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1.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(2): 159-165, June 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287266

ABSTRACT

Resumen Se realizó un estudio observacional retrospectivo analítico que evaluó la epidemiología de las bacteriemias asociadas a catéter central (BAC) en 773 adultos internados en la unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI) del Hospital Alemán de Buenos Aires entre diciembre de 2018 y junio de 2020. Durante el pe riodo de estudio, la incidencia fue 8.7 eventos cada 1000 días catéter. El desarrollo de BAC se asoció con mala evolución clínica, que fue puesta en evidencia por una duración de la internación en UCI significativamente mayor que la de los pacientes sin BAC (mediana: 21.5 días vs. 4 días, p < 0.001). La mortalidad también fue mayor, pero sin significancia estadística (24% vs. 20%, OR 1.26 [0.61-2.63]). Los microorganismos más frecuentemente aislados fueron bacterias Gram positivas (73%) y, entre ellas, Staphylococcus epidermidis fue la más frecuente (40%). De los 47 aislamientos de microorganismos relevados, 8 (17%) fueron gérmenes multirresistentes. El análisis multivariado identificó el tiempo de permanencia del catéter como factor de riesgo para desarrollar BAC (OR 1.10 [1.05 - 1.15], p < 0.001). En dicho análisis, una mayor tasa de BAC no fue influida por el sitio anatómico de inserción del catéter, el servicio donde se realizó el procedimiento (UCI o quirófano/servicio de emergencias), la experiencia previa del médico en el procedimiento, ni el uso de ultrasonido para guiar la cateterización. Con cluimos que las BAC son una complicación frecuente en nuestro servicio con consecuencias clínicas relevantes. Conocer la epidemiología y la problemática de cada servicio permite programar intervenciones dirigidas a corregir problemas concretos de salud pública.


Abstract A retrospective-observational analytical study was carried out to evaluate the epidemiology of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) in 773 adult patients hospitalized in the inten sive care unit (ICU) of the Hospital Alemán of Buenos Aires, Argentina, between 1 December 2018 and 30 June 2020. During the study period, the incidence of CRBSI was 8.7 cases per 1000 catheter days. The occurrence of CRBSI was found associated with a poor clinical evolution, as evidenced by a stay in the ICU significantly longer than the stay of patients without CRBSI (median: 21.5 days vs. 4 days, p < 0.001). CRBSI-associated mortality was not statistically higher (24% vs. 20%, OR 1.26 [0.61-2.63]). Gram-positive bacteria were the most frequently identified microorganisms (73%), being Staphylococcus epidermidis the most frequent (40%). Of the 47 isolates of microorganisms surveyed, 8 (17%) were multi-resistant germs. The permanence time of the catheter was identified as a risk factor for developing CRBSI (OR 1.10 [1.05 - 1.15], p < 0.001) in a multivariate analysis. In this analysis, the risk of infection was not influenced by the anatomical site of insertion of the catheter, the ward where the procedure was performed (ICU vs. operating room/external ward), the skill of the medical practitioner, or the use of ultrasound to guide vascular accesses. We conclude that CRBSIs are a frequent complication in our department with relevant clinical consequences. Knowing the epidemiology and the problems of each service allows programming interventions aimed to correct specific public health problems.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Bacteremia/etiology , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Critical Care , Catheters , Intensive Care Units
2.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(5): 325-330, oct. 2021. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1292087

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Las infecciones con bacteriemias en pacientes quemados son causa frecuente de complicaciones y aumento de días de internación. El conocimiento de los microorganismos causales y la identificación de factores de riesgo asociados permiten disminuir las complicaciones infecciosas, la morbimortalidad y los costos en cuidados de la salud. Este trabajo evalúa el grado de asociación entre los factores de riesgo y los episodios de bacteriemias en pacientes quemados, e identifica los microorganismos aislados más frecuentemente en hemocultivos. Población y métodos. Estudio de casos y controles realizado en la Unidad de Cuidados Críticos de Quemados del Hospital de Pediatría S.A.M.I.C. "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan" entre el 1 de junio de 2014 y el 30 de septiembre de 2019 en pacientes que presentaron episodios de bacteriemia con hemocultivo positivo (casos) y los que presentaron hemocultivos negativos (controles). Resultados. Durante el período estudiado se identificaron 29 casos de bacteriemias. La mediana de días de internación al momento del episodio de bacteriemia fue de 23 días. El microorganismo más frecuentemente identificado fue Pseudomonas (7 casos). El único factor de riesgo con el que se pudo establecer asociación significativa fue la presencia de acceso venoso central con 7 días o más (OR 3,18; IC 95 %: 1,20-8,38). La mortalidad global fue del 9,1 %, en los casos fue del 13,8 %, y en los controles, del 3,4 %. Conclusiones. Los accesos venosos centrales con duración mayor a 7 días son un factor de riesgo independiente de bacteriemias en niños quemados críticos. No se pudo establecer una asociación estadísticamente significativa con otros factores de riesgos analizados. Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter y Staphylococcus coagulasa negativo fueron los microorganismos más frecuentemente identificados en las bacteriemias


Introduction. Infections due to bacteremia in burn patients are a common cause of complications and an extended length of stay. Knowing causative microorganisms and identifying associated risk factors allow to reduce infectious complications, morbidity, mortality, and health care expenditure. This study assesses the extent of the association between risk factors and bacteremia in burn patients and identifies the most common microorganisms found in blood cultures. Population and methods. Case-control study conducted at the Burn Intensive Care Unit of Hospital de Pediatría S.A.M.I.C. "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan" between June 1st, 2014 and September 30th, 2019 in patients with bacteremia events and a positive blood culture (cases) and patients with a negative blood culture (controls). Results. During the study period, 29 cases of bacteremia were identified. The median length of stay at the time of bacteremia was 23 days. The most commonly identified microorganism was Pseudomonas (7 cases). The only risk factor that showed a significant association was the presence of a central venous line for 7 days or more (OR: 3.18; 95 % confidence interval: 1.20- 8.38). The overall mortality rate was 9.1%; 13.8% for cases and 3.4% for controls. Conclusions. Central venous lines for more than 7 days are an independent risk factor for bacteremia in critically ill burn children. No statistically significant association was established with other studied risk factors. Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus were the most common microorganisms found in bacteremia


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Burns/complications , Bacteremia/etiology , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Staphylococcus , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Case-Control Studies , Indicators of Morbidity and Mortality , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Infections
3.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(5): 515-522, nov. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144245

