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1.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(4): 553-560, ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138670

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Las infecciones graves son la principal causa de ingreso a cuidados intensivos pediátricos. El panel FilmArray BCID permite identificar rápidamente a microorganismos causantes de bacteriemias. OBJETIVO: evaluar la eficacia de la identificación rápida de microorganismos asociado a un Programa de Uso Racional de Antibióticos (URA) en reducir los tiempos de terapias antibióticas, en un hospital pediátrico. PACIENTES Y MÉTODO: Estudio retrospectivo, que incluyó 100 pacientes, en su primer episo dio de bacteriemia, divididos en 2 grupos de 50 cada uno: Intervención (FilmArray BCID y programa URA) y Controles históricos pareados para la misma especie del microrganismo identificado (microbiología convencional). Las variables evaluadas fueron los tiempos de identificación microbiana, latencia de la terapia dirigida y de desescalar antibióticos. RESULTADOS: Los grupos fueron comparables en características demográficas, foco de infección y etiología de bacteriemia. El tiempo promedio de identificación de microorganismos fue de 23 h (IC 95% 12,4-26,7) en el grupo intervención, y 70,5 h (IC 95% 65,2-78,6) en el control (p < 0,05), mientras que la latencia de inicio de terapia dirigida fue de 27,9 h (IC 95% 22,3-32,8) y 71,9 h (IC 95% 63,2-77,8) respectivamente (p < 0,05). El tiempo de desescalar o suspender antibióticos fue de 6,4 h (IC 95% 2,76-9,49) y 22 h (IC 95% 6,74-35,6) en los grupos mencionados (p > 0,05). CONCLUSIÓN: El panel FilmArray BCID articulado a un programa URA, contribuye a la identificación de los microorganismos causantes de bacteriemias en menor tiempo que los métodos convencionales, siendo una herramienta que optimiza las terapias antibióti cas en niños críticamente enfermos.


INTRODUCTION: Severe infections are the leading cause of admission to pediatric intensive care. The FilmArray BCID panel quickly identifies microorganisms that cause bacteremia. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if the rapid identification of the microorganisms that cause bacteremia, along with a Rational Use of Antibio tics (RUA) Program, allows optimizing the time of antibiotic therapy in a pediatric hospital. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Retrospective study which included 100 patients presenting their first episode of bacteremia, divided into 2 groups of 50 each. The first one was Intervention (FilmArray BCID and RUA program) and the second one was Historical Controls (conventional automated ID/AST). The variables evaluated were the time required for microbial identification, duration of appropriate therapy, and antibiotic de-escalation. RESULTS: The groups were comparable in terms of demographic characteristics, focus of infection, and etiology of bacteremia. The average time of microorganisms' identification of the control group was 70.5 hours (IC 95% 65.2-78.6) and 23.0 hours (IC 95% 12.4 -26.7) in the intervention one (p < 0.05). The average time of targeted therapy onset was shorter in the intervention group (27.9 h [IC 95% 22.3-32.8]) than that of the control one (71.9 h [IC 95% 63.2-77.8]) (p < 0.05). Finally, the time to de-escalate or discontinue antibiotics in the intervention group and the control one was 6.4 hours (IC 95% 2.76-9.49) hours and 22.0 hours (IC 95% 6.74-35.6 h) respectively (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The FilmArray panel along with the RUA Program allows the identification of the microorganisms causing bacteremia faster than conventional methods, which positions it as a tool that optimizes antibiotic therapy of critical patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Molecular Typing/methods , Blood Culture/methods , Antimicrobial Stewardship/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Time Factors , Drug Administration Schedule , Retrospective Studies , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacteremia/microbiology , Hospitals, Pediatric , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
2.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(3): 371-375, jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013795

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La piomiositis es la infección del músculo esquelético, entidad poco frecuente en pediatría. Objetivo: Describir las características de 21 niños con piomiositis. Métodos: Estudio prospectivo-analítico de niños ingresados con diagnóstico de piomiositis entre mayo de 2016 y abril de 2017 en el Hospital de Niños Ricardo Gutiérrez, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Resultados: Tasa de hospitalización de 21,5/10.000 admisiones (IC 95% 4,65- 71,43). La mediana de edad fue de 5,4 años (rango 1,25-11,6). El 90,4% presentaba algún factor predisponente. La localización más frecuente fue en miembros inferiores. La proteína C reactiva (PCR) estuvo elevada en todos los pacientes, con una media de 124 mg/L (DS 96), siendo significativamente más elevada en los pacientes que tuvieron hemocultivos positivos 206 (DS 101) vs 98 (DS 81), (p = 0,02). Se obtuvo rescate microbiológico en 17 pacientes (80,9%): Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina (SARM) (n: 15) y Streptococcus pyogenes (n: 2). Se presentó con bacteriemia 23,8% de los pacientes. El 81% requirió drenaje quirúrgico. Conclusión: Staphylococcus aureus RM adquirido en la comunidad (SARMAC) es el patógeno predominante. En la selección del tratamiento empírico adecuado debería tenerse en cuenta: el patrón de resistencia local y el valor de PCR.


