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Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(5): 304-309, oct. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1390730


Introducción. Las bacteriemias relacionadas con catéteres venosos centrales (CVC) son frecuentes en pacientes pediátricos posquirúrgicos de cardiopatías congénitas complejas internados en la unidad de cuidados intensivos pediátricos cardiovascular (UCIP-CV) y tienen alta morbimortalidad. Objetivo. Analizar la efectividad de un programa interdisciplinario para prevención de bacteriemias relacionadas con CVC en la UCIP-CV. Material y métodos. Estudio de implementación, cuasiexperimental, antes-después, sin grupo control. Período de estudio del 1 de enero de 2008 al 31 de diciembre de 2018. Población: equipo de salud de la UCIP-CV que atiende pacientes posquirúrgicos de cardiopatías complejas de un hospital. Período preintervención del 1 de enero de 2008 al 31 de diciembre de 2008; período de intervención del 1 de enero de 2009 al 1 de enero de 2018. Intervención: implementación de un programa de mejora continua. Se analizaron tasas de bacteriemias CVC/1000 días y de uso de CVC/100 días, puntaje de RACHS, razón estandarizada de infecciones (REI), riesgo relativo (RR), intervalo de confianza del 95 % (IC95%), estimando una p < 0,05 como estadísticamente significativa. La tasa de referencia se estimó como el promedio del período 2008/2009 y se comparó la tasa anual con la tasa de referencia. Resultados. La tasa de referencia de bacteriemia 2008/2009 fue 10,6/1000 días CVC para analizar la REI. El puntaje de RACHS mayor a 3 fue similar en todos los períodos analizados. Se observó una reducción de la REI estadísticamente significativa (p < 0,05) en la comparación anual. Al comparar la tasa de bacteriemia/1000 días de CVC inicial de 11,9 vs. final de 3,8, se observó una reducción significativa (RR: 0,16; IC95%: 0,07-0,35; p < 0,001). Conclusiones. El programa fue efectivo; se observó reducción progresiva y significativa de la tasa de bacteriemias relacionadas con CVC en la UCIP-CV.

Introduction. Central venous catheter (CVC)related bacteremias are common in pediatric patients following surgery for complex congenital heart disease admitted to a pediatric cardiac intensive care unit (PCICU) and have a high morbidity and mortality. Objective.To analyze the effectiveness of an interdisciplinary program for the prevention of CVC-related bacteremias in the PCICU. Material and methods. Quasi-experimental,before and after implementation study without a control group. Study period: 01-01-2008 to 1231-2018. Population: PCICU staff who care for patients following surgery for complex heart disease at a hospital. Pre-intervention period: 0101-2008 to 12-31-2008; intervention period: 01-012009 to 01-01-2018. Intervention: implementation of an ongoing improvement program. The rate of CVC-related bacteremias/1000 days and CVC use/100 days, RACHS score, standardized infection ratio (SIR), relative risk (RR), and 95% confidence interval (CI) were analyzed and a p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The reference rate was estimated as the average for the 2008-2009 period and the annual and reference rates were compared. Results. The bacteremia reference rate for 20082009 was 10.6/1000 days of CVC to analyze the SIR. A RACHS score over 3 was similar across all studied periods. The annual comparison showed a statistically significant reduction (p < 0.05) in the SIR. The comparison between the baseline bacteremia rate/1000 days of CVC (11.9) and the final rate (3.8) showed a significant reduction (RR: 0.16; 95 % CI: 0.07­0.35; p < 0.001). Conclusions. The program was effective; the rate of CVC-related bacteremias in the PCICU showed a progressive, significant reduction.

Humans , Child , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Catheterization, Central Venous/adverse effects , Bacteremia/etiology , Bacteremia/prevention & control , Central Venous Catheters/adverse effects , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Cause of Death , Bacteremia/epidemiology
Rev. méd. Chile ; 146(7): 899-906, jul. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-961476


This review examines the evidence about the relationship between dental procedures and the incidence of transient bacteremia. One of the main obstacles was to define "invasive dental procedure" as an indication for antimicrobial prophylaxis for patients with high risk of bacteremia. A search in WorldWideScience and ScienceDirect was performed and 20 articles were selected for review. Two contradictions stood out. There is no concrete evidence that a transient bacteremia arising during a dental procedure may be a risk factor for the appearance of bacterial endocarditis. There is no certainty about the effectiveness of antimicrobial prophylaxis, due to the lack of clinical trials of good quality. There is a similitude between bacteremia resulting from invasive and non-invasive dental procedures. The importance of periodontal health as a preventive measure for bacterial endocarditis among high risk patients is highlighted.

Humans , Bacteremia/prevention & control , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Oral Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Endocarditis, Bacterial/prevention & control , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Risk Factors , Dental Care , Bacteremia/etiology , Evidence-Based Medicine , Endocarditis, Bacterial/etiology
J. appl. oral sci ; 25(6): 586-595, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-893663


Abstract Objective: Single dose of systemic antibiotics and short-term use of mouthwashes reduce bacteremia. However, the effects of a single dose of preprocedural rinse are still controversial. This study evaluated, in periodontally diseased patients, the effects of a pre-procedural mouth rinse on induced bacteremia. Material and Methods: Systemically healthy individuals with gingivitis (n=27) or periodontitis (n = 27) were randomly allocated through a sealed envelope system to: 0.12% chlorhexidine pre-procedural rinse (13 gingivitis and 13 periodontitis patients) or no rinse before dental scaling (14 gingivitis and 15 periodontitis patients). Periodontal probing depth, clinical attachment level, plaque, and gingival indices were measured and subgingival samples were collected. Blood samples were collected before dental scaling, 2 and 6 minutes after scaling. Total bacterial load and levels of P. gingivalis were determined in oral and blood samples by real-time polymerase chain reaction, while aerobic and anaerobic counts were determined by culture in blood samples. The primary outcome was the antimicrobial effect of the pre-procedural rinse. Data was compared by Mann-Whitney and Signal tests (p<0.05). Results: In all sampling times, polymerase chain reaction revealed higher blood bacterial levels than culture (p<0.0001), while gingivitis patients presented lower bacterial levels in blood than periodontitis patients (p<0.0001). Individuals who experienced bacteremia showed worse mean clinical attachment level (3.4 mm vs. 1.1 mm) and more subgingival bacteria (p<0.005). The pre-procedural rinse did not reduce induced bacteremia. Conclusions: Bacteremia was influenced by periodontal parameters. In periodontally diseased patients, pre-procedural rinsing showed a discrete effect on bacteremia control.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Periodontitis/drug therapy , Chlorhexidine/administration & dosage , Dental Scaling , Bacteremia/prevention & control , Gingivitis/drug therapy , Mouthwashes/administration & dosage , Periodontitis/microbiology , Severity of Illness Index , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Rev. chil. infectol ; 34(2): 133-140, abr. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-844457


Background: Occult bacteremia (OB) is one of the possible diagnoses of children younger than 3 years with fever without source in the emergency room. Objective: describe OB in the era after introduction of pneumococcal vaccine in Chile. Patients and Methods: Prospective descriptive review of data of children with possible OB diagnosis, referred from the emergency department between 2010-2013. Results: Possible OB was diagnosed on 391 patients. 233 had focus, mainly respiratory virus and urinary tract infection. On 158 patients, probable BO was diagnosed, 20 had proven OB from which 15 had positive blood culture for Streptococcus pneumoniae. From these, 7 were fully or partially vaccinated. The serotype was identified on 14 cases: 6 were PCV10 vaccine serotypes (none of them vaccinated), 2 were serotype related (both partially vaccinated) and 6 were non vaccine serotypes (partially or totally vaccinated). Discussion: It is necessary to improve diagnostic methods for respiratory viruses and urinary tract infections and try to expand coverage of pneumococcal conjugated vaccines in the pediatric population in order to reduce the risk of invasive pneumococcal disease in Chile.

Introducción: La bacteriemia oculta (BO) es uno de los diagnósticos que se plantean en los niños bajo 3 años de edad que se presentan con fiebre sin foco en el servicio de urgencia. Objetivo: Describir el diagnóstico de BO luego de la introducción de la vacunación universal para Streptococcus pneumoniae en Chile. Materiales y Métodos: Revisión descriptiva de seguimiento prospectivo de datos de niños con diagnóstico de BO posible derivados del SU entre 2010 y 2013. Resultados: Se diagnosticó BO posible en 391 pacientes. En 233 pacientes se encontró foco, siendo infecciones respiratorias virales e infección urinaria las más frecuentes. En 158 pacientes se diagnosticó BO probable, en 20 BO probada y 15 tuvieron hemocultivos positivos para S. pneumoniae. De estos últimos 7 estaban total o parcialmente vacunados. Se identificó serotipo en 14 casos: 6 serotipos vaccinales incluidos en PCV10 (ninguno vacunado), 2 serotipos relacionados (ambos parcialmente protegido) y 6 serotipos no vaccinales (parcial o totalmente vacunados). Discusión: Es necesario mejorar las técnicas diagnósticas de infecciones respiratorias virales e infección urinaria e intentar ampliar la cobertura de las vacunas neumocóccicas conjugadas en la población pediátrica, para reducir el riesgo de enfermedades neumocóccicas invasoras en Chile.

Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Pneumococcal Infections/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology , Bacteremia/microbiology , Heptavalent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine/administration & dosage , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Chile , Prospective Studies , Bacteremia/prevention & control
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 76(5): 295-303, Oct. 2016. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-841596


La profilaxis con fluorquinolonas ha demostrado utilidad en la prevención de infecciones en pacientes neutropénicos de alto riesgo. Nuestro objetivo fue describir y comparar las características clínicas, microbiológicas, terapéuticas y la evolución en pacientes durante el primer episodio de neutropenia febril, según hubieran o no recibido profilaxis con levofloxacina. Fue un estudio prospectivo observacional, que incluyó los episodios de internados por neutropenia febril, (febrero 1997 a noviembre 2014), y los primeros episodios en un mismo paciente en diferentes internaciones; en total fueron 946 episodios. En 821 el episodio de neutropenia febril fue de alto riesgo, y en 264 (27.9%) se administró profilaxis con levofloxacina. Este grupo estaba compuesto por mayor proporción de neutropenias febriles de alto riesgo (99.2% vs. 82.3%, p = 0.0001) y casos con trasplante de células progenitoras hematopoyéticas (67.8% vs. 29.3%, p = 0.0001) comparado con los que no recibieron profilaxis, y presentó una frecuencia similar de infecciones clínicamente documentadas pero una menor proporción de infecciones microbiológicamente documentadas (28.8% vs. 37.5%, p = 0.012). Las bacteriemias en el grupo con quimioprofilaxis fueron más frecuentemente causadas por organismos multirresistentes (OMR) (34.5% vs. 17.3%, p = 0.007) y por enterobacterias productoras de beta lactamasas de espectro extendido (19.0% vs. 3.8%, p = 0.0001). En ese grupo con profilaxis la proporción que recibió tratamiento antibiótico empírico adecuado fue menor (69.7% vs. 83.7%, p = 0.009). La evolución fue similar en ambos grupos. Sugerimos que cuando se observe un aumento en la frecuencia de infecciones por OMR en esta población se considere la interrupción de la profilaxis antibiótica con levofloxacina.

Fluorquinolone-prophylaxis has proven useful in preventing infections in high risk neutropenic patients. The objective of this study was to describe the clinical, microbiological and therapeutic characteristics, and outcome of patients in the first episode of febrile neutropenia, comparing those who received levofloxacin prophylaxis with those who didn't. It was a prospective observational study that included all the episodes of inpatients with febrile neutropenia (February 1997- November 2014), also including the first episode in a same patient in different hospitalizations. Of 946 episodes here included, 821 presented high risk febrile neutropenia. A total of 264 cases (27.9%) received levofloxacin prophylaxis. This group consisted of a higher proportion of high risk febrile neutropenia (99.2% vs. 82.3%, p = 0.0001) and patients that had received an hematopoietic stem cell transplant (67.8% vs. 29.3%, p = 0.0001) compared to those who didn't receive prophylaxis. Those who received levofloxacin prophylaxis presented a similar frequency of clinically diagnosed but a lower proportion of microbiologically documented infections (28.8% vs. 37.5%, p = 0.012) than those who didn´t receive prophylaxis. The episodes of bacteremia that occurred in the first group were more frequently caused by multidrug resistant bacteria (MDRB) (34.5% vs. 17.3%, p = 0.007) and by extended spectrum beta lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (19% vs. 3.8%, p = 0.0001). The group that received prophylaxis had a lower proportion of adequate empirical antibiotic treatment (69.7% vs. 83.7%, p = 0.009), with similar outcomes in both groups. We suggest that levofloxacin prophylaxis should be stopped whenever there is a rise in the frequency of MDRB infections in this population.

Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/methods , Febrile Neutropenia/prevention & control , Levofloxacin/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacteremia/prevention & control , Fluoroquinolones/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Febrile Neutropenia/microbiology
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 20(1): 56-60, Jan.-Feb. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-776462


Abstract Invasive pneumococcal disease is a relevant public health problem in Brazil, especially among children and the elderly. In July/2010 a 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was introduced to the immunization schedule of Brazilian children under two years of age. Between July/2010 and December/2013 we conducted a case-series study on invasive pneumococcal disease in Salvador, Brazil to describe the clinical and bacteriological profile of invasive pneumococcal disease cases during the post-implementation period. Eighty-two cases were eligible. Mean age was 31 years (interquartile range, 3–42); 17.1% and 30.5% were under 2 years and 5 years, respectively. Pneumococcal meningitis (n = 64, 78.1%), bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia (n = 12, 14.6%) and bacteraemia (n = 6, 7.3%) were the clinical syndromes identified. Thirty-three different serotypes were found. Of these, serotype 14 (n = 12, 14.6%) was the most common, followed by 23F (n = 10, 12.2%), 12F (n = 8, 9.8%), 18 C (n = 5, 6.1%) and 6B (n = 5, 6.1%). Investigations conducted in Salvador in the pre-vaccine period did not identify serotype 12F as one of the most prevalent serotypes. Increase of serotype 12F was observed in different regions of Brazil, in the post-vaccine period. Among children under two years of age, the target group for 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, 11 (78.6%) of the 14 isolated strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae belonged to vaccine serotypes; at least 50% of these children were not vaccinated. The relatively recent implementation of 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Brazil reinforces the need to maintain an active surveillance of invasive pneumococcal disease cases, considering the possible increase of invasive pneumococcal disease cases related to non-vaccine serotypes and the changes on the clinical presentation of the disease.

Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Meningitis, Pneumococcal/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Vaccines/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/epidemiology , Streptococcus pneumoniae/immunology , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacteremia/prevention & control , Brazil/epidemiology , Meningitis, Pneumococcal/microbiology , Meningitis, Pneumococcal/prevention & control , Prevalence , Pneumococcal Vaccines/immunology , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/microbiology , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 91(6,supl.1): S61-S66, nov.-dez. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769810


Resumo Objetivos: Listar as principais entidades clínicas associadas a quadros de febre sem sinais localizatórios (FSSL) em lactentes, bem como o manejo dos casos de bacteremia oculta com ênfase na avaliação laboratorial e na antibioticoterapia empírica. Fonte dos dados: Foi feita revisão não sistemática da literatura nas bases de dados PubMed, Embase e Scielo de 2006 a 2015. Síntese dos dados: A ocorrência de bacteremia oculta vem diminuindo sensivelmente em lactentes com FSSL, principalmente devido à introdução da vacinação conjugada contra Streptococcus pneumoniae e Neisseria meningitidis nos últimos anos. Juntamente disso, uma redução constante na solicitação de hemogramas e hemoculturas em lactentes febris acima de três meses vem sendo observada. A infecção do trato urinário é a infecção bacteriana mais prevalente no paciente febril. Algoritmos consagrados, como o de Boston e Rochester, podem guiar a decisão clínica inicial para estimar o risco de bacteremia em lactentes entre um e três meses de vida. Conclusões: Não há esquema padronizado para a estimativa do risco de bacteremia oculta em lactentes febris, porém deve-se considerar fortemente o manejo ambulatorial de lactentes acima de três meses com FSSL em bom estado geral e com esquema vacinal completo. São necessários dados atualizados sobre a incidência de bacteremia oculta em crianças vacinadas em nosso meio.

Abstract Objectives: To summarize the main clinical entities associated with fever without source (FWS) in infants, as well as the clinical management of children with occult bacteremia, emphasizing laboratory tests and empirical antibiotics. Sources: A non-systematic review was conducted in the following databases–PubMed, EMBASE, and SciELO, between 2006 and 2015. Summary of the findings: The prevalence of occult bacteremia has been decreasing dramatically in the past few years, due to conjugated vaccination against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis. Additionally, fewer requests for complete blood count and blood cultures have been made for children older than 3 months presenting with FWS. Urinary tract infection is the most prevalent bacterial infection in children with FWS. Some known algorithms, such as Boston and Rochester, can guide the initial risk stratification for occult bacteremia in febrile infants younger than 3 months. Conclusions: There is no single algorithm to estimate the risk of occult bacteremia in febrile infants, but pediatricians should strongly consider outpatient management in fully vaccinated infants older than 3 months with FWS and good general status. Updated data about the incidence of occult bacteremia in this environment after conjugated vaccination are needed.

Humans , Infant , Bacteremia/complications , Fever of Unknown Origin/etiology , Algorithms , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Bacteremia/prevention & control , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Risk Assessment , Urinary Tract Infections/complications , Urinary Tract Infections/diagnosis
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 86(2): 106-112, jun. 2015. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-754246


Introducción: la bacteriemia asociada al uso de catéter venoso central (BCVC) es una causa frecuente de infección intrahospitalaria en las unidades de cuidados intensivos pediátricos. Objetivo: evaluar el impacto sobre la incidencia de BCVC de la implementación de un paquete de medidas destinadas a su prevención en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos de Niños del Centro Hospitalario Pereira Rossell. Metodología: se realizó un estudio descriptivo intervencionista desde el 1 de mayo de 2013 al 31 de octubre del mismo año. Se aplicó un paquete de medidas en la colocación de catéteres venosos centrales (CVC). Las mismas consistieron en higiene de manos, uso de barreras asépticas máximas, asepsia de la piel con clorhexidina, evitar el uso del acceso femoral, retiro temprano de los CVC y cuidados posteriores del CVC. Se determinó la densidad de incidencia de BCVC. Resultados: se incluyeron 45 niños con CVC colocados en UCIN, con un total de 51 CVC y 419 días de cateterización. Se identificó un caso de BCVC. La densidad de incidencia de BCVC fue 2,38 casos/1.000 días de CVC. El cumplimiento del paquete de medidas para la prevención de la BCVC fue elevado. Conclusiones: la incidencia de BCVC ha descendido a partir del año 2010. El protocolo de trabajo propuesto fue implementado como pauta de UCIN.

Introduction: intravascular-device bacteremia is a frequent cause of intrahospitalary infections in the Pediatrics Critical Care Units. Objective: to establish the impact of a bunddle of strategies on the incidence of catheter-related bacteremia in the Pediatrics Critical Care Unit of Centro Hospitalario Pereira Rossell. Method: an observational descriptive study was conducted from May 1, 2013 to October 31, 2013. Patients hospitalized in the Pediatrics Critical Care Unit with a central catheter were included. Six interventions were applied as a bundle at the moment of insertion of catheter. Data were collected from the patients’ clinical history and from the checklist filled at the moment of insertion of catheter. Density of the incidence of of bacteremia related to central catheter was calculated. Results: 45 children were included in the study, adding up to 51 central venous access and 419 days of catheterization. One case of catheter-related bacteremia was identified, there being 2.38 cases/ 1000 days of catheterization. The isolation was coagulase negative Staphylococcus. The bundle of interventions was highly accepted. Conclusions: the incidence of catheter-related bacteremia has diminished since 2010. The bundle of interventions has been established as a guide in the Pediatrics Critical Care Unit of Centro Hospitalario Pereira Rossell.

Humans , Bacteremia/prevention & control , Central Venous Catheters/adverse effects , Uruguay , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Clinical Protocols , Cross Infection/transmission
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 18(4): 400-405, Jul-Aug/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-719301


BACKGROUND: Healthcare Associated Infections constitute an important problem in Neonatal Units and invasive devices are frequently involved. However, studies on risk factors of newborns who undergo surgical procedures are scarce. OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection in neonates undergoing surgical procedures. METHODS: This case-control study was conducted from January 2008 to May 2011, in a referral center. Cases were of 21 newborns who underwent surgery and presented the first episode of laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection. Control was 42 newborns who underwent surgical procedures without notification of laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection in the study period. Information was obtained from the database of the Hospital Infection Control Committee Notification of infections and related clinical data of patients that routinely collected by trained professionals and follow the recommendations of Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária and analyzed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences. RESULTS: During the study period, 1141 patients were admitted to Neonatal Unit and 582 Healthcare Associated Infections were reported (incidence-density of 25.75 Healthcare Associated Infections/patient-days). In the comparative analysis, a higher proportion of laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection was observed in preterm infants undergoing surgery (p = 0.03) and use of non-invasive ventilation was a protective factor (p = 0.048). Statistically significant difference was also observed for mechanical ventilation duration (p = 0.004), duration of non-invasive ventilation (p = 0.04), and parenteral nutrition duration (p = 0.003). In multivariate analysis duration of parenteral nutrition remained significantly associated with laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection (p = 0.041). CONCLUSIONS: Shortening time on parenteral nutrition whenever possible and preference ...

Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Bacteremia/etiology , Cross Infection/etiology , Surgical Procedures, Operative/adverse effects , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Bacteremia/prevention & control , Case-Control Studies , Cross Infection/diagnosis , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Risk Factors
Med. infant ; 21(2): 66-70, Junio 2014. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-910972


Introducción: Las infecciones son las complicaciones más importantes asociadas al uso de los Catéteres Venosos Centrales (CVC), representan un riesgo 20 veces mayor de bacteriemias que los catéteres venosos periféricos. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de la implementación de un paquete de medidas o "bundle" en las infecciones asociadas a catéteres venosos centrales (BACT- CVC) en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos del Hospital Garrahan (UCI). Métodos: El Programa de Intervención para disminuir las bacteriemias asociadas a catéteres venosos centrales requirió de la aplicación de cuatro paquetes de medidas y un subprograma para aumentar la adherencia a la higiene de manos. Se aplicó en todas las UCI, pero en el presente estudio se presenta como modelo de referencia el que se llevó a cabo en una de ellas. Período del estudio: se compararon 2 períodos: basal (1º Agosto de 2008 - 31 de Diciembre de 2009) y intervención (1º de Enero 2010 al 31 de Diciembre de 2011). La tasa de BACT - CVC se calculó en concordancia con los protocolos utilizados por el sistema NHSN - CDC de los Estados Unidos y el sistema nacional VIHDA. La base de datos utilizada para el estudio fue el software provisto por el programa VIHDA. Se compararon las tasas de BACT - CVC en el período previo y posterior a las intervenciones realizadas. Para el análisis estadístico se utilizó el programa EPIINFO. Se consideró estadísticamente significativo un valor de p < 0.05. Resultados: en el primer período (Agosto 2008 - Diciembre 2009) se produjeron un total de 44 BACT - CVC, con una tasa promedio de 9.64 BACT-CVC por 1000 días-catéter versus 17 BACT - CVC, tasa promedio de 4.41 BACT-CVC por 1000 días-catéter en el período en que se desarrolla el programa de intervención. Esta disminución resulta estadísticamente significativa (Chi cuadrado; valor P= 0,0048; RR 0,46; IC 95%: 0,26 - 0,80). Conclusiones: La aplicación de los combos y el subprograma para mejorar la adherencia a la higiene de manos según orientación de la OMS y aplicando Estrategias Multimodales, resultaron en una mejora significativa en la tasa de BACT- CVC (AU)

Introduction: Infections are the main complication associated with the use of central venous catheters (CVC), accounting for an infection risk about 20 times that of peripheral venous catheters. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the implementation of sets of measures or "bundle" for the prevention of CVC-associated bacteremia (CVC-BACT) in the ICU. Methods: The intervention program for the reduction of CVC-BACT consisted of four sets of measures and a sub-program to increase adherence to hand hygiene. Bundle use was started in all PICUs, however, in this study implementation of the program in one of them was used as a reference model. Study period: Two periods were compared: Baseline (August 1, 2008 ­ December 31, 2009) and intervention (January 1, 2010 ­ December 31, 2011). The CVC-BACT rate was calculated according to the NHSN-CDC protocols of the United States and the Argentine VIHDA system. For the data base of the study software provided by the VIHDA program was used. CVC-BACT rates before and after the intervention period were calculated. For statistical analysis the EPIINFO program was used. A p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: In the first period (August 2008 - December 2009) 44 CVC-BACT occurred, with a mean CVC-BACT rate of 9.64 per 1000 catheter days versus 17 CVC-BACT, mean CVC-BACT rate of 4.41 per 1000 catheter days, in the intervention period. This decrease was statistically significant (Chi square 7.94; p = 0.0048; RR 0.46; 95% CI: 0.26 ­ 0.80). Conclusions: Bundle use and the subprogram for better adherence to hand hygiene, according to WHO guidelines and applying multimodal strategies, resulted in a significantly lower CVC-BACT rate (AU)

Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Infection Control/methods , Bacteremia/prevention & control , Catheter-Related Infections/prevention & control , Early Medical Intervention/methods , Central Venous Catheters/adverse effects , Hand Hygiene , Patient Care Bundles
Rev. chil. infectol ; 31(3): 274-279, jun. 2014. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-716978


We conducted a clinical trial to determine the impact of coating surfaces with copper in reducing hospital-acquired infections, mortality associated with nosocomial infections and antimicrobial costs in the UCI. The study took place at Carlos Van Buren Hospital, Valparaíso, Chile. No differences in the frequency of nosocomial infections were found. Not in rates of ventilator-associated pneumonia (p = 0.9), nor in catheter- associated urinary tract infection (p = 0.9) or in central venous catheter associated bacteremia (p = 0.3). There were no differences in infection-free survival (p = 0.9). There were less costs of antimicrobials in patients in which copper was used. The fact that the sample size was not completed could explain that no significant differences in infections were found. Conclusion: The use of copper as a surface in the ICU showed no statistically significant differences in rates of nosocomial infections during the study period, however, these results could be related to the sample size.

Introducción: Las infecciones nosocomiales incrementan la mortalidad y costos en las instituciones de salud. El revestimiento con cobre, de superficies de alto contacto en la unidad clínica en torno a los pacientes, reduce la colonización bacteriana de las mismas. Objetivo: Determinar el impacto del revestimiento de las superficies con cobre en la disminución de las infecciones intrahospitalarias, la mortalidad asociada a las infecciones intrahospitalarias y los costos en antimicrobianos en pacientes hospitalizados en UCI adultos en el Hospital Carlos Van Buren. Pacientes y Métodos: Estudio prospectivo, comparativo, mayo de 2011-mayo de 2012. Asignación aleatoria de pacientes adultos ingresados en UCI, que permanecieran al menos por 24 h en dicha unidad, a unidades de aislamiento recubiertas (n: 7) o no recubiertas con cobre (n: 7). Resultados: Ingresaron al estudio 440 pacientes, 217 pacientes (49,3%) en el grupo sin cobre y 223 en el grupo con cobre (50,7%). No se encontraron diferencias en la frecuencia de infecciones intrahospitalarias en ambos grupos. Tampoco se encontraron diferencias significativas en las tasas de neumonía asociada a ventilación mecánica (p = 0,9), infección urinaria asociada a catéter urinario (p = 0,9) y bacteremias asociada a catéter venoso central (p = 0,3). Tampoco se encontraron diferencias en la sobrevida libre de infección (p = 0,9). Se encontró un gasto menor de antimicrobianos en pacientes atendidos en unidades revestidas con cobre. Durante el período del estudio no se completó el tamaño de muestra y las diferencias no significativas podrían deberse a este hecho. Conclusión: El uso del cobre como revestimiento de las superficies hospitalarias en UCI, mostró diferencia en la tasa de bacteriemia asociada a dispositivos venosos, aunque no significativa, y no mostró diferencia en neumonías e infecciones urinarias. Las diferencias no significativas pueden deberse a que no se completó el tamaño de la muestra. Se observó un mayor gasto de antimicrobianos en pacientes de unidades no cobrizadas, lo que plantea una nueva área de investigación.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Copper , Cross Infection , Infection Control/methods , Bacteremia/economics , Bacteremia/mortality , Bacteremia/prevention & control , Catheterization, Central Venous/adverse effects , Chile/epidemiology , Cross Infection/economics , Cross Infection/mortality , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Fomites/microbiology , Intensive Care Units , Prospective Studies , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/economics , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/mortality , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/prevention & control , Urinary Catheterization/adverse effects , Urinary Tract Infections/economics , Urinary Tract Infections/mortality , Urinary Tract Infections/prevention & control
Med. infant ; 20(3): 229-233, Sept.2013. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-964272


Objetivo: evaluar eficacia del apósito impregnado con clorhexidina para reducir la colonización y la infección asociada a catéter (IAC). Pacientes y métodos: ensayo clínico, aleatorizado, controlado. Cohorte de 77 catéteres en pacientes posquirúrgicos cardiovasculares menores de 1 año y/o 10 kg. Grupo experimental: apósito con Clorhexidina, con curación transparente. Grupo control: apósito transparente. Se compararon características de los pacientes y de los catéteres. Resultados: Los pacientes y la permanencia del catéter fueron similares en ambos grupos. La tasa cruda de IAC fue 5,2% en el grupo control y en el experimental 0% (p= 0,14). Tasa de colonización 15% en el control y 7% en el experimental (p=0,26). El recambio de curaciones fue mayor en el grupo control (1,3 recambios) vs. grupo experimental 0,7 (p= 0,009). Conclusiones: El grupo experimental mostró menor índice de colonización, aunque sin significación estadística Los cambios de curación fueron menores en este grupo (AU)

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of chlorhexidine-impregnated dressings to reduce colonization and catheter-related infection (CRI). Patients and methods: A randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted. A cohort of 77 catheters in post-cardiovascular surgical patients younger than 1 year and/or weighing less than 10 kg was assessed. Experimental group: Chlorhexidine-impregnated transparent dressings. Control group: Transparent dressings. Patient and catheter features were compared. Results: Patients and mean catheter insertion duration were similar in both groups. CRI rate was 5.2% in the control group and 0% in the experimental group (p= 0.14). Colonization rate was 15% in the control and 7% in the experimental group (p=0.26). Dressing change was more frequent in the control group: 1.3 changes vs. 0.7 in the experimental group (p= 0.009). Conclusions: Colonization rate was lower in the experimental group, although no statistical significance was found. Dressing changes were less frequent in this group (AU)

Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Bandages , Catheterization, Central Venous/adverse effects , Chlorhexidine/administration & dosage , Chlorhexidine/therapeutic use , Catheter-Related Infections/prevention & control , Efficacy , Bacteremia/prevention & control , Heart Defects, Congenital/surgery , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/administration & dosage
Urology Annals. 2013; 5 (2): 61-74
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-140316


The use of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent urinary tract infection and bacteremia [sepsis] following endoscopic urologic procedures is a controversial topic. Evidence in the literature revealed that urological instrumentation is associated with increased incidence of urinary tract infection and bacteremia. The aim of this review is to evaluate the effectiveness of antibiotic prophylaxis in reducing the risk of urinary tract infection in patients who had transurethral urological surgeries. We have selected all RCTs of adult population who underwent all different types of transurethral urological surgery, including cystoscopy, transurethral resection of prostate and transurethral resection of bladder tumor, and received prophylactic antibiotics or placebo/no treatment. At first, more than 3000 references were identified and reviewed; of which 42 studies with a total of 7496 patients were included in the final analysis. All those trials were analyzing antibiotic prophylaxis versus placebo/ no treatment, and they were significantly favoring antibiotic use in reducing all outcomes, including bacteriuria [RR 0.36, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.46, P 0.0001] with moderate heterogeneity detected [I[2] 48%], symptomatic UTI [RR 0.38, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.51, P 0.0001] with no significant heterogeneity was detected [I[2] 17%], bacteremia [RR 0.43, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.82, P 0.0001] with no noted heterogeneity [I[2] 0%], and fever 38.5 Celsius [RR 0.41, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.73, P 0.003]; also, there was no noted heterogeneity [I[2] 0%]. However, using antibiotic prophylaxis did not reduce the incidence of low grade temperature [RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.11, P 0.20] or in moderate grade temperature [RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.48, P 0.89]. Antibiotic prophylaxis appears to be an effective intervention in preventing urinary tract infections and its sequels following transurethral urological surgeries in patients with preoperative sterile urine

Humans , Urinary Tract Infections/prevention & control , Bacteremia/prevention & control , Urologic Surgical Procedures , Cystoscopy , Transurethral Resection of Prostate
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2012 Apr-June; 30(2): 212-214
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-143948


Microbiological contamination of blood and blood products is a well-recognised transfusion risk. This study was performed in the blood bank of our oncology centre, with an objective to detect bacterial contamination in our blood products using oxygen consumption as a surrogate marker [Pall Enhanced Bacterial Detection System (eBDS)]. Results revealed that the percentages of failed units were 1.16% for random donor platelets (RDP), 0.81% for single donor platelets (SDP) and 2.94% for packed red blood cells (PRBCs), of which one RDP and one SDP grew coagulase-negative staphylococcus, while one PRBC culture grew Gram-positive bacilli.

Bacteremia/prevention & control , Bacteriological Techniques/methods , Biomarkers , Blood/microbiology , Blood Transfusion/adverse effects , Drug Contamination , Humans , Neoplasms/therapy , Oxygen/metabolism
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 44(6): 731-734, Nov.-Dec. 2011. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-611755


INTRODUCTION: Catheter-associated bloodstream infection (CA-BSI) is the most common nosocomial infection in neonatal intensive care units. There is evidence that care bundles to reduce CA-BSI are effective in the adult literature. The aim of this study was to reduce CA-BSI in a Brazilian neonatal intensive care unit by means of a care bundle including few strategies or procedures of prevention and control of these infections. METHODS: An intervention designed to reduce CA-BSI with five evidence-based procedures was conducted. RESULTS: A total of sixty-seven (26.7 percent) CA-BSIs were observed. There were 46 (32 percent) episodes of culture-proven sepsis in group preintervention (24.1 per 1,000 catheter days [CVC days]). Neonates in the group after implementation of the intervention had 21 (19.6 percent) episodes of CA-BSI (14.9 per 1,000 CVC days). The incidence of CA-BSI decreased significantly after the intervention from the group preintervention and postintervention (32 percent to 19.6 percent, 24.1 per 1,000 CVC days to 14.9 per 1,000 CVC days, p=0.04). In the multiple logistic regression analysis, the use of more than 3 antibiotics and length of stay >8 days were independent risk factors for BSI. CONCLUSIONS: A stepwise introduction of evidence-based intervention and intensive and continuous education of all healthcare workers are effective in reducing CA-BSI.

INTRODUÇÃO: As infecções de corrente sanguínea associadas ao cateter (ICS-AC) são as infecções hospitalares mais frequentes em unidades de terapia intensiva neonatais. O objetivo do nosso estudo foi reduzir as ICS-AC através de um pacote de medidas de cuidados incluindo algumas estratégias de controle e prevenção destas infecções. MÉTODOS: Foi realizada uma intervenção desenhada para reduzir as infecções de corrente sanguínea associadas ao cateter com cinco procedimentos de base. RESULTADOS: Um total de 67 (26,7 por cento) ICS-AC foi observado. Houve 46 (32 por cento) episódios de sepse com critério microbiológico (24,1 por 1.000 catater dias(CVC-dias). Os neonatos do grupo, após a implementação da intervenção, tiveram 21 (19,6 por cento) episódios de ICS-AC (14,9 por 1.000 CVC-dias). A incidência de ICS-AC reduziu significantemente entre os grupos pré-intervenção e pós-intervenção após a implementação das medidas (32 por cento para 19.6 por cento, 24.1 por 1.000 CVC-dias para 14.9 por 1.000 CVC-dias, p=0.04). Na análise de regressão logística múltipla, o uso de > três antibióticos e tempo de hospitalização > 8 dias foram fatores de risco independentes para ICS. CONCLUSÕES: A introdução de uma intervenção baseada em evidências e a educação intensiva e continuada de todos os profissionais de saúde são efetivas para a redução de ICS-AC.

Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Bacteremia/prevention & control , Catheter-Related Infections/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Brazil , Bacteremia/microbiology , Catheter-Related Infections/microbiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Hospitals, University , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Inservice Training/methods , Population Surveillance , Program Evaluation , Risk Factors
Horiz. enferm ; 22(2): 17-20, 2011. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177908


El reemplazo según indicación clínica no aumenta las infecciones asociadas al catéter venoso periférico comparado con el reemplazo de rutina, en pacientes con tratamiento endovenoso. Se recomienda su uso considerando las preferencias del usuario, ya que reduce significativamente los costos asociados a la instalación. En algunos servicios de pediatría los catéteres venosos periféricos se reemplazan según indicación clínica y no cada 72 horas como en el resto de los servicios. La justificación es que los accesos venosos son escasos y difíciles de canalizar, por lo que se evita la multipunción; sin embargo, esta medida podría aumentar la incidencia de infecciones asociadas al catéter.

The replacement according to clinical indication does not increase the infections associated to the peripheral venous catheter, compared with the replacement of routine in patients with intravenous therapy. Its use is recommended considering the user's preferences, since it significantly reduces the associated costs to the installation. In some pediatric services the peripheral venous catheters are replaced according to clinical indication and not every 72 hours as in the rest of the services. The justification is that the venous accesses are few and difficult to canalize, reason why the multi-puncture is avoidedB nevertheless, this measurement could increase the incidence of infections associated to the catheter.

Humans , Child , Adult , Catheterization, Peripheral/adverse effects , Bacteremia/prevention & control , Catheters , Phlebitis/blood , Catheterization/methods
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 81(5): 425-431, oct. 2010. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-577527


Introduction: The use of a permanent Central Venous Catheter (CL) in oncologic patients allows a secure and rapid access. Infection is an important risk. "Lock therapy" (LT) consists of the application of a high concentration of antibiotics in the lumen of the catheter, for the purpose of eradicating bacteria. Objective: To describe the use of LT associated with the systemic use of antibiotics in CL infections occurring among pediatric oncological patients. Methods: A descriptive, retrospective review of charts of children seen at the Oncology Unit, Roberto del Rio Children's Hospital, 2005 to 2007. Evaluated parameters included culture and sensitivity studies, removal of CL and mortality. Results: There were 11 episodes of infection associated to CL in 8 patients, most frequently associated to Staphylococcus coagulase-negative. The CL was preserved in 7 patients. There was no mortality associated to infection. Conclusion: For this group, LT and systemic antibiotics preserved the CL in most patients. Randomized prospective studies are needed in a larger population to support these findings.

Introducción: El uso de catéter venoso central permanente (CVC) en pacientes oncológicos aporta un acceso venoso seguro y expedito. Sin embargo, la infección es una de las principales complicaciones asociadas a su uso. La "lock terapia" es una técnica que consiste en la aplicación en el lumen del catéter de una solución con alta concentración de antibiótico, con el objetivo de erradicar las bacterias presentes en el endolumen. Objetivo: Describir el uso de "lock terapia" asociada a antibióticos sistémicos en infecciones relacionadas a CVC en pacientes pediátricos oncológicos. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, donde se analizaron las infecciones asociadas a CVC que fueron tratadas con lock terapia y antibióticos sistémicos en la Unidad de Oncología del Hospital de Niños Roberto del Río entre los años 2005 y 2007. Los parámetros estudiados fueron: cultivo y antibiograma; retiro del CVC y mortalidad. Resultados: Se estudiaron 11 episodios de infección asociada a CVC en 8 pacientes. El microorganismo aislado con mayor frecuencia fue Staphylococcus coagulasa negativo. Se logró conservar el CVC en 7 pacientes. No hubo mortalidad asociada a infección. Conclusiones: En el grupo estudiado, el uso asociado de lock terapia y antibióticos sistémicos permitió conservar el CVC en la mayoría de los casos. Se requieren estudios prospectivos randomizados con un mayor número de pacientes que permitan corroborar estos hallazgos.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Catheterization, Central Venous/adverse effects , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , Disinfection/methods , Neoplasms , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacteria , Bacteremia/prevention & control , Catheters, Indwelling/adverse effects , Catheters, Indwelling/microbiology , Catheterization, Central Venous/methods , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Oncology Service, Hospital , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors