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1.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 39: 98-106, may. 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1052269

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) gradually increased along with the rapid development of modern cities. A large amount of landfill leachate are generated with excessive chemical oxygen demand (COD), which create a great deal of pressure on the environment-friendly treatment process. Anaerobic digestion is an ideal technique to solve the above problem. RESULTS: A thermophilic granular sludge was successfully adapted for anaerobic digestion of MSW leachate (from an aging large-scale landfill) for methane production. The COD degradation efficiency improved by 81.8%, while the methane production rate reached 117.3 mL CH4/(g VS d), which was 2.34-fold more than the control condition. The bacterial and archaeal communities involved in the process were revealed by 16S rRNA gene high-throughput pyrosequencing. The richness of the bacterial community decreased in the process of thermophilic granular sludge, while the archaeal community structure presented a reverse phenomenon. The bacterial genus, Methanosaeta was the most abundant during the mesophilic process, while Methanobacterium, Methanoculleus, Methanosaeta and Methanosarcina were more evenly distributed. The more balanced community distribution between hydrogenotrophic and acetotrophic methanogens implied a closer interaction between the microbes, which further contributed to higher methane productivity. The detailed relationship between the key functional communities and anaerobic digestion performances were demonstrated via the multivariate canonical correspondence analysis. Conclusions: With the assistance of adaptive thermophilic granular sludge, microbial community structure was more evenly distributed, while both of COD degradation rate and methane production was improved during anaerobic digestion of MSW landfill leachate.


Subject(s)
Bacteria, Anaerobic/metabolism , Solid Waste , Anaerobic Digestion , Sludge Treatment , Methane/metabolism , Sewage/microbiology , Bacteria, Anaerobic/isolation & purification , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Urban Area , Biofuels , Biological Oxygen Demand Analysis , Hot Temperature , Anaerobiosis
2.
Braz. dent. j ; 29(3): 290-295, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951552

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to compare the remaining microbial load after treatments based on complete and selective caries removal and sealing. Patients with active carious lesions in a permanent molar were randomly allocated into 2 groups: a test group (selective caries removal-SCR; n=18) and a control group (complete caries removal - CCR; n=18). Dentin samples were collected following the excavation and three months after sealing. Streptococcus species, Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus species, and total viable microorganisms were cultured to count the viable cells and frequency of species isolation. CCR resulted in significant lower total viable microorganisms counts (p≤0.001), Streptococcus species (p≤0.001) and Lactobacillus species (p≤0.001) initially. However, after sealing, a decrease in total viable microorganisms, Streptococcus species, and Lactobacillus species in the SCR resulted in no difference between the groups after 3 months. In conclusion, selective caries removal is as effective as complete caries removal in reducing dentin bacterial load 3 months after sealing.


Resumo O objetivo deste ensaio clínico randomizado foi comparar os microrganismos remanescentes após tratamentos baseados em remoção total de tecido cariado e selamento e a remoção seletiva de tecido cariado e selamento. Pacientes com lesões de cárie ativas em molares permanentes foram divididos aleatoriamente em dois grupos: grupo teste (remoção seletiva de tecido cariado-SCR; n=18), e grupo de controle (remoção total de tecido cariado-CCR; n=18). Amostras de dentina foram obtidas após a remoção da tecido cariado e após 3 meses de selamento das cavidades. Streptococcus spp., Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus spp. e microrganismos viáveis totais foram cultivados para contagem de células e frequência de isolamento de espécies. CCR resultou em menores contagens totais de microorganismos viáveis (p≤0,001), Streptococcus spp. (p≤0,001) e Lactobacillus spp. (p≤0,001) inicialmente. Entretanto, após o selamento, uma redução significativa nas contagens totais de microrganismos viáveis, Streptococcus spp. e Lactobacillus spp. resultou em nenhuma diferença entre os grupos após 3 meses. Conclui-se que a remoção seletiva de cárie é tão seletiva quanto a remoção completa de cárie na redução da infecção dentinária após três meses com selamento da lesão.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Pit and Fissure Sealants , Bacteria, Anaerobic/isolation & purification , Dental Caries/therapy , Bacterial Load , Lactobacillus/isolation & purification , Molar/microbiology , Streptococcus/isolation & purification , Case-Control Studies , Double-Blind Method , Molar/diagnostic imaging
3.
Clinics ; 72(3): 154-160, Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840058

