B. clausii was identified in the bloodstream of the patient through Matrix- Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF) days after her discharge. Given the wide use of probiotics, we alert clinicians to consider this microorganism as a causative agent when signs of systemic infection, metabolic compromise, and hemodynamic instability establish after its administration and no pathogens have been identified that could explain the clinical course.


Resumen | Bacillus clausii es un bacilo Gram positivo usado como probiótico para tratar la diarrea y efectos adversos de los antibióticos, como la colitis pseudomembranosa. Se reporta un caso de bacteriemia por B. clausii en una paciente inmunocompetente con enfermedad ulcerosa péptica activa y diarrea aguda. El probiótico le fue administrado durante la hospitalización debido al origen infeccioso de la diarrea. B. clausii se identificó en el torrente sanguíneo de la paciente, utilizando espectrometría de desorción/ionización mediante láser asistido por matriz (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization, MALDI), acoplada a un detector de iones (Time of Flight, TOF) (MALDI-TOF), días después de haber sido dada de alta. Dado el amplio uso de los probióticos, alertamos a los clínicos para que consideren este microorganismo como agente causal cuando se detecten signos de infección sistémica, compromiso metabólico, e inestabilidad hemodinámica tras su administración, y no se haya identificado ningún patógeno que pueda explicar el cuadro clínico.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , Bacillus clausii , Probiotics , Diarrhea , Gram-Positive Bacteria
3.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(2): 159-165, June 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287266

ABSTRACT

Resumen Se realizó un estudio observacional retrospectivo analítico que evaluó la epidemiología de las bacteriemias asociadas a catéter central (BAC) en 773 adultos internados en la unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI) del Hospital Alemán de Buenos Aires entre diciembre de 2018 y junio de 2020. Durante el pe riodo de estudio, la incidencia fue 8.7 eventos cada 1000 días catéter. El desarrollo de BAC se asoció con mala evolución clínica, que fue puesta en evidencia por una duración de la internación en UCI significativamente mayor que la de los pacientes sin BAC (mediana: 21.5 días vs. 4 días, p < 0.001). La mortalidad también fue mayor, pero sin significancia estadística (24% vs. 20%, OR 1.26 [0.61-2.63]). Los microorganismos más frecuentemente aislados fueron bacterias Gram positivas (73%) y, entre ellas, Staphylococcus epidermidis fue la más frecuente (40%). De los 47 aislamientos de microorganismos relevados, 8 (17%) fueron gérmenes multirresistentes. El análisis multivariado identificó el tiempo de permanencia del catéter como factor de riesgo para desarrollar BAC (OR 1.10 [1.05 - 1.15], p < 0.001). En dicho análisis, una mayor tasa de BAC no fue influida por el sitio anatómico de inserción del catéter, el servicio donde se realizó el procedimiento (UCI o quirófano/servicio de emergencias), la experiencia previa del médico en el procedimiento, ni el uso de ultrasonido para guiar la cateterización. Con cluimos que las BAC son una complicación frecuente en nuestro servicio con consecuencias clínicas relevantes. Conocer la epidemiología y la problemática de cada servicio permite programar intervenciones dirigidas a corregir problemas concretos de salud pública.


Abstract A retrospective-observational analytical study was carried out to evaluate the epidemiology of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) in 773 adult patients hospitalized in the inten sive care unit (ICU) of the Hospital Alemán of Buenos Aires, Argentina, between 1 December 2018 and 30 June 2020. During the study period, the incidence of CRBSI was 8.7 cases per 1000 catheter days. The occurrence of CRBSI was found associated with a poor clinical evolution, as evidenced by a stay in the ICU significantly longer than the stay of patients without CRBSI (median: 21.5 days vs. 4 days, p < 0.001). CRBSI-associated mortality was not statistically higher (24% vs. 20%, OR 1.26 [0.61-2.63]). Gram-positive bacteria were the most frequently identified microorganisms (73%), being Staphylococcus epidermidis the most frequent (40%). Of the 47 isolates of microorganisms surveyed, 8 (17%) were multi-resistant germs. The permanence time of the catheter was identified as a risk factor for developing CRBSI (OR 1.10 [1.05 - 1.15], p < 0.001) in a multivariate analysis. In this analysis, the risk of infection was not influenced by the anatomical site of insertion of the catheter, the ward where the procedure was performed (ICU vs. operating room/external ward), the skill of the medical practitioner, or the use of ultrasound to guide vascular accesses. We conclude that CRBSIs are a frequent complication in our department with relevant clinical consequences. Knowing the epidemiology and the problems of each service allows programming interventions aimed to correct specific public health problems.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Bacteremia/etiology , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Critical Care , Catheters , Intensive Care Units
4.
Rev. inf. cient ; 100(3): e3455, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289633

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La cirrosis hepática es una de las enfermedades más frecuentes en nuestro país, y la presencia de infecciones y su descompensación constituyen motivos de ingreso hospitalario en estos pacientes. Objetivo: Identificar las enfermedades asociadas al cuidado sanitario más frecuentes en pacientes cirróticos ingresados. Método: Se realizó un estudio de cohorte en 90 pacientes con diagnóstico de cirrosis hepática, ingresados en el Hospital General Provincial "Carlos Manuel de Céspedes" de provincia Granma, en el período comprendido desde enero de 2017 hasta septiembre de 2020. La población estuvo conformada por la totalidad de pacientes mayores de 18 años y de ambos sexos. Los datos se recogieron de las historias clínicas hospitalarias. En el análisis estadístico se empleó el estadígrafo Chi-cuadrado obtenido a partir de tablas de contingencia, y para medir la fuerza de la misma los riesgos relativos (RR), se utilizó un nivel de significación (valor p) menor de 0,05. Resultados: La mayoría de los pacientes fueron del sexo masculino, descompensados con Child-Pugh (B), el alcohol como la etiología más frecuente de la cirrosis, a los que se les realizaron cuidados sanitarios como la colocación de sonda vesical, abordaje venoso central y periférico, así como intubación endotraqueal. Las principales infecciones asociadas al cuidado sanitario observadas en estos pacientes fueron la flebitis, bacteriemia, la infección del tracto urinario y la neumonía. Conclusiones: Las infecciones asociadas al cuidado sanitario según orden de frecuencia fueron la flebitis, la bacteriemia, la pielonefritis, neumonía y cistitis.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Liver cirrhosis has been confirmed as one of the most common diseases in Cuba. Infection and decompensated cirrhosis constitute the cause of hospitalization. Objective: To identify the most frequent health care-associated diseases in hospitalized cirrhotic patients. Method: A cohort study involving 90 hospitalized patients with cirrhosis was conducted at the Hospital General Provincial "Carlos Manuel de Céspedes" in Granma, from January 2017 through September 2020. The total patients underwent study were over 18 years old and both sex. Data were collected from patients´ hospitalization history. Chi-square test was utilized for statistical analysis and to measure its power (the relative risk), a P-value less than 0.05 was used. Results: Most patients were male, decompensated with Child-Pugh class B. All hospitalized patients who underwent health care such as bladder catheter placement, central and peripheral venous approach, as well as endotracheal intubation, alcohol was considered the major etiological factor cause of cirrhosis. The main healthcare-associated infections observed in these patients were phlebitis, bacteremia, urinary tract infection and pneumonia. Conclusions: The healthcare-associated infections in order of frequency were phlebitis, bacteremia, pyelonephritis, pneumonia and cystitis.