Background: Pyomyositis is the infection of skeletal muscle, a rare pathology in children. Aim To describe the characteristics of pyomyositis in pediatric patients. Methods: Prospective analytical study of hospitalized children diagnosed with pyomyositis from May 2016 to April 2017 at the Ricardo Gutiérrez Children's Hospital, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Results: Twenty-one patients with pyomyositis were identified. Annual rate: 21.5/10,000 admissions (95% CI 4.65-71.43). The median age was 5.4 years (range 1.25-11.6). The lower limbs were the most affected site. C-reactive protein (CRP) was elevated in all patients, with a mean of 124 mg/L (SD 96), being significantly higher in patients with bacteremia: 206 (DS 101) vs 98 (DS 81), p = 0.02. Bacterial cultures were positive in 17/21 (80.9%): 15 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and 2 Streptococcus pyogenes. Blood cultures were positive in 5 (23.8%). Conclusion: MRSA-community acquired is the predominant pathogen in our setting. In the selection of the appropriate empirical treatment, the local resistance pattern and the CRP value should be taken into account.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Pyomyositis/diagnosis , Argentina , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Clindamycin/therapeutic use , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Drainage , Prospective Studies , Ultrasonography , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Lower Extremity , Pyomyositis/microbiology , Pyomyositis/drug therapy , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Hospitals, Pediatric , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
3.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(3): 164-172, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019558

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are serious infections associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Every hour delay in initiation of an effective antibiotic increases mortality due to sepsis by 7%. Turnaround time (TAT) for conventional blood cultures takes 48 h, forcing physicians to streamline therapy by exposing patients to broad-spectrum antimicrobials. Our objective was (1) to evaluate the accuracy and TAT of an optimized workflow combining direct matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and in-house real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for bacterial identification and antimicrobial resistance profiling directly from positive blood bottles for diagnosing bloodstream infections and (2) to verify the effect of reporting results to medical staff. A total of 103 BSI episodes from 91 patients admitted to three hospitals in São Paulo, Brazil were included. TAT from molecular versus conventional methods was measured and compared. Our protocol showed an overall agreement of 93.5% for genus and 78.5% for species identification; 74.2% for methicillin resistance detection, 89.2% for extended-spectrum β-lactamase profiling, 77.8% for metallo-β-lactamase profiling, and 100% for carbapenemase profile and vancomycin-resistance detection when compared with conventional testing. TAT of molecular sample processing according to our protocol was 38 h shorter than conventional methods. Antimicrobial interventions were possible in 27 BSI episodes. Antimicrobial discontinuation was achieved in 12 BSI episodes while escalation of therapy occurred in 15 episodes. Antimicrobial therapy was inadequate in three (12%) BSI episodes diagnosed using results of molecular testing. Our in-house rapid protocol for identifying both bacteria and antimicrobial resistance provided rapid and accurate results, having good agreement with conventional testing results. These results could contribute to faster antimicrobial therapy interventions in BSI episodes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/classification , Time Factors , Prospective Studies , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Gram-Negative Bacteria/genetics , Gram-Positive Bacteria/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage
4.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 51(2): 148-152, jun. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013365

ABSTRACT

Se presentan 2 casos de bacteriemia por Helicobacter cinaedi. El primero se diagnosticó en un varón de 76 años y resultó secundario a la colocación de un acceso vascular; el segundo correspondió a un lactante febril de 37 días de vida, asociado a un cuadro de gastroen-terocolitis aguda. H. cinaedi es un microorganismo que presenta dificultad para desarrollarse en diferentes medios de cultivo y lograr su identificación a nivel de especie. En ambos casos fue fundamental la observación microscópica en fresco de las botellas de hemocultivo, la utilización de la espectrometría de masas y la posterior secuenciación del gen hsp60 para llegar a esa instancia. En los últimos anos se han informado infecciones por H. cinaedi con frecuencia creciente en otras partes del mundo. En este trabajo presentamos los primeros casos de bacteriemia por H. cinaedi documentados en Argentina.


Two cases of bacteremia caused by Helicobacter cinaedi are presented. The first case was diagnosed in a 76-year-old male patient, and was secondary to a vascular access device placement; the second case corresponded to a febrile infant of 37 days of life, and was associated with acute gastroenteritis. H. cinaedi is a microorganism difficult to grow in different culture media and also to identify to species level. In both cases, the microscopic observation of blood culture bottles, the use of mass spectrometry and the subsequent sequencing of the hsp60 gene were essential. In the recent literature, H. cinaedi infections are being reported more frequently. In this report we present the first documented cases of bacteremia caused by H. cinaedi in Argentina.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Aged , Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Argentina/epidemiology , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Blood Culture/methods
5.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 37(2): 156-160, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013279