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Changes in the neonatal gut environment allow for the colonization of the mucin layer and lumen by anaerobic bacteria. The aim of the present study was to evaluate Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Lactococcus colonization through the first year of life in a group of 12 Brazilian infants and to correlate these data with the levels of Escherichia coli. The presence of anaerobic members of the adult intestinal microbiota, including Eubacterium limosum and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, was also evaluated. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected during the first year of life, and 16S rRNA from anaerobic and facultative bacteria was detected by real-time PCR. RESULTS: Bifidobacterium was present at the highest levels at all of the studied time points, followed by E. coli and Lactobacillus. E. limosum was rarely detected, and F. prausnitzii was detected only in the samples from the latest time points. CONCLUSION: These results are consistent with reports throughout the world on the community structure of the intestinal microbiota in infants fed a milk diet. Our findings also provide evidence for the influence of the environment on intestinal colonization due to the high abundance of E. coli. The presence of important anaerobic genera was observed in Brazilian infants living at a low socioeconomic level, a result that has already been well established for infants living in developed countries.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Bacteria, Anaerobic/isolation & purification , Feces/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Intestines/microbiology , Reference Values , Time Factors , Bacteria, Anaerobic/genetics , Bifidobacterium/isolation & purification , Bifidobacterium/genetics , Brazil , DNA, Bacterial , Age Factors , Bacterial Load , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Lactobacillus/isolation & purification , Lactobacillus/genetics
4.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 31: e108, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952132

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Endodontic infections are considered to be caused by the presence of various microorganisms within the root canal system. Recognition of this microbiota contributes to the successful treatment of infected root canals. This study investigated the microorganisms associated with primary and secondary endodontic infections via culture methods, biochemical tests, and molecular approaches in an Iranian population. Microbial specimens were collected from 36 patients with primary endodontic infection and 14 patients with a history of root canal therapy. Advanced microbiological culture techniques were used to isolate microbiota; subsequently, biochemical tests and 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing were performed to identify the microorganisms. Within the total 218 cultivable isolates, Veillonella parvula (20.6%) was found to occur with the highest frequency in primary endodontic infection, followed by Porphyromonas gingivalis (14.1%), and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (9.2%). Enterococcus faecalis (36.6%) was the most predominant microorganism in secondary endodontic infections, followed by Candida albicans, Propionibacterium acnes, and V. parvula with frequencies of 20%, 2%, and 2%, respectively. It was concluded that V. parvula and E. faecalis was most frequently found in primary and secondary endodontic infections, respectively.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Bacteria, Anaerobic/isolation & purification , Dental Pulp Cavity/microbiology , Dental Pulp Diseases/microbiology , Bacteria, Anaerobic/genetics , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Colony Count, Microbial , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Dental Pulp Diseases/epidemiology , Iran/epidemiology , Middle Aged
6.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 10(1): 149-159, abr. 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-782635

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de este estudio es describir la composición de la microbiota anaerobia estricta/aerotolerante en infecciones endodónticas primarias, su susceptibilidad antimicrobiana, y la asociación con los parámetros clínicos. Se tomaron muestras de siete pacientes con necrosis pulpar sintomática o asintomática. Se utilizaron técnicas para la conservación, cultivo, incubación e identificación de anaerobios estrictos/aerotolerantes. Para determinar la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana a amoxicilina y metronidazol, se utilizó el método de dilución en agar. Se aislaron un total de 32 cepas, 20 (62,5 %) fueron anaerobios estrictos/aerotolerantes, y 8 (25 %) anaerobios facultativos. El microorganismo anaerobio estricto/aerotolerante más frecuente fue Fusobacterium nucleatum, se aisló en tres casos, todos relacionados con algún tipo de dolor, y en dos casos estuvo relacionado con Prevotella spp. Se encontró una colonia de F. nucleatum resistente a amoxicilina y con producción de ß-lactamasa, y otra de F. nucleatum resistente a metronidazol. Una colonia de P. propionicum/avidus presentó resistencia intermedia a amoxicilina y con producción de ß-lactamasa. Se encontró la presencia de bacterias anaerobias estrictas/aerotolerantes en los pacientes con infecciones endodónticas primarias. Existen algunos microrganismos relacionados con algún tipo de dolor, como F. nucleatum y P. micra. Los hallazgos muestran presencia de F. nucleatum resistentes a los antimicrobianos evaluados.