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Las infecciones del torrente sanguíneo son un problema creciente y actualmente son una amenaza para la salud pública. La bacteriemia representa aproximadamente 15% de todas las infecciones nosocomiales y afecta a 1% de los pacientes hospitalizados. Objetivo: Describir las características clínicas, epidemiológicas y microbiológicas de episodios de bacteriemia nosocomial ocurridos en un hospital colombiano. Pacientes y Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo, observacional, de corte transversal, con inclusión de pacientes adultos, hospitalizados por el Servicio de Medicina Interna en el Hospital Universitario de Santander, Bucaramanga, Colombia, durante los años 2014 a 2016. El protocolo fue aprobado por el Comité de Ética en Investigación de la Universidad Industrial de Santander. Resultados: Se revisaron 450 historias clínicas, con 148 pacientes y 182 aislados microbianos. Los antecedentes más frecuentes fueron: hipertensión arterial (46,6%) e infección por VIH (29,7%). El sistema vascular y urinario ocuparon los sitios anatómicos más frecuentes (37,3 y 38,3%, respectivamente). La letalidad fue de 29%. Los patógenos más frecuentemente aislados fueron: Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (en suma: 49,8%) y Staphylococcus aureus 12,1%. El análisis multivariado mostró relación de la anemia con mortalidad intrahospitalaria (OR = 17,3; IC95% 2,95-102,0). Conclusiones: La bacteriemia es una infección frecuente durante la atención hospitalaria que presenta gran mortalidad. Es destacable el predominio de aislados de enterobacterias multiresistentes. El antecedente de infección por VIH es uno de los más frecuentes el que amerita ser evaluado como grupo de riesgo.


Abstract Background: Bloodstream infections are an increasing problem and currently represent a threat to public health, overcoming diseases such as HIV. Bacteremia accounts for approximately 15% of all nosocomial infections and affects 1% of all hospitalized patients. Aim: To describe the clinical, epidemiological and microbiological characteristic of episodes of nosocomial bacteremia occurring in a Colombian hospital. Methods: Retrospective, observational, cross-sectional study including adult patients, hospitalized in the internal medicine unit at the University Hospital of Santander, Bucaramanga, Colombia, during years 2014 to 2016, who met the criteria of the CDC for bloodstream infection. The protocol was approved by the Hospital Ethics Committee and by the Research Ethics Committee of the Industrial University of Santander. Results: We reviewed 450 clinical records with 148 patients and 182 microbiological isolates. 53% were male. The most frequent comorbidities were: high blood pressure (46.6%), HIV infection (29.7%). The vascular and urinary systems were the most frequent anatomical sites as the source of the infection (respectively 37.3% and 38.3%). Case fatality rate was 29%. The pathogens most frequently isolated were: Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (globally: 49.8%) and Staphylococcus aureus 12.1%. The multivariate analysis showed a relationship between anemia and in-hospital mortality (OR = 17.3, 95%CI 2.95-102.0). Conclusions: Bacteremia is a frequent infection during hospital care that presents high mortality. It is noteworthy the predominance of Enterobacteriaceae isolates with broad profiles of resistance. The history of HIV infection is one of the most frequent which deserves to be evaluated as a risk group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Bacteremia/epidemiology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Colombia/epidemiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
4.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(4): 362-370, ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138560

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Las enterobacterias son una causa principal de infecciones del torrente sanguíneo y su resistencia antimicrobiana se encuentra en aumento. Esto lleva a un incremento de la morbilidad-mortalidad y de los costos en la salud pública. Las enterobacterias resistentes a carbapenems representan un grave desafío a nivel global ya que existen escasas opciones terapéuticas disponibles. Objetivo: Caracterización clínico/microbiológica de las bacteriemias resistentes a carbapenémicos observadas en un período de 4 años. Material y Método: Estudio retrospectivo, observacional y descriptivo, sobre las bacteriemias por enterobacterias resistentes y sensibles a carbapenems. Resultados: Se analizó un total de 84 pacientes con bacteriemia por enterobacterias resistentes y sensibles a carbapenems. Entre las resistentes, observamos una mayor proporción de: tratamiento antimicrobiano previo, hospitalización en unidad de terapia intensiva (UTI), inicio de la bacteriemia en UTI y antecedentes de β-lactamasas de espectro extendido. Además, se detectó un amplio predominio de Klebsiella pneumoniae productor de KPC y una mortalidad atribuible de 52,4%. Discusión: El estudio posibilitó profundizar el conocimiento de una enfermedad emergente de elevada mortalidad, en vistas al diseño y aplicación de estrategias de control de infecciones y de esquemas de tratamiento efectivos adaptados a la epidemiologia local.


Abstract Background: Enterobacteriaceae are a major cause of bloodstream infections and their antimicrobial resistance continues to increase. This leads to higher morbidity-mortality rates and public health costs. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae represent a serious challenge globally, since there are few therapeutic options available. Aim: Clinical/microbiological characterization of the carbapenem-resistant bacteremia observed over a period of 4 years. Methods: Retrospective, observational and descriptive study about bacteremia caused by carbapenem-resistant and susceptible Enterobacteriaceae. Results: A total of 84 patients with bacteremia including carbapenem-resistant and susceptible Enterobacteriaceae were analyzed. We found that patients infected with carbapenem-resistant strains presented a higher proportion of: previous antibiotic treatment, hospitalization in intensive care unit (ICU), onset of the bacteremia during hospitalization in ICU and previous infection with extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae. Additionally, we observed a predominance of KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and an attributable mortality rate of 52.4%. Discussion: This study allowed for a better understanding of an emerging problem with high mortality, which in turn is useful for the design and adoption of infection control strategies and effective treatment regimens adapted to our local epidemiology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Klebsiella Infections/drug therapy , Klebsiella Infections/epidemiology , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , beta-Lactamases , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Retrospective Studies , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Enterobacteriaceae , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
5.
Med. infant ; 27(1): 3-9, Marzo de 2020. Tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1118423

ABSTRACT

Las infecciones bacterianas son una de las principales causas de morbimortalidad en los niños con cáncer. Nuestro objetivo fue describir y comparar las características clínicas y los microorganismos causantes de bacteriemias con su sensibilidad antimicrobiana en niños con diagnóstico de LLA y LMA. Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo entre julio-2016 y junio-2018. Se incluyeron todos los episodios de bacteriemia (EpB) en pacientes de 0 a 18 años con diagnóstico de LLA y LMA. Se documentaron datos epidemiológicos y demográficos de los pacientes y datos microbiológicos de los aislamientos de hemocultivos positivos. Se utilizó stata13. Se incluyeron 258 EpB en 167 pacientes; el 55% eran varones. La mediana de edad fue 81 meses (RIC 39-130). En 215 EpB (83%) se registró la presencia de algún tipo de catéter; neutropenia en 193 EpB (75%), neutropenia severa en 98/258 EpB (38%). Se pudo determinar el foco clínico en 152 EpB (59%). Ciento diez pacientes tenían LLA y 57 LMA. En LLA predominaron las enterobacterias, en LMA los cocos gram positivos. Se observó asociación entre LMA y estreptococos del grupo Viridans (p<0,01) y entre LLA y P.aeruginosa (p 0,01). Con respecto a la sensibilidad hubo 11% y 17% de bacilos negativos multirresistentes en LLA y LMA respectivamente. Todos los estafilococos coagulasa negativos fueron meticilino resistentes. La mayoría de los pacientes tenía algún tipo de catéter y neutropenia. Se observó un predominio de enterobacterias con bajos niveles de resistencia antibiótica. Estos resultados son importantes para conocer la epidemiología local y establecer tratamientos empíricos adecuados (AU)