ABSTRACT

ASTRACT Objective: To describe eight cases of invasive non-type b Haemophilus influenzae disease in children admitted to Hospital de Clínicas of Universidade Estadual de Campinas. Cases description: In 2015, there were eight cases of invasive non-type b H. influenzae disease. We tested the ampicillin sensitivity and beta-lactamase production of the strains identified and performed the genotyping. Molecular typing was determined by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis. Four patients were diagnosed with bacteremia; in two cases, H. influenzae was detected in the pleural fluid, and two patients had meningitis. Patients with comorbidities represented 37.5% of cases. Except for the strain of one patient - not sent to the reference laboratory -, all were ampicillin-sensitive and non-beta-lactamase-producing. Genotyping identified four non-capsular, one type c, and two type a strains. Molecular typing ruled out nosocomial transmission since all serotypes were distinct regarding genotype. Comments: The rise in cases of invasive non-type b H. influenzae infection was real. There was no nosocomial transmission, and we found no justification for the increase. These data indicate the need for surveillance to correctly diagnose, monitor, and understand the spectrum of non-type b H. influenzae disease.


ABSTRACT Objetivo: Descrever oito casos de doença invasiva por Haemophilus influenzae não tipo b em crianças internadas no Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Estadual de Campinas. Descrição dos casos: Em 2015, ocorreram oito casos de doença invasiva por H. influenzae não tipo b. Nas cepas identificadas, testou-se a sensibilidade à ampicilina e a produção de betalactamase, e realizou-se a genotipagem. A tipagem molecular foi feita por Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis. Em quatro pacientes, o diagnóstico foi de bacteremia; em dois casos, H. influenzae foi identificado em líquido pleural, e dois pacientes tiveram meningite. Comorbidades foram encontradas em 37,5% dos pacientes. Com exceção da cepa de um dos pacientes (que não foi enviada ao laboratório de referência), todas eram sensíveis à ampicilina e não produtoras de betalactamase. A genotipagem identificou quatro cepas não capsulares, uma cepa tipo c e duas cepas tipo a. A tipagem molecular descartou a transmissão intra-hospitalar, já que todos os sorotipos eram distintos quanto ao genótipo. Comentários: O aumento dos casos de infecção invasiva por H. influenzae não tipo b foi real. Não houve transmissão intra-hospitalar e não foi encontrada justificativa para o aumento. Esses dados indicam a necessidade de vigilância para diagnosticar corretamente, monitorar e entender o espectro da doença causada por H. influenzae não tipo b.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pleural Effusion/diagnosis , Pleural Effusion/microbiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Haemophilus influenzae/isolation & purification , Haemophilus influenzae/classification , Haemophilus influenzae/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Bacterial Typing Techniques , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Bacteremia/microbiology , Haemophilus Infections/complications , Haemophilus Infections/microbiology , Haemophilus Infections/drug therapy , Haemophilus Infections/epidemiology , Meningitis, Haemophilus/diagnosis , Meningitis, Haemophilus/etiology
6.
Med. infant ; 26(1): 19-26, Marzo 2019. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-994720

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Para predecir una infección en estadios tempranos en niños con cáncer se han evaluado marcadores como ESD, PCR y PCT. Objetivo: evaluar la precisión diagnóstica para bacteriemia de estos marcadores al ingreso en niños con fiebre y leucemia aguda (LA) o linfoma (L) internados entre 2013-2016. Métodos: estudio analítico retrospectivo. Revisión de historias clínicas. Se calcularon sensibilidad, especificidad, valor predictivo positivo, valor predictivo negativo y área bajo la curva ROC para cada marcador en MedCalc® V16.8.4. Se obtuvo autorización del Comité de Ética. Resultados:en total se internaron 31 niños con diagnóstico de LA y L, 19 presentaron fiebre y 12 no. Hubo 40 episodios de fiebre clasificados en 4 grupos: bacteriemia 14 (35%), infección documentada microbiológicamente 5 (12.5%), infección documentada clínicamente 2 (5%) y fiebre de origen desconocido 19 (47.5%). Los niveles de PCT fueron mayores en el grupo de bacteriemia registrando un valor promedio de 1,17ng/ mL (p: 0.045). El área bajo la curva ROC entre el grupo con y sin bacteriemia fue de 0.50 para ESD, 0.65 para PCR y 0.83 para PCT con S de 77.78%, E de 66.67%, VPP de 50% y VPN de 92.86%. Discusión: la PCT mostró ser el más eficaz que ESD y PCR para predecir bacteriemia. se deben realizar investigaciones con biomarcadores con el objeto de disminuir el uso inadecuado de antibióticos en pacientes con fiebre secundaria a enfermedad y acortar los tiempos de tratamiento en pacientes con infecciones adecuadamente resueltas mejorando ampliamente la calidad de vida en niños con cáncer (AU)


Introduction: To predict infection in early stages in children with cancer, markers such as ESR, CRP, and PCT have been evaluated. Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic precision for bacteremia of these markers on admission of children with fever and acute leukemia (AL) or lymphoma (L) admitted between 2013- 2016. Methods: A retrospective analytical study. Review of the clinical records. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and area under the ROC curve were calculated for each marker in MedCalc® V16.8.4. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee. Results: Overall, 31 children with AL and L were admitted, 19 of whom presented with fever and 12 did not. There were 40 episodes of fever classified into 4 groups: bacteremia 14 (35%), microbiologically documented infection 5 (12.5%), clinically documented infection 2 (5%), and fever of unknown etiology 19 (47.5%). PCT levels were higher in the group with bacteremia with a mean value of 1.17ng/mL (p:0.045). The area under the ROC curve between the groups with and without bacteremia was 0.50 for ESR, 0.65 for CRP, and 0.83 for PCT with a sensitivity of 77.78%, specificity of 66.67%, PPV of 50%, and NPV of 92.86%. Discussion: PCT showed a greater efficacy than ESD and CRP to predict bacteremia. Research on biomarkers should be conducted to reduce the inadequate use of antibiotics in patients with fever secondary to disease and to shorten treatment times in patients with adequately resolved infections, thereby improving quality of life in children with cancer (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Blood Sedimentation , Leukemia/complications , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Fever/complications , Lymphoma/complications , Acute Disease , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Bacteremia/microbiology
7.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(1): 53-60, feb. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002587

ABSTRACT

Representantes de la Sociedad Argentina de Infectología (SADI) y la Sociedad Argentina de Terapia Intensiva (SATI) se reunieron para trabajar en la elaboración de recomendaciones concretas de diagnóstico, tratamiento y prevención de las infecciones asociadas a catéteres venosos centrales (IAC). La metodología utilizada fue el análisis de la bibliografía publicada en los últimos 10 años complementada con la opinión de expertos y datos locales. En este documento se pretende ofrecer herramientas básicas de optimización de diagnóstico sobre la base de criterios clínicos y microbiológicos, orientar acerca de los esquemas antibióticos empíricos y dirigidos, la posología y la administración de antibióticos en pacientes críticos, y promover las medidas efectivas para reducir el riesgo de IAC. Asimismo, se ofrece un algoritmo de diagnóstico y tratamiento para uso en la actividad asistencial y consideraciones sobre la dosificación de antibióticos. Este trabajo conjunto de infectólogos e intensivistas pone en evidencia la preocupación por el manejo de las IAC y la importancia de velar por la mejora en las prácticas cotidianas. A través de esta recomendación se establecen pautas locales para optimizar el diagnóstico, el tratamiento y la prevención de las IAC con el objeto de disminuir la morbimortalidad, los días de internación, los costos y la resistencia antimicrobiana.


Representatives of the Argentine Society of Infectious Diseases (SADI) and the Argentine Society of Intensive Therapy (SATI) joined together to issue specific recommendations for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of intravascular catheter related infections (CRI). The methodology used was the analysis of the literature published in the last 10 years, complemented with the opinion of experts and local data. This document aims to promote effective measures to reduce the risk of CRI and to offer basic tools for diagnosis optimization based on clinical and microbiological criteria, orientation on empirical and targeted antibiotic schemes, posology, and administration of antibiotics in critical patients. It also offers a diagnostic and treatment algorithm for use in the care activity, as well as considerations on the dosage of antibiotics. The joint work of both societies highlights the concern for the management of CRI and the importance of ensuring improvement in daily practices. Through this recommendation, local guidelines are established to optimize the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of CRI in order to reduce morbidity and mortality, days of hospitalization, costs, and antimicrobial resistance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Catheterization, Central Venous/adverse effects , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Catheter-Related Infections/diagnosis , Catheter-Related Infections/drug therapy , Central Venous Catheters/adverse effects , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
8.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(5): 709-711, Sept.-Oct. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-957463

ABSTRACT

Abstract Ralstonia mannitolilytica, a Gram-negative bacterium, is rarely isolated in clinical laboratories. It has been associated with outbreaks due to its ability to survive in liquid media and hospital devices. We describe three cases of bacteremia caused by R. mannitolilytica in a neonatal intensive care unit in Curitiba, Southern Brazil. All isolates presented the same PFGE profile. The common source of infection was undetected in surveillance cultures for the outbreak survey. All patients received antimicrobial treatment and were discharged from the maternity. Due to the characteristics of the microorganism, clinicians and microbiologists should pay attention to the emergence of Ralstonia spp. infections.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Cross Infection/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacteremia/microbiology , Ralstonia/isolation & purification , Brazil , Cross Infection/diagnosis , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Bacteremia/diagnosis
9.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(4): 323-327, July-Aug. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974230