RESUMO Introdução: A cirrose hepática é uma das doenças mais frequentes em nosso país, e a presença de infecções e sua descompensação constituem motivos de internação nesses pacientes. Objetivo: Identificar as doenças associadas aos cuidados de saúde mais frequentes em pacientes cirróticos hospitalizados. Método: Foi realizado um estudo de coorte em 90 pacientes com diagnóstico de cirrose hepática, internados no Hospital Geral Provincial "Carlos Manuel de Céspedes" da província de Granma, no período de janeiro de 2017 a setembro de 2020. A população foi constituída por para todos os pacientes com mais de 18 anos de idade e de ambos os sexos. Os dados foram coletados em prontuários hospitalares. Na análise estatística, foi utilizada a estatística Qui-quadrado obtida em tabelas de contingência e, para medir a força dos riscos relativos (RR), foi utilizado um nível de significância (p-valor) menor que 0,05. Resultados: A maioria dos pacientes era do sexo masculino, descompensados com Child-Pugh (B), sendo o álcool a etiologia mais frequente da cirrose, que realizaram cuidados de saúde como colocação de cateter vesical, abordagem venosa central e periférica, além de intubação endotraqueal. As principais infecções associadas aos cuidados de saúde observadas nestes pacientes foram flebite, bacteremia, infecção do trato urinário e pneumonia. Conclusões: As infecções associadas aos cuidados de saúde em ordem de frequência foram flebite, bacteremia, pielonefrite, pneumonia e cistite.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Infections , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Phlebitis , Pneumonia , Pyelonephritis , Prospective Studies , Bacteremia , Cystitis , Ethanol
6.
Infectio ; 25(2): 84-88, abr.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1250072

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Klebsiella pneumoniae produce enzimas como Betalactamasas de Espectro Extendido (BLEE) y Carbapenemasas. Estas enzimas tienen implicancia en las Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI), porque posibilitan la supervivencia de especies bacterianas a condiciones desfavorables y por ende, facilitan su permanencia en ambiente intrahospitalario. Existe evidencia de presencia de Klebsiella pneumoniae en UCI, en muestras procedentes de: pacientes, personal de salud, habitación, lavamanos y fórmulas nutricionales. Objetivo: Evaluar el perfil de resistencia de los aislamientos de Klebsiella pneumoniae en una UCI de Paraguay. Material y métodos: Estudio descriptivo observacional, transversal. Se recolectaron 200 muestras (124 fórmulas enterales, 40 ambiente y 36 pacientes). Variables analizadas: origen de muestra, presencia del germen, producción de enzimas y perfil de resistencia. Resultados: Se aisló Klebsiella pneumoniae en 14% de las muestras. Se identificó al germen en: 25% pacientes, 12,9% fórmulas enterales y 7,5% ambiente. Se observó producción de BLEE en 85,7% de las cepas, con perfiles de resistencia idénticos, y producción de carbapenemasas en 14,3% de las cepas, con perfiles de resistencia diferentes. Conclusión: la presencia y los perfiles de resistencia de Klebsiella pneumoniae en las tres clases de muestras estudiadas, sugieren transferencia de genes de resistencia y diseminación del germen en UCI.


Abstract Introduction: Klebsiella pneumoniae produces enzymes such as Extended Spectrum Betalactamases (ESBL) and Carbapenemases. These enzymes have implica tions in Intensive Care Units (ICU), because they enable the survival of bacterial species under unfavorable conditions and, therefore, facilitate their permanence in the hospital environment. There is evidence of the presence of Klebsiella pneumoniae in the ICU, in samples from: patients, health staff, room, sink, and nutri tional formulas. Objective: To evaluate the resistance profile of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates in an ICU in Paraguay. Material and methods: descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study. 200 samples were collected (124 enteral formulas, 40 ambient and 36 patients). Variables analyzed: sample origin, presence of the germ, enzyme production and resistance profile. Results: Klebsiella pneumoniae was isolated in 14% of the samples. The germ was identified in: 25% patients, 12.9% enteral formulas and 7.5% environment. Pro duction of ESBL was observed in 85.7% of the strains, with identical resistance profiles, and production of carbapenemases in 14.3% of the strains, with different resistance profiles. Conclusion: the presence and resistance profiles of Klebsiella pneumoniae in the three classes of samples studied, suggest transfer of resistance genes and disse mination of the germ in ICU.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , beta-Lactamases , Intensive Care Units , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Paraguay , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Bacteremia
7.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(5): 325-330, oct. 2021. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1292087

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Las infecciones con bacteriemias en pacientes quemados son causa frecuente de complicaciones y aumento de días de internación. El conocimiento de los microorganismos causales y la identificación de factores de riesgo asociados permiten disminuir las complicaciones infecciosas, la morbimortalidad y los costos en cuidados de la salud. Este trabajo evalúa el grado de asociación entre los factores de riesgo y los episodios de bacteriemias en pacientes quemados, e identifica los microorganismos aislados más frecuentemente en hemocultivos. Población y métodos. Estudio de casos y controles realizado en la Unidad de Cuidados Críticos de Quemados del Hospital de Pediatría S.A.M.I.C. "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan" entre el 1 de junio de 2014 y el 30 de septiembre de 2019 en pacientes que presentaron episodios de bacteriemia con hemocultivo positivo (casos) y los que presentaron hemocultivos negativos (controles). Resultados. Durante el período estudiado se identificaron 29 casos de bacteriemias. La mediana de días de internación al momento del episodio de bacteriemia fue de 23 días. El microorganismo más frecuentemente identificado fue Pseudomonas (7 casos). El único factor de riesgo con el que se pudo establecer asociación significativa fue la presencia de acceso venoso central con 7 días o más (OR 3,18; IC 95 %: 1,20-8,38). La mortalidad global fue del 9,1 %, en los casos fue del 13,8 %, y en los controles, del 3,4 %. Conclusiones. Los accesos venosos centrales con duración mayor a 7 días son un factor de riesgo independiente de bacteriemias en niños quemados críticos. No se pudo establecer una asociación estadísticamente significativa con otros factores de riesgos analizados. Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter y Staphylococcus coagulasa negativo fueron los microorganismos más frecuentemente identificados en las bacteriemias


