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1.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190106, 2020. tab
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136811

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The present study aimed to determine the incidence of health care-associated infections (HCAIs) and identify the main resistant microorganisms in intensive care unit (ICU) patients in a Brazilian university hospital. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in a Brazilian teaching hospital between 2012 and 2014. RESULTS: Overall, 81.2% of the infections were acquired in the ICU. The most common resistant pathogenic phenotypes in all-site and bloodstream infections were oxacillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci and carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. (89.9% and 87.4%; 80.6% and 70.0%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: There is an urgent need to focus on HCAIs in ICUs in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Bacteremia/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Time Factors , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Hospital Mortality , Bacteremia/mortality , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/classification , Intensive Care Units , Middle Aged
2.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(1): 60-65, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039221

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Polymyxin B is one of the last resort option for carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) bloodstream infection in China. Therefore, the timing of administration of polymyxin is frequently delayed. We collected 40 cases of CRKP bloodstream infections (BSIs) treated with combinations based on polymyxin B over 30 months. The primary outcome, 30-day mortality rate, was 52.5% (21/40). Early administration of polymyxin B is meant to administer the drug within 48 h of diagnosing bacteremia. Delayed administration was considered when polymyxin B was administered after 48 h of bacteremia onset. Polymyxin B duration and total dosages were similar in the two groups (11.57 days versus 11.76 days, p = 0.919; 1306.52 mg versus 1247.06 mg, p = 0.711). Compared with delayed administration, early use of polymyxin B-based combination therapy had a significant increase in the rate of bacterial clearance (65.22% versus 29.41%, p = 0.025; OR = 0.533) and decreased 30-day mortality (39.13% versus 70.59%, p = 0.045; OR = 0.461) and overall mortality (43.48% versus 82.35%, p = 0.022; OR = 0.321).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Polymyxin B/administration & dosage , Klebsiella Infections/drug therapy , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Klebsiella Infections/mortality , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Bacteremia/mortality , Kaplan-Meier Estimate
3.
Med. infant ; 25(4): 299-302, diciembre 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-970392

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La bacteriemia por Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAE) en niños es infrecuente. Objetivo.Describir las características epidemiológicas, clínicas, microbiológicas y evolutivas en niños con bacteriemia por PAE. Métodos. Estudio de cohorte retrospectivo. Resultados. Se incluyeron 100 pacientes (p). La mediana de edad fue de 27 meses (RIC 6-88).Tenían enfermedad de base: 93 p (93%) y 36 de ellos estaban neutropénicos. Ochenta y cinco p (85%) habían recibido antibióticos en el último mes, 60 (60%) tuvieron procedimientos invasivos previos y 81 (81%) tuvieron internaciones previas. Ingresaron con shock séptico 42 p (42%), 56 p (56%) fueron admitidos en unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI) y 49 (49%) requirieron ventilación mecánica (VM). La bacteriemia fue primaria en 17 p (17%); asociada a catéter en 15 p (15%) y secundaria en 68 p (68%). El foco más frecuente fue mucocutáneo, 21 p, seguido por el pulmonar, 20 p. El tratamiento empírico fue adecuado en 84 p (84%). La resistencia a uno o más grupos de antibióticos se dio en el 38% de los casos, 11% fueron multirresistentes y 15% fueron resistentes sólo a carbapenemes. Fallecieron 31 p (31%). Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistente a carbapenemes en forma exclusiva o combinada con otros antibióticos se relacionó en esta serie a exposición previa a antibióticos, (p≤0,03), tratamiento empírico inicial inadecuado (p≤0,006) y mayor mortalidad (p≤0,01), prolongación de la internación y del tiempo de tratamiento (p≤0,001)


Introduction. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAE) associated bacteremia is uncommon in children. Objective. To describe the epidemiological, clinical, and microbiological features and outcome in children with PAE-associated bacteremia. Methods. A retrospective cohort study. Results. 100 patients (p) were included. Median age was 27 months (IQR 6-88). Overall 93 p (93%) had an underlying disease, 36 of whom had neutropenia. Eighty-five p (85%) had received antibiotics over the previous month, 60 (60%) had undergone previous invasive procedures, and 81 (81%) had been previously admitted. Forty-two p (42%) were admitted because of septic shock, 56 p (56%) were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), and 49 (49%) required mechanical ventilation (MV). Seventeen p (17%) had primary bacteremia, 15 p (15%) had catheter-related bacteremia, and 68 p (68%) had secondary bacteremia. The most common focus was mucocutaneous (21 p), followed by pulmonary (20 p). Emperical treatment was adequate in 84 p (84%). Resistance to one or more groups of antibiotics was observed in 38% of the cases; 11% were multiresistant and 15% were only resistant to carbapenems. Thirty-one p (31%) died. In our series, Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistant to carbapenems only or combined with other antibiotics was associated with previous exposition to antibiotics (p≤0.03), inadequate initial emperical treatment (p≤0.006), and higher mortality (p≤0.01), and longer hospital stay and treatment duration (p≤0.001)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Pseudomonas Infections/diagnosis , Pseudomonas Infections/microbiology , Pseudomonas Infections/epidemiology , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacteremia/mortality , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/drug effects , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
4.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 146(7): 839-845, jul. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-961469

ABSTRACT

Background: Bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia (BPP) is a preventable disease with high morbimortality. Aim: To evaluate clinical aspects and mortality on BPP patients admitted to a Chilean regional hospital. Patients and Methods: We looked for adult patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from blood cultures between 2010 and 2014 years and reviewed clinical records of those who were admitted with pneumonia. Results: We identified 70 BPP patients: 58% were men, mean age was 56 years, 30% were > 65 years, 70% with basic public health insurance, 26% were alcoholics, 86% had comorbidities. Only two patients were vaccinated against S. pneumoniae. CURB-65 severity index for community acquired pneumonia was > 3 in 37% of patients. Twenty-four patients were admitted to ICU, twenty required mechanical ventilation and twenty-four died (34%). Mortality was associated with an age over 65 years, presence of comorbidities and complications of pneumonia. A total of 22 serotypes of S. pneumoniae were identified, five of them (1,3,7F,14 y 9V) were present in 57% of cases. Conclusions: Elevated mortality of our BNN patients was associated with comorbidities and possibly with socio economic factors, which conditioned a late access to medical care.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/mortality , Bacteremia/mortality , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/microbiology , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/drug therapy , Socioeconomic Factors , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Ceftriaxone/therapeutic use , Comorbidity , Chile/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Hospital Mortality , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Community-Acquired Infections/microbiology , Community-Acquired Infections/mortality , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
5.
Pediatr. (Asunción) ; 45(1): 17-23, 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-914108

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Identificar etiologìa de BAC y factores pronósticos de mortalidad. Material y Método: Estudio retrospectivo de BAC en pacientes de 29 días a 16 años hospitalizados en un Centro de Referencia del Paraguay, periodo 2007 a 2015, se analizaron variables demográficas, clínicas y laboratoriales categorizando a los pacientes según el desenlace (Vivos o Muertos). Resultados: 187 casos de BAC , edad media 40 + 35 meses, M/F 1,4:1, edad < 1 año: 30,5% (57/187), 1 a 4 años 49,2% (92/187), 5 a 10 años 15,5% (29/187) y > 10 años 4,8 % (9/187). Diagnósticos de ingreso: Neumonía (78%), Infección de Piel y Partes Blandas (9%), Infección a Múltiples focos (7%), Meningitis (3,7%) Bacteriemia sin foco 2%. Las bacteriemias por Gram Positivos fueron más frecuentes que las bacteriemias por Gram Negativos: 91,4 vs 8,6% (p<0,05), aislamientos: S.pneumoniae, S.aureus, S.coagulasa negativo (2/2) y K. pneumoniae (46 %, 34%, 7,5% y 2%). Ingresaron a UCI 63 pacientes (33,7%), mortalidad 16,5 %. Variables asociadas a mortalidad: Edad <5 años (p<0,05), Desnutrición (p=0,02, RR= 2,4, IC95%: 1,1-5), Infección a múltiples focos(p=0,002, RR=3,2, IC 95%: 1,6-6,4), Choque p<0,001, RR19, IC95%:7,8-46), Glasgow <12 (p<0,001, RR=5,5, IC 95%:3,2-9,6), Sat O2 < 94% (p=0,007, RR 2, IC95%: 1,1-4) , Hb< 7 (p<0,01, RR: 11, IC95%: 6,8 a 19), GB > 15000, plaquetas < 100000 (p<0,001, RR=4,4, IC95%: 2,4- 7,8), Bacteriemia por Gram Positivos (p=0,001, RR=4,9, IC 95%: 1,5-15). Conclusión: En niños con BAC son más frecuentes las bacteriemias por Gram positivos. Se identificaron factores pronósticos de mortalidad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacteremia/mortality , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Bacteremia/diagnosis
6.
Clinics ; 71(10): 562-569, Oct. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-796866

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Septic pulmonary embolism is an uncommon but life-threatening disorder. However, data on patients with septic pulmonary embolism who require critical care have not been well reported. This study elucidated the clinicoradiological spectrum, causative pathogens and outcomes of septic pulmonary embolism in patients requiring critical care. METHODS: The electronic medical records of 20 patients with septic pulmonary embolism who required intensive care unit admission between January 2005 and December 2013 were reviewed. RESULTS: Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome developed in 85% of the patients, and acute respiratory failure was the most common organ failure (75%). The most common computed tomographic findings included a feeding vessel sign (90%), peripheral nodules without cavities (80%) or with cavities (65%), and peripheral wedge-shaped opacities (75%). The most common primary source of infection was liver abscess (40%), followed by pneumonia (25%). The two most frequent causative pathogens were Klebsiella pneumoniae (50%) and Staphylococcus aureus (35%). Compared with survivors, nonsurvivors had significantly higher serum creatinine, arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores, and they were significantly more likely to have acute kidney injury, disseminated intravascular coagulation and lung abscesses. The in-hospital mortality rate was 30%. Pneumonia was the most common cause of death, followed by liver abscess. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with septic pulmonary embolism who require critical care, especially those with pneumonia and liver abscess, are associated with high mortality. Early diagnosis, appropriate antibiotic therapy, surgical intervention and respiratory support are essential.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bacteremia/diagnostic imaging , Bacteremia/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacteremia/mortality , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Hospital Mortality , Intensive Care Units , Liver Abscess/diagnostic imaging , Liver Abscess/microbiology , Liver Abscess/mortality , Liver Abscess/therapy , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Medical Records , Multidetector Computed Tomography/methods , Multiple Organ Failure/microbiology , Multiple Organ Failure/mortality , Pneumonia/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia/microbiology , Pneumonia/mortality , Pneumonia/therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/microbiology , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric
7.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 33(4): 395-402, ago. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-830110

ABSTRACT

Background: Bloodstream infections (BSIs) due to Enterococcus faecium (E. faecium), particularly those due to vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE), are still a therapeutic challenge. Aim: To evaluate mortality from BSI due to E. faecium and VRE in central Taiwan. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed cases of significant E. faecium BSI in the Changhua Christian Hospital System between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2013. Results: Of the 76 cases, 28 patients (36.8%) were admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) at the onset of BSI, 10 (13.2%) cases were associated with polymicrobial bacteremia, and 29 (38.2%) cases were associated with entry via the biliary tract. VRE was observed in 18 (23.7%) cases. The 30-day mortality rate was 13.1% (10/76). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that bacteremia of non-biliary tract origin (OR = 8.43, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 1.32-54.00, p = 0.002) and ICU admission (OR = 4.2, 95% CI = 1.7-10.0, p = 0.002) were significant risk factors for 30-day mortality, whereas appropriate antimicrobial therapy was a protective factor for 30-day mortality (OR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.14-0.79, p = 0.013). Conclusions: Our results underscore the need to assist patients admitted to ICUs with E. faecium BSIs with a non-biliary tract origin. We emphasize the use of appropriate antimicrobial therapy for E. faecium BSI with the aim to rescue more patients with these infections.