The objective of this study is to describe the composition of the strict / aerotolerant anaerobic microbiota in primary endodontic infections, antimicrobial susceptibility, and the association with clinical variables. Samples were taken from seven patients with symptomatic or asymptomatic pulp necrosis. conservation techniques, cultivation, incubation and identification of strict / aerotolerant anaerobes. We used the agar dilution method to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility to amoxicillin and metronidazole. A total of 32 strains, 20 (62.5 %) were isolated were strict / aerotolerant anaerobes, and 8 (25 %) facultative anaerobe organisms. The strict anaerobe / more Fusobacterium nucleatum was frequently aerotolerant, it was isolated in three cases, all related to some type of pain, and in two cases it was related to Prevotella spp. a colony of F. nucleatum resistant to amoxicillin and ß-lactamase production was found, and another F. nucleatum resistant to metronidazole. A colony of P. propionicum / avidus presented intermediate amoxicillin and ß-lactamase producing resistance. Conclusions: the presence of strict anaerobic bacteria / aerotolerant in patients with primary endodontic infections was found. There is some related pain, as F. nucleatum and P. micra microorganisms. The findings show the presence of F. nucleatum resistant to the antimicrobial organisms evaluated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Periapical Periodontitis/microbiology , Bacteria, Anaerobic/drug effects , Amoxicillin/pharmacology , Metronidazole/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria, Anaerobic/isolation & purification , Colony Count, Microbial , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Fusobacterium nucleatum , Dental Pulp Necrosis/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial
7.
J. appl. oral sci ; 24(2): 142-147, Mar.-Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-779908

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose The aim of this study was to identify β-lactamase-producing oral anaerobic bacteria and screen them for the presence of cfxA and BlaTEM genes that are responsible for β-lactamase production and resistance to β-lactam antibiotics. Material and Methods Periodontal pocket debris samples were collected from 48 patients with chronic periodontitis and anaerobically cultured on blood agar plates with and without β-lactam antibiotics. Presumptive β-lactamase-producing isolates were evaluated for definite β-lactamase production using the nitrocefin slide method and identified using the API Rapid 32A system. Antimicrobial susceptibility was performed using disc diffusion and microbroth dilution tests as described by CLSI Methods. Isolates were screened for the presence of the β-lactamase-TEM (BlaTEM) and β-lactamase-cfxA genes using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Amplified PCR products were sequenced and the cfxA gene was characterized using Genbank databases. Results Seventy five percent of patients carried two species of β-lactamase-producing anaerobic bacteria that comprised 9.4% of the total number of cultivable bacteria. Fifty one percent of β-lactamase-producing strains mainly Prevotella, Porphyromonas, and Bacteroides carried the cfxA gene, whereas none of them carried blaTEM. Further characterization of the cfxA gene showed that 76.7% of these strains carried the cfxA2 gene, 14% carried cfxA3, and 9.3% carried cfxA6. The cfxA6 gene was present in three Prevotella spp. and in one Porphyromonas spp. Strains containing cfxA genes (56%) were resistant to the β-lactam antibiotics. Conclusion This study indicates that there is a high prevalence of the cfxA gene in β-lactamase-producing anaerobic oral bacteria, which may lead to drug resistance and treatment failure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Periodontal Pocket/microbiology , Bacteria, Anaerobic/isolation & purification , Bacteria, Anaerobic/metabolism , beta-Lactamases/biosynthesis , Reference Values , beta-Lactamases/isolation & purification , beta-Lactamases/genetics , DNA, Bacterial , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction , beta-Lactam Resistance , Chronic Periodontitis/microbiology , Mouth/microbiology
8.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Nov; 52(11): 1098-1105
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153796

ABSTRACT

At high altitude (HA) hypobaric hypoxic environment manifested several pathophysiological consequences of which gastrointestinal (GI) disorder are very common phenomena. To explore the most possible clue behind this disorder intestinal flora, the major player of the GI functions, were subjected following simulated hypobaric hypoxic treatment in model animal. For this, male albino rats were exposed to 55 kPa (~ 4872.9 m) air pressure consecutively for 30 days for 8 h/day and its small intestinal microflora, their secreted digestive enzymes and stress induced marker protein were investigated of the luminal epithelia. It was observed that population density of total aerobes significantly decreased, but the quantity of total anaerobes and Escherichia coli increased significantly after 30 days of hypoxic stress. The population density of strict anaerobes like Bifidobacterium sp., Bacteroides sp. and Lactobacillus sp. and obligate anaerobes like Clostridium perfringens and Peptostreptococcus sp. were expanded along with their positive growth direction index (GDI). In relation to the huge multiplication of anaerobes the amount of gas formation as well as content of IgA and IgG increased in duration dependent manner. The activity of some luminal enzymes from microbial origin like α-amylase, gluco-amylase, proteinase, alkaline phosphatase and β-glucuronidase were also elevated in hypoxic condition. Besides, hypoxia induced in formation of malondialdehyde along with significant attenuation of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase activity and lowered GSH/GSSG pool in the intestinal epithelia. Histological study revealed disruption of intestinal epithelial barrier with higher infiltration of lymphocytes in lamina propia and atrophic structure. It can be concluded that hypoxia at HA modified GI microbial imprint and subsequently causes epithelial barrier dysfunction which may relate to the small intestinal dysfunction at HA.


Subject(s)
Acclimatization/physiology , Altitude , Animals , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/metabolism , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Atmosphere Exposure Chambers , Atmospheric Pressure , Bacteria, Aerobic/enzymology , Bacteria, Aerobic/isolation & purification , Bacteria, Anaerobic/enzymology , Bacteria, Anaerobic/isolation & purification , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Catalase/analysis , Digestion/physiology , Enzymes/metabolism , Feces/physiology , Glutathione/analysis , Ileum/enzymology , Ileum/metabolism , Ileum/ultrastructure , Lipid Peroxidation , Male , Microbiota/physiology , Random Allocation , Rats , Stress, Physiological/physiology , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis
9.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 46(2): 98-102, jun. 2014.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1015466

ABSTRACT

El análisis de espectrometría de masas mediante la metodología hoy conocida como MALDI-TOF MS (Matrix-assited laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry) se ha convertido en un recurso de referencia para la identificación de microorganismos en microbiología clínica. No obstante, los datos relativos a algunos grupos de microorganismos son todavía controvertidos. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la utilidad del MALDI-TOF MS para la identificación de aislamientos clínicos de bacterias anaerobias. Se analizaron 106 aislamientos de bacterias anaerobias mediante MALDI-TOF MS y por pruebas bioquímicas convencionales. En aquellos casos en los que la identificación por metodología convencional no era aplicable o frente a una discordancia de resultados entre las metodologías citadas, se realizó la secuenciación del gen 16S del ARNr. El método convencional y el MALDI-TOF MS coincidieron a nivel de género y especie en un 95,3 % de los casos considerando la totalidad de los aislamientos estudiados. Al considerar solo el conjunto de los bacilos gram negativos, la coincidencia fue del 91,4 %; entre los bacilos gram positivos, fue del 100 %; los 8 aislados de cocos gram positivos estudiados coincidieron y también hubo coincidencia en el único coco gram negativo incluido. Los datos obtenidos en este estudio demuestran que el MALDI-TOF MS ofrece la posibilidad de llegar a una adecuada identificación de bacterias anaerobias