Introduction. Infections due to bacteremia in burn patients are a common cause of complications and an extended length of stay. Knowing causative microorganisms and identifying associated risk factors allow to reduce infectious complications, morbidity, mortality, and health care expenditure. This study assesses the extent of the association between risk factors and bacteremia in burn patients and identifies the most common microorganisms found in blood cultures. Population and methods. Case-control study conducted at the Burn Intensive Care Unit of Hospital de Pediatría S.A.M.I.C. "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan" between June 1st, 2014 and September 30th, 2019 in patients with bacteremia events and a positive blood culture (cases) and patients with a negative blood culture (controls). Results. During the study period, 29 cases of bacteremia were identified. The median length of stay at the time of bacteremia was 23 days. The most commonly identified microorganism was Pseudomonas (7 cases). The only risk factor that showed a significant association was the presence of a central venous line for 7 days or more (OR: 3.18; 95 % confidence interval: 1.20- 8.38). The overall mortality rate was 9.1%; 13.8% for cases and 3.4% for controls. Conclusions. Central venous lines for more than 7 days are an independent risk factor for bacteremia in critically ill burn children. No statistically significant association was established with other studied risk factors. Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus were the most common microorganisms found in bacteremia


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Burns/complications , Bacteremia/etiology , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Staphylococcus , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Case-Control Studies , Indicators of Morbidity and Mortality , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Infections
8.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(1): 145-152, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249066

ABSTRACT

Resumen | Introducción. La bacteriemia por Staphylococcus aureus adquirida en la comunidad (SA-AC) es una condición frecuente en pediatría que, además, constituye un problema de salud pública por las altas tasas de morbimortalidad y de resistencia bacteriana. Objetivos. Analizar los factores relacionados con la muerte y el ingreso a cuidados intensivos de pacientes menores de 18 años con bacteriemia por SA-AC que ingresaron al Hospital Infantil Los Ángeles de Pasto, Colombia, entre el 2014 y el 2017. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio observacional descriptivo y transversal. Se analizaron 86 pacientes con bacteriemia por SA-AC que cumplían los criterios de inclusión en el estudio utilizando un modelo multivariado de regresión logística. Resultados. El 25,6 % de los 86 pacientes falleció y el 40,7 % ingresó a la unidad de cuidados intensivos. La resistencia a la meticilina fue de 52,3 %. Los focos principales de infección fueron los tejidos blandos, el sistema osteoarticular y el respiratorio. El 32,6 % de los pacientes provenía de la zona del Pacífico de Nariño. Las etnias predominantes fueron la mestiza y la indígena. Entre los indígenas hubo mayor mortalidad que entre mestizos y afrocolombianos. En el análisis multivariado de la variable de muerte, se registró significación de la endocarditis (odds ratio, OR ajustado=20; IC95%1,5-254; p=0,02); no se registró significación estadística en cuanto al ingreso en la unidad de cuidados intensivos. Conclusiones. La bacteriemia por SA-AC determinó altas tasas de mortalidad e ingreso a la unidad de cuidados intensivos. Las cepas resistentes representaron el 52,3 %, y la resistencia a la meticilina desembocó en una mayor mortalidad, aunque la mortalidad con cepas sensibles también fue considerable. La endocarditis fue responsable de una mortalidad bastante elevada. Se debe ajustar el tratamiento empírico cuando se sospeche bacteriemia por SA-AC.


Abstract | Introduction: The bacteremia caused by Staphylococcus aureus acquired in the community (SA-AC) is a frequent pathology in pediatrics and it is considered a public health problem generating high rates of morbidity, mortality, and bacterial resistance. Objectives: To analyze the factors related to death and admission to intensive care units of patients under 18 years of age with AC-SA bacteremia admitted to the Hospital Infantil Los Ángeles, Pasto, Colombia, from 2014 to 2017. Materials and methods: We conducted a descriptive, transversal, cross-sectional observational study. We analyzed 86 patients with bacteremia due to AC-SA that met the inclusion criteria for the study using a multivariate logistic regression model. Results: Of the 86 cases, 25.6% died and 40.7% entered the intensive care unit. The resistance to methicillin was 52.3%. The main foci of infection were the soft tissues and the osteoarticular and respiratory systems; 32.6% of patients came from the Pacific area of Nariño. The predominant ethnic groups were the mestizo and the indigenous. Indigenous patients had higher mortality compared to the mestizo and Afro-Colombian ethnic groups. The multivariate analysis showed significance in terms of death for endocarditis (adjusted OR=20; CI: 1.5-254; p=0.02) while no statistical significance was registered for the admission to the intensive care unit. Conclusions: The AC-SA led to high mortality and admission to the intensive care unit; 52.3% of strains were resistant and resistance to methicillin showed higher mortality, although the mortality with sensitive strains was considerable. Endocarditis showed fairly high mortality. The empirical therapy should be adjusted when bacteremia due to AC-SA is suspected.


Subject(s)
Staphylococcus aureus , Bacteremia , Pediatrics , Morbidity , Critical Care , Death
9.
Infectio ; 25(1): 71-74, ene.-mar. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1154407

ABSTRACT

Resumen La bacteremia por Streptococcus gordonii es infrecuente. Su aislamiento en hemocultivo traduce alta significancia clínica y debe dirigir el abordaje diagnóstico hacia la búsqueda de entidades subyacentes como neoplasias hematológicas, cardiopatías valvulares, neumonía, alteraciones estructurales de cabeza y cuello, inmunosupresión, y otras condiciones asociadas. No se han identificado reportes en pacientes con neoplasia de vías urinarias como posible condicionante de bacteremia por este agente. Se describe el caso de un paciente que, durante el estudio de bacteremia por este microorganismo, fue diagnosticado de carcinoma urotelial de alto grado.