Antecedentes: Las infecciones del torrente sanguíneo por Enterococcus faecium, particularmente aquellas causadas por enterococos resistentes a vancomicina (ERV), representan aún un desafío para los tratamientos. Este estudio está orientado a la evaluación de la mortalidad debido a la infección del torrente sanguíneo (ITS) por E. faecium y por enterococos resistentes a vancomicina (ERV) en Taiwán central. Materiales y Métodos: Analizamos de forma retrospectiva casos de ITS causadas por E. faecium genuinas en el Sistema del Hospital Changhua Christian, entre los días 1 de enero de 2010 y 31 de diciembre de 2013. Resultados: De los 76 casos analizados, 28 pacientes fueron ingresados a las Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI) al comienzo de una ITS (36,8%), 10 casos fueron asociados a bacteriemia polimicrobiana (13,2%), y 29 casos tuvieron como puerta de entrada la vía biliar. En 18 casos se pudieron observar ERV (23,7%). La mortalidad a 30 días fue de 13,1% (10/76). El análisis multivariado mediante regresión logística mostró que la bacteriemia de origen no biliar (OR = 8,43, 95% intervalo de confianza (95% CI) = 1,32-54,00; p = 0,002), y el ingreso a la UCI (OR = 4,2; 95% CI = 1,7-10,0; p = 0,002), fueron factores de riesgo significativos para el rango de mortalidad de 30 días, así como un tratamiento de antimicrobiano apropiado constituye un factor protector en contra la mortalidad (OR = 0,33; 95% CI = 0,14-0,79; p = 0,013). Conclusiones: Nuestros resultados destacan la necesidad de asistir a los pacientes ingresados a la UCI con ITS por E. faecium con origen no biliar. Hacemos énfasis a la aplicación de una antibioterapia adecuada para sacar adelante a un mayor número de pacientes con este tipo de infecciones.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacteremia/mortality , Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci/isolation & purification , Taiwan/epidemiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Vancomycin Resistance
8.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 87(1): 48-52, feb. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-779474

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae), también denominado neumococo, es una de las principales bacterias asociadas a mortalidad en menores de 2 años, con una incidencia de morbimortalidad variable de acuerdo a la demografía y exposición a factores protectores o de riesgo. Objetivo: Caracterizar los pacientes fallecidos por enfermedad neumocóccica invasiva (ENI) entre el 2008-2014 en la población infantil de 8 instituciones de salud en Bogotá, Colombia. Pacientes y método: Estudio observacional descriptivo tipo serie de casos, en pacientes fallecidos por ENI, mayores de 28 días hasta los 18 años, en 8 instituciones de tercer nivel de atención en Bogotá, Colombia. Periodo del estudio del 1 de enero de 2008 al 15 de enero de 2014. Tamaño de la muestra: 239 pacientes. Resultados: Se revisaron 239 casos registrados de ENI, presentando una mortalidad del 7,5% (n = 18). La edad promedio de los pacientes que fallecieron fue de 43,7 meses, con un rango de edad entre 2 y 176 meses (14 años); el 66% de los casos era de sexo masculino. Se identificaron serotipos en 8 pacientes, encontrando: 6A, 6B, 10A, 14, 18C, 23B, 23F, 35B. La presentación clínica más frecuente de los casos de mortalidad fue meningitis con el 33% (6 casos), seguida por bacteriemia sin foco en el 28% (5 casos) y neumonía con el 27% (5 casos). Se presentaron situaciones clínicas combinadas como neumonía y meningitis en el 11% (2 casos). Dos de los pacientes tenían factores de riesgo para ENI claramente documentados (asplenia y enfermedad respiratoria crónica). Conclusiones: La mortalidad por ENI es especialmente alta en los menores de 2 años y en pacientes de sexo masculino, especialmente cuando presenta foco meníngeo (44%). La serotipificación no fue posible en todos los pacientes fallecidos, ya que no se envió la cepa aislada al Instituto Nacional de Salud. Se requiere una vigilancia continua y sistemática para evaluar el impacto de la vacunación y las posibles modificaciones en el patrón de presentación de la enfermedad.


Introduction: Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae), also known as pneumococcus, is one of the main bacteria associated with mortality in children under 2 years of age, with a morbidity and mortality incidence that varies according to demographics and exposure to risk, or protective factors. Objective: To describe the child mortality due to invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) between 2008 -2014 (6 years), in 8 Medical Centres in Bogotá, Colombia. Patients and method: Descriptive observational case series of patients who died of IPD, aged 28 days to 18 years, in 8 tertiary care institutions in Bogota, Colombia. The study period was from 1 January 2008 to 15 January 2014. Sample size: 239 patients. Results: A total of 239 registered cases of IPD were reviewed, showing a mortality of 8% (n 18). The mean age of patients that died was 43.7 months, with an age range from 2 to 176 months (14 years), with 66% of the cases being male. Serotypes were identified in 8 patients, finding: 6A, 6B, 10A, 14, 18C, 23B, 23F, and 35B. The most common clinical presentation of the cases was meningitis with mortality of 33% (6 cases), followed by bacteraemia without focus in 28% (5 cases), and pneumonia with 27% (5 cases). Combined clinical situations were presented, such as pneumonia and meningitis in 11% (2 cases). Two of the patients had clearly documented risk factors for IPD (asplenia and chronic respiratory disease). Conclusions: IPD mortality is particularly high in children under 2 years in male patients, especially when presented with a meningeal focus (44%). Serotyping was not possible in all patients who died, since no strain isolated was sent to the National Institute of Health. Continuous and systematic vigilance is required to evaluate the impact of vaccination and possible changes in the pattern of presentation of disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/mortality , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Bacteremia/mortality , Meningitis, Pneumococcal/mortality , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/epidemiology , Serotyping , Sex Factors , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Colombia/epidemiology , Meningitis, Pneumococcal/epidemiology
9.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 13(4): 257-261, out-dez 2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-785262