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study assessed the microbiology, clinical syndromes, and outcomes of oncologic patients with viridans group streptococci isolated from blood cultures between January 1st, 2013 and December 31st, 2016 in a referral hospital in Mexico using the Bruker MALDI Biotyper. Antimicrobial sensitivity was determined using BD Phoenix 100 according to CLSI M100 standards. Clinical information was obtained from medical records and descriptive analysis was performed.Forty-three patients were included, 22 females and 21 males, aged 42 ± 17 years. Twenty (46.5%) patients had hematological cancer and 23 (53.5%) a solid malignancy. The viridans group streptococci isolated were Streptococcus mitis, 20 (46.5%); Streptococcus anginosus, 14 (32.6%); Streptococcus sanguinis, 7 (16.3%); and Streptococcus salivarius, 2 (4.7%). The main risk factors were pyrimidine antagonist chemotherapy in 22 (51.2%) and neutropenia in 19 (44.2%) cases, respectively. Central line associated bloodstream infection was diagnosed in 18 (41.9%) cases. Septic shock occurred in 20.9% of patients, with an overall mortality of 18.6%. Only four S. mitis revealed penicillin-resistance.Our results are similar to those of other series, identifying these bacteria as emerging pathogens with significant morbidity and mortality in oncologic patients. The MALDI-TOF system increased the rate of viridans group streptococci isolation in this population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Streptococcal Infections/complications , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Catheter-Related Infections/diagnosis , Neoplasms/microbiology , Penicillin Resistance , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cohort Studies , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacteremia/epidemiology , beta-Lactam Resistance , Viridans Streptococci/isolation & purification , Viridans Streptococci/drug effects , Catheter-Related Infections/microbiology , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology
10.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 116(2): 204-209, abr. 2018. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-887461

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Las infecciones osteoarticulares son una importante causa de morbilidad y pueden presentar bacteriemia. La epidemiología de estas infecciones se ha modificado en los últimos años. Objetivos. Describir las características epidemiológicas, clínicas y evolutivas de los niños con infecciones osteoarticulares y comparar los pacientes con bacteriemia con los que no la presentaron. Población y métodos. Cohorte retrospectiva. Se incluyeron pacientes menores de 18 años, admitidos en el Hospital Juan P. Garrahan entre el 1/1/2016 y el 31/12/2016 con sospecha de infecciones osteoarticulares en quienes se hubiese realizado artrocentesis y/o biopsia articular. Se excluyeron niños con patología previa. Se compararon las características clínicas y de laboratorio según tuvieran bacteriemia o no. Se utilizó Stata 10. Resultados. N: 62. La mediana de edad fue 59.5 meses (rango intercuartilo -RIC- 24-84). Presentaron fiebre 44 pacientes (70%). Predominaron las artritis (54 pacientes, 87%). Se identificó un agente etiológico en 29 pacientes (47%). Predominó Staphylococcus aureus (n: 20, 32%). Tuvieron bacteriemia 15 de ellos (24%). Recibieron clindamicina como tratamiento empírico 56 pacientes (90%). La mediana de tratamiento endovenoso fue 7 días (RIC 5-11) y de internación, 7 días (RIC 4-12). Los pacientes con bacteriemia tuvieron menor edad (26 meses vs. 60, p < 0,05), mayor valor de proteína C reactiva inicial (101 vs. 33 U/L, p < 0,05), menor valor de hemoglobina al ingresar (10,8 g/dl vs. 12.5 g/dl, p 0,04) y mayor frecuencia de fiebre (100% vs. 57%, p < 0,05). Conclusiones. Predominó Staphylococcus aureus. Los niños con bacteriemia tuvieron menor edad, mayor valor de proteína C reactiva, menos hemoglobina al ingresar y, más frecuentemente, fiebre.


Introduction. Osteoarticular infections are an important cause of morbidity and may present with bacteremia. The epidemiology has changed in recent years. Objectives. To describe the epidemiological, clinical, and evolutionary characteristics of children with osteoarticular infections and compare patients with and without bacteremia. Population and methods. Retrospective cohort. Patients younger than 18 years admitted between January 1st, 2016 and December 31st, 2016 suspected of osteoarticular infections who had undergone an arthrocentesis and/or joint biopsy were included. Clinical and laboratory characteristics were compared between patients with and without bacteremia. The Stata 10 software was used.Results. N: 62. Patients' median age was 59.5 months (interquartile range [IQR]: 24-84). Fever developed in 44 patients (70%). Arthritis predominated (54 patients, 87%). An etiologic agent was identified in 29 patients (47%). Staphylococcus aureus was prevalent (n: 20, 32%). Among these, 15 developed bacteremia (24%). Clindamycin was administered to 56 patients (90%) as empirical therapy. The median intravenous treatment duration was 7 days (IQR: 5-11) and the median length of stay, 7 days (IQR: 4-12). Patients with bacteremia were younger (26 months versus 60 months, p < 0.05), had a higher baseline C-reactive protein level (101 U/L versus 33 U/L, p < 0.05), a lower hemoglobin level at the time of admission (10.8 g/dL versus 12.5 g/dL, p = 0.04), and a higher frequency of fever (100% versus 57%, p < 0.05).Conclusions. Staphylococcus aureus was prevalent. Children with bacteremia were younger, had a higher C-reactive protein level, a lower hemoglobin level at the time of admission, and 100% presented fever