The analysis by MALDI-TOF MS (Matrix-assited laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry) has become a reference method for the identification of microorganisms in Clinical Microbiology. However, data on some groups of microorganisms are still controversial. The aim of this study is to determine the utility of MALDI-TOF MS for the identification of clinical isolates of anaerobic bacteria. One-hundred and six anaerobic bacteria isolates were analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS and by conventional biochemical tests. In those cases where identification by conventional methodology was not applicable or in the face of discordance between sequencing methodologies, 16 S rRNA gene sequence analysis was performed. The conventional method and MALDI-TOF MS agreed at genus and species level by 95.3 %. Concordance in gram-negative bacilli was 91.4% and 100% among gram-positive bacilli; there was also concordance both in the 8 isolates studied in gram-positive cocci and in the single gram-negative cocci included. The data obtained in this study demonstrate that MALDI-TOF MS offers the possibility of adequate identification of anaerobic bacteria


Subject(s)
Bacteria, Anaerobic/isolation & purification , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization/methods , Bacteria, Anaerobic/classification , Bacterial Typing Techniques/methods , Gram-Negative Anaerobic Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Negative Anaerobic Bacteria/classification
10.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 30(2): 140-146, abr. 2013. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-673995

ABSTRACT

Background: MALDI-TOF MS (Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization -Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry) technology, recently introduced in the microbiology laboratory has proven to be a precise and rapid method for bacterial identification. Objective: To evaluate the performance, costs associated and turnaround time of MALDI-TOF in a routine laboratory. Material and Method: Five hundred and sixty one clinical isolates (281 aerobes and 280 anaerobes) previously identified by conventional methods were evaluated. Discordances were resolved by means of 16S rRNA sequencing. Results: MALDI-TOF identified 95, 7% of the aerobes isolates and 86, 4% of the anaerobes. The groups with better performance were the enterobacteriacea and Bacteroides spp with 95% and 100% identification at the species level. The error rate of MALDI-TOF and conventional methods compared to sequencing was 0, 39% and 9, 4% respectively. The costs associated were 8 times lower with a turnaround time of 6 hours. Conclusion: MALDI-TOF proved to be simple, precise and less expensive technology compared to the traditional methods.


Introducción: La tecnología MALDI-TOF MS (Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry) incorporada recientemente en el laboratorio de microbiología ha demostrando ser un método rápido y preciso para la identificación bacteriana. Objetivo: Evaluar el desempeño de MALDI-TOF para la identificación de aislados clínicos, comparar los costos asociados y el tiempo en la entrega de resultados en un laboratorio de rutina. Material y Método: Se evaluaron un total de 561 aislados de pacientes (281 aeróbicos y 280 anaeróbicos estrictos) identificados previamente por métodos convencionales, los que fueron identificados por MALDI-TOF. Las discordancias fueron resueltas mediante secuenciación del 16S ARNr. Resultados: MALDI-TOF identificó adecuadamente a 95,7% de los aislados aeróbi-cos y 86,4% de los anaeróbicos estrictos, observándose el mayor porcentajes de identificación a nivel de especie en los grupos de enterobacterias y Bacteroides spp (95 y 100% respectivamente). La tasa de error de MALDI-TOF y métodos convencionales vs secuenciación fue de 0,39 y 9,4%, respectivamente. El costo asociado por identificación fue ocho veces menor que el de los métodos tradicionales con una demora promedio de seis horas en la entrega de resultados. Conclusión: MALDI-TOF mostró ser una tecnología simple, precisa y de menor costo que los métodos tradicionales.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacteria, Aerobic/classification , Bacteria, Anaerobic/classification , Bacterial Typing Techniques/methods , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization , Bacteria, Aerobic/genetics , Bacteria, Aerobic/isolation & purification , Bacteria, Anaerobic/genetics , Bacteria, Anaerobic/isolation & purification , Costs and Cost Analysis , DNA, Bacterial/analysis , DNA, Ribosomal/analysis , Reproducibility of Results , /analysis , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Time Factors
11.
Braz. oral res ; 27(2): 149-155, Mar-Apr/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-667999