ABSTRACT

Justificativa e Objetivo: Infecções de corrente sanguínea causadas por Pseudomonas aeruginosa apresentam significantes taxas de morbidade, mortalidade e custos hospitalares. A terapia empírica adequada impacta significativamente na mortalidade, porém, a escolha do antibiótico empírico apropriado contra uma infecção causada por P. aeruginosa é um desafio para os clínicos devido a resistência à diversos antimicrobianos. O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar a adequação da terapia antimicrobiana empírica e correlacioná-la com a mortalidade em 30 dias. Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo coorte retrospectivo com pacientes que apresentaram infecção de corrente sanguínea por P. aeruginosa no período de Janeiro a Dezembro de 2011. Foram analisadas variáveis epidemiológicas e clínicas destes pacientes correlacionando-as com a mortalidade em 30 dias. Resultados: Vinte e nove pacientes foram incluídos no estudo. A média de idade dos pacientes que tiveram óbito foi de 66 anos e dos sobreviventes foi de 72 anos (p=0,37). Foi detectada uma elevada mortalidade hospitalar (21 de 29 pacientes, 72,4%) entre os pacientes com infecção de corrente sanguínea por P. aeruginosa. Meropenem isoladamente foi o antimicrobiano mais utilizado (34,5%). Houve inadequação na terapia empírica em oito pacientes (27,5%). Em relação às variáveis analisadas, nenhuma teve correlação estatisticamente significante com a mortalidade em 30 dias. Conclusão Nosso estudo encontrou uma elevada taxa de mortalidade entre paciente com bacteremia por P. aeruginosa. Nenhuma variável foi preditora de mortalidade em 30 dias. Estudos com uma maior casuística são necessários para um melhor entendimento das variáveis relacionadas à mortalidade entre estes pacientes


Background and Purpose: Bloodstream infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa presents significant morbidity, mortality and hospital costs. Appropriate empirical antimicrobial therapy significantly impacts on mortality however the choice of adequate antibiotic therapy is a challenge for clinicians due to bacterial resistance. This study aimed to analyze the adequacy of empirical antimicrobial therapy among patients with BSI caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and to correlate it with the 30-day mortality. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients with bloodstream infections caused by P. aeruginosa from January 1st, 2011 to December 31, 2011. We analyzed demographic and clinical variables of those patients correlating them with the 30-day mortality. Results: Twenty-nine patients were included in the study. The average age of patients who died and survived was 66 years and 72 years, respectively (p=0.37). A high hospital mortality rate (21 of 29 patients, 72.4%) was detected. Meropenem was the most used antibiotic during the study period (34.5%). There was inadequate empirical antimicrobial therapy in eight patients (27.5%). No statistically significant difference was observed with regard to 30-day mortality among the variables analyzed. Conclusion: Our study found a high mortality rate among patients with BSI caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. No variable was found to be predictor of 30-day mortality in this cohort of patients. Further studies with larger samples are needed for a better understanding of variables related to mortality among these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Pseudomonas Infections , Cross Infection , Bacteremia/mortality , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
12.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 31(3): 274-279, jun. 2014. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-716978

ABSTRACT

We conducted a clinical trial to determine the impact of coating surfaces with copper in reducing hospital-acquired infections, mortality associated with nosocomial infections and antimicrobial costs in the UCI. The study took place at Carlos Van Buren Hospital, Valparaíso, Chile. No differences in the frequency of nosocomial infections were found. Not in rates of ventilator-associated pneumonia (p = 0.9), nor in catheter- associated urinary tract infection (p = 0.9) or in central venous catheter associated bacteremia (p = 0.3). There were no differences in infection-free survival (p = 0.9). There were less costs of antimicrobials in patients in which copper was used. The fact that the sample size was not completed could explain that no significant differences in infections were found. Conclusion: The use of copper as a surface in the ICU showed no statistically significant differences in rates of nosocomial infections during the study period, however, these results could be related to the sample size.


Introducción: Las infecciones nosocomiales incrementan la mortalidad y costos en las instituciones de salud. El revestimiento con cobre, de superficies de alto contacto en la unidad clínica en torno a los pacientes, reduce la colonización bacteriana de las mismas. Objetivo: Determinar el impacto del revestimiento de las superficies con cobre en la disminución de las infecciones intrahospitalarias, la mortalidad asociada a las infecciones intrahospitalarias y los costos en antimicrobianos en pacientes hospitalizados en UCI adultos en el Hospital Carlos Van Buren. Pacientes y Métodos: Estudio prospectivo, comparativo, mayo de 2011-mayo de 2012. Asignación aleatoria de pacientes adultos ingresados en UCI, que permanecieran al menos por 24 h en dicha unidad, a unidades de aislamiento recubiertas (n: 7) o no recubiertas con cobre (n: 7). Resultados: Ingresaron al estudio 440 pacientes, 217 pacientes (49,3%) en el grupo sin cobre y 223 en el grupo con cobre (50,7%). No se encontraron diferencias en la frecuencia de infecciones intrahospitalarias en ambos grupos. Tampoco se encontraron diferencias significativas en las tasas de neumonía asociada a ventilación mecánica (p = 0,9), infección urinaria asociada a catéter urinario (p = 0,9) y bacteremias asociada a catéter venoso central (p = 0,3). Tampoco se encontraron diferencias en la sobrevida libre de infección (p = 0,9). Se encontró un gasto menor de antimicrobianos en pacientes atendidos en unidades revestidas con cobre. Durante el período del estudio no se completó el tamaño de muestra y las diferencias no significativas podrían deberse a este hecho. Conclusión: El uso del cobre como revestimiento de las superficies hospitalarias en UCI, mostró diferencia en la tasa de bacteriemia asociada a dispositivos venosos, aunque no significativa, y no mostró diferencia en neumonías e infecciones urinarias. Las diferencias no significativas pueden deberse a que no se completó el tamaño de la muestra. Se observó un mayor gasto de antimicrobianos en pacientes de unidades no cobrizadas, lo que plantea una nueva área de investigación.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Copper , Cross Infection , Infection Control/methods , Bacteremia/economics , Bacteremia/mortality , Bacteremia/prevention & control , Catheterization, Central Venous/adverse effects , Chile/epidemiology , Cross Infection/economics , Cross Infection/mortality , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Fomites/microbiology , Intensive Care Units , Prospective Studies , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/economics , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/mortality , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/prevention & control , Urinary Catheterization/adverse effects , Urinary Tract Infections/economics , Urinary Tract Infections/mortality , Urinary Tract Infections/prevention & control
13.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 34(supl.1): 58-66, abr. 2014. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-712422

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La bacteriemia es una de las infecciones hospitalarias de mayor mortalidad, especialmente en las unidades de cuidados intensivos, donde es más frecuente. Pseudomonas aeruginosa es uno de los causantes de bacteriemia más agresivos. Objetivo. Evaluar la asociación entre el tratamiento antibiótico inicial y la mortalidad hospitalaria en estos pacientes. Materiales y métodos. Se trata de un estudio de cohorte retrospectivo multicéntrico realizado entre 2005 y 2008. Se consideró tratamiento adecuado aquel iniciado en las primeras 48 horas del diagnóstico que incluyera, al menos, una dosis de antibiótico intravenoso al que P. aeruginosa fuera sensible y hubiera sido suministrado en la dosis y frecuencia recomendadas. El desenlace principal fue la mortalidad hospitalaria en un lapso de 30 días. Se hizo pareo según grado de exposición usando índices de propensión y, posteriormente, análisis paramétrico de supervivencia. Resultados. Se incluyeron 164 pacientes. La mediana de edad y la clasificación del APACHE II ( Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II ) fue de 56 y 13, respectivamente. Se identificó la fuente de la bacteriemia en 68,3 % de los casos, y la más frecuente fue el tracto respiratorio; 44 % de los pacientes recibió tratamiento inadecuado, y la resistencia bacteriana fue la principal variable asociada. La proporción de incidencia de sepsis grave, choque séptico, falla orgánica múltiple y muerte en el lapso de 30 días fue de 67,7, 50, 41,5 y 43,9 %, respectivamente. El tratamiento adecuado se asoció a una prolongación del tiempo hasta el evento (razón de tiempo ajustada, 2,95, IC 95%, 1,63 a 5,33). Conclusión. El tratamiento antibiótico inicial adecuado es un factor protector contra la mortalidad hospitalaria en pacientes con bacteriemia por P. aeruginosa .


Introduction: Among hospital-acquired infections, bacteremia is one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide, especially among intensive care unit patients, where it is more frequent. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most aggressive agents causing bacteremia. Objective: To evaluate the association between initial antimicrobial therapy and hospital mortality in these patients. Materials and methods: A multicenter and retrospective cohort study was conducted between 2005 and 2008. Antimicrobial therapy was considered adequate if it included at least one intravenous antibiotic to which the P. aeruginosa isolate was susceptible in vitro, was administered at the recommended dose and frequency for bacteremia, and initiated within the first 48 hours from diagnosis. The main outcome was 30-day hospital mortality. Patients were paired according to exposure level using propensity score matching, and then a parametric survival model was fitted. Results: One hundred and sixty four patients were included. Median age and the APACHE II score were 56 and 13, respectively. The source of bacteremia was identified in 68.3 % of cases, the respiratory tract being the most frequent. Forty-four percent of patients received inadequate therapy, with bacterial resistance as the main associated variable. The incidence of severe sepsis, septic shock, multiple organ failure and death within the first 30 days was 67.7, 50, 41.5 and 43.9%, respectively. Adequate therapy was associated with a longer time to the event (adjusted time ratio, 2.95, 95% CI, 1.63 to 5.33). Conclusion: Adequate initial antimicrobial therapy is a protective factor against hospital mortality in patients with P. aeruginosa bacteremia.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Critical Illness/mortality , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Pseudomonas Infections/drug therapy , APACHE , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Bacteremia/mortality , Colombia/epidemiology , Follow-Up Studies , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals, Urban/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Multiple Organ Failure/mortality , Pseudomonas Infections/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Shock, Septic/etiology , Shock, Septic/mortality , Treatment Failure , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data
14.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 18(2): 115-123, Mar-Apr/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-709424

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia (BPP) is a severe condition. To evaluate seasonal distribution, mortality, serotype frequencies, antimicrobial susceptibility, and different severity scores among patients with BPP. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were identified by laboratory data and restricted to adulthood. Standard methods were used for serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility. Risk factors were analyzed by univariate and multivariate methods. Severity scores (APACHE II, CURB-65 and CAP PIRO) were compared using ROC curves. RESULTS: Sixty events of community-acquired BPP occurred between 2005 and 2010. A seasonal pattern was detected. Mean age was 72.1 years old (81.4% >60 years). All had a predisposing factor. Previous influenza (3.3%) or pneumococcal immunization (1.7%) was infrequent. Admission to critical units was required by 51.7%. Twenty-two serotypes were identified among 59 strains. Only one strain had intermediate resistance to penicillin (1.7%). In-hospital mortality reached 33.3%. Multivariate analysis identified a CAP PIRO score>3 (OR 29.7; IC95 4.7-187), age >65 years (OR 42.1; IC95 2.2-796), and a platelet count<100,000/μL (OR 10.9; IC95 1.2-96) as significant independent factors associated with death. ROC curve analysis did not reveal statistical differences between the three severity scores to predict death (AUC 0.77-0.90). The prognostic yield for all of them was limited (Positive Likelihood Ratio: 1.5-3.8). CONCLUSIONS: BPP had a high case-fatality rate in this group of adult patients with no association to resistant isolates, and a low immunization record. Three independent factors were related to death and the prognostic yield of different severity scores was low. .


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacteremia/mortality , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/mortality , Streptococcus pneumoniae/drug effects , Bacteremia/microbiology , Chile/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/microbiology , Community-Acquired Infections/mortality , Epidemiologic Methods , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Seasons , Streptococcus pneumoniae/classification
15.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 46(6): 713-718, Nov-Dec/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-698066

ABSTRACT

Introduction Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is among the most important pathogens of nosocomial infections, mainly in intensive care units (ICUs), and accounts for 40-60% of all healthcare-associated S. aureus infections. We evaluated the incidence of nosocomial infection by S. aureus, identified the risk factors for MRSA infection, and evaluated the effect of resistance to methicillin on mortality in patients. Methods We conducted MRSA surveillance at a university hospital in Brazil from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2010, and performed a retrospective case-control matched study to evaluate the frequency of subsequent MRSA bacteremia and death among patients. We evaluated and compared the risk factors between patients with MRSA and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) infection. Results Sepsis was the most common cause of infection (17.7/1,000 patient-days), followed by surgical site (11.4/1,000 patient-days), pneumonia (4.1/1,000 patient-days), and urinary tract infection (2.4/1,000 patient-days). The significant risk factors were time of hospitalization, use of central vascular catheter (CVC), urinary catheter, nasogastric tube, parenteral nutrition, tracheostomy, mechanical ventilation, and previous antibiotic administration, the latter of which was the only independent risk factor for MRSA infection. Mortality was significantly higher in patients with MRSA. The number of antibiotics tested was not related to increases in the frequency of MRSA/1,000 patient-days. The incidence of mortality attributable to MRSA (bloodstream infection) BSI was 50%. Conclusions Surveillance results showed that the use of high levels of antibiotics was directly related to the development of MRSA infection, and the mortality attributable to MRSA in patients with bacteremia was significant. .


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Bacteremia/mortality , Cross Infection/mortality , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcal Infections/mortality , Bacteremia/microbiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Epidemiologic Methods , Intensive Care Units , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology
16.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 17(2): 143-149, Mar.-Apr. 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-673191

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to assess the factors influencing the early mortality (7- day after index blood culture) in haematological malignancy patients with Gram negative bacilli (GNB) bacteraemia. METHODS: Infection control committee records were reviewed to identify the cases between March 2006 and June 2011. Only one bacteraemic episode per patient was included in the study. RESULTS: A total of 154 patients with GNB bacteraemia were identified. The early mortality rate was 19.5% (30 out of 154). Blood cultures revealed Enterobacteriacea in 120 patients (Escherichia coli; 86, Klebsiella spp.; 28, Enterobacter cloacea; 6) and glucose non-fermenting GNB in 34 patients (Pseudomonas aeruginosa; 15, Acinetobacter baumannii; 11, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia; 7, Burkholderia cepacia; 1). Forty (33.3%) out of 120 Enterobacteriaceae were extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers and 18 (52.9%) out of 34 glucose non-fermenting GNB were multidrug resistant. Carbapenems were administered as first line therapy in 139 out of 154 patients. In univariate analysis Pitt's bacteraemia score, presence of aplastic anaemia, bacteraemia caused by glucose non-fermentating GNB, inappropriate empirical antibacterial treatment, presence of severe sepsis or septic shock, unable to achieve microbiological cure, and intensive care unit (ICU) acquired bacteraemia were associated with mortality. Multivariate analysis showed ICU acquired bacteraemia (OR, 12.55; 95% CI, 2.34-67.38, p = 0.003) as an independent factor associated with early mortality. CONCLUSION: Haematological malignancy patients who require ICU care are at high risk for early mortality related to GNB bacteraemia. Based on the local findings pointing out high rate of multidrug resistance, carbapenems combined with colistin seems to be a reasonable approach as empirical treatment of these patients. However, increasing carbapenem resistance rate is of concern.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Bacteremia/mortality , Cross Infection/mortality , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/mortality , Hematologic Neoplasms/mortality , Bacteremia/microbiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Hematologic Neoplasms/microbiology , Intensive Care Units , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Turkey/epidemiology
17.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 30(1): 18-25, ene.-mar. 2013. ilus, graf, mapas, tab
Article in Spanish | LIPECS, LILACS, LIPECS | ID: lil-671685

ABSTRACT

Objetivos. Evaluar los factores asociados a la mortalidad causada por bacteriemias por Escherichia coli y Klebsiella spp. productoras de beta lactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE). Materiales y Métodos. Se realizó un estudio de cohortes retrospectivo, que incluyó 85 pacientes mayores de 16 años con diagnóstico de bacteriemia por Escherichia coli o Klebsiella spp. hospitalizados entre 2006 y 2008 en el Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia. Las cohortes se clasificaron de acuerdo a la producción de BLEE según los resultados de los hemocultivos. Se evaluaron los factores asociados a la mortalidad cruda y atribuible empleando regresión de Poisson en un modelo multivariado, con lo que se obtuvo riesgos relativos ajustados (RRa). Además, se construyeron curvas de mortalidad. Resultados. Se encontró que el 35,3% de las bacteriemias fueron debidas a cepas productoras de BLEE. El análisis de la mortalidad cruda mostró una mayor mortalidad en el grupo de cepas productoras de BLEE (63,3%). El RRa fue de 1,5 (IC95%: 1,02-2,3). En el caso de mortalidad atribuible, la proporción también fue mayor (63,3%), el RRa fue de 1,9 (IC95%: 1,2-2,9). El uso de catéter venoso central fue otro factor asociado tanto a la mortalidad cruda (RRa= 2,4; IC95%: 1,2- 4,8) como a la mortalidad atribuible (RRa= 3,8; IC95%: 1,6-8,8). Conclusiones. La producción de BLEE es un factor de riesgo independiente para mortalidad por bacteriemia causada por E. coli y Klebsiella spp. Su presencia debe evaluarse tras la sospecha diagnóstica y la elaboración de la terapéutica inicial, lo que podría disminuir la mortalidad por esta causa.