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Osteoarthritis/diagnosis , Osteoarthritis/epidemiology , Osteomyelitis/diagnosis , Osteomyelitis/epidemiology , Arthritis/diagnosis , Arthritis/epidemiology , Bone Diseases, Infectious/diagnosis , Bone Diseases, Infectious/epidemiology , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Osteoarthritis/microbiology , Osteomyelitis/microbiology , Arthritis/microbiology , Bone Diseases, Infectious/complications , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Bacteremia/complications , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers , Hospitals, Pediatric
11.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(2): 215-218, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041453

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Bloodstream infections can be fatal, and timely identification of the etiologic agent is important for treatment. METHODOLOGY: An alternative method, consisting of direct identification and susceptibility testing of blood culture bottles using the automated VITEK 2® system, was assessed. RESULTS: All 37 of the Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) identifications and 57.1% of the 28 Gram-positive cocci (GPC) identifications matched those obtained with standard methods. In susceptibility testing, the agreement was greater than 90%. CONCLUSIONS: This alternative methodology may assist in the early identification and susceptibility testing of GNB. Further research is necessary to develop appropriate methods for GPC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Bacteremia/microbiology , Gram-Positive Cocci/drug effects , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Prospective Studies , Bacteriological Techniques , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Gram-Positive Cocci/classification , Qualitative Research , Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification
13.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 37(1): 11-21, ene.-mar. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-991087

ABSTRACT

La bacteriemia es una complicación grave de las infecciones bacterianas. Un diagnóstico temprano del microorganismo responsable permite aplicar tratamientos efectivos en menor intervalo de tiempo. Los hemocultivos son diagnosticadores clínicos diseñado para este fin. Objetivo: Realizar un estudio de estabilidad acelerado de un lote del hemocultivo HemoCen Aerobio que permita planificar su diseño en estante en condiciones reales. Métodos: Se formuló un lote del hemocultivo HemoCen Aerobio en el Centro Nacional de Biopreparados, BioCen y se envasó asépticamente en los Laboratorios Biológicos Farmacéuticos, LABIOFAM. Se llevó a cabo un estudio de estabilidad acelerado por el Método de Arrenhius. Los frascos se conservaron durante 120 días a 15 °C, 30 °C y 50 °C. Se realizaron evaluaciones físico-químicas, organolépticas y capacidad de promoción de crecimiento de Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 a los 7, 15, 30, 60 y 120 días. Resultados: El estudio de estabilidad demostró que el pH y el color del medio se deterioran progresivamente en el tiempo cuando las temperaturas aumentan entre 30 °C y 50 °C. La promoción de crecimiento de Staphylococcus aureus resultó favorable con índices de recuperación entre 20 y 40 UFC·frasco-1. Discusión: HemoCen Aerobio resulta funcional con un desempeño analítico satisfactorio, cuyos índices de recuperación microbiana se encuentran acorde a los valores reportados en bacteriemias de escasa magnitud. Estos resultados sientan las bases para planificar un estudio de estabilidad en estante en condiciones reales. Conclusión: Se estima un período de validez de 2 años(AU)


Bacteremia is a serious complication of bacterial infections. Early diagnosis of the causative organism allows applying appropriate treatments in a shorter time interval. Hemocultures are clinical diagnosticians designed for this purpose. Objective: Perform an accelerated stability study of a batch of HemoCen Aerobic hemoculture that allows planning its shelf designed in true conditions. Methods: A batch of HemoCen Aerobic hemoculture was formulated at the National Bioproducts Center, BioCen, and aseptically packaged at the Biological Pharmaceutical Laboratories, LABIOFAM. An accelerated stability study was carried out by the Arrenhius Method. The bottles were stored for 120 days at 15 °C, 30 °C and 50 °C. Physicochemical, organoleptic and growth promotion capacity evaluations of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 were realized at 7, 15, 30, 60 and 120 days. Results: The stability study demonstrated that the pH and the color of the medium progressively deteriorate over time as temperatures increase between 30 °C and 50 °C. Growth promotion of Staphylococcus aureus was favorable with recovery rates between 20 and 40 CFU bottle-1. Discussion: HemoCen Aerobic is functional with a satisfactory analytical performance, which recovery rates are consistent with the values reported in bacteremia of low magnitude. These results provide the basis for planning a shelf stability study under real conditions. Conclusion: A durability period of 2 years was estimated(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Early Diagnosis , Blood Culture/methods
14.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(2): 99-105, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951629