Abstract Streptococcus gordonii bacteremia is rare. Its isolation in blood culture translates into high clinical significance and the diagnostic approach should be directed towards the search for underlying entities such as hematologic malignancies, valvular heart disease, pneumonia, structural changes of the head and neck, immunosuppression and other related conditions. No reports have been identified in patients with urinary tract neoplasia as a possible condition of bacteremia by this agent. The case of a patient who was diagnosed with high-grade urothelial carcinoma during the study of bacteremia by this microorganism is described.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged, 80 and over , Carcinoma , Bacteremia , Streptococcus gordonii , Urinary Tract , Immunosuppression , Sepsis , Hematologic Neoplasms , Neoplasms
10.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(2): 320-326, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1248943

ABSTRACT

In this study, fish's morphologic and anatomic lesions caused by motile aeromonad septicemia (MAS) depending on environmental stress in carp, Cyprinus carpio population living in Lake Tödürge were identified. Various morphological and anatomical deformations and lesions were observed in the body of approximately 17% (252 fish specimens) of a total of 1488 carp samples. Bacteria are grown from all wipe samples. Bacterial colonies have a gray-white appearance with round, convex and smooth edges. 15-20 cfu colonies were observed in each aerop culture. As a result of analysis of wet wipe samples from infected fish's skin, gill, kidney and liver, it is determined that the bacteria which causes septicemia is Aeromonas sobria from the Aeromonadaceae family (with 99.2% confidence value). No bacteria were grown in cultures except A. sobria. Some symptoms of the infection are inflammation on different parts of the fish bodies, eruption on skin and scales, dermal necrosis, degeneration at soft rays of the fins, exophthalmos, and purulent liquid accumulation in the abdominal cavity, etc. Infected fish were most commonly encountered in July and August (water temperature above 20ºC), the lowest in October and November (water temperature below 10ºC).(AU)


Neste estudo, foram identificadas lesões morfológicas e anatômicas causadas por septicemia móvel por aeromônios (MPA), dependendo do estresse ambiental da carpa, a população de Cyprinus carpio que vive no lago Tödürge foi identificada. Várias deformações e lesões morfológicas e anatômicas foram observadas no corpo de aproximadamente 17% (252 amostras de peixes) de um total de 1488 amostras de carpa. As bactérias são cultivadas a partir de todas as amostras de limpeza. As colônias bacterianas têm uma aparência branco-acinzentada, com bordas arredondadas, convexas e lisas. Foram observadas 15-20 colônias de UFC em cada cultura de aerop. Como resultado da análise de amostras de lenços umedecidos da pele, brânquias, rins e fígado de peixes infectados, é determinado que a bactéria que causa a septicemia é a Aeromonas sobria, da família Aeromonadaceae (com valor de confiança de 99,2%). Nenhuma bactéria foi cultivada em culturas, exceto A. sobria. Alguns sintomas da infecção são inflamação em diferentes partes dos corpos dos peixes, erupção na pele e escamas, necrose dérmica, degeneração aos raios moles das barbatanas, exoftalmia e acúmulo de líquido purulento na cavidade abdominal, entre outros. Os peixes infectados eram encontrados com maior frequência em julho e agosto (temperatura da água acima de 20ºC), e eram menos comumente encontrados em outubro e novembro (temperatura da água abaixo de 10ºC).(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cyprinidae/microbiology , Bacteremia/veterinary , Aeromonas/isolation & purification , Stress, Physiological , Turkey
11.
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; 80(Único): 1-8, dez. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, CONASS, SESSP-ACVSES, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-IALACERVO | ID: biblio-1359216

ABSTRACT

Staphylococcus spp. vem ganhando destaque em infecções na corrente sanguínea (ICS), apresentando alta prevalência, multirresistência e considerável poder de letalidade. O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar a prevalência e traçar o perfil de sensibilidade das espécies de Staphylococcus spp. isoladas de amostras de hemoculturas positivas obtidas de um hospital de atenção terciária da rede pública do Ceará, no período de janeiro de 2015 a dezembro de 2018. Dos 3292 exames de hemocultura realizados, apenas 15,88% tiveram resultado positivo, dos quais 24,85% eram cocos Gram positivos. S. aureus representou 1,53% das hemoculturas positivas com 50% das cepas resistentes à oxacilina. Os isolados de Staphylococcus sp. coagulase negativo obtiveram prevalência de 10,89%, representados por: S. epidermidis (n=23), S. haemolyticus (n=17), S. hominis (n=13), S. saprophyticus (n=2) e S. warneri (n=2). Verificou-se multirresistência em diversos isolados analisados, apresentando variações intra e interespécies. Portanto, nossos achados melhoram o entendimento da epidemiologia das ICS causadas por Staphylococcus spp., na instituição de estudo, bem como seu perfil de sensibilidade. A identificação precoce do agente infeccioso auxilia na escolha adequada do tratamento, aumentando as chances de cura e reduzindo o tempo de internação do paciente. (AU)


Staphylococcus spp. has been highlighted among bloodstream infections (BI), presenting high prevalence, multidrug resistance and considerable lethality. The present study aimed to analyze the prevalence and the susceptibility profile of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from positive blood cultures from a tertiary care public hospital of Ceará, from January 2015 to December 2018. Of the 3292 blood cultures performed during this period, only 15.88% were positive, of which 24.85% were Gram positive cocci. S. aureus represented 1.53% of positive blood cultures, of which 50% were oxacilin resistant. Isolates of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. showed a prevalence of 10.89%, represented by: S. epidermidis (n = 23), S. haemolyticus (n = 17), S. hominis (n = 13), S. saprophyticus (n = 2) and S. warneri (n = 2). Multiresistance occurrence was verified in several of the analyzed isolates, presenting intra and inters species variations. Therefore, our findings improve the understanding of the epidemiology of BI caused by Staphylococcus spp. in the studied institution, as well as its susceptibility profile. Early identification of the infectious agent might aid in the appropriate choice of treatment, increasing the chance of cure and reducing the patient length stay in hospital. (AU)


Subject(s)
Staphylococcal Infections , Bacteremia , Blood Culture , Hospitals, Public , Anti-Infective Agents , Staphylococcus , Health Profile
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880065