Objectives. To evaluate the factors associated to mortality caused by bacteremia due to Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. producers of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL). Materials and methods. We performed a retrospective cohort study, including 85 patients older than 16 and diagnosed with bacteremia by Escherichia coli or Klebsiella spp., hospitalized between 2006 and 2008 in Cayetano Heredia National Hospital. Cohorts were classified according to the ESBL production following blood culture results. Factors associated to gross and attributable mortality were evaluated using the Poisson regression in a multivariate model, through which adjusted relative risks (ARRs) were obtained. Mortality curves were also built. Results. 35.3% of bacteremia cases were caused by ESBL-producing strains. The analysis of gross mortality showed a higher mortality rate in the group with ESBL producing strains (63.3%), ARR being 1.5 (CI 95%: 1.02-2.3). In the case of the attributable mortality, the proportion was also higher (63.3%), ARR being 1.9 (CI 95%: 1.2-2.9). The use of a central venous catheter was another factor associated to both gross mortality (ARR= 2.4; CI 95%: 1.2-4.8) and attributable mortality (ARR= 3.8; CI 95%: 1.6-8.8). Conclusions. The production of ESBL is an independent risk factor for bacteremia mortality caused by E. coli and Klebsiella spp. Its presence should be evaluated following diagnosis consideration and initial therapy elaboration, which could in turn decrease the mortality by this cause.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Bacteremia/mortality , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/mortality , Escherichia coli Infections/mortality , Escherichia coli/enzymology , Klebsiella/enzymology , beta-Lactamases/biosynthesis , Cohort Studies , Peru/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
18.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 30(1): 65-73, feb. 2013. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-665583

ABSTRACT

Background: Some aspects of bacteremic cholangitis are unknown in Chile. Aim: To gather more information on clinical, microbiological aspects as well as risk factors for ICU admission, recurrence and antimicrobial resistance. Material and Methods: A retrospective research was performed using medical records of adult patients in a general hospital. Results: Between 2006-2012, 22 patients with 29 bacteremic events were identified. Previous cholangitis events were reported by 27.3%, 45.5% had recent admissions and, 50% had used antimicrobial compounds. Coledocholithiasis was the most common cause of obstruction (45.5%) followed by cancer (36.4%). One third developed shock (31%), the only factor associated with ICU admission (OR 30, p < 0.05). In 24 of the 29 bacteremic events, the biliary tract was intervened (82.8%) and in 80.8% during the first 72 hours. Gram negative bacilli were predominant (> 80%) and some infrequent agents such as Staphylococcus warneri, Shewanella spp. and, Aeromonas spp. were observed. Among enteric gram negative bacilli, 29.2% presented fluoroquinolone resistance and, 26.1% resistance to third generation cephalosporins, both associated with previous endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (OR 35 and 16.5, respectively p < 0.05). A favorable response was observed in 93.1% of bacte-remic events but in 31.8% of patients cholangitis recurred with or without bacteremia. Recurrence was associated to recent admission (OR 16.5, p = 0.01) and in all cases occurred before 81 days. In-hospital mortality was 9.1% (n = 2), but in only one case associated to sepsis. Average length of stay (LOS) was 17.8 days. Conclusions: Early intervention of the biliary tract allows a favorable response in patients affected by bacteremic cholangitis, but this condition use intensive care resources, had a prolonged LOS, a recurrent pattern, and is associated with several bacterial species, some of them resistant.


Introducción: La información sobre los cuadros de colangitis aguda bacteriémica es fragmentaria en Chile. Objetivo: Analizar las características clínicas, evolución, microbiología y factores de riesgo asociados a ingreso a UCI, recurrencia y resistencia antimicrobiana. Pacientes y Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo descriptivo con adultos atendidos entre el 2006 y el 2012 en un hospital general. Resultados: Se identificaron 22 pacientes con 29 episodios de bacteriemia. Un 27,3% tenía historia previa de colangitis aguda, 45,5% de hospitalizaciones en los últimos tres meses y 50% recibió previamente antimicrobianos. La coledocolitiasis fue la causa más frecuente de obstrucción (45,5%) y las neoplasias ocuparon el segundo lugar (36,4%). El 31% desarrolló shock hemodinámico y fue el factor determinante para ingresar a la UCI (OR 30, p < 0,01) En 24 de los 29 eventos de colangitis bacteriémica se efectuaron intervenciones sobre la vía biliar (VB) o complicaciones asociadas (82,8%), las que se realizaron predominantemente en las primeras 72 h de hospitalización (80,8%). Las especies bacterianas mayoritarias fueron bacilos gramnegativos entéricos o no fermentadores (> 80% del total) y se observaron agentes inusuales como Staphylococcus warneri, Shewanella spp y Aeromonas spp. Entre los bacilos gramnegativos entéricos, 29,2% presentó resistencia a fluoroquinolonas y 26,1 % a cefalosporinas de tercera generación, fenómenos asociados al antecedente de colangiografía endoscópica retrógrada (OR 35 y 16,5 respectivamente, p < 0,05). El 93,1% de los eventos de bacteriemia tuvo una respuesta favorable pero 31,8% de los pacientes presentó recu-rrencia de colangitis, con o sin bacteriemia, un hecho asociado a hospitalización reciente (OR 16,5, p = 0,01) y que se dio en todos los casos antes de 81 días. Dos pacientes con cáncer fallecieron en la misma hospitalización (9,1%), aunque uno solo de ellos en forma atribuible a la infección. La estadía hospitalaria promedio fue de 17,8 días. Conclusiones: Con la intervención precoz sobre la VB, los cuadros de colangitis bacteriémica han logrado una baja letalidad pero usan recursos intensivos, tienen una estadía prolongada, un patrón recurrente, pueden estar asociados a cáncer y a una diversidad de agentes bacterianos, algunos de ellos resistentes.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Bacteremia/microbiology , Cholangitis/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Bacteremia/mortality , Chile , Cholangitis/drug therapy , Cholangitis/mortality , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/mortality , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/mortality , Hospitals, General , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Survival Analysis
19.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 16(6): 503-509, Nov.-Dec. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-658918