Bacterial infections are one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in children with cancer. Our aim was to describe and compare the clinical features and bacteremia-causing microorganisms together with their antimicrobial sensitivity in acute lymphocytic (ALL) and acute myelocytic leukemia (AML). A descriptive observational study was conducted between July 2016 and June 2018. All episodes of bacteremia (EpB) in patients between 0 and 18 years of age with ALL and AML were included. All epidemiological and demographic data of the patients and microbiological information of the isolates of the positive blood cultures were recorded. For statistical analysis stata13 was used. Overall 258 EpB in 167 patients were included; 55% were boys. Median age was 81 months (IQR 39-130). In 215 EpB (83%) some type of catheter was involved; neutropenia was observed in 193 EpB (75%) and severe neutropenia in 98/258 EpB (38%). A clinical focus could be determined in 152 EpB (59%). Of all patients, 110 had ALL and 57 AML. The predominant micro-organisms were enterobacteria in ALL and gram-positive cocci in AML. An association was observed between AML and the viridans group of streptococci (p<0.01) and between ALL and P. aeruginosa (p 0.01). Regarding sensitivity, there were 11% and 17% of multiresistant negative bacilli in ALL and AML, respectively. All coagulase-negative staphylococci weer methicillin resistant. The majority of patients had some type of catheter and neutropenia. Predominance of enterobacteria with low levels of resistance to antibiotics was observed. These results are important to understand the local epidemiology and establish adequate empirical therapies (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/complications , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/complications , Blood Culture , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Argentina/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies
6.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 71(2): e427, mayo.-ago. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093560

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina constituye la causa principal de bacteriemia relaciona a catéter en pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica avanzada en hemodiálisis. Objetivos: Estimar la tasa de incidencia de bacteriemia relaciona con catéter por Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina en pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica avanzada en el Hospital General Freyre de Andrade, Cuba, y vigilar los valores de concentración mínima inhibitoria de vancomicina frente a los aislados recuperados de bacteriemia. Métodos: El estudio se realizó entre mayo 2017 y febrero 2018, el cual incluyó 64 pacientes con Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina (total de los atendidos en hemodiálisis). De cada uno se recogió información acerca de tipo de acceso vascular y tiempo de uso; de los que desarrollaron un episodio sugerente de bacteriemia se obtuvieron muestras de sangre para hemocultivo. Se informó bacteriemia relacionada con catéter utilizando los criterios de Bouza y otros 2004 y estas se confirmaron debidas a Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina tras determinar la concentración mínima inhibitoria de oxacilina, empleando el método de microdilución en caldo y los criterios del CLSI 2017. Asimismo se evaluó la concentración mínima inhibitoria de vancomicina. Resultados: Las tasas de incidencia de bacteriemia relaciona con catéter por S. aureus y Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina fueron de 0,66 y 0,59/1000 días-catéter, respectivamente. Predominaron las bacteriemia relacionada con catéter en los pacientes con accesos vasculares temporales. No se observó incremento en la concentración mínima inhibitoria de vancomicina (1 y 2 (g/mL) para los aislados responsables de bacteriemia a repetición y persistente. Conclusiones: La tasas de incidencia de bacteriemia relacionada con catéter indican que en la unidad de hemodiálisis se mantienen buenas prácticas clínicas. Los valores de concentración mínima inhibitoria de vancomicina sugieren una reducción en la eficacia de la droga en el tratamiento(AU)


Introduction: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is the leading cause of catheter-related bacteremia in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease undergoing hemodialysis. Objective: Estimate the incidence rate of catheter-related bacteremia by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease from General Freyre de Andrade Hospital in Cuba, and survey the vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration values for isolates obtained from bacteremia. Methods: A study was conducted of 64 patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (total of those undergoing hemodialysis) from May 2017 to February 2018. For each one of them, information was collected about vascular access type and time of use. Blood culture samples were obtained from patients who developed an episode suggesting bacteremia. Catheter-related bacteremia was reported using Bouza et al (2004) criteria, and it was confirmed as due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus after determining oxacillin minimum inhibitory concentration by broth microdilution and CLSI 2017 criteria. Vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration was also evaluated. Results: The incidence rates for catheter-related bacteremia by S. aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were 0.66 and 0.59/1000 catheter-days, respectively. A predominance was found of catheter-related bacteremia in patients with temporary vascular accesses. No increase was observed in vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration (1 and 2 g/mlL for the isolates responsible for recurrent and persistent bacteremia. Conclusions: The incidence rates for catheter-related bacteremia show that good clinical practices are maintained in the hemodialysis unit. Vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration values suggest a decrease in the efficacy of the drug during treatment(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Catheter-Related Infections/complications
7.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(4): 347-351, July-Aug. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039216

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Bloodstream and venous catheter-related corynebacterial infections in paediatric patients with haematological cancer were investigated from January 2003 to December 2014 at the Brazilian National Cancer Institute in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We observed that during cancer treatment, invasive corynebacterial infections occurred independent of certain factors, such as age and gender, underlying diseases and neutropenia. These infections were ssscaused by Corynebacterium amycolatum and other non-diphtherial corynebacteria. All cases presented a variable profile of susceptibility to antimicrobial agents, except to vancomycin. Targeted antibiotic therapy may contribute to catheters maintenance and support quality of treatment. Non-diphtherial corynebacteria must be recognized as agents associated with venous access infections. Our data highlight the need for the accurate identification of corynebacteria species, as well as antimicrobial susceptibility testing.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Corynebacterium/isolation & purification , Corynebacterium Infections/complications , Catheter-Related Infections/microbiology , Central Venous Catheters/microbiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Hematologic Neoplasms/microbiology , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Corynebacterium Infections/drug therapy , Catheter-Related Infections/drug therapy , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
8.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(4): 323-327, July-Aug. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974230