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the characteristics, prognosis and risk factors of bloodstream infection in patients with hematological malignancies in the tropics, so as to provide evidence for the prevention and treatment of bloodstream infection.@*METHODS@#The clinical features, blood culture results and prognosis of patients with bloodstream infection in patients with hematological malignancies admitted to Hainan Hospital of PLA General Hospital were retrospectively studied.@*RESULTS@#The most common primary infection site of the 81 patients with hematological malignancies was lung (46.91%), followed by PICC (11.11%). The detection rate of Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria in the blood culture was 60.98% and 30.02%, respectively. Coagulase-negative staphylococci was the most common Gram-positive bacteria resulting in bloodstream infection in our study. Of the Gram-negatives, Klebsiella pneumoniae (34.38%) was predominant, followed by Escherichia coli (18.75%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18.75%). Gram-positive bacteria was highly sensitive (100%) to vancomycin, linezolid and tigecycline. Study showed that Gram-negative bacteria had low sensitive to quinolones, in particular, the resistance rate of Escherichia coli to quinolones was as high as 83.33%. In terms of overall survival (OS), the 30-days OS of patients with Gram-negative and Gram-positive septicemia was 77.42% and 92.00%, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. Multivariate analysis revealed that septic shock (P=0.001, RR=269.27) was an independent risk factor for 30-day mortality, and remission status (P=0.027, RR=0.114) was an independent predictor of a favourable outcome of bloodstream infection in patients with hematological malignancies.@*CONCLUSION@#Gram-positive bacteria are the main pathogens causing bloodstream infections in patients with hematological malignancies in the tropics. Improving the care of PICC is an important measure to reduce the incidence of bloodstream infection in patients with hematological malignancies in the tropics. A correct treatment relieving disease and effective prevention and treatment of septic shock can reduce mortality of patients with bloodstream infection in patients with hematological malignancies in the tropics.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Hematologic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis
13.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 35(4): 455-464, dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156328

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: la bacteriemia en pacientes cirróticos es frecuente y se asocia con una alta mortalidad y hospitalización prolongada. Este estudio describe las características demográficas, clínicas y de laboratorio en pacientes con cirrosis hepática y bacteriemia en un hospital de cuarto nivel. Métodos: estudio observacional de cohorte retrospectiva. Incluyó pacientes con cirrosis hepática y bacteriemia entre el 1 de enero de 2010 y el 31 de diciembre de 2017 en el Hospital Pablo Tobón Uribe de Medellín, Colombia. Se recogieron variables demográficas, clínicas y de laboratorio. Se estimó la supervivencia durante el tiempo de hospitalización y hasta 30 días desde el diagnóstico de bacteriemia. Resultados: se hallaron 78 pacientes con cirrosis y bacteriemia. La media de edad fue de 65 años, 66,7 % fueron mujeres. Las principales etiologías de la cirrosis fueron: criptogénica (30,8 %) y esteatohepatitis no alcohólica (EHNA; 19,3 %). La principal fuente de infección fue la vía urinaria (24 %), seguida de colangitis (23 %) y la bacteriemia espontánea (19 %). Los bacilos gramnegativos (BGN) representaron la mayoría de los aislamientos (67,9 %). La prevalencia de multidrogorresistentes (MDR) fue de 25,6 % y el uso adecuado de antibiótico empírico fue de 80,8 %. La mortalidad a 30 días fue de 11,5 %. Como mejores predictores de mortalidad se encontraron la puntuación Child-Pugh y Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) al ingreso con área bajo la curva ROC (AUROC) de 0,79 (p = 0,008) y 0.72 (p = 0,042), respectivamente. Conclusiones: los hallazgos permiten conocer las principales características de los pacientes con cirrosis que desarrollan bacteriemia en nuestro medio. Se encontró un número considerable de infecciones MDR. Los pacientes con un grado avanzado de la cirrosis son los que presentan un mayor riesgo de mortalidad.


Abstract Introduction: Bacteremia in cirrhotic patients is frequent and associated with high mortality and prolonged hospital stays. This study describes the demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics of patients with liver cirrhosis and bacteremia treated at a quaternary care hospital. Methodology: Observational, retrospective cohort study. The sample consisted of patients with liver cirrhosis and bacteremia treated between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2017, at the Hospital Pablo Tobon Uribe of Medellín, Colombia. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory variables were collected. Survival was estimated during the time of hospitalization and up to 30 days following the diagnosis of bacteremia. Results: 78 patients had cirrhosis and bacteremia. The average age was 65 years; 66.7% were women. Cirrhosis was labeled cryptogenic in 30.8% of the cases and NASH in 19.3%. The main source of infection was the urinary tract (24%), followed by cholangitis (23%) and spontaneous bacteremia (19%). Gram-negative bacteria were observed in most of the isolates (67.9%). The prevalence of MDR was 25.6%, and the adequate use of empirical antibiotics was 80.8%. The 30-day mortality rate was 11.5%. The best mortality predictors were the Child-Pugh and MELD scores on admission with AUROC of 0.79 (P=0.008) and 0.72 (P=0.042), respectively. Conclusions: The findings allow describing the main characteristics of patients with cirrhosis who develop bacteremia in our environment. A considerable number of MDR infections were found. Patients with an advanced degree of cirrhosis are at the highest risk of mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Bacteremia , Hospitals , Liver Cirrhosis , Cohort Studies , Infections
14.
Acta méd. colomb ; 45(4): 29-33, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1278138

ABSTRACT

Abstract Infectious endocarditis (IE) is a multisystemic disease caused by an infection, generally bacterial, of the endocardial surface. Its incidence is three to nine cases per 100,000 persons. Objective: to characterize the patients with a diagnosis of infectious endocarditis seen at the Hospital Universitario San Rafael de Tunja. Materials and methods: a descriptive observational study. Patients seen at the Hospital Uni versitario San Rafael de Tunja between January 1, 2010 and January 1, 2019. Sociodemographic, clinical, paraclinical, imaging, treatment and outcome variables were gathered. Results: a total of 87 persons with a confirmed diagnosis of infectious endocarditis were seen. The average age was 38.77 years, with an SD ± 13.32 years. Leukocytosis was seen in 90%, neutrophilia in 85%, lymphocytosis in 3%, thrombocytopenia in 4%, elevated serum CRP in 85%, transaminitis in 45%, hyponatremia in 2% and hypernatremia in 4%. All patients received antibiotic treatment; only 23% required surgery. Conclusions: this case series found similar clinical and microbiological characteristics to those reported in other national and international studies. Males were affected more often than females, with the main etiological agent being Staphylococcus aureus. Fever and infectious vasculitis signs were the main clinical manifestations, most often affecting the mitral valve.