ABSTRACT

Different microbial identification methods have shown that the microbial community profiles in endodontic infections are diverse and assorted. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of selected endodontic pathogens in the pulp chambers (PCs) and root canals (RCs) of infected primary teeth using PCR methods. Paired PC and RC samples were collected from 15 subjects and analyzed by PCR for the presence of Filifactor alocis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Parvimonas micra, Porphyromonas endodontalis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella nigrescens, Prevotella tannerae, Tanerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, and Treponema socranskii. The frequency of each species was determined in the PC and RC of each case. The species most frequently detected in PCs were P. nigrescens (86.7%), P. gingivalis (73.3%), and F. alocis (73.3%). Of the PC samples, 13.3% contained P. micra and T. denticola, and 6.7% contained T. forsythia. The species most frequently detected in RCs were P. gingivalis (100%) and P. nigrescens (93.3%). P. tannerae, P. micra, and T. denticola were found in 40% of the RC samples; T. forsythia was found in 26.7% of the RC samples. The “red complex”, which comprises P. gingivalis, T. denticola, and T. forsythia, was not found in the PC of any tooth but was found in 30% of the RC samples. The detection of P. nigrescens in the PC was statistically associated with the presence of P. nigrescens in the RC (p = 0.04). The results suggest high heterogeneity among the samples, even among those from the same subject.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Bacteria, Anaerobic/isolation & purification , Dental Pulp Cavity/microbiology , Dental Pulp Necrosis/microbiology , Tooth, Deciduous/microbiology , Bacteria, Anaerobic/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/analysis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Time Factors
12.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 43(4): 1385-1392, Oct.-Dec. 2012. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-665823

ABSTRACT

In the present study the effects on shelf life and sensory acceptance of gamma-irradiated refrigerated poultry breast fillets subjected to modified atmosphere packaging (80% CO2/20% N2 or vacuum) were investigated. After irradiation with 2 kGy, sensory acceptance tests and monitoring of bacterial growth were performed in order to determine the sanitary quality of the samples. It has been found that irradiation, used in combination with modified atmosphere packaging, can double the shelf life of refrigerated poultry breast fillets by reducing the populations of aerobic mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria, enterobacteria, coliforms, Listeria spp. and Aeromonas spp., without significantly modifying its color or its overall appearance, the lactic acid bacteria being the most resistant to exposure to radiation and carbon dioxide.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacteria, Aerobic/isolation & purification , Bacteria, Aerobic/pathogenicity , Bacteria, Anaerobic/isolation & purification , Bacteria, Anaerobic/pathogenicity , Food Preservation/methods , Bacterial Growth/methods , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , Food Irradiation , Poultry Products , Food Microbiology , Total Quality Management , Methods , Poultry
14.
Scientific Journal of Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization Research Center [The]. 2012; 8 (4): 265-271
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-118297

ABSTRACT

For reducing bacterial contamination of platelets in the medium, PDA has approved the Bact/Alert for screening the platelet units. This study attempts to compare the Bact/Alert system and the manual culture method as far as the length of time in hours of detection is concerned. In this interventional and diagnostic study, 15 platelet units were selected randomly among 1332 units and inoculated with 10 CFU/ml of various bacteria including Streptococci, Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter cloacae, Corynebacterium diphteroid, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis which normally contaminate platelet units. These units together with other platelet units in a blind way were tested by both Bact/Alert system and the manual method. Regarding the short expiration time of platelet units, if the length of time in hours in detection is considered as a basis for comparison, the Bact/Alert system is significantly superior to the manual method. The medium length of time in hours for detecting the aerobic bacteria by Bact/Alert system is 31 +/- 8 hours, compared with the manual method which is 61 +/- 11 hours. This shows that Bact/Alert system is nearly 2 times faster than the manual method. Bact/Alert culture system compared with the manual method is more rapid and accurate for detection of bacterial contamination thereby improving platelet safety. Regarding serious effects of these contaminations on platelet recipients, it is also necessary to try to reduce them by using GMP


Subject(s)
Bacteria, Anaerobic/isolation & purification , Bacteria, Aerobic/isolation & purification , Blood Platelets/microbiology
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-152844

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Optimal blood culture performance is critical for successful diagnosis and treatment of sepsis. To understand the status of blood culture, we investigated several aspects of the procedure at 9 university hospitals. METHODS: The process of ordering blood culture sets and sampling volume for adults and children was investigated from January 2010 to April 2010, while the positive rate of detection and growth of skin contaminants were compared in 2009. Microbial growth in aerobic and anaerobic bottles was investigated prospectively. RESULTS: A majority of the hospitals used 2 sets of bottles for adults and 1 bottle for children. The average blood volume in each set was 7.7 mL for adults and 2.1 mL for children. The positive rate of microorganisms was 8.0%, and the isolation rate of the normal flora of the skin was 2.1%. Bacterial growth rates in aerobic and anaerobic bottles only were 31.8% and 24.5% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Ordering blood culture sets and sampling volumes did not comply with CLSI guidelines. However, the rate of positive cultures and skin contamination rates were acceptable. Anaerobic bottles are useful in enhancing the yield of microorganisms.


Subject(s)
Adult , Bacteremia/blood , Bacteria, Aerobic/isolation & purification , Bacteria, Anaerobic/isolation & purification , Blood/microbiology , Child , Hospitals, University , Humans , Prospective Studies , Republic of Korea , Skin/microbiology
16.
J. appl. oral sci ; 18(6): 551-559, Nov.-Dec. 2010. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-573723

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the resistance to antimicrobials of aerobes and facultative anaerobes isolated from patients wearing complete dentures, patients with gingivitis and periodontitis, and periodontally health subjects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three hundred and four isolates were tested. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of the drugs were evaluated through the agar dilution method using Mueller-Hinton agar. RESULTS: The most active antimicrobial drugs were the carbapenems (meropenem and imipenem), and resistance to these drugs was restrict to 1.6-2.3 percent of the isolates, as well as ciprofloxacin and rifampin. Microbial resistance to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefoxitin, cephalothin, amikacin, chloramphenicol and nalidixic acid was particularly high. In most cases, the resistance to β-lactams was mediated by the production of hydrolytic enzymes, especially in gram-negative enteric rods, while enterococci did not evidence production of these enzymes. The association amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was not effective in 28.3 percent of the tested isolates. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this investigation confirmed that the oral cavity of patients with periodontitis and gingivitis, and particularly edentulous patients wearing complete dentures could harbor microorganisms with several antimicrobial resistance markers, and these microorganisms are frequently implicated in multiresistant, systemic, oral or nosocomial infections.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria, Aerobic/isolation & purification , Bacteria, Anaerobic/isolation & purification , Denture, Complete/microbiology , Mouth/microbiology , beta-Lactam Resistance , Bacteria, Aerobic/drug effects , Bacteria, Anaerobic/drug effects , Case-Control Studies , Chi-Square Distribution , Gingivitis/microbiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Periodontitis/microbiology , Time Factors , beta-Lactamases/biosynthesis
17.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 41(3): 603-611, Oct. 2010. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-549401

ABSTRACT

Despite the importance of gastrointestinal diseases and their global distribution, affecting millions of individuals around the world, the role and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of anaerobic bacteria such as those in the Bacteroides fragilis group (BFG) are still unclear in young children. This study investigated the occurrence and distribution of species in the BFG and enterotoxigenic strains in the fecal microbiota of children and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Diarrheic (n=110) and non-diarrheic (n=65) fecal samples from children aged 0-5 years old were evaluated. BFG strains were isolated and identified by conventional biochemical, physiological and molecular approaches. Alternatively, bacteria and enterotoxigenic strains were detected directly from feces by molecular biology. Antimicrobial drug susceptibility patterns were determined by the agar dilution method according to the guidelines for isolated bacteria. BFG was detected in 64.3 percent of the fecal samples (55 percent diarrheic and 80.4 percent non-diarrheic), and 4.6 percent were enterotoxigenic. Antimicrobial resistance was observed against ampicillin, ampicillin/sulbactam, piperacillin/tazobactam, meropenem, ceftriaxone, clindamycin and chloramphenicol. The data show that these bacteria are prevalent in fecal microbiota at higher levels in healthy children. The molecular methodology was more effective in identifying the B. fragilis group when compared to the biochemical and physiological techniques. The observation of high resistance levels stimulates thoughts about the indiscriminate use of antimicrobial drugs in early infancy. Further quantitative studies are needed to gain a better understanding of the role of these bacteria in acute diarrhea in children.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bacteroides Infections , Bacteria, Anaerobic/isolation & purification , Bacteroides fragilis/isolation & purification , Diarrhea, Infantile , Disease Susceptibility , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Methods , Methods
19.
Veterinary Medical Journal. 2010; 58 (2): 177-197
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-117307

ABSTRACT

The present study was carried out to investigate the problem of diarrhoea among camel calves, by isolation, identification, histopathological findings and controlling of the associated infective agents [E. coli, Salmonella and C. perfringens]. Faecal, internal organs [spleen, kidneys, liver and part of small intestine] and blood samples were obtained from 120 camel calves [aged 10-18 month] for microbiological examination. The isolated rate of E. coli, Salmonella and C perfringens from diarrhoeic animals were [41.1%], [7.8%] and [65.6%], respectively. The isolated rate from the apparently healthy animals were [13.3%], [0%] and [33.3%], respectively. The serological identification of the isolated E. coli and salmonella strains detailed that [O111/K58 and O55/K59] serovars of E. coli and [S. Entertidis and S. Typhimurium] were the most common causes of diarrhoea in camel calves. The rate of both Beta and Epsilon toxins of C. perfringens was [53.3%] and [23.3%], while individually was [14.4% and 3.3%] and [27.8% and 10%] in diarrhoeic and apparently healthy camel calves, respectively. The microscopical examination revealed degenerative changes with marked necrosis in the hepatic and renal tissues, spleenic depletion and desquamation of the intestinal lining epithelium indicated the toxic effect of C. perfringens type [C and D]. In Salmonella Typhimiurium infection vasculitis and thrombi in blood vessels of the lamina propria and submucosa resulting in focal intestinal infarctions and ulceration, were the most important findings. Caecal glands were dilated and filled with gases and aggregation of inflammatory cells were observed in E. coli infection. The antibiotics used in the treatment of diarrhoea were Augmentin, Chloramphenicol, Gentamycine, Ciprofloxacin, Florofenicol, Rifampicin and Metronidazol, according to sensitivity test


Subject(s)
Animals , Diarrhea/pathology , Diarrhea/microbiology , Bacteria, Anaerobic/isolation & purification , Bacteria, Aerobic/isolation & purification
20.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 12(3): 13-14, July 2009. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-551891

ABSTRACT

In this work, an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) was operated for 8 months to treat low strength sewage with high suspended organic matter content. Three phases of operation with increasing organic loading rates (OLR) were performed: 0.4 kg COD/m³ x d (phase I), 0 .8 kg COD/m³ x d (phase II) and 1.2 kg COD/m³ x d (phase III). Adequate stability parameters (pH, total alkalinity) were obtained through all three experimental phases. During phases I and II, the removal efficiencies of organic matter (expressed as total chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total suspended solids ranged between 50-60 percent. However, these values decreased to 15-25 percent in phase III. In addition, a non-complex model, including hydrolysis, acidogenesis and methanogenesis, was applied to predict the reactor behavior.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anaerobic Digestion , Bacteria, Anaerobic/isolation & purification , Water Purification , Activated Sludges , Hydrolysis , Models, Theoretical , Suspended Solids/prevention & control
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