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study assessed the microbiology, clinical syndromes, and outcomes of oncologic patients with viridans group streptococci isolated from blood cultures between January 1st, 2013 and December 31st, 2016 in a referral hospital in Mexico using the Bruker MALDI Biotyper. Antimicrobial sensitivity was determined using BD Phoenix 100 according to CLSI M100 standards. Clinical information was obtained from medical records and descriptive analysis was performed.Forty-three patients were included, 22 females and 21 males, aged 42 ± 17 years. Twenty (46.5%) patients had hematological cancer and 23 (53.5%) a solid malignancy. The viridans group streptococci isolated were Streptococcus mitis, 20 (46.5%); Streptococcus anginosus, 14 (32.6%); Streptococcus sanguinis, 7 (16.3%); and Streptococcus salivarius, 2 (4.7%). The main risk factors were pyrimidine antagonist chemotherapy in 22 (51.2%) and neutropenia in 19 (44.2%) cases, respectively. Central line associated bloodstream infection was diagnosed in 18 (41.9%) cases. Septic shock occurred in 20.9% of patients, with an overall mortality of 18.6%. Only four S. mitis revealed penicillin-resistance.Our results are similar to those of other series, identifying these bacteria as emerging pathogens with significant morbidity and mortality in oncologic patients. The MALDI-TOF system increased the rate of viridans group streptococci isolation in this population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Streptococcal Infections/complications , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Catheter-Related Infections/diagnosis , Neoplasms/microbiology , Penicillin Resistance , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cohort Studies , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacteremia/epidemiology , beta-Lactam Resistance , Viridans Streptococci/isolation & purification , Viridans Streptococci/drug effects , Catheter-Related Infections/microbiology , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology
9.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 116(2): 204-209, abr. 2018. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-887461

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Las infecciones osteoarticulares son una importante causa de morbilidad y pueden presentar bacteriemia. La epidemiología de estas infecciones se ha modificado en los últimos años. Objetivos. Describir las características epidemiológicas, clínicas y evolutivas de los niños con infecciones osteoarticulares y comparar los pacientes con bacteriemia con los que no la presentaron. Población y métodos. Cohorte retrospectiva. Se incluyeron pacientes menores de 18 años, admitidos en el Hospital Juan P. Garrahan entre el 1/1/2016 y el 31/12/2016 con sospecha de infecciones osteoarticulares en quienes se hubiese realizado artrocentesis y/o biopsia articular. Se excluyeron niños con patología previa. Se compararon las características clínicas y de laboratorio según tuvieran bacteriemia o no. Se utilizó Stata 10. Resultados. N: 62. La mediana de edad fue 59.5 meses (rango intercuartilo -RIC- 24-84). Presentaron fiebre 44 pacientes (70%). Predominaron las artritis (54 pacientes, 87%). Se identificó un agente etiológico en 29 pacientes (47%). Predominó Staphylococcus aureus (n: 20, 32%). Tuvieron bacteriemia 15 de ellos (24%). Recibieron clindamicina como tratamiento empírico 56 pacientes (90%). La mediana de tratamiento endovenoso fue 7 días (RIC 5-11) y de internación, 7 días (RIC 4-12). Los pacientes con bacteriemia tuvieron menor edad (26 meses vs. 60, p < 0,05), mayor valor de proteína C reactiva inicial (101 vs. 33 U/L, p < 0,05), menor valor de hemoglobina al ingresar (10,8 g/dl vs. 12.5 g/dl, p 0,04) y mayor frecuencia de fiebre (100% vs. 57%, p < 0,05). Conclusiones. Predominó Staphylococcus aureus. Los niños con bacteriemia tuvieron menor edad, mayor valor de proteína C reactiva, menos hemoglobina al ingresar y, más frecuentemente, fiebre.


Introduction. Osteoarticular infections are an important cause of morbidity and may present with bacteremia. The epidemiology has changed in recent years. Objectives. To describe the epidemiological, clinical, and evolutionary characteristics of children with osteoarticular infections and compare patients with and without bacteremia. Population and methods. Retrospective cohort. Patients younger than 18 years admitted between January 1st, 2016 and December 31st, 2016 suspected of osteoarticular infections who had undergone an arthrocentesis and/or joint biopsy were included. Clinical and laboratory characteristics were compared between patients with and without bacteremia. The Stata 10 software was used.Results. N: 62. Patients' median age was 59.5 months (interquartile range [IQR]: 24-84). Fever developed in 44 patients (70%). Arthritis predominated (54 patients, 87%). An etiologic agent was identified in 29 patients (47%). Staphylococcus aureus was prevalent (n: 20, 32%). Among these, 15 developed bacteremia (24%). Clindamycin was administered to 56 patients (90%) as empirical therapy. The median intravenous treatment duration was 7 days (IQR: 5-11) and the median length of stay, 7 days (IQR: 4-12). Patients with bacteremia were younger (26 months versus 60 months, p < 0.05), had a higher baseline C-reactive protein level (101 U/L versus 33 U/L, p < 0.05), a lower hemoglobin level at the time of admission (10.8 g/dL versus 12.5 g/dL, p = 0.04), and a higher frequency of fever (100% versus 57%, p < 0.05).Conclusions. Staphylococcus aureus was prevalent. Children with bacteremia were younger, had a higher C-reactive protein level, a lower hemoglobin level at the time of admission, and 100% presented fever


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Osteoarthritis/diagnosis , Osteoarthritis/epidemiology , Osteomyelitis/diagnosis , Osteomyelitis/epidemiology , Arthritis/diagnosis , Arthritis/epidemiology , Bone Diseases, Infectious/diagnosis , Bone Diseases, Infectious/epidemiology , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Osteoarthritis/microbiology , Osteomyelitis/microbiology , Arthritis/microbiology , Bone Diseases, Infectious/complications , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Bacteremia/complications , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers , Hospitals, Pediatric
10.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 34(6): 535-538, dic. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899755

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La infección del torrente sanguíneo es una complicación usual, que puede comprometer la vida de los pacientes que recibieron trasplante de precursores hematopoyéticos. Objetivo: Analizar las características de las infecciones del torrente sanguíneo en receptores de trasplante de precursores hematopoyéticos. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio observacional, retrospectivo. Se revisaron los registros de 451 pacientes (trasplantes autólogos y alogénicos), desde enero de 2009 a octubre de 2015. Resultados: Hubo 99 hemocultivos positivos en 73 pacientes con infección del torrente sanguíneo (16%). Mortalidad atribuible a causas infecciosas: 17%. De las 99 infecciones sanguíneas, 63% fueron provocados por bacilos gramnegativos (Escherichia coli 45%, Klebsiella spp 23%, Pseudomonas spp 11%, Acinetobacter spp 6% y otros bacilos gramnegativos 15%), 33% por cocáceas grampositivas, 3% por hongos y 1% por bacilos grampositivos. Se observó resistencia a ciprofloxacina (81%), piperacilina/tazobactam (48%), Enterobacteriaceae productoras de β-lactamasa de espectro extendido (BLEE) (40%), cefepime (39%) y ausencia de resistencia a amikacina. Discusión: Existe mayor frecuencia de infección por bacilos gramnegativos, con un importante porcentaje de aislados multi-resistentes, y consecuente, alta resistencia al tratamiento antimicrobiano empírico.


