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1.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 41(3): 180-185, dic. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1423690

ABSTRACT

La pericarditis purulenta es una patología poco frecuente pero que conlleva alta mortalidad. En la era pre antibióticos, se observaba en pacientes con neumonía complicada y las cocáceas gram positivas eran los gérmenes frecuentemente involucrados. Por otro lado, la pericarditis tuberculosa representa el 1% del total de casos de tuberculosis, aunque es frecuente zonas endémicas, principalmente asociada a la infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH). Presentamos el caso de un paciente de 19 años, en situación calle, infectado con VIH, con diagnóstico de pericarditis purulenta, donde se demostró la co-infección de Mycobacterium tuberculosis y Streptecoccus pneumoniae en el pericardio. La pericarditis purulenta polimicrobiana es poco frecuente y la co-infección por los gérmenes mencionados es anecdótica. A pesar del tratamiento antimicrobiano, el aseo quirúrgico, los esteroides y la fibrinolisis intrapericárdica, esta patología tiene un pronóstico ominoso, en parte, debido a la condición basal de los enfermos que la padecen.


Purulent pericarditis is a rare disease with a high mortality rate. In the pre-antibiotic era it was observed as a complication in patients with pneumonia. Gram-positive coccaceae were the most commonly implicated bacteria. Tuberculous pericarditis represents 1% of all tuberculosis (TBC) cases, although it is common in endemic areas, associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We present the case of a 19-year-old homeless, admitted with HIV and malnutrition, diagnosed with purulent pericarditis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Streptococcus pneumoniae were found as a cause of purulent pericarditis. Polymicrobial purulent pericarditis is a rare condition and co-infection with the bacteria previously mentioned is merely anecdotal. Despite antimicrobial treatment, surgical management, steroids, and intrapericardial fibrinolysis, this pathology has an ominous prognosis, due in part to the pre-existing condition of these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Young Adult , Pericarditis/diagnosis , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Pericarditis/microbiology , Pericarditis/therapy , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Infections/therapy , HIV Infections/complications , Fatal Outcome , Mycobacterium tuberculosis
2.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 93(2): e223, dic. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1411453

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la fiebre es un motivo muy frecuente de consulta y hasta en un 20% de los pacientes no se encuentra la causa. En el ámbito de la emergentología pediátrica clásicamente ha existido interés en homogeneizar la forma de evaluar los lactantes febriles menores de tres meses. Contar con un protocolo que permita detectar precozmente el niño que cursa una infección bacteriana invasiva (IBI) sin realizar conductas desproporcionadas es todo un desafío. Objetivo: evaluar y comparar la capacidad para identificar IBI en la pauta actual de fiebre sin foco (FSF) como en la estrategia step by step, en lactantes con FSF valorados en el DEP-CHPR. Material y métodos: estudio observacional, descriptivo, retrospectivo y de pruebas diagnósticas. Criterios de inclusión: lactantes menores de 90 días de vida que consultaron en 2017 y 2018 en DEP-CHPR con diagnóstico de FSF. Resultados: se incluyeron 261 lactantes evaluados con la pauta de FSF actual, en ellos se aplicó la estrategia step by step. El rango de edad fue de 84 días (4-88 días) con una media de 41 días. Sexo masculino 148 niños (56,7%). Se registraron 37 infecciones bacterianas (14,2%) de las cuales 3 fueron IBI (1,1%) y 34 fueron no-IBI (13,1%). La sensibilidad para step by step fue de 0,94% y de 0,89 para la pauta actual, con un VPN de 0,98 para ambas estrategias. Discusión: los lactantes menores de 3 meses son más susceptibles por características fisiológicas a infecciones bacterianas invasivas y cuanto más pequeño aumenta aún más la frecuencia. El step by step discrimina a menores de 1 mes en menores de 21 días y otro grupo de más de 21 días. Nuestra pauta no hace esta discriminación y realiza por igual laboratorio en sangre, orina y líquido cefalorraquídeo; realizando en ocasiones estudios cruentos no necesarios. Conclusiones: ambas estrategias aplicadas en esta población resultaron altamente sensibles para identificar infección bacteriana con un VPN elevado. La aplicación de step by step presenta como beneficio adicional evitar con seguridad la punción lumbar en recién nacidos entre los 21 y 28 días.


Introduction: fever is a very frequent reason for consultation and in up to 20% of patients the cause has not been found. In the field of pediatric emergentology, there has been a traditional interest in homogenizing the way of assessing febrile infants under three months of age. Having a protocol that enables early detection of children with IBIs without engaging in disproportionate procedures is a challenge. Objective: to evaluate and compare the ability to identify IBIs in the present FSF regimen as in the Step-by-Step strategy, in infants with FSF assessed at the Pereira Rossell Pediatric Hospital Center. Material and methods: observational, descriptive, retrospective study and diagnostic tests. Inclusion criteria: Infants under 90 days of age who consulted in 2017 and 2018 at the DEP-CHPR with a diagnosis of FSF. Results: 261 infants diagnosed with FSF regimen were included and they all received a Step-by-Step approach. The age range was 84 days (4 - 88) days with a mean of 41 days. Males 148 children (56.7%). There were 37 bacterial infections (14.2%), of which 3 were IBI (1.1%) and 34 were Non-IBI (13.1%). The sensitivity for the Step-by-Step approach was 0.94% and 0.89 for the current regimen, with a NPV of 0.98 for both strategies. Discussion: infants younger than 3 months-old are more susceptible due to physiological characteristics to invasive bacterial infections, and the younger they are, the higher the frequency. The Step-by-Step Approach splits children of under 1 month of age into those under or over 21 days of age. Our guideline does not make this discrimination and performs the same blood, urine and cerebrospinal fluid laboratory tests sometimes carrying out blood tests is not necessary. Conclusions: both approaches used in this population were highly sensitive to the identification of bacterial infections with a high NPV. The application of the "Step-by-Step" approach has the additional benefit of avoiding lumbar puncture to newborns of between 21 and 28 days of age.


Introdução: a febre é um motivo muito comum de consulta e em até 20% dos pacientes a causa não é encontrada. No campo da emergência pediátrica, tradicionalmente tem havido interesse em homogeneizar a forma de avaliação de lactentes febris menores de três meses de idade. Ter um protocolo que permita a detecção precoce de uma criança com IBI sem realizar procedimentos desproporcionais é um desafio. Objetivo: avaliar e comparar a capacidade de identificação de IBI na atual Diretriz da FSF e na estratégia Passo a Passo, em lactentes com FSF avaliados no DEP-CHPR. Material e métodos: estudo observacional, descritivo, retrospectivo e de testes diagnósticos. Critérios de inclusão: Lactentes com menos de 90 dias de idade que consultaram em 2017 e 2018 no Hospital Pediátrico Pereira Rossell do Uruguai com diagnóstico de FSF. Resultados: Foram incluídos 261 lactentes avaliados com a atual diretriz da FSF, nos quais foi aplicada a estratégia Passo a Passo. A faixa etária foi de 84 dias (4 - 88) dias com média de 41 dias. Sexo masculino 148 crianças (56,7%). Foram registradas 37 infecções bacterianas (14,2%), sendo 3 IBI (1,1%) e 34 Não IBI (13,1%). A sensibilidade para Passo a Passo foi de 0,94% e 0,89 para o esquema atual, com VPN de 0,98 para ambas estratégias. Discussão: crianças menores de 3 meses de idade são mais suscetíveis a infecções bacterianas invasivas devido às características fisiológicas e quanto menores, mais frequentes. O Passo a Passo separa crianças menores de 1 mês em dois grupos: menores de 21 dias e acima de 21 dias. Nossa diretriz não faz essa discriminação e realiza exames laboratoriais de sangue, urina e líquido cefalorraquidiano da mesma forma; às vezes realizando estudos de sangue que não são necessários. Conclusões: ambas as estratégias aplicadas nesta população foram altamente sensíveis para identificar infecção bacteriana com alto VPN. A aplicação do "Passo a Passo" apresenta como benefício adicional evitar a punção lombar em recém-nascidos entre 21 e 28 dias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Sensitivity and Specificity , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures/standards , Fever of Unknown Origin/etiology , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Evaluation Study
3.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 38(3): 384-392, jun. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388261

ABSTRACT

Resumen Esta revisión narrativa incluye estudios publicados sobre métodos de clasificación de mortinatos y su eficiencia para identificar la infección bacteriana ascendente (IBA) como causa de muerte fetal (MF), mediante búsqueda en PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, ScienceDirect, Wiley Online Library, Scielo. Muchos niños mueren antes de nacer en todo el mundo y no se ha logrado reducir la MF porque los métodos empleados no han sido los adecuados y porque no se diagnostica la IBA, la causa más frecuente de MF en un hospital público de Chile. Los sistemas que utilizan los datos clínicos, de laboratorio y estudio placentarios, INCODE, CORM, son los más eficientes para identificar la IBA como origen de la MF. Se ha demostrado que los marcadores específicos de infección/inflamación placentaria, corioamnionitis histológica/funisitis aguda son de mayor eficiencia para diagnosticar la IBA que la autopsia fetal, que el cultivo de líquido amniótico es más eficiente que el cultivo de la placenta para detectar invasión microbiana de la cavidad amniótica y que la muestra de sangre de cordón es eficiente para el diagnóstico etiológico de la infección. El conocimiento de la IBA como causa inicial de MF, ayuda a elaborar guías y normas de prevención de la MF por esta condición.


Abstract This narrative review includes published studies of stillbirth classification methods and their efficiency in identifying ascending bacterial infection (ABI), as a cause of fetal death (FD), by searching PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, ScienceDirect, Wiley Online Library, Scielo. Many children die before birth around the world and it has not been possible to reduce FD because the methods used have not been adequate and because ABI, the most frequent cause of FD in a public hospital in Chile, is not diagnosed. Systems using clinical, laboratory and placental study data, INCODE, CORM, are more efficient in identifying ABI as the origin of FD. Specific markers of infection/placental inflammation, histologic chorioamnionitis/acute funitis have been shown to be more efficient in diagnosing ABI than fetal autopsy, that amniotic fluid culture is more efficient than placental culture for detect microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity and that the cord blood sample is efficient for the etiological diagnosis of the infection. The knowledge of the ABI as the initial cause of FD helps to develop guidelines and norms for preventing FD due to this condition.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Fetal Death/etiology , Placenta , Cause of Death , Amniotic Fluid , Laboratories
4.
Acta otorrinolaringol. cir. cuello (En línea) ; 49(2): 112-120, 2021. TAB, ILUS, GRAF
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1253865

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: actualmente los profesionales de la salud se enfrentan al manejo de las vías aéreas artificiales en grupos pediátricos, esto requiere de cuidados delicados y mucha atención para detectar, establecer y