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to determine the excess length of stay, extra expenditures, and attributable mortality to healthcare-associated S. aureus bloodstream infection (BSI) at a teaching hospital in central Brazil. The study design was a matched (1:1) case-control. Cases were defined as patients > 13 years old, with a healthcare-associated S. aureus BSI. Controls included patients without an S. aureus BSI, who were matched to cases by gender, age (± 7 years), morbidity, and underlying disease. Data were collected from medical records and from the Brazilian National Hospital Information System (Sistema de Informações Hospitalares do Sistema Único de Saúde - SIH/SUS). A Wilcoxon rank sum test was performed to compare length of stay and costs between cases and controls. Differences in mortality between cases and controls were compared using McNemar's tests. The Mantel-Haenzel stratified analysis was performed to compare invasive device utilization. Data analyses were conducted using Epi Info 6.0 and Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 13.0). 84 case-control pairs matched by gender, age, admission period, morbidity, and underlying disease were analyzed. The mean lengths of hospital stay were 48.3 and 16.2 days for cases and controls, respectively (p < 0.01), yielding an excess hospital stay among cases of 32.1 days. the excess mortality among cases compared to controls that was attributable to s. aureus bloodstream infection was 45.2%. Cases had a higher risk of dying compared to controls (OR 7.3, 95% CI 3.1-21.1). Overall costs of hospitalization (SIH/SUS) reached US$ 123,065 for cases versus US$ 40,247 for controls (p < 0.01). the cost of antimicrobial therapy was 6.7 fold higher for cases compared to controls. healthcare-associated s. aureus BSI was associated with statistically significant increases in length of hospitalization, attributable mortality, and economic burden. Implementation of measures to minimize the risk of healthcare-associated bacterial infections is essential.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Bacteremia , Cross Infection , Hospital Mortality , Staphylococcal Infections , Staphylococcus aureus , Bacteremia/economics , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacteremia/mortality , Brazil/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Cross Infection/economics , Cross Infection/microbiology , Cross Infection/mortality , Hospital Costs , Hospitals, Teaching/economics , Hospitals, Teaching/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay , Staphylococcal Infections/economics , Staphylococcal Infections/mortality
20.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 32(5): 343-350, Nov. 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-659983

ABSTRACT

Objetivo. Evaluar los factores de riesgo asociados con la aparición de bacteriemia por Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina (MRSA), su pronóstico y los factores determinantes de la mortalidad en pacientes gravemente enfermos en Colombia. Métodos. Estudio retrospectivo multicéntrico de cohortes realizado en el período del 2005 al 2008 en 16 instituciones de atención de salud de referencia públicas y privadas de Bogotá, Colombia, que forman parte de una red nacional de vigilancia epidemiológica y de una red hospitalaria de 4 469 camas. Se analizaron la aparición de resistencia a la meticilina y la mortalidad mediante análisis descriptivos y de tiempo transcurrido hasta un suceso; se estableció un modelo multifactorial de regresión de riesgos proporcionales de Cox para evaluar la asociación entre la resistencia a la meticilina y la mortalidad. Resultados. Se estudiaron 372 pacientes: 186 con bacteriemia por MRSA, apareados aleatoriamente con 186 con bacteriemia por Staphylococcus aureus sensible a la meticilina (MSSA). La cirugía previa, el tratamiento con antibióticos y las infecciones intrahospitalarias se asociaron independientemente con la resistencia a la meticilina. El MRSA provocó hospitalizaciones más prolongadas en los sobrevivientes (mediana de 24 frente a 18 días, P = 0,014). Los factores predictivos de mortalidad fueron: la edad del paciente, un nivel de creatinina superior a 1,21 mg/dl al ingresar en la UCI, la septicemia grave y el requerimiento de inotrópicos. El tratamiento antimicrobiano apropiado y el cambio de tratamiento antimicrobiano constituyeron factores protectores independientes, igual que el sexo masculino. Conclusiones. La resistencia a la meticilina per se no fue un factor pronóstico independiente de la mortalidad. Las condiciones previas, como la edad, la insuficiencia renal inicial, la septicemia grave y el requerimiento de inotrópicos explicaron la mortalidad observada. El tratamiento antimicrobiano apropiado seguía siendo un factor protector. Es obligatorio hacer un llamamiento para mejorar las medidas de control de las infecciones en Colombia y en otros contextos similares.


Objective. To evaluate risk factors associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia emergence, its prognosis, and mortality-determining factors in critically ill patients in Colombia. Methods. A multicenter, retrospective cohort study conducted in 2005–2008 at 16 public and private reference health care institutions in Bogotá, Colombia, that form part of a national epidemiological surveillance network and a hospital network with 4 469 beds. Methicillinresistant emergence and mortality were analyzed using descriptive and time-to-event analysis; a multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression model was built to test the association between methicillin resistance and mortality. Results. A total of 372 patients were studied: 186 with MRSA bacteremia, randomly matched with 186 with methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bacteremia. Previous surgery, antibiotic exposure, and hospital-acquired infections were independently associated with methicillin resistance. MRSA caused longer hospital stays among survivors (median 24 versus 18 days, P = 0.014). Mortality predictors were: patient age, creatinine level over 1.21mg/dl at ICU admission, severe sepsis, and inotropic requirement. Appropriate antimicrobial therapy and antimicrobial therapy change were independent protective factors, as was male gender. Conclusions. Methicillin resistance per se was not a mortality-independent prognostic factor. Previous conditions, such as age, baseline renal impairment, severe sepsis, and inotropy demand explained the observed mortality. Appropriate antimicrobial therapy remained a protective factor. A call to improve infection control measures in Colombia is mandatory.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacteremia/mortality , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcal Infections/mortality , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness , Colombia/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
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