Background: Bloodstream infection is a common complication, which can be life-threatening for hematopoietic stem cells transplant recipients. Objective: To analyze the characteristics of bloodstream infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Materials and Methods: Observational, retrospective study. We reviewed the records of 451 patients (autologous and allogeneic transplants) from January 2009 to October 2015. Results: 99 positive blood cultures in 73 patients with bloodstream infection (16%) were found. Mortality attributable to infectious causes was 17%. From the 99 bloodstream infection, 63% were caused by gram-negative bacilli (Escherichia coli 45%, Klebsiella spp 23%, Pseudomonas spp 11% Acinetobacter spp % and other bacilli 15%), 33% by gram-positive cocci, 3% by fungi and 1% by gram-positive bacilli. The gram-negative bacilli were ciprofloxacin resistant (81%), piperacillin/tazobactam resistant (48%), extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae (40%), cefepime resistant (39%) and there was no resistance noted to amikacin. Discussion: There is a higher frequency of gram-negative bacilli infection, with a high percentage of multiresistant microorganisms and high resistance to empirical antibiotic treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Fungemia/microbiology , Fungemia/epidemiology , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Argentina/epidemiology , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacteria/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Retrospective Studies , Fungemia/drug therapy , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
11.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 34(3): 221-226, jun. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899704

ABSTRACT

Background: Bacteremia events are frequent cause of mortality in burn patients and may originate from infected wounds, by bacterial translocation of endogenous microorganisms, from invasive devices or contaminated intravenous solutions. Objective: To quantify the incidence of bacteremia in pediatric patients with burns and to identify risk factors. Material and Methods: A prospective cohort study was performed in pediatric patients with burns of Hospital Civil de Guadalajara "Dr. Juan I. Menchaca". Bacteremia was diagnosed by blood cultures in patients with clinical manifestations of sepsis. Risk factors were investigated by multivariate analysis with Cox regression. Results: Were included in the cohort 260 patients, median age 3 years. The incidence of bacteremia was 9.6 events per 1,000 days patient. The most frequently isolated bacteria were Enterobacteriaceae (41.9%), Staphylococcus aureus (22.6%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (22.6%). Factors associated with bacteremia were: bums ≥ 20% TBSA (HR 11.06; 95% CI 4.8-25.4), deep second degree bums or higher (HR 6.9; 95% CI 2.0-23.3) and have had two or less debridement (HR 26.4; 95% CI 8.0-87.7). Conclusions: Patients with more extensive and deep burns with fewer debridement are at increased risk of bacteremia.


Introducción: Los eventos de bacteriemia son causa frecuente de mortalidad en pacientes con quemaduras y pueden originarse en heridas infectadas, por translocación bacteriana de microorganismos endógenos, por dispositivos invasores o por soluciones intravenosas contaminadas. Objetivo: Cuantificar la incidencia de bacteriemia en pacientes pediátricos con quemaduras e identificar los factores de riesgo. Material y Métodos: Estudio de cohorte prospectivo, en población pediátrica con quemaduras del Hospital Civil de Guadalajara "Dr. Juan I. Menchaca". En pacientes con manifestaciones clínicas de sepsis se diagnosticó bacteriemia mediante cultivos de sangre. Se indagaron factores de riesgo con análisis multivariado con regresión de Cox. Resultados: Se incluyeron en la cohorte 260 pacientes, mediana de edad 3 años. La incidencia de bacteriemia fue de 9,6 eventos por 1.000 días paciente. Las bacterias más frecuentes aisladas fueron enterobacterias (41,9%), Staphylococcus aureus (22,6%) y Pseudomonas aeruginosa (22,6%). Los factores asociados a bacteriemia fueron: quemaduras ≥ 20% de superficie corporal quemada (HR 11,06; IC 95% 4,8-25,4), quemaduras de segundo grado profundo o mayores (HR 6,9; IC 95% 2,0-23,3) y haber tenido dos o menos desbridamientos (HR 26,4; IC 95% 8,0-87,7). Conclusiones: Pacientes con quemaduras más extensas y profundas, con menor número de desbridamientos presentan mayor riesgo de bacteriemia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Wound Infection/microbiology , Burns/microbiology , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Wound Infection/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index , Burn Units , Burns/epidemiology , Incidence , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Bacteremia/microbiology , Mexico/epidemiology
12.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(2): 211-217, April.-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839365

ABSTRACT

Abstract Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that causes frequently nosocomial infections, currently becoming more difficult to treat due to the various resistance mechanisms and different virulence factors. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk factors independently associated with the development of bacteremia by carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa, the frequency of virulence genes in metallo-β-lactamases producers and to evaluate their ability to produce biofilm. We conducted a case–control study in the Uberlândia Federal University – Hospital Clinic, Brazil. Polymerase Chain Reaction was performed for metallo-β-lactamases and virulence genes. Adhesion and biofilm assays were done by quantitative tests. Among the 157 strains analyzed, 73.9% were multidrug-resistant, 43.9% were resistant to carbapenems, 16.1% were phenotypically positive for metallo-β-lactamases, and of these, 10.7% were positive for blaSPM gene and 5.3% positive for blaVIM. The multivariable analysis showed that mechanical ventilation, enteral/nasogastric tubes, primary bacteremia with unknown focus, and inappropriate therapy were independent risk factors associated with bacteremia. All tested strains were characterized as strongly biofilm producers. A higher mortality was found among patients with bacteremia by carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa strains, associated independently with extrinsic risk factors, however it was not evident the association with the presence of virulence and metallo-β-lactamases genes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genetics , Pseudomonas Infections/epidemiology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Biofilms/growth & development , beta-Lactam Resistance , Virulence Factors/genetics , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/enzymology , Pseudomonas Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Proteins/analysis , beta-Lactamases/analysis , Brazil/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Survival Analysis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Factors , Bacteremia/microbiology
13.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 48(4): 298-302, dic. 2016. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041765

ABSTRACT

La bacteriemia por Enterococcus adquirió un papel relevante en los últimos años, debido al incremento de casos intrahospitalarios. Nuestro objetivo fue describir los episodios ocurridos en pacientes adultos de nuestro hospital. Entre enero del 2000 y diciembre del 2013 se registraron 117 episodios. El 61% eran varones y el 39% mujeres. La edad promedio fue 68 años. El 91% presentaba condiciones predisponentes. El principal foco fue intraabdominal. Enterococcus faecalis fue responsable del 65% de los casos, Enterococcus faecium del 28% y otras especies del 7%. El 34% fueron bacteriemias polimicrobianas. Todas las cepas de E. faecalis fueron sensibles a ampicilina y vancomicina. El 88% de los aislamientos de E. faecium fue resistente a ampicilina y el 54% a vancomicina y teicoplanina. En nuestro hospital, el enterococo es el sexto patógeno causante de bacteriemia intrahospitalaria y predomina E. faecium resistente a ampicilina y vancomicina.


Enterococcal bacteremia has acquired considerable importance in recent years, mainly due to an increased number of cases that occur during hospital admission. We describe the episodes of enterococcal bacteremia in adult patients recorded at our hospital. Between January 2000 and December 2013, 117 episodes were analyzed. Sixty one percent (61%) of the patients were male and 39% female. The mean age was 68. Predisposing factors were present in 91% of patients. The primary source of infection was intraabdominal. Enterococcus faecalis was responsible for 65% of the cases; E. faecium for 28%; and other species for 7%. Thirty four percent (34%) of cases were polymicrobial bacteremia. All E. faecalis isolates were susceptible to ampicillin and vancomycin. Eighty eight percent (88%) of E. faecium were resistant to ampicillin and 54% to vancomycin and teicoplanin. In our hospital, Enterococcus is the sixth pathogen causing nosocomial bacteremia, with high incidence of ampicillin and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Enterococcus faecium/drug effects , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use
14.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 14(1): 22-26, jan.-mar. 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-15

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Determinar os microrganismos mais frequentes, o significado clínico e o perfil de sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos dos agentes isolados nas hemoculturas de um hospital escola. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo retrospectivo realizado por meio de levantamento das hemoculturas positivas de um hospital universitário no período de 2012 a 2014. RESULTADOS: Das 111 hemoculturas obtidas, os microrganismos mais isolados foram Staphylococcus epidermidis (27,4%), outros Staphylococcus coagulase-negativos (32,7%) e Staphylococcus aureus (13,3%). Aproximadamente metade das hemoculturas representou pseudobacteriemia, e Staphylococcus coagulase-negativo foi o contaminante em 89,1% dos casos. A maioria das cepas de S. aureus apresentou suscetibilidade para oxacilina (66,7%), enquanto as de Staphylococcus coagulase-negativo exibiram resistência. Nenhum Gram-positivo apresentou resistência à vancomicina. Escherichia coli, demais enterobactérias (exceto Klebsiella pneumoniae) e bacilos Gram-negativos não fermentadores apresentaram resistência para ampicilina + sulbactam, gentamicina e cefepime, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: Gram-positivos representaram a maior parte das bactérias isoladas, e todos foram sensíveis à vancomicina. O elevado número de contaminantes pôde ser atribuído à antissepsia inadequada na coleta, pois Staphylococcus coagulase-negativo, o contaminante mais frequente, está presente na microbiota da pele.


OBJECTIVE: To determine the most frequent microorganisms, the clinical significance and the susceptibility profile to antimicrobial agents obtained in blood cultures at a teaching hospital. METHODS: This was a retrospective study through the analysis of positive blood cultures at an university hospital in the period 2012 to 2014. RESULTS: Of the 111 blood cultures obtained, the most isolated microorganisms were Staphylococcus epidermidis (27.4%), other coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (32.7%) and Staphylococcus aureus (13.3%). Approximately half of blood cultures represented pseudobacteremia, and coagulasenegative Staphylococcus was the contaminant in 89.1% of cases. Most S. aureus strains showed susceptibility to oxacillin (66.7%), while coagulase-negative Staphylococcus showed resistance. No Gram-positive was resistant to vancomycin. Escherichia coli, other members of the Enterobacteriaceae (except Klebsiella pneumoniae) and Gram-negative bacilli non-fermenters were resistant to ampicillin + sulbactam, gentamicin and cefepime, respectively. CONCLUSION: Gram-positive bacteria accounted for most of the bacteria isolated and all were susceptible to vancomycin. The high number of contaminants can be attributed to inadequate antisepsis in the collection, as coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, the most frequent contaminant, is present in the skin microbiota.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Bacteremia/microbiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus epidermidis , Hospitals, Special
15.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 33(2): 141-149, abr. 2016. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-784864

ABSTRACT

Background: Knowing the local epidemiology and etiology of bloodstream infections allows tailoring the empirical initial antimicrobial therapy to obtain a better outcome for these episodes. Aim: To describe the epidemiological and microbiological aspects as well as the factors associated with mortality in patients with bloodstream infection in Colombian hospitals. Methods: Sub-analysis of a prospective cohort study of 375 consecutive patients with bloodstream infection in 10 hospitals in Colombia, admitted between September first 2007 and Febrnary 29, 2008. Results: The most frequently isolated bacteria were Gram-negative bacilli in 54% of patients, followed by Gram-positive cocci in 38.4%. The source of infection was known in 67%, unknown in 24% and associated with intravascular catheter in 9%. The most frequently isolated bacteria were Escherichia coli (46%), coagulase-negative Staphylococci (16%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (8.9%) and Staphylococcus aureus (7.8%). Staphylococcus aureus was methicillin sensitive in 82% of patients (46/56). Overall 28-day mortality was 25% and their independent associated factors were age, SOFA score and APACHE II score. Conclusions: In our study the most frequently isolated bacteria in bloodstream infections were Gram-negative bacilli, contrasting those reported in developed countries. The overall mortality rate was high and the factors associated with mortality were age and severity scores.


