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1.
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 11(4): 232-240, out.-dez. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1397002

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: This study aimed to identify the presence of microorganisms in the aesthetic environment and assess professionals' knowledge about relevant infection prevention measures, considering the importance of the issue and the lack of study in the area. Methods: A total of 100 clinics that perform minimally invasive aesthetic procedures in Porto Alegre (RS), Brazil, were visited. Procedures such as botulin-toxin, dermal fillers, collagen biostimulators, thread lift, chemical peels and laser hair removal were considered. A questionnaire about infection prevention measures were answered by 50 professionals. Also, 100 samples were collected from the environment for bacterial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Results: There was an infection prevention protocol in 40% of clinics, in which 95% of respondents had complete college education. Periodic professional training regarding infection control measures were performed in 72% of clinics. An autoclave was used for sterilization of materials and instruments in 66% of clinics. From the samples collected, 85% showed bacterial growth by microbiological methods. Coagulase-negative Staphylococci was the most prevalent genera found, and 16% of them were resistant to both cefoxitin, erythromycin, and clindamycin. Four isolates were positive for mecA by PCR. Conclusion: The presence of well-trained professionals is critical in aesthetic clinics so that biosafety and infection prevention measures are taken.(AU)


Justificativa e Objetivos: Este estudo teve como objetivo identificar a presença de microrganismos no ambiente estético e avaliar o conhecimento dos profissionais sobre medidas relevantes de prevenção de infecções, considerando a importância do tema e a falta de estudos nesta área. Métodos: Foram visitadas 100 clínicas que realizam procedimentos estéticos minimamente invasivos em Porto Alegre (RS), Brasil. Foram considerados procedimentos injetáveis como aplicação de toxina botulínica, preenchedores faciais, microagulhamento, bioestimuladores de colágeno, fios de sustentação, peelings químicos e depilação a laser. Um questionário sobre medidas de prevenção de infecção foi respondido por 50 profissionais. Além disso, 100 amostras foram coletadas do ambiente para identificação bacteriana e teste de sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos. Resultados: Existia protocolo de prevenção de infecção em 40% dos ambulatórios, no qual 95% dos profissionais entrevistados possuíam ensino superior completo. Treinamento profissional periódico sobre medidas de controle de infecção foi realizado em 72% dos ambulatórios. Autoclave foi utilizada para esterilização de materiais e instrumentais em 66% das clínicas. Das amostras coletadas, 85% apresentaram crescimento bacteriano nas culturas microbiológicas. Staphylococci coagulase-negativo foi o gênero mais prevalente encontrado; e 16% deles eram resistentes à cefoxitina, eritromicina e clindamicina. Quatro isolados foram positivos para mecA por PCR. Conclusão: A presença de profissionais devidamente treinados é fundamental nas clínicas de estética, para que medidas de biossegurança e prevenção de infecções sejam tomadas.(AU)


Justificación y Objetivos: Este estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar la presencia de microorganismos en el entorno estético y evaluar el conocimiento de los profesionales sobre las medidas de prevención de infecciones relevantes, considerando la importancia del tema y la falta de estudios en esta área. Métodos: Se visitaron 100 clínicas que realizan procedimientos estéticos mínimamente invasivos en Porto Alegre (RS), Brasil. Se consideraron procedimientos invasivos, como la aplicación de toxina botulínica, rellenos faciales, microagujas, bioestimuladores de colágeno, hilos de soporte, peelings químicos y depilación láser. Un cuestionario sobre medidas de prevención de infecciones fue respondido por 50 profesionales. Además, se recolectaron 100 muestras del medio ambiente para la identificación bacteriana y las pruebas de susceptibilidad a los antimicrobianos. Resultados: Existía un protocolo de prevención de infecciones en el 40% de las clínicas, en el que el 95% de los profesionales encuestados tenía educación universitaria completa. En el 72% de las clínicas se realizó capacitación profesional periódica sobre medidas de control de infecciones. Se utilizó un autoclave para la esterilización de materiales e instrumentos en el 66% de las clínicas. De las muestras recolectadas, el 85% mostró crecimiento bacteriano por métodos de cultivo microbiologicos. El Staphylococci coagulasa negativo fue el género más prevalente encontrado, y el 16% de ellos eran resistentes tanto a cefoxitina, eritromicina y clindamicina. Cuatro aislamientos fueron positivos para mecA por PCR. Conclusión: La presencia de profesionales debidamente capacitados es fundamental en las clínicas de estética, para la toma medidas de bioseguridad y prevención de infecciones.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Cosmetic Techniques/adverse effects , Infection Control , Infections/etiology , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Surveys and Questionnaires , Environmental Microbiology , Beauty and Aesthetics Centers
2.
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 11(4): 200-207, out.-dez. 2021. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396982

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Infections caused by multi-drug resistant microorganisms have a great clinical and economic impact. The present study proposed to determine and assess ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) incidence in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU), to establish the profile of hospitalized patients and to determine the frequency of microorganisms isolated as well as their antimicrobial resistance profile. Methods: A descriptive, documental study, with a quantitative approach, carried out at a teaching hospital. Participants were all individuals admitted to the General ICU who developed VAP in 2018 and 2019. Results: During the study, 146 patients were diagnosed with VAP, with an incidence of 23.66/1000 patient-days on mechanical ventilation. The median age of patients was 52.5 years and most of them were man. One hundred and eight microorganisms were isolated in cultures, the majority being gram-negative bacteria. Non-fermenting bacteria were the most frequent (n=46; 42.6%), followed by enterobacteria (n=42; 38.9%). Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequent microorganism among gram-positive (n=17; 15.7%). The most frequent multi-drug resistant bacteria were Acinetobacter baumannii and Enterobacter spp. No microorganism showed colistin and vancomycin resistance. Patients infected with multi-drug resistant bacteria were hospitalized longer when compared to other patients. Conclusions: VAP incidence was high. The knowledge of the etiologic agents of VAP and their antimicrobial resistance profile is fundamental to support the elaboration of institutional treatment protocols as well as assist in empirical antibiotic therapy.(AU)