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Staphylococcus spp. - both S. aureus, including methicillin-resistant strains (MRSA) and coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) - are relevant agents of healthcare-associated infections. Therefore, the rapid recognition of MRSA and methicillin-resistant CoNS from blood stream infections is critically important for patient management. It is worth noting that inappropriate empiric therapy has been associated with higher in-hospital mortality. Material and methods: In this study we evaluated a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (multiplex PCR) standardized to detect Staphylococcus spp., S. aureus, and mecA gene-encoded oxacillin resistance directly from blood culture bottles. A total of 371 blood cultures with Gram-positive microorganisms confirmed by Gram-stain were analyzed. Results from multiplex PCR were compared to phenotypic characterization of isolates. Results: Staphylococcus aureus was detected in 85 (23.0%) blood cultures and CoNS in 286 (77.0%). There was 100% agreement between phenotypic and multiplex PCR identification. Forty-three (50.6%) of the 85 S. aureus carried the mecA gene and among the 286 CoNS, 225 (78.7%) were positive for the mecA gene. Conclusions: The multiplex PCR assay developed here was found to be sensitive, specific, rapid, and showed good agreement with the phenotypic results besides being less expensive. This PCR method could be used in clinical laboratories for rapid identification and initiation of specific and effective treatment, reducing patient mortality and morbidity. Furthermore, this method may reduce misuse of antimicrobial classes that are more expensive and toxic, thus contributing to the selection of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus spp.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Blood/microbiology , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Penicillin-Binding Proteins/genetics , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Oxacillin/pharmacology , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Bacterial Proteins/isolation & purification , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Bacteremia/microbiology , Penicillin-Binding Proteins/isolation & purification , Blood Culture , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
15.
Pediatr. (Asunción) ; 45(1): 17-23, 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-914108

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Identificar etiologìa de BAC y factores pronósticos de mortalidad. Material y Método: Estudio retrospectivo de BAC en pacientes de 29 días a 16 años hospitalizados en un Centro de Referencia del Paraguay, periodo 2007 a 2015, se analizaron variables demográficas, clínicas y laboratoriales categorizando a los pacientes según el desenlace (Vivos o Muertos). Resultados: 187 casos de BAC , edad media 40 + 35 meses, M/F 1,4:1, edad < 1 año: 30,5% (57/187), 1 a 4 años 49,2% (92/187), 5 a 10 años 15,5% (29/187) y > 10 años 4,8 % (9/187). Diagnósticos de ingreso: Neumonía (78%), Infección de Piel y Partes Blandas (9%), Infección a Múltiples focos (7%), Meningitis (3,7%) Bacteriemia sin foco 2%. Las bacteriemias por Gram Positivos fueron más frecuentes que las bacteriemias por Gram Negativos: 91,4 vs 8,6% (p<0,05), aislamientos: S.pneumoniae, S.aureus, S.coagulasa negativo (2/2) y K. pneumoniae (46 %, 34%, 7,5% y 2%). Ingresaron a UCI 63 pacientes (33,7%), mortalidad 16,5 %. Variables asociadas a mortalidad: Edad <5 años (p<0,05), Desnutrición (p=0,02, RR= 2,4, IC95%: 1,1-5), Infección a múltiples focos(p=0,002, RR=3,2, IC 95%: 1,6-6,4), Choque p<0,001, RR19, IC95%:7,8-46), Glasgow <12 (p<0,001, RR=5,5, IC 95%:3,2-9,6), Sat O2 < 94% (p=0,007, RR 2, IC95%: 1,1-4) , Hb< 7 (p<0,01, RR: 11, IC95%: 6,8 a 19), GB > 15000, plaquetas < 100000 (p<0,001, RR=4,4, IC95%: 2,4- 7,8), Bacteriemia por Gram Positivos (p=0,001, RR=4,9, IC 95%: 1,5-15). Conclusión: En niños con BAC son más frecuentes las bacteriemias por Gram positivos. Se identificaron factores pronósticos de mortalidad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacteremia/mortality , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Bacteremia/diagnosis
16.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(3): 317-320, 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-959447

ABSTRACT

Resumen Shigella spp. es el aislamiento microbiológico más frecuente en las diarreas bacterianas en Argentina. Clínicamente puede causar desde una diarrea acuosa hasta disentería. En forma infrecuente causa complicaciones extraintestinales, con una incidencia de bacteriemia desde 0,4 a 7,3%; asociado a factores de riesgo como niños menores de un año de edad e inmunodeficiencias, entre otros. Presentamos los casos clínicos de dos lactantes con bacteriemia por Shigella flexneri, que consultaron por fiebre y diarrea, uno de ellos con diagnóstico de inmunodeficiencia primaria.


Shigella spp. is the most frequent micro-biological isolation in bacterial diarrhea in Argentina. It causes a watery diarrhea or dysenteric disease. It rarely causes extraintestinal problems. It has an incidence of bacteremia of 0,4-7,3%, and its appearance compels us to look for associated risk factors, as children under one year of age and immunodeficiency, among others. We describe two children with Shigella flexneri bacteremia. They presented with fever and diarrhea. One of them had primary immune deficiency.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Shigella flexneri/isolation & purification , Bacteremia/microbiology , Dysentery, Bacillary/microbiology , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Dysentery, Bacillary/diagnosis
18.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 34(4): 389-392, ago. 2017. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899730

ABSTRACT

Resumen Neisseria subflava es una especie considerada comensal dentro de la familia Neisseriaceae; sin embargo, en algunos hospederos inmunocomprometidos y en niños se ha documentado como agente causal de infecciones invasoras. Se presenta el caso clínico de un recién nacido con bacteriemia por N. subflava con buena respuesta a terapia con cefotaxima. Las bacterias del género Neisseria más frecuentes de causar infecciones en recién nacidos son N. meningitidis, de alta mortalidad y N. gonorrhoeae, que se manifiesta principalmente con oftalmia neonatorum. Se destaca la importancia de realizar un diagnóstico microbiológico adecuado dado que las pruebas biquímicas pueden ser no concluyentes. La técnica de espectrometría de masas MALDITOF resulta una herramienta de utilidad.


Neisseria subflava belongs to Neisseriaceae family, is considered a comensal specie, however in certain host, mainly inmunosuppresed patientes and children, the literature has documented invasive infections. We present a case of a bacteriemia due to N. subflava in a newborn, treated with cefotaxime with good outcome. In newborns, the most common Neisseria bacteria to cause invasive infections are N. meningitidis, with highly fatal clinical course and N. gonorrhoeae which compromise the eye, oftalmia neonatorum, with uncommon invasive infections. It's very important the adequate microbiological diagnosis because the biochemical tests may be inconclusive. MALDITOF mass spectrometry technique is a useful tool.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant, Newborn , Neisseriaceae Infections/microbiology , Bacteremia/microbiology , Neisseria/classification , Neisseriaceae Infections/diagnosis , Immunocompromised Host , Bacteremia/diagnosis
19.
Rev. med. interna Guatem ; 21(1): 17-20, ene.-abr. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-995194

ABSTRACT

Elizabethkingia meningoseptica es un bacilo gram negativo no fermentador, no móvil, y oxidasa positivo, ampliamente distribuido en la naturaleza pero poco frecuente en humanos, en quienes se considera un patógeno oportunista, actualmente denominado emergente. En el ambiente hospitalario se ha encontrado en superficies húmedas y en equipos médicos, soluciones que habitualmente se utilizan de forma intravenosa, y en medicamentos de reconstitución. Puede causar infección en personas inmunocomprometidas o con enfermedades debilitantes concomitantes. Además, posee enzimas de resistencia frente a los antibióticos prescritos usualmente contra las bacterias gram negativas. Se presenta un caso de bacteriemia por E. meningoseptica en un paciente con antecedente de enfermedad renal crónica, quien recibía tratamiento hemodíalítico 3 veces por semana, desde hace 2 años, al ingreso se documentó infección del sitio de inserción del catéter venoso central, y posteriormente se aisló en los hemocultivos periféricos el crecimiento de la bacteria E. meningoseptica, el paciente cumplió tratamiento con trimetroprim-sulfametoxazol por 14 días con adecuada evolución clínica, sin complicaciones...(AU)


Elizabethkingia meningoseptica is a non fermenter bacilli gram negative, non-mobile, and positive oxidase, widely distributed in nature but rare in humans, in whom it is considered an opportunistic pathogen, now called emerging. In the hospital environment it was found on wet surfaces and medical equipment, solutions usually used intravenously, and drug reconstitution. It can cause infection in immunocompromised or with concomitant debilitating diseases people. It also has resistance to enzymes usually prescribed antibiotics against gram negative bacteria. A case of bacteremia is presented by E. meningoseptica in a patient with a history of chronic kidney disease, who received hemodialysis 3 times a week, for 2 years, entry site infection insertion of central venous catheter was documented and later was isolated from peripheral blood cultures the growth of bacteria E. meningoseptica, the patient completed treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for 14 days with adequate clinical course without complications...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Bacteria/chemistry , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Gram-Negative Facultatively Anaerobic Rods/chemistry , Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination/pharmacology , Guatemala
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-72419

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We evaluated the performance of the BD MAX StaphSR Assay (SR assay; BD, USA) for direct detection of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistance not only in S. aureus but also in coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CNS) from positive blood cultures. METHODS: From 228 blood culture bottles, 103 S. aureus [45 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), 55 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), 3 mixed infections (1 MRSA+Enterococcus faecalis, 1 MSSA+MRCNS, 1 MSSA+MSCNS)], and 125 CNS (102 MRCNS, 23 MSCNS) were identified by Vitek 2. For further analysis, we obtained the cycle threshold (Ct) values from the BD MAX system software to determine an appropriate cutoff value. For discrepancy analysis, conventional mecA/mecC PCR and oxacillin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined. RESULTS: Compared to Vitek 2, the SR assay identified all 103 S. aureus isolates correctly but failed to detect methicillin resistance in three MRSA isolates. All 55 MSSA isolates were correctly identified by the SR assay. In the concordant cases, the highest Ct values for nuc, mecA, and mec right-extremity junction (MREJ) were 25.6, 22, and 22.2, respectively. Therefore, we selected Ct values from 0-27 as a range of positivity, and applying this cutoff, the sensitivity/specificity of the SR assay were 100%/100% for detecting S. aureus, and 97.9%/98.1% and 99.0%/95.8% for detecting methicillin resistance in S. aureus and CNS, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We propose a Ct cutoff value for nuc/mec assay without considering MREJ because mixed cultures of MSSA and MRCNS were very rare (0.4%) in the positive blood cultures.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Coagulase/metabolism , Humans , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Oxacillin/pharmacology , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Staphylococcus/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects
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