Introducción: Conocer la epidemiología y etiología regional de las infecciones del torrente sanguíneo permite orientar una terapia antimicrobiana inicial empírica mejorando el resultado final del episodio. Objetivo: Describir los aspectos epidemiológicos, microbiológicos y factores asociados a la mortalidad de pacientes con infección del torrente sanguíneo en hospitales colombianos. Métodos: Sub-análisis de cohorte prospectivo de 375 pacientes consecutivos en 10 hospitales de Colombia con diagnóstico de infección del torrente sanguíneo, hospitalizados entre 1 de septiembre de 2007 y 29 de febrero de 2008. Resultados: Los microorganismos más frecuentemente aislados fueron los bacilos gramnegativos en 54% de los pacientes; seguidos por las cocáceas grampositivas en 38,4%. La fuente de infección fue secundaria a un foco conocido en 67%, desconocido en 24% y asociada a catéter intravascular en 9%. Los microorganismos más frecuentemente aislados fueron: Escherichia coli 46%, Staphylococcus coagulasa negativa 16%, Klebsiella pneumoniae 8,9% y Staphylococcus aureus 7,8%. Staphylococcus aureus fue sensible a meticilina en 82% de los pacientes (46/56). La mortalidad global fue de 25%. Los factores asociados con mayor mortalidad fueron: edad, puntaje SOFA y puntaje APACHE II. Conclusiones: En nuestro estudio, los microorganismos más frecuentemente aislados en pacientes que cursaron con bacteriemia fueron los bacilos gramnegativos, a diferencia de lo reportado en países desarrollados. La mortalidad general es alta y los factores asociados con riesgo de muerte fueron: la edad y los mayores puntajes de gravedad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Hospital Mortality , Colombia/epidemiology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Catheter-Related Infections/microbiology , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology
16.
Infectio ; 20(2): 62-69, abr.-jun. 2016. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: lil-777000

ABSTRACT

Fundamento y objetivo: Las infecciones asociadas a la asistencia sanitaria suponen una parte sustancial de los efectos adversos que los pacientes sufren durante la atención médica. Las bacteremias asociadas a catéter vascular central (CVC) suponen una causa importante de estas infecciones. Los objetivos fueron determinar la tasa de incidencia de bacteremia asociada a CVC en unidades de cuidados intensivos y la identificación de los principales factores de riesgo involucrados en el desarrollo de bacteremia asociada a CVC. Sujetos y métodos: El estudio se llevó a cabo en 2 hospitales de Galicia (España) y se realizó un estudio de cohorte o incidencia y posteriormente, anidado en este, un subestudio de casos y controles. Se incluyeron a pacientes atendidos en unidades de cuidados intensivos de 2 hospitales (hospital A y hospital B) durante un período de 2 meses, de los años 2009, 2010 y 2011. Se calcularon las tasas de incidencia y los factores de riesgo asociados al desarrollo de bacteremia asociada a CVC. Resultados: Las tasas de incidencia encontradas fueron 3,21; 2,91 y 5,76 bacteremias por 1.000 días en riesgo para el hospital A para los años 2009, 2010 y 2011 respectivamente. Estas tasas fueron de 2,10; 0 y 4,74 bacteremias por 1.000 días en riesgo para el hospital B para los mismos años. Se identificaron como factores de riesgo, el estado de coma (OR = 3,72; IC95% 1,06-13,02) y el número de catéteres (OR = 1,90; IC95% 1,21-2,97). Conclusiones: Se observan tasas superiores al estándar recomendado en la mayoría de los períodos de estudio. Se debe prestar especial atención a los pacientes en coma y con varios catéteres, al presentar estos un riesgo mayor de desarrollo de bacteremias asociadas a CVC.


Background: Healthcare-associated infections lead to a high proportion of the adverse effects that patients experience during medical care. Among them, central-line associated bloodstreaminfections (CLABSIs) represent a significant proportion (14-52%). Objective: To calculate the incidence rates of CLABSI and to identify the risk factors for infection at intensive care units at 2 hospitals (hospital A and hospital B). Design: This study was conducted at two Galician hospitals (Spain) and was designed as an observational study that included patients attended in intensive care units from 2009 to 2011.We calculated incidence rates and risks related with intrinsic or extrinsic factors. Results: The incidence rates found at hospital A were 3.21, 2.91 and 5.76 bloodstream infections per 1,000 days at risk in 2009, 2010 and 2011, respectively, and at hospital B 2.10, 0 and4.74 bloodstream infections per 1,000 days at risk in those same years. The risk factors identified in the multivariate analysis were coma (OR = 3.72; 95% CI 1.06-13.02) and the number of catheters (OR = 1.90; 95% CI 1.21-2.97). Conclusion: The observed incidence rates are higher than the recommended standards. Intensive care unit staff should focus special attention on to patients with coma and with a high numbers of catheters.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Bacteremia , Catheters , Infections , Intensive Care Units , Spain , Multivariate Analysis , Risk Factors , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Sepsis , Medical Care , Delivery of Health Care , Central Venous Catheters
17.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 42(1): 60-68, Jan.-Feb. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777327

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background Urosepsis is a rare but life-threatening complication following transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided needle prostate biopsy. Despite the technological and pharmacological improvements, the problem of bacterial urosepsis after prostate biopsy remains. A strategy for preventing urosepsis following TRUS prostate biopsy in areas with high prevalence of resistant strains or patients presenting risk factors is lacking. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of urosepsis, as well its predictors, following TRUS guided needle biopsy of the prostate in a tertiary care medical center in Lebanon. Materials and Methods We carried out a retrospective study on all patients who underwent TRUS prostate biopsy at the American University of Beirut Medical Center between January 1, 2011 and June 31, 2013. Patients’ hospital charts were reviewed. Data collected included demographic information, pre-procedure disease specific information, as well as post-procedure information. Predictors of urosepsis following TRUS were assessed. Results In total, 265 patients were included in this study, where the prevalence of urosepsis following TRUS prostate biopsy was found to be 9.4%. The significant independent predictors of urosepsis were found to be: age with an OR=0.93 (95% CI: 0.88–1.00, p-value=0.03), and hypertension comorbidity with an OR=3.25 (95% CI: 1.19–8.85, p-value=0.02). Conclusion We found a high prevalence of urosepsis among patients who have undergone TRUS prostate biopsy, and identified two significant risk factors. The results of this study highlight the importance of implementing strategies for prevention of urosepsis following TRUS prostate biopsy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Prostate/pathology , Urinary Tract Infections/etiology , Urinary Tract Infections/epidemiology , Bacteremia/etiology , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration/adverse effects , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Biopsy, Needle/adverse effects , Biopsy, Needle/methods , Proportional Hazards Models , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration/instrumentation , Lebanon/epidemiology , Middle Aged
18.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 20(1): 56-60, Jan.-Feb. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-776462

ABSTRACT

Abstract Invasive pneumococcal disease is a relevant public health problem in Brazil, especially among children and the elderly. In July/2010 a 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was introduced to the immunization schedule of Brazilian children under two years of age. Between July/2010 and December/2013 we conducted a case-series study on invasive pneumococcal disease in Salvador, Brazil to describe the clinical and bacteriological profile of invasive pneumococcal disease cases during the post-implementation period. Eighty-two cases were eligible. Mean age was 31 years (interquartile range, 3–42); 17.1% and 30.5% were under 2 years and 5 years, respectively. Pneumococcal meningitis (n = 64, 78.1%), bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia (n = 12, 14.6%) and bacteraemia (n = 6, 7.3%) were the clinical syndromes identified. Thirty-three different serotypes were found. Of these, serotype 14 (n = 12, 14.6%) was the most common, followed by 23F (n = 10, 12.2%), 12F (n = 8, 9.8%), 18 C (n = 5, 6.1%) and 6B (n = 5, 6.1%). Investigations conducted in Salvador in the pre-vaccine period did not identify serotype 12F as one of the most prevalent serotypes. Increase of serotype 12F was observed in different regions of Brazil, in the post-vaccine period. Among children under two years of age, the target group for 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, 11 (78.6%) of the 14 isolated strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae belonged to vaccine serotypes; at least 50% of these children were not vaccinated. The relatively recent implementation of 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Brazil reinforces the need to maintain an active surveillance of invasive pneumococcal disease cases, considering the possible increase of invasive pneumococcal disease cases related to non-vaccine serotypes and the changes on the clinical presentation of the disease.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Meningitis, Pneumococcal/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Vaccines/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/epidemiology , Streptococcus pneumoniae/immunology , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacteremia/prevention & control , Brazil/epidemiology , Meningitis, Pneumococcal/microbiology , Meningitis, Pneumococcal/prevention & control , Prevalence , Pneumococcal Vaccines/immunology , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/microbiology , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies
19.
Rev. med. interna Guatem ; 20(supl. 1): 15-23, 2016. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-987034

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: La bacteriemia constituye un problema de salud prioritario debido al obstáculo que impone al proceso curativo de los pacientes, involucrando al personal y a los sistemas de salud. Objetivo: Caracterizar clínica y epidemiológicamente pacientes con bacteriemia. Materiales y Métodos: Se realizó una revisión retrospectiva de pacientes con hemocultivos positivo del año 2013, en el Intensivo médico-quirúrgico, del Hospital Roosevelt, con instrumento estandarizado, que incluyó: datos demográficos, morbilidades, comorbilidades, registro de morbilidad y mortalidad. Se calcularon intervalos de confianza al 95% y odds ratio (OR). Resultados: De 47 expedientes y 87 hemocultivos, 55% fueron femeninos, con predominio de edad de 30-49 años, en su mayoría, amas de casa. El 49%, presentó una o más condiciones médicas asociadas. La mayoría de casos de bacteriemia fueron asociados a cuidados de salud, de origen secundario. El principal foco infeccioso fue respiratorio. Los principales microorganismos aislados fueron A. baumannii, K. pneumoniae y S. haemolyticus. Los procedimientos invasivos más frecuentes fueron uso de catéter venoso central y periférico. La tasa de letalidad al día 14 fue del 30%. Conclusiones: Se observó predominio de bacteriemias secundarias, asociadas a los cuidados de la salud, cuyos principales microorganismos aislados coinciden con literatura internacional. La mayor mortalidad fue observada en el sexo femenino.(AU)


Background: Bacteremia known as a major public health problem, because of the limitation it causes to the healing process among patients, involving both health care workers, and health system.Objectives: Characterize the clinical and epidemiological profile among patients with bacteremia.Materials and methods: A retrospective review was made, including positive blood culture patients, admitted to the medical and surgical Intensive Care Unit during 2013, with a standardized instrument which included: demographical data, morbidities and co-morbidities, including a morbidity and morta-lity. The statistics included 95% confidence intervals and odds ratio (OR).Results: Of 47 clinical files, 87 blood cultures, 55% were females. The mostly affected age group was the one within 30-49 years, mainly housewives. 49% presented one or more than one associated con-dition. Most cases of bacteremia were secondary, nosocomial and health care associated. The main origin was the respiratory tract. Main microorganisms isolated were A. baumannii, K. pneumoniae and S. haemolyticus. The most frequent invasive dispositive was central and peripheral venous catheteri-zation. The mortality rate at day 14 was 30%.Conclusions: A predominance of secondary bacteremia, health care associated was observed, who-se main isolated microorganisms agree with international literature. The highest mortality rate was observed in the female sex (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Cross Infection/diagnosis , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Acinetobacter baumannii/isolation & purification , Staphylococcus haemolyticus/isolation & purification , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Guatemala
20.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 91(6,supl.1): S61-S66, nov.-dez. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769810

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivos: Listar as principais entidades clínicas associadas a quadros de febre sem sinais localizatórios (FSSL) em lactentes, bem como o manejo dos casos de bacteremia oculta com ênfase na avaliação laboratorial e na antibioticoterapia empírica. Fonte dos dados: Foi feita revisão não sistemática da literatura nas bases de dados PubMed, Embase e Scielo de 2006 a 2015. Síntese dos dados: A ocorrência de bacteremia oculta vem diminuindo sensivelmente em lactentes com FSSL, principalmente devido à introdução da vacinação conjugada contra Streptococcus pneumoniae e Neisseria meningitidis nos últimos anos. Juntamente disso, uma redução constante na solicitação de hemogramas e hemoculturas em lactentes febris acima de três meses vem sendo observada. A infecção do trato urinário é a infecção bacteriana mais prevalente no paciente febril. Algoritmos consagrados, como o de Boston e Rochester, podem guiar a decisão clínica inicial para estimar o risco de bacteremia em lactentes entre um e três meses de vida. Conclusões: Não há esquema padronizado para a estimativa do risco de bacteremia oculta em lactentes febris, porém deve-se considerar fortemente o manejo ambulatorial de lactentes acima de três meses com FSSL em bom estado geral e com esquema vacinal completo. São necessários dados atualizados sobre a incidência de bacteremia oculta em crianças vacinadas em nosso meio.


Abstract Objectives: To summarize the main clinical entities associated with fever without source (FWS) in infants, as well as the clinical management of children with occult bacteremia, emphasizing laboratory tests and empirical antibiotics. Sources: A non-systematic review was conducted in the following databases–PubMed, EMBASE, and SciELO, between 2006 and 2015. Summary of the findings: The prevalence of occult bacteremia has been decreasing dramatically in the past few years, due to conjugated vaccination against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis. Additionally, fewer requests for complete blood count and blood cultures have been made for children older than 3 months presenting with FWS. Urinary tract infection is the most prevalent bacterial infection in children with FWS. Some known algorithms, such as Boston and Rochester, can guide the initial risk stratification for occult bacteremia in febrile infants younger than 3 months. Conclusions: There is no single algorithm to estimate the risk of occult bacteremia in febrile infants, but pediatricians should strongly consider outpatient management in fully vaccinated infants older than 3 months with FWS and good general status. Updated data about the incidence of occult bacteremia in this environment after conjugated vaccination are needed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Bacteremia/complications , Fever of Unknown Origin/etiology , Algorithms , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Bacteremia/prevention & control , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Risk Assessment , Urinary Tract Infections/complications , Urinary Tract Infections/diagnosis
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