Resumen La endocarditis infecciosa (EI) es una enfermedad multisistémica que resulta de una infección, generalmente bacteriana, de la superficie endocárdica. Su incidencia es de tres a nueve casos por cada 100 000 personas. Objetivo: realizar una caracterización de los pacientes atendidos en el Hospital Universitario San Rafael de Tunja con diagnóstico de endocarditis infecciosa. Material y métodos: estudio observacional descriptivo. Pacientes atendidos en el Hospital Universitario San Rafael de Tunja entre el 1°. de enero del 2010 a 1°. de enero del 2019. Se tomaron variables sociodemográficas, clínicas, paraclínicas, imagenológicos, terapéuticas y de desenlaces. Resultados: en total se atendieron 87 personas que presentaron diagnóstico confirmado de endocarditis infecciosa. La edad promedio fue 38.77 años con una DE ± 13.32 años. Se observó leucocitosis en 90%, neutrofilia en 85%, linfocitosis en 3%, trombocitopenia en 4%, aumento de los valores séricos de PCR en 85%, transaminitis en 45%, hiponatremia en 2% e hipernatremia en 4%. Todos los pacientes recibieron manejo antibiótico, tan solo 23% requi rieron manejo quirúrgico. Conclusiones: en esta serie de casos se encontraron características clínicas y microbiológicas similares a lo reportado en otras investigaciones nacionales e internacionales. Afectando con mayor frecuencia a personas del sexo masculino, siendo el principal agente causal el Staphylococcus aureus, el agente causal. La fiebre y los signos de vasculitis infecciosa fueron las principales manifestacio nes clínicas, afectado con mayor frecuencia la válvula mitral.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Aged , Endocarditis , Diagnostic Imaging , Bacteremia , Heart Valves , Mitral Valve
15.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(5): 515-522, nov. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144245

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Las infecciones del torrente sanguíneo son un problema creciente y actualmente son una amenaza para la salud pública. La bacteriemia representa aproximadamente 15% de todas las infecciones nosocomiales y afecta a 1% de los pacientes hospitalizados. Objetivo: Describir las características clínicas, epidemiológicas y microbiológicas de episodios de bacteriemia nosocomial ocurridos en un hospital colombiano. Pacientes y Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo, observacional, de corte transversal, con inclusión de pacientes adultos, hospitalizados por el Servicio de Medicina Interna en el Hospital Universitario de Santander, Bucaramanga, Colombia, durante los años 2014 a 2016. El protocolo fue aprobado por el Comité de Ética en Investigación de la Universidad Industrial de Santander. Resultados: Se revisaron 450 historias clínicas, con 148 pacientes y 182 aislados microbianos. Los antecedentes más frecuentes fueron: hipertensión arterial (46,6%) e infección por VIH (29,7%). El sistema vascular y urinario ocuparon los sitios anatómicos más frecuentes (37,3 y 38,3%, respectivamente). La letalidad fue de 29%. Los patógenos más frecuentemente aislados fueron: Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (en suma: 49,8%) y Staphylococcus aureus 12,1%. El análisis multivariado mostró relación de la anemia con mortalidad intrahospitalaria (OR = 17,3; IC95% 2,95-102,0). Conclusiones: La bacteriemia es una infección frecuente durante la atención hospitalaria que presenta gran mortalidad. Es destacable el predominio de aislados de enterobacterias multiresistentes. El antecedente de infección por VIH es uno de los más frecuentes el que amerita ser evaluado como grupo de riesgo.


Abstract Background: Bloodstream infections are an increasing problem and currently represent a threat to public health, overcoming diseases such as HIV. Bacteremia accounts for approximately 15% of all nosocomial infections and affects 1% of all hospitalized patients. Aim: To describe the clinical, epidemiological and microbiological characteristic of episodes of nosocomial bacteremia occurring in a Colombian hospital. Methods: Retrospective, observational, cross-sectional study including adult patients, hospitalized in the internal medicine unit at the University Hospital of Santander, Bucaramanga, Colombia, during years 2014 to 2016, who met the criteria of the CDC for bloodstream infection. The protocol was approved by the Hospital Ethics Committee and by the Research Ethics Committee of the Industrial University of Santander. Results: We reviewed 450 clinical records with 148 patients and 182 microbiological isolates. 53% were male. The most frequent comorbidities were: high blood pressure (46.6%), HIV infection (29.7%). The vascular and urinary systems were the most frequent anatomical sites as the source of the infection (respectively 37.3% and 38.3%). Case fatality rate was 29%. The pathogens most frequently isolated were: Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (globally: 49.8%) and Staphylococcus aureus 12.1%. The multivariate analysis showed a relationship between anemia and in-hospital mortality (OR = 17.3, 95%CI 2.95-102.0). Conclusions: Bacteremia is a frequent infection during hospital care that presents high mortality. It is noteworthy the predominance of Enterobacteriaceae isolates with broad profiles of resistance. The history of HIV infection is one of the most frequent which deserves to be evaluated as a risk group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Bacteremia/epidemiology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Colombia/epidemiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
16.
Medicina (Ribeiräo Preto) ; 53(4)nov. 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354983

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Austrian Syndrome is the rare combination of a triad of endocarditis, meningitis, and pneumonia in the context of pneumococcal infection. Due to the involvement of several anatomical sites, the Austrian syndrome has a high mortality. Importantly, endocarditis is usually not considered during pneumococcal infection. We present a case of Austrian syndrome in a previously healthy 67-year-old woman. She featured with mental state alteration, respiratory failure, and shock, and was diagnosed with ceftriaxone-sensitive pneumococcal bacteremia, meningitis, and pneumonia. A transesophageal echocardiogram revealed vegetation of the mitral valve. Despite an improvement in her medical condition, she remained in a coma and died due to neurological complications. Even though the major cause of mortality in Austrian syndrome is cardiac involvement, meningitis is also linked with high morbidity and eventually death. We emphasize the relevance of an early diagnosis of the triad in order to decrease the very high mortality associated with this syndrome


RESUMO: A síndrome de Austrian é uma entidade extremamente rara, pautada por meningite, endocardite e pneumonia secundárias a doença pneumocócica invasiva. Devido à expressão multissistêmica, a mortalidade associada é elevada. Particularmente, a manifestação como endocardite é muitas vezes clinicamente insuspeita, carecendo de elevado índice de suspeita. Apresenta-se um caso de síndrome de Austrian numa doente do sexo feminino, 67 anos, previamente saudável. Clinicamente, apresentava coma, insuficiência respiratória e choque, tendo sido diagnosticada pneumonia e meningite, e com bacteremia a Streptococcus pneumoniae. Ecocardiograma transesofágico evidenciou uma vegetação na válvula mitral. Apesar da regressão do quadro respiratório, persistiu um quadro de coma, acabando a doente por morrer. Apesar da principal causa de morte descrita na síndrome de Austrian estar relacionada com complicações de endocardite, apresenta-se um caso único de apresentação e morte por meningite. Com poucos casos descritos mundialmente, sublinha-se a necessidade de um diagnóstico precoce desta tríade, motivo pelo qual relatamos o caso descrito


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Pneumococcal Infections , Pneumonia , Respiratory Insufficiency , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Ceftriaxone , Bacteremia , Endocarditis , Meningitis
17.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(11): 903-913, Nov. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1155024

ABSTRACT

Sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a patient's unregulated response to an infectious process. In veterinary medicine, the exact incidence of sepsis is unknown. Early recognition of sepsis in critically ill patients is essential for rapid and effective therapeutic intervention. The present study aimed to apply the criteria of an adapted sepsis assessment protocol based on the Second International Consensus Definition for Sepsis and Septic Shock or Sepsis-2 of human medicine, in canine patients with suspected systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and/or organ dysfunction, and to identify infectious agents as well as their antimicrobial resistance profile in the focus of infection, in the bloodstream and colonizing the rectal mucosa. Patients were evaluated for survival and severity of sepsis. Of the 37/42 dogs that met the sepsis criteria, six presented septic shock, 26 (70.2%) had at least two signs of SIRS, and sepsis with organ dysfunction was diagnosed in 27 (73%) dogs. The primary dysfunctions observed were decreased level of consciousness in 21/37 (56.8%), hyperlactatemia in 19/37 (51.4%), and hypoalbuminemia in 18/37 (48.6%). Two or more SIRS signs associated with hypotension and hypoalbuminemia were related to more than half of the deaths. The most frequent infectious focus was skin and soft tissue in 20/37 (54%), followed by organs and cavities in 8/37 (21.6%). The survival rate was 56.7%. Blood culture confirmed bacteremia in nine patients (24.3%), with a predominance of Gram-positive microorganisms (Staphylococcus intermedius, Streptococcus spp.) in 66.6% of dogs and one yeast (Candida glabrata). The most frequent bacteria in the focus of infection were gram-negative bacteria (46.2%), mainly Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in 19.5%, 14.6%, and 12.1%, respectively. We observed colonization by gram-negative bacteria such as E. coli-ESBL (31.5%), K. pneumoniae-ESBL (15.7%), and P. aeruginosa (15.7%), and the presence of ESBL bacteria was more associated with death when compared with other microorganisms. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) were isolated from rectal mucosa in four dogs. Gram-negative microorganisms were the most frequent in both infections and colonization, and most of them were resistant to fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, and cephalosporins. Based on this information, it can be concluded that mortality due to sepsis in dogs was high. Due to the presence of multi-resistant bacteria, the use of antimicrobials should be judicious, suggesting the implementation of the same precautions used in human hospitals to prevent the spread of multi-resistant microorganisms.(AU)


A sepse é uma disfunção orgânica ameaçadora à vida, causada por uma resposta desregulada do hospedeiro à infecção e na medicina veterinária sua incidência exata é desconhecida. O reconhecimento precoce da sepse nos pacientes críticos é essencial para que a intervenção terapêutica seja rápida e eficaz. Assim, os objetivos do presente estudo foram aplicar os critérios de um protocolo de avaliação da sepse adaptado com base no Segundo Consenso Internacional para Sepse e Choque Séptico, ou Sepse-2, da medicina humana, em pacientes caninos com suspeita de infecção e/ou Síndrome da Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica e/ou disfunção orgânica e identificar os agentes infecciosos bem como seu perfil de resistência a antimicrobianos no foco de infecção, na corrente sanguínea e colonizando a mucosa retal. Os pacientes foram avaliados quanto à sobrevivência e severidade da sepse. Dos 37/42 cães que se enquadraram nos critérios de sepse, seis estavam em choque séptico, 26 (70,2%) apresentaram pelo menos dois sinais de SIRS, e a sepse com disfunção orgânica foi diagnosticada em 27 (73%) cães. As principais disfunções verificadas foram diminuição do nível de consciência em 21/37 (56,8%), hiperlactatemia em 19/37 (51,4%) e hipoalbuminemia em 18/37 (48,6%). A presença de dois ou mais sinais de SIRS associados com hipotensão e hipoalbuminemia estiveram relacionadas com mais da metade dos óbitos. O foco infeccioso mais frequente foi pele e partes moles em 20/37 (54%) seguido por órgãos e cavidades em 8/37 (21,6%). A taxa de sobrevivência foi de 56,7%. Na hemocultura confirmou-se bacteremia em nove pacientes (24,3%), com predominância de microrganismos gram-positivos (Staphylococcus intermedius, Streptococcus spp.) em 66,6% dos cães e uma levedura (Candida glabrata). As bactérias mais frequentes no foco de infecção foram as gram-negativas (46,2%) principalmente Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae e Pseudomonas aeruginosa, em 19,5%, 14,6% e 12,1% respectivamente. Foi constatada colonização por bactérias gram-negativas como E. coli-ESBL (31,5%), K. pneumoniae-ESBL (15,7%) e P. aeruginosa (15,7%), sendo que a colonização de cães por bactérias ESBL foi associada ao óbito quando comparada com outros microrganismos. Foram também isolados da mucosa retal Enterococcus resistentes à vancomicina (VRE) em quatro cães. Os microrganismos gram-negativos foram os mais frequentes, tanto nas infecções quanto nas colonizações e a maioria apresentava resistência à fluorquinolonas, sulfonamidas, tetraciclinas e cefalosporinas. Com base nestas informações, conclui-se que a mortalidade em decorrência da sepse em cães foi alta, e devido à presença de bactérias multirresistentes, o uso de antimicrobianos deve ser criterioso, sugerindo-se ainda a implantação das mesmas precauções utilizadas em hospitais humanos para evitar disseminação de microrganismos multirresistentes.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Bacteremia , Sepsis/diagnosis , Sepsis/microbiology , Sepsis/veterinary , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Blood Culture/veterinary
18.
Infectio ; 24(3): 196-198, jul.-set. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1114866

ABSTRACT

Resumen El género Gemella spp corresponde a cocos gram positivos, anaerobios facultativos, catalasa negativos, no móviles y no formadores de esporas, usualmente comensales de la cavidad oral, que no suelen ser patógenos en pacientes inmunocompetentes. Sin embargo, puede comportarse como germen oportunista en pacientes inmunosuprimidos o con otros factores de riesgo como mala higiene dental, cirugía gastrointestinal, enfermedades metabólicas entre otras, y se asocia con endocarditis, meningitis y en menor medida compromiso pulmonar. La información respecto a la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana es limitada y se asemeja a la de S viridans, por lo que la penicilina y ampicilina son los medicamentos de elección, sin tener claridad en cuanto a duración del tratamiento, usualmente considerando llevar a 4 semanas o hasta el drenaje de la colección. Éste reporte de caso describe una paciente con tuberculosis en tratamiento, que desarrolla una infección invasiva con documentación de empiema y bacteriemia secundaria por Gemella morbillorum, representando la asociación poco común de ésta infección bacteriana con tuberculosis.


Abstract Gemella spp. corresponds to gram positive cocci, facultative anaerobes, negative catalase, non mobile and non spore producers, part of colonizing flora of the oral cavity that are not common pathogens in immunocompetent patients. Nevertheless it may behave as an opportunistic germ in immunosuppressed patients or with other risk factors that include bad dental hygiene, bowel surgery, and metabolic diseases among others. It's associated with infections such as endocarditis, meningitis and less frecuently can implicate the lung. The information regarding antimicrobial susceptibility is limited and resembles S viridans, so penicillin and ampicillin are the medications of choice, without being clear about the duration of treatment, usually giving 4 weeks or until collection drain. This case report describes a patient with known tuberculosis diagnosis and under treatment, that develops an invasive infection with empyema and secondary bloodstream infection by Gemella morbillorum, depicting a previously uncommon but described association of this bacterial infection with tuberculosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Tuberculosis , Gram-Positive Cocci , Gemella , Bacterial Infections , Risk Factors , Bacteremia , Sepsis , Empyema , Ampicillin , Infections
19.
Infectio ; 24(3): 193-195, jul.-set. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1114865

ABSTRACT

Resumen Lactococcus garvieae es una causa inusual de bacteriemia. No existen guías diagnósticas y terapéuticas actuales disponibles para tratar las infecciones causadas por estos organismos. Con base en un informe de caso, proporcionamos una revisión de la literatura sobre bacteriemia causada por L. garvieae y destacamos los desafíos de diagnóstico y tratamiento de estas infecciones y las implicaciones para el manejo. Comunicamos el primer caso de bacteriemia por Lactococcus garvieae en Colombia.


Abstract Lactococcus garvieae is an unusual cause of bloodstreams infections. Currently, there are no diagnostic and therapeutic guides available to treat infections caused by these organisms. Based on a case report, we provide a literature review on bloodstreams caused by L. garvieae and highlighted the challenges for diagnose and treatment and direct implications for its management. We report the first case of bloodstream infections due to Lactococcus garvieae in Colombia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Lactococcus , Infections , Catalase , Bacteremia , Colombia , Sepsis , Diagnosis , Research Report , Fishes , Literature
20.
Infectio ; 24(3): 155-161, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1114859

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: La linfopenia se ha propuesto como un potencial factor asociado al riesgo de infecciones bacterianas nosocomiales (infección urinaria y neumonía), pero la magnitud y relevancia de este factor no ha sido evaluada formalmente. El objetivo de este estudio es determinar si existe asociación entre linfopenia e infecciones nosocomiales en ancianos hospitalizados en una institución de salud en Bogotá, Colombia. Métodos: Estudio de casos y controles, incluyendo personas mayores de 65 años hospitalizadas en el Hospital Universitario San Ignacio entre junio de 2016 y diciembre de 2017. Se consideraron casos aquellos con diagnóstico de infección nosocomial (neumonía, infección de vías urinarias, bacteriemia, infección de tejidos blandos) y se compararon con controles sin infección emparejados por edad y sexo. Se evaluó la asociación entre linfopenia e infección nosocomial mediante análisis bivariado y multivariado controlando por las variables de confusión. Resultados: Se incluyeron un total de 198 pacientes (99 casos y 99 controles). La prevalencia de linfopenia fue de 34.8%, sin encontrarse diferencia entre los dos grupos (p=0.88). La infección nosocomial se asoció a mayor incidencia de mortalidad (29.3 vs 10.1%, p>0.001) y mayor duración de estancia hospitalaria (Mediana 18 vs 9 días, p<0.01). Se encontró asociación entre infección nosocomial con enfermedad cardiovascular (OR = 2.87; IC 95% 1.37-6.00) y antecedente de cáncer (OR = 6.00; IC 95% 1.28-29.78), sin embargo, no hubo asociación con linfopenia (OR = 1.27; IC 95% 0.61-2.65). Conclusiones: Este estudio sugiere que no existe asociación entre linfopenia y el desarrollo de infecciones nosocomiales en pacientes ancianos.


Abstract Objective: Lymphopenia has been proposed as a potential factor associated with the risk of nosocomial bacterial infections (urinary tract infection and pneumonia), but the magnitude and relevance of this factor has not been formally evaluated. Objective is to determine the association between lymphopenia and nosocomial infections in elderly hospitalized in a health institution in Bogotá, Colombia. Methods: Case-control study, including people over 65 hospitalized in the University Hospital San Ignacio - Bogotá, during the period between June 2016 and December 2017. Cases with a diagnosis of nosocomial infection (pneumonia, urinary tract infection, bacteraemia, soft tissue infection) were considered and compared with controls without infection matched by age and sex. The association between lymphopenia and nosocomial infection was evaluated by bivariate and multivariate analysis, controlling for confounding variables. Results: A total of 198 patients (99 cases and 99 controls) were included. The prevalence of lymphopenia was 34.8%, with no difference between the two groups (p = 0.88). Nosocomial infection was associated with a higher incidence of mortality (29.3 vs. 10.1%, p> 0.001) and a longer duration of hospital stay (Median 18 vs. 9 days, p< 0.001). An association was found between nosocomial infection with cardiovascular disease (OR = 2.87; 95% CI 1.37-6.00) and a history of cancer (OR = 6.19; 95% CI 1.28-29.78), however, there was no association with lymphopenia (OR = 1.27 ; 95% CI 0.61-2.65). Conclusions: This study suggests that there is no association between lymphopenia and the development of nosocomial infections in elderly patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Bacterial Infections , Urinary Tract Infections , Infections , Lymphopenia , Cardiovascular Diseases , Risk , Confounding Factors, Epidemiologic , Multivariate Analysis , Bacteremia , Colombia
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