Justificativa e Objetivos: As infecções causadas por microrganismos multirresistentes têm grande impacto clínico e econômico. O presente estudo propôs determinar e avaliar a incidência de pneumonia associada à ventilação mecânica (PAV) em uma Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI), estabelecer o perfil dos pacientes internados e determinar a frequência de microrganismos isolados, bem como seu perfil de resistência antimicrobiana. Métodos: Estudo descritivo, documental, com abordagem quantitativa, realizado em um hospital universitário. Participaram todos os indivíduos admitidos na UTI Geral que desenvolveram PAV em 2018 e 2019. Resultados: Durante o estudo, 146 pacientes foram diagnosticados com PAV, com incidência de 23,66/1000 pacientes-dia em ventilação mecânica. A idade mediana dos pacientes foi de 52,5 anos e a maioria era do sexo masculino. Cento e oito microrganismos foram isolados em culturas, sendo a maioria bactérias gram-negativas. As bactérias não fermentadoras foram as mais frequentes (n=46; 42,6%), seguidas das enterobactérias (n=42; 38,9%). Staphylococcus aureus foi o microrganismo mais frequente entre os Gram-positivos (n=17; 15,7%). As bactérias multirresistentes mais frequentes foram Acinetobacter baumannii e Enterobacter spp. Nenhum microrganismo apresentou resistência à colistina e vancomicina. Pacientes infectados com bactérias multirresistentes ficaram mais tempo internados quando comparados a outros pacientes. Conclusões: A incidência de PAV foi alta. O conhecimento dos agentes etiológicos da PAV e seu perfil de resistência antimicrobiana é fundamental para subsidiar a elaboração de protocolos institucionais de tratamento, bem como auxiliar na antibioticoterapia empírica.(AU)


Justificación y Objetivos: Las infecciones causadas por microorganismos multirresistentes tienen un gran impacto clínico y económico. El presente estudio se propuso determinar y evaluar la incidencia de neumonía asociada a ventilación mecánica (NAV) en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI), establecer el perfil de pacientes hospitalizados y determinar la frecuencia de microorganismos aislados así como su perfil de resistencia antimicrobiana. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, documental, con abordaje cuantitativo, realizado en un hospital escuela. Participaron todas las personas ingresadas en UCI General que desarrollaron NAV en 2018 y 2019. Resultados: Durante el estudio, 146 pacientes fueron diagnosticados con NAV, con una incidencia de 23,66/1000 pacientes-día en ventilación mecánica. La mediana de edad de los pacientes fue de 52,5 años y la mayoría eran hombres. Se aislaron 108 microorganismos en cultivos, siendo la mayoría bacterias gramnegativas. Las bacterias no fermentadoras fueron las más frecuentes (n=46; 42,6%), seguidas de las enterobacterias (n=42; 38,9%). Staphylococcus aureus fue el microorganismo más frecuente entre los grampositivos (n=17; 15,7%). Las bacterias multirresistentes más frecuentes fueron Acinetobacter baumannii y Enterobacter spp. Ningún microorganismo mostró resistencia a colistina y vancomicina. Los pacientes infectados con bacterias multirresistentes fueron hospitalizados por más tiempo en comparación con otros pacientes. Conclusiones: La incidencia de NAV fue alta. El conocimiento de los agentes etiológicos de la VAP y su perfil de resistencia a los antimicrobianos es fundamental para apoyar la elaboración de protocolos de tratamiento institucionales, así como para ayudar en la terapia antibiótica empírica.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/microbiology , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Incidence , Risk Factors , Intensive Care Units
3.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 51: 67-78, May. 2021. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343435

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Endometritis is the most common disease of dairy cows and traditionally treated with antibiotics. Lactic acid bacteria can inhibit the growth of pathogens and also have potential for treatment of endometritis. Using PacBio single-molecule real-time sequencing technology, we sequenced the fulllength l6S rRNA of the microbiota in uterine mucus samples from 31 cows with endometritis, treated with lactic acid bacteria (experimental [E] group) and antibiotics (control [C] group) separately. Microbiota profiles taken before and after treatment were compared. RESULTS: After both treatments, bacterial species richness was significantly higher than before, but there was no significant difference in bacterial diversity. Abundance of some bacteria increased after both lactic acid bacteria and antibiotic treatment: Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactococcus lactis, Lactococcus raffinolactis, Pseudomonas alcaligenes and Pseudomonas veronii. The bacterial species that significantly decreased in abundance varied depending on whether the cows had been treated with lactic acid bacteria or antibiotics. Abundance of Staphylococcus equorum and Treponema brennaborense increased after lactic acid bacteria treatment but decreased after antibiotic treatment. According to COG-based functional metagenomic predictions, 384 functional proteins were significantly differently expressed after treatment. E and C group protein expression pathways were significantly higher than before treatment (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found that lactic acid bacteria could cure endometritis and restore a normal physiological state, while avoiding the disadvantages of antibiotic treatment, such as the reductions in abundance of beneficial microbiota. This suggests that lactic acid bacteria treatment has potential as an alternative to antibiotics in the treatment of endometritis in cattle.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/drug therapy , Endometritis/drug therapy , Lactobacillales/metabolism , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacteria/growth & development , Bacteria/drug effects , Uterus/microbiology , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Lactic Acid , Lactobacillales/genetics , Microbiota
4.
Electron J Biotechnol ; 49: 34-41, Jan. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291638

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This work studied how the exposure to an unusual substrate forced a change in microbial populations during anaerobic fermentation of crude glycerol, a by-product of biodiesel production, with freshwater sediment used as an inoculum. RESULTS: The microbial associations almost completely (99.9%) utilized the glycerol contained in crude glycerol 6 g L 1 within four days, releasing gases, organic acids (acetic, butyric) and alcohols (ethanol, n-butanol) under anaerobic conditions. In comparison with control medium without glycerol, adding crude glycerol to the medium increased the amount of ethanol and n-butanol production and it was not significantly affected by incubation temperature (28 C or 37 C), nor incubation time (4 or 8 d), but it resulted in reduced amount of butyric acid. Higher volume of gas was produced at 37 C despite the fact that the overall bacterial count was smaller than the one measured at 20 C. Main microbial phyla of the inoculum were Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. During fermentation, significant changes were observed and Firmicutes, especially Clostridium spp., began to dominate, and the number of Actinobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria decreased accordingly. Concentration of Archaea decreased, especially in medium with crude glycerol. These changes were confirmed both by culturing and culture-independent (concentration of 16S rDNA) methods. CONCLUSIONS: Crude glycerol led to the adaptation of freshwater sediment microbial populations to this substrate. Changes of microbial community were a result of a community adaptation to a new source of carbon.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/isolation & purification , Geologic Sediments/microbiology , Fresh Water/microbiology , Glycerol/metabolism , Bacteria/metabolism , Adaptation, Biological , Biofuels , Fermentation , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Anaerobiosis
5.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 45: 30-37, May 15, 2020. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177412

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Traditionally, microbial genome sequencing has been restrained to the species grown in pure culture. The development of culture-independent techniques over the last decade allows scientists to sequence microbial communities directly from environmental samples. Metagenomics is the study of complex genome by the isolation of DNA of the whole community. Next generation sequencing (NGS) of metagenomic DNA gives information about the microbial and taxonomical characterization of a particular niche. The objective of the present research is to study the microbial and taxonomical characterization of the metagenomic DNA, isolated from the frozen soil sample of a glacier in the north western Himalayas through NGS. RESULTS: The glacier community comprised of 16 phyla with the representation of members belonging to Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria. The number of genes annotated through the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), GO, Pfam, Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COGs), and FIG databases were generated by COGNIZER. The annotation of genes assigned in each group from the metagenomics data through COG database and the number of genes annotated in different pathways through KEGG database were reported. CONCLUSION: Results indicate that the glacier soil taken in the present study, harbors taxonomically and metabolically diverse communities. The major bacterial group present in the niche is Proteobacteria followed by Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria, etc. Different genes were annotated through COG and KEGG databases that integrate genomic, chemical, and systemic functional information.


Subject(s)
Soil Microbiology , Bacteria/classification , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Microbiota/genetics , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Cold Climate , Computational Biology , Ice Cover , Metagenomics , Genome, Microbial , India
6.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 79(1): 46-52, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092661

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To compare clinical-epidemiological profile and treatment outcome between culture negative and culture positive keratitis patients. Methods: Patients with suspected infectious keratitis seen at two ophthalmic hospitals in Curitiba, Brazil, between June 2014 and April 2016, were prospectively studied. Ophthalmological exam with corneal scraping and microbiological tests were performed. Data regarding follow up, surgical interventions and treatment outcome were collected after 12 weeks of the first visit trough medical chart review. From the results of the culture, two groups were formed: culture negative keratitis (CNK) and culture positive keratitis (CPK). Results: According to inclusion criteria 21 patients were classified as culture negative keratitis and 20 patients as culture positive keratitis. The number of patients on antibiotic drops at the first visit was greater in CNK group (90.5% versus 60%; p=0.032). Surgical procedures were necessary in 3 patients (15%) in CNK group and in 7 patients (36,8%) in CPK group (p=0.155). Treatment success was achieved by 85% (17/20) of the patients in CNK group and by 61% (11/18) of the patients in CPK group (p=0.144). There was no significant difference between groups regarding age, gender, place of residence, presence of comorbidities, risk factors for infectious keratitis, duration of symptoms and characteristics of corneal ulcer. Conclusions: Previous treatment with antibiotics correlates with negative culture results. There was no significant difference in treatment outcome between culture negative and culture positive keratitis patients.


Resumo Objetivo: Comparar os perfis clinico-epidemiológicos e os desfechos entre pacientes com ceratite com cultura positiva e pacientes com ceratite com cultura negativa. Métodos: Pacientes com ceratite infecciosa, atendidos em dois hospitais oftalmológicos em Curitiba, Brasil, entre junho de 2014 e abril de 2016, foram estudados prospectivamente. Exame oftalmológico, raspado de córnea e exames microbiológicos foram realizados no primeiro atendimento. Os dados quanto a seguimento e desfecho foram coletados após 12 semanas do primeiro atendimento através de revisão de prontuário. A partir dos resultados das culturas, dois grupos foram formados: ceratite com cultura negativa e ceratite com cultura positiva. Resultados: Vinte e um pacientes foram classificados como ceratite com cultura negativa e 20 como ceratite com cultura positiva. O número de pacientes em uso de colírio antibiótico no primeiro atendimento foi maior no grupo de cultura negativa (90,5% versus 60%; p=0,032). Sete pacientes (37%) no grupo cultura positiva precisaram de procedimentos cirúrgicos no manejo da ceratite, versus 3 pacientes (15%) do grupo cultura negativa (p=0,155). Oitenta e cinco por cento (17/20) dos pacientes do grupo cultura negativa alcançaram sucesso no tratamento, contra 61% (11/18) dos pacientes no grupo cultura positiva (p=0,144). Não houve diferença entre os grupos quanto a idade, gênero, local de procedência, presença de comorbidades, fatores de risco, duração dos sintomas e características da úlcera de córnea. Conclusão: Tratamento prévio com colírio de antibiótico correlaciona-se com resultados negativos de cultura. Não houve diferença no desfecho após tratamento entre os pacientes com cultura negativa e cultura positiva.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Keratitis/diagnosis , Keratitis/microbiology , Keratitis/parasitology , Keratitis/drug therapy , Keratitis/epidemiology , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Acanthamoeba/isolation & purification , Acanthamoeba Keratitis/diagnosis , Acanthamoeba Keratitis/parasitology , Acanthamoeba Keratitis/drug therapy , Acanthamoeba Keratitis/epidemiology , Eye Infections, Bacterial/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Bacterial/microbiology , Eye Infections, Bacterial/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Bacterial/epidemiology , Eye Infections, Fungal/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Fungal/microbiology , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Fungal/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Microbiological Techniques/methods , Treatment Outcome , Fungi/isolation & purification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Antiprotozoal Agents/therapeutic use
7.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 43: 16-22, Jan. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087512

ABSTRACT

Background: The intestinal bacterial community has an important role in maintaining human health. Dysbiosis is a key inducer of many chronic diseases including obesity and diabetes. Kunming mice are frequently used as a model of human disease and yet little is known about the bacterial microbiome resident to the gastrointestinal tract. Results: We undertook metagenomic sequencing of the luminal contents of the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon, and rectum of Kunming mice. Firmicutes was the dominant bacterial phylum of each intestinal tract and Lactobacillus the dominant genus. However, the bacterial composition differed among the seven intestinal tracts of Kunming mice. Compared with the small intestine, the large intestine bacterial community of Kunming mice is more stable and diverse. Conclusions: To our knowledge, ours is the first study to systematically describe the gastrointestinal bacterial composition of Kunming mice. Our findings provide a better understanding of the bacterial composition of Kunming mice and serves as a foundation for the study of precision medicine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gastrointestinal Tract/microbiology , Bacteria/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Polymerase Chain Reaction , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Firmicutes/isolation & purification , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Lactobacillus/isolation & purification
8.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 43: 23-31, Jan. 2020. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087514

ABSTRACT

Background: Hong Qu glutinous rice wine (HQGRW) is brewed under non-aseptic fermentation conditions, so it usually has a relatively high total acid content. The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamics of the bacterial communities and total acid during the fermentation of HQGRW and elucidate the correlation between total acid and bacterial communities. Results: The results showed that the period of rapid acid increase during fermentation occurred at the early stage of fermentation. There was a negative response between total acid increase and the rate of increase in alcohol during the early fermentation stage. Bacterial community analysis using high-throughput sequencing technology was found that the dominant bacterial communities changed during the traditional fermentation of HQGRW. Both principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis revealed that there was a great difference between the bacterial communities of Hong Qu starter and those identified during the fermentation process. Furthermore, the key bacteria likely to be associated with total acid were identified by Spearman's correlation analysis. Lactobacillus, unclassified Lactobacillaceae, and Pediococcus were found, which can make significant contributions to the total acid development (| r| N 0.6 with FDR adjusted P b 0.05), establishing that these bacteria can associate closely with the total acid of rice wine. Conclusions: This was the first study to investigate the correlation between bacterial communities and total acid during the fermentation of HQGRW. These findings may be helpful in the development of a set of fermentation techniques for controlling total acid.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/isolation & purification , Wine/microbiology , Pediococcus/isolation & purification , Pediococcus/genetics , Pediococcus/metabolism , Time Factors , Acetobacter/isolation & purification , Acetobacter/genetics , Acetobacter/metabolism , Cluster Analysis , Sequence Analysis , Computational Biology , Principal Component Analysis , Fermentation , Microbiota , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Lactobacillus/isolation & purification , Lactobacillus/genetics , Lactobacillus/metabolism
9.
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190266, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1056586

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The microbial composition of pericoronitis (Pc) is still controversial; it is not yet clear if the microbial profile of these lesions is similar to the profile observed in periodontitis (Pd). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to describe the microbial profile of Pc lesions and compare it directly with that of subjects with Pd. Methodology: Subjects with Pc and Pd were selected, and subgingival biofilm samples were collected from (i) third molars with symptomatic Pc (Pc-T), (ii) contralateral third molars without Pc (Pc-C) and (iii) teeth with a probing depth >3 mm from subjects with Pd. Counts and proportions of 40 bacterial species were evaluated using a checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique. Results: Twenty-six patients with Pc and 18 with Pd were included in the study. In general, higher levels of microorganisms were observed in Pd. Only Actinomyces oris and Eubacterium nodatum were present in higher mean counts in the Pc-T group in comparison with the Pc-C and Pd-C groups (p<0.05). The microbiota associated with Pc-T was similar to that found in Pc-C. Sites with Pc lesions had lower proportions of red complex in comparison with the Pd sites. Conclusion: The microbiota of Pc is very diverse, but these lesions harbour lower levels of periodontal pathogens than Pd.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pericoronitis/microbiology , Periodontitis/microbiology , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Reference Values , Activation Analysis , DNA Probes , Cross-Sectional Studies , Biofilms , Bacterial Load , Gingiva/microbiology
10.
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190100, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1056594

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: This clinical study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of passive ultrasonic activation (PUA) in eliminating microorganisms in primary endodontic infection (PEI) after instrumentation of root canals using microbiological culture and checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. Methodology: Twenty root canals with PEI and apical periodontitis were selected. The root canals were instrumented and then randomly divided into 2 groups, according to the irrigation method: PUA and conventional needle irrigation (CNI). Microbiological samples were collected before instrumentation (S1), after instrumentation (S2) and after irrigation with 17% EDTA (S3). The samples were subjected to anaerobic culture technique and checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization analysis. Results: A statistically significant difference was found between CNI (23.56%) and PUA (98.37%) regarding the median percentage values for culturable bacteria reduction (p<0.05). In the initial samples, the most frequently detected species was S. constellatus (50%), and after root canal treatment was E. faecalis (50%). Conclusion: Both treatments significantly decreased the number of bacterial species compared with the initial sample. However, no statistical difference in the total microbial load between PUA and CNI groups was detected. The number of cultivable anaerobic bacteria reduced significantly using PUA, and the bacterial composition and number of bacterial species after using either CNI or PUA was similar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Periapical Periodontitis/therapy , Root Canal Therapy/instrumentation , Ultrasonic Therapy/instrumentation , Dental Pulp Cavity/microbiology , Root Canal Irrigants/therapeutic use , Root Canal Therapy/methods , Sodium Hypochlorite/therapeutic use , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Ultrasonic Therapy/methods , Colony Count, Microbial , DNA Probes , Linear Models , Analysis of Variance , Treatment Outcome , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Bacterial Load , Therapeutic Irrigation/instrumentation , Therapeutic Irrigation/methods
11.
Medwave ; 20(8): e8029, 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1128727

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La intervención en poblaciones por medio de programas educativos logra aumentar el conocimiento en un determinado grupo y además, en algunos casos, se logra un cambio de conducta. OBJETIVO: Determinar si el programa educativo de lavado de manos aplicado a los estudiantes de educación secundaria reduce la colonización de bacterias infecciosas en las manos. METODOLOGÍA: Se realizó un estudio cuasi experimental no aleatorizado mediante muestreo consecutivo a los alumnos del último año de secundaria, quienes fueron divididos en dos grupos de intervención y control, analizados en dos etapas antes y después de la aplicación del programa educativo. Se tomaron las muestras de la mano dominante para el cultivo bacteriano. Además, se aplicó un cuestionario que evaluó los conocimientos sobre higiene de manos antes y después de la aplicación del programa, que estuvo dirigido a mejorar el nivel de conocimiento y de las actitudes de los estudiantes en relación a la higiene de manos. RESULTADOS: De 208 muestras obtenidas los agentes más frecuentes antes y después de la aplicación del programa educativo fueron Staphylococcus epidermidis (39% versus 23%) y Staphylococcus aureus (21%versus15%); el promedio del número de colonias fue 236 y 183 respectivamente (p = 0,35). CONCLUSIÓN: La aplicación del programa educativo logró mejorar el nivel de conocimiento sobre la higiene de manos. Sin embargo, no fue suficiente para reducir la colonización bacteriana, por lo que debería agregarse otras conductas como la supervisión directa.


INTRODUCTION: Educational interventions can raise awareness and understanding in population groups and may help to achieve changes in behavior. OBJECTIVE: To determine if the educational handwashing program applied to high-school students reduces the colonization of infectious bacteria on the hands. METHODS: A non-randomized quasi-experimental study was carried out using consecutive sampling of the students of the last year of high-school who were divided into an intervention group and a control group. Data were obtained before and after the implementation of the educational program. Samples were taken from the dominant hand for bacterial culture, and a questionnaire was applied that assessed knowledge of hand hygiene before and after the program. The program was aimed at improving the level of understanding and attitudes of students regarding hand hygiene. RESULTS: Of 208 samples obtained, the most frequent agents before and after the educational program were Staphylococcus epidermidis (39% versus 23%) and Staphylococcus aureus (21% versus 15%). The average number of colonies was 236 and 183 respectively (p = 0.35). CONCLUSION: The educational program managed to improve the level of understanding about hand hygiene; however, it was not enough to reduce bacterial colonization, so other behaviors such as direct supervision should be considered.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Students , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Hand Disinfection/standards , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Surveys and Questionnaires , Hand/microbiology
12.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(6): 468-470, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089315

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The precise diagnosis of bacterial meningitis is essential. Cytological and biochemical examination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are not specific. Conventional methods for bacterial meningitis lack sensitivity or take too long for a final result. Therefore, other methods for rapid and accurate diagnosis of central nervous system infections are required. FilmArray meningitis/encephalitis (ME) panel is a PCR multiplex for simultaneous and rapid identification of 14 pathogens, including 6 bacteria, 7 viruses, and Cryptococcus. We evaluated 436 CSF samples submitted to FilmArray ME Panel. Among them, 25 cases were positive for bacteria, being Streptococcus pneumonia the most frequent (48 %). Among positive cases for bacteria, 60 % were positive only with FilmArray. All the bacterial meningitis cases in which the only positive test was FilmArray had CSF findings suggestive of bacterial meningitis, including neutrophilic pleocytosis, increased CSF protein and lactate, and decreased CSF glucose. These findings suggest that FilmArray may increase the diagnostic sensitivity for bacterial meningitis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cerebrospinal Fluid/microbiology , Cerebrospinal Fluid/virology , Meningitis, Bacterial/diagnosis , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Viruses/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity , Meningitis, Bacterial/cerebrospinal fluid
13.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(12): 1502-1507, Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057085

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY INTRODUCTION Despite the benefits, tracheostomized children are susceptible to respiratory infections, since the tube is located in a strategic region where there is colonization by several bacteria and biofilm formation. Biofilm is formed when the bacteria adhere strongly to the surfaces of the tubes, providing protection against various types of aggression, such as antibiotic treatment. OBJECTIVE To carry out a literature review of the last ten years on tracheostomized pediatric patients, in order to characterize the bacteria isolated in children's tracheal secretions, and verify which ones are the most frequent. METHODS Two authors searched the Lilacs, SciELO, Medline Plus, and PubMed databases. The MeSH terms used were: 'tracheostomy' and 'tracheotomy' associated with 'infections', 'children', 'child', and 'bacterial' as qualifiers. RESULTS Of the 512 studies on the subject, 19 were selected for review. The total number of children evaluated in the studies was 4,472, with a mean age of 7.5 years. As for the bacteria found in the secretions of tracheostomized children, 12 species of bacteria were more frequent, P. aeruginosa was the predominant bacterium, followed by S. aureus (63.1%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (57.8%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (47.3%), and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (47.3%). CONCLUSION One of the main complications treated in tracheostomized patients were infections, since the respiratory system is colonized by several bacteria that can cause serious infections, which are associated with the formation of biofilms. The predominant bacterium in most of the studies was P. aeruginosa, and the second species commonly reported was S. aureus.


RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO Apesar dos benefícios, crianças traqueostomizadas estão suscetíveis a adquirir infecções respiratórias, pois o tubo se encontra em uma região estratégica, na qual existe colonização de diversas bactérias e formação de biofilme. O biofilme é formado quando as bactérias aderem fortemente às superfícies dos tubos, conferindo proteção contra diversos tipos de agressões, como o tratamento por antibióticos. OBJETIVO Realizar uma revisão de literatura dos últimos dez anos sobre pacientes pediátricos traqueostomizados, no intuito de caracterizar as bactérias isoladas em secreções traqueais de crianças, verificando-se quais são as mais frequentes. MÉTODOS Dois autores pesquisaram nas bases de dados do Lilacs, SciELO, Medline Plus e PubMed. Termos MeSH utilizados: tracheostomy e tracheotomy usados associados a infections, children, chlid e bacterial como qualificadores. RESULTADOS Dos 512 estudos relacionados ao tema, 19 foram selecionados para a revisão. O total de crianças avaliadas nos estudos foi de 4.472, com idade média de 7,5 anos. Quanto às bactérias encontradas nas secreções de crianças traqueostomizadas, 12 espécies de bactérias foram mais frequentes; P. aeruginosa foi a bactéria predominante, seguida de S. aureus (63,1%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (57,8%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (47,3%) e Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (47,3%). CONCLUSÃO Umas das principais complicações abordadas em pacientes traqueostomizados foram as infecções, já que o sistema respiratório é colonizado por diversas bactérias, que podem causar infecções graves, sendo estas associadas à formação de biofilmes. A bactéria predominante na maioria dos estudos foi a P. aeruginosa, e a segunda espécie comumente relatada foi a S. aureus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Trachea/microbiology , Tracheostomy/methods , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Bacteria/isolation & purification
14.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 78(6): 370-374, nov.-dez. 2019. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057909

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo: A queratite infeciosa é uma doença de incidência relativamente elevada e é responsável por um número importante de internamentos. Neste estudo pretende-se estudar diversas características epidemiológicas e clínicas associadas às queratites infeciosas de alto risco num hospital terciário em Portugal. Métodos: Realizou-se um estudo retrospetivo, onde foram incluídos todos os doentes internados por abcesso da córnea no Centro Hospitalar Universitário do Porto (CHUP), entre Abril de 2013 a Março de 2018. Caracterizou-se a população em relação aos fatores de risco, apresentação clínica, tempo de internamento, resultados de culturas, resistência antibiótica in vitro, tratamento efetuado e resultado funcional. Resultados: O estudo incluiu 105 doentes. Os principais fatores de risco foram antecedentes de cirurgia de córnea, uso de lentes de contacto e história recente de trauma ocular. 74,3% dos doentes tiveram cultura positiva com 87,9% a corresponderem a cultura bacteriana pura, sendo a Pseudomonas aeruginosa e o Streptococcus pneumoniae os agentes etiológicos mais frequentes. 27,9% das culturas positivas eram resistentes a 3 ou mais classes de antibióticos. Todos os doentes iniciaram tratamento com colírios fortificados. 29,5% dos doentes necessitaram de realizar transplante de córnea. Ao final de 6 meses de seguimento, apenas 20,9% apresentavam AV>20/40. Conclusão: Na maioria dos casos, a etiologia foi bacteriana. Observou-se um número considerável de bactérias multirresistentes. Apesar do tratamento ter permitido uma melhoria da visão na maioria dos casos, um número considerável de doentes ficou com sequelas visuais importantes.


Abstract Objective: Infectious keratitis is a pathology with a high incidence and is responsible for a large number of prolonged stay hospital admissions. The purpose was to analyze the epidemiological and clinical data associated with high risk microbial keratitis at a central hospital in Portugal. Methods: A retrospective study of all inpatients presenting with corneal abscess in Centro Hospitalar Universitário do Porto, from April 2013 to March 2018 was performed. Target population was characterized by risk factors, clinical features, length of stay, culture results, in vitro antibiotic resistance, treatment and outcome. Results: This study included 105 patients. The main risk factors were previous corneal surgery, contact lenses wear and recent history of ocular trauma. 74.3% of patients had a positive culture, 87.9% of these corresponding to a pure bacterial culture, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus pneumoniae being the most common pathogens. 27.9% of positive cultures were resistant to 3 or more classes of antibiotics. All patients began treatment with fortified drops. 29.5% of patients required a corneal transplant. After 6 months of follow-up, only 20.9% presented a VA>20/40. Conclusion: Most cases were caused by bacteria. A considerable number of multi-resistant bacteria was identified. Despite most cases having improved after treatment, a large number of patients had a significant visual acuity sequelae.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Eye Infections, Bacterial/epidemiology , Eye Infections, Fungal/epidemiology , Eye Infections, Parasitic/epidemiology , Eye Infections, Viral/epidemiology , Keratitis/epidemiology , Ophthalmic Solutions , Portugal , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Viruses/isolation & purification , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Acanthamoeba/isolation & purification , Eye Infections, Bacterial/microbiology , Eye Infections, Bacterial/therapy , Eye Infections, Fungal/microbiology , Eye Infections, Fungal/therapy , Eye Infections, Parasitic/microbiology , Eye Infections, Parasitic/therapy , Eye Infections, Viral/microbiology , Eye Infections, Viral/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Corneal Transplantation , Fungi/isolation & purification , Hospitals, University/statistics & numerical data , Inpatients , Keratitis/microbiology , Keratitis/therapy
15.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(4): 555-565, Nov. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001469

ABSTRACT

Abstract Different methodologies have been developed throughout the years to identify environmental microorganisms to improve bioremediation techniques, determine susceptibility profiles of bacteria in contaminated environments, and reduce the impact of microorganisms in ecosystems. Two methods of bacterial biochemical identification are compared and the susceptibility profile of bacteria, isolated from residential and industrial wastewater, is determined. Twenty-four bacteria were retrieved from the bacteria bank of the Environmental Microbiology Laboratory at the Institute of Biology (IB) of the Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil. Bacteria were identified by conventional biochemical tests and by the VITEK ®2 automated system. Further, the susceptibility profile to antibiotics was also determined by the automated system. Six species of bacteria (Raoutella planticola, K. pneumoniae ssp. pneumoniae , Serratia marcescens, Raoutella sp., E. cloacae and Klebsiella oxytoca) were identified by conventional biochemical tests, while three species of bacteria (K. pneumoniae ssp. pneumoniae, S. marcescens and K. oxytoca ) were identified by VITEK®2 automated system. VITEK ®2 indicated agreement in 19 (79.17%) isolates and difference in five (20.83%) isolates when compared to results from conventional biochemical tests. Further, antibiotic susceptibility profile results showed that all isolates (100%) were resistant to at least one out of the 18 antibiotics tested by VITEK®2. Thus, no multi-resistant bacteria that may be used in effluent treatment systems or in bioremediation processes have been reported. Results indicate VITEK ® 2 automated system as a potential methodology in the determination of susceptibility profile and identification of environmental bacteria.


Resumo Diferentes metodologias foram desenvolvidas ao longo dos anos para identificar microrganismos ambientais para melhorar as técnicas de biorremediação, determinar perfis de suscetibilidade de bactérias em ambientes contaminados e reduzir o impacto de microrganismos nos ecossistemas. Dois métodos de identificação bioquímica bacteriana são comparados e o perfil de susceptibilidade de bactérias, isoladas de efluentes residenciais e industriais, é determinado. Vinte e quatro bactérias foram coletadas do banco de bactérias do Laboratório de Microbiologia Ambiental do Instituto de Biologia (IB) da Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas, Brasil. As bactérias foram identificadas por testes bioquímicos convencionais e pelo sistema automatizado VITEK®2. Além disso, o perfil de suscetibilidade aos antibióticos também foi determinado pelo sistema automatizado. Seis espécies de bactérias (Raoutella planticola , K. pneumoniae ssp. pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Raoutella sp., E. cloacae e Klebsiella oxytoca) foram identificadas por testes bioquímicos convencionais, enquanto três espécies de bactérias (K. pneumoniae ssp. pneumoniae, S. marcescens e K. oxytoca) foram identificados pelo sistema automatizado VITEK®2. VITEK®2 indicou concordância em 19 (79,17%) isolados e diferença em cinco (20,83%) isolados quando comparados aos resultados de testes bioquímicos convencionais. Além disso, os resultados do perfil de suscetibilidade aos antibióticos mostraram que todos os isolados (100%) foram resistentes a pelo menos um dos 18 antibióticos testados pelo VITEK®2. Assim, não foram relatadas bactérias multirresistentes que possam ser usadas em sistemas de tratamento de efluentes ou em processos de biorremediação. Os resultados indicam que o sistema automatizado VITEK ® 2 é uma metodologia potencial na determinação do perfil de suscetibilidade e identificação de bactérias ambientais.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacteria/drug effects , Bacteriological Techniques/methods , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Brazil , Bacteriological Techniques/instrumentation , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
16.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 41: 72-80, sept. 2019. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087172

ABSTRACT

Background: Microbial community analysis of electronic waste (e-waste)-polluted environments is of interest to understand the effect of toxic e-waste pollutants on the soil microbial community and to evaluate novel microorganisms resisting the toxic environment. The present study aims to investigate the bacterial community structure in soils contaminated with e-waste from various sites of Loni and Mandoli (National Capital Region (NCR), India) where e-waste dumping and recycling activities are being carried out for many years. Results: Interferences to soil metagenomic DNA extraction and PCR amplification were observed because of the presence of inhibiting components derived from circuit boards. Whole-metagenome sequencing on the Illumina MiSeq platform showed that the most abundant phyla were Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Deltaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria were the most common classes under Proteobacteria. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene showed that e-waste contamination altered the soil bacterial composition and diversity. There was a decrease in the number of predominant bacterial groups like Proteobacteria and Firmicutes but emergence of Actinobacteria in the contaminated soil samples. Conclusions: This is the first report describing the bacterial community structure of composite soil samples of ewaste-contaminated sites of Loni and Mandoli, Delhi NCR, India. The findings indicate that novel bacteria with potential bioremediating properties may be present in the e-waste-contaminated sites and hence need to be evaluated further.


Subject(s)
Soil Microbiology , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacteria/genetics , Electronic Waste/analysis , Soil Pollutants , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Metals, Heavy , Proteobacteria/isolation & purification , Metagenomics , Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis , Microbiota , Firmicutes/isolation & purification , India
17.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(2): 473-476, June 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002245

ABSTRACT

Within the framework of undergraduate and postgraduate medical education, cadavers have been used to teach anatomy by dissection or by using prosected specimens. To accomplish this, an appropriated preservation process must guarantee that the cadaver is kept safe for harm, destruction, and decomposition. Embalming fluid contains fixatives, disinfectants, surfactants, buffers, salt, and water, making the cadaver safe for teaching anatomy. However, it remains unclear if there is any risk of dissemination of microorganisms during anatomy teaching, research, and dissection procedures on fixed cadavers. The purpose of this study is to identify bacterial and fungal species in fixed cadaveric material used in anatomy teaching. Samples of cadavers and anatomical sections were cultured and biochemical tests and molecular identification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed to identify the microorganisms. The results indicate that fixed cadaveric material has viable bacteria on its surfaces and almost all these correspond to gram-negative bacilli of the Enterobacteriaceae family. In conclusion, fixed cadavers could be a reservoir of bacteria. This study underscores the importance of generating safe manipulation protocols to avoid eventual contamination and disease.


Dentro del curriculum de los programas de postgrado y pregrado de las carreras de la salud, los cadáveres han sido utilizados para la enseñanza de la anatomía mediante la disección o utilizando preparados anatómicos. Para poder llevar a cabo esto, el cadáver debe pasar por un adecuado proceso de preservación; en el que se utilizan fluidos que contienen fijadores, desinfectantes, surfactantes, buffers, sal y agua, los cuales lo protegen del deterioro y la descomposición. Las soluciones fijadoras y conservadoras contienen desinfectantes, surfactantes, fijadores, buffers, sal y agua, que hacen que el cadáver sea seguro para la enseñanza de la anatomía. Sin embargo, no está claro si existe algún riesgo de diseminación de microorganismos durante la enseñanza, investigación y/o disección en estos cadáveres. El propósito del estudio es identificar especies bacterianas y/o fúngicas en material cadavérico previamente fijado, usado en la enseñanza de la anatomía. Se realizaron cultivos y técnicas de identificación molecular mediante reacción en cadena de polimerasa de muestras tomadas desde material cadavérico para identificar los microorganismos encontrados. Los resultados indican que el material cadavérico previamente fijado posee bacterias en sus superficies, la mayoría corresponde a bacilos gram negativos de la familia de las Enterobacteriaceae. En conclusión, los cadáveres previamente fijados pueden ser reservorio de bacterias. Este estudio destaca la importancia de generar protocolos de manipulación con el fin de evitar una posible contaminación y enfermedad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Cadaver , Fungi/isolation & purification , Anatomy/education , Bacteria/growth & development , Fungi/growth & development
18.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 39: 52-60, may. 2019. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1052027

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Biologically active peptides produced from fish wastes are gaining attention because their health benefits. Proteases produced by halophilic microorganisms are considered as a source of active enzymes in high salt systems like fish residues. Hence, the aim of this study was the bioprospection of halophilic microorganisms for the production of proteases to prove their application for peptide production. RESULTS: Halophilic microorganisms were isolated from saline soils of Mexico and Bolivia. An enzymatic screening was carried out for the detection of lipases, esterases, pHB depolymerases, chitinases, and proteases. Most of the strains were able to produce lipases, esterases, and proteases, and larger hydrolysis halos were detected for protease activity. Halobacillus andaensis was selected to be studied for proteolytic activity production; the microorganism was able to grow on gelatin, yeast extract, skim milk, casein, peptone, fish muscle (Cyprinus carpio), and soy flour as protein sources, and among these sources, fish muscle protein was the best inducer of proteolytic activity, achieving a protease production of 571 U/mL. The extracellular protease was active at 50°C, pH 8, and 1.4 M NaCl and was inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride. The proteolytic activity of H. andaensis was used to hydrolyze fish muscle protein for peptide production. The peptides obtained showed a MW of 5.3 kDa and a radical scavenging ability of 10 to 30% on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and a ferric reducing ability of plasma. Conclusion: The use of noncommercial extracellular protease produced by H. andaensis for biologically active peptide production using fish muscle as the protein source presents a great opportunity for high-value peptide production.


Subject(s)
Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Peptides/metabolism , Fish Proteins/metabolism , Halobacillus/enzymology , Soil , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bolivia , Esterases , Salinity , Hydrolysis , Lipase , Mexico , Muscle Proteins , Antioxidants
19.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(2): 191-200, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989448

ABSTRACT

Abstract The hygienic and sanitary control in Food and Nutrition Units (FNU) is considered a standard procedure to produce adequate meals and reduce the risk of foodborne diseases and hospital infections. This study aimed to evaluate the isolation and identification of bacteria from equipment and food contact surfaces in a hospital FNU as well as to evaluate the sanitary condition. Likewise, it was analyzed the adhesion of the microorganisms on polyethylene cutting boards. The presence of aerobic mesophilic microorganisms, yeasts, molds, coagulase-positive staphylococci, coliform and fecal coliform, and Escherichia coli were analyzed on eating tables, countertop surfaces and cutting boards used for meat or vegetable handling, and equipment such as microwaves and refrigerators. The molecular identification it was done by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The adhesion of the microorganisms (biofilm formation) on meat and vegetable cutting boards was also evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed high numbers of all microorganisms, except for E. coli , which was not observed in the samples. The molecular analysis identified species of the Enterobacteriaceae family and species of the Pseudomonadaceae family. Scanning electron microscopy analyses revealed bacterial adhesion on the cutting board surfaces. The results obtained in this study indicated that the hygienic conditions of surfaces like plastic cutting boards and equipment in this hospital FNU were inadequate. The achievement and application of standard operating procedures could positively help in the standardization of sanitary control, reducing the microbial contamination and providing a safe food to hospitalized patients.


Resumo O controle higiênico e sanitário nas Unidades de Alimentação e Nutrição (UAN) é considerado um procedimento padrão para produzir refeições adequadas e reduzir o risco de doenças transmitidas pelos alimentos e infecções hospitalares. Este estudo teve como objetivo isolar e identificar bactérias de equipamentos e superfícies de contato com alimentos em uma UAN hospitalar, bem como avaliar a condição sanitária. Do mesmo modo, analisou-se a adesão dos micro-organismos em tábuas de corte de polietileno. A presença de micro-organismos aeróbios mesófilos, leveduras, fungos, Sthapylococcus coagulase-positivos, coliformes, coliformes fecais e Escherichia coli foi analisadas na superfície de mesas do refeitório, superfícies de bancada e tábuas de corte usadas para manuseio de carne ou vegetais e, em equipamentos como micro-ondas e refrigeradores. A identificação molecular foi feita pelo sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA. A adesão dos micro-organismos (formação de biofilmes) em tábuas de corte de carne e de vegetais também foi avaliada por microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Os resultados mostraram elevada contagem para todos os micro-organismos analisados, exceto para E. coli, a qual não foi observada nas amostras. A análise molecular identificou espécies da família Enterobacteriaceae e Pseudomonadaceae. A análise de microscopia eletrônica de varredura revelaram adesão bacteriana nas superfícies das placsa de corte. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo indicaram que as condições higiênicas das superfícies e de equipamentos nesta UAN hospitalar estavam inadequadas. A aplicação de procedimentos operacionais padrão poderia auxiliar positivamente na padronização do controle higiênico-sanitário, reduzindo a contaminação microbiana e fornecendo um alimento seguro para pacientes hospitalizados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Environmental Microbiology , Molecular Typing , Food Microbiology , Food Service, Hospital/trends , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Biofilms , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/classification , Fungi/genetics
20.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 51(1): 39-46, mar. 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003279

ABSTRACT

Tributyltin (TBT) is recognized as a major environmental problem at a global scale. Haloalkaliphilic tributyltin (TBT)-degrading bacteria may be a key factor in the remediation of TBT polluted sites. In this work, three haloalkaliphilic bacteria strains were isolated from a TBT-contaminated site in the Mediterranean Sea. After analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences the isolates were identified as Sphingobium sp. HS1, Stenotrophomonas chelatiphaga HS2 and Rhizobium borbori HS5. The optimal growth conditions for biodegradation of TBT by the three strains were pH 9 and 7% (w/v) salt concentration. S. chelatiphaga HS2 was the most effective TBT degrader and has the ability to transform most TBT into dibutyltin and monobutyltin (DBT and MBT). A gene was amplified from strain HS2 and identified as TBTB-permease-like, that encodes an ArsB-permease. A reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis in the HS2 strain confirmed that the TBTB-permease-like gene contributes to TBT resistance. The three novel haloalkaliphilic TBT degraders have never been reported previously.


Se considera a la tributiltina (TBT) como un problema medioambiental serio a escala global. Las bacterias haloalcalifílicas degradadoras de TBT pueden constituir un factor clave para remediar áreas contaminadas con dicho xenobiótico. En este estudio se aislaron 3 cepas de bacterias haloalcalifílicas procedentes de un sitio contaminado con TBT en el mar Mediterráneo. Tras analizar las secuencias del gen de 16S del ARNr, se identificaron los aislados como Sphingo-bium sp. HS1, Stenotrophomonas chelatiphaga HS2 y Rhizobium borbori HS5. Las condiciones de crecimiento óptimas para la biodegradación de TBT por parte de las 3 cepas fueron pH 9 y 7% (p/v) de concentración de sal. S. chelatiphaga HS2 fue el degradador de TBT más efectivo, con capacidad de transformar la mayor parte de ese compuesto en dibutiltina y monobutiltina (DBT y MBT). Se amplificó un gen de la cepa HS2, que fue identificado como tipo TBTB-permeasa, que codifica para una ArsB permeasa. Un análisis de la cepa HS2 por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa con transcriptasa inversa (RT PCR) confirmó que el gen TBTB-permeasa contribuye a la resistencia al TBT. Estos 3 nuevos degradadores haloalcalifílicos de TBT no habían sido reportados previamente.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/isolation & purification , Environmental Restoration and Remediation/methods , Biodegradation, Environmental , Mediterranean Sea/epidemiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Reverse Transcription/genetics , Environmental Restoration and Remediation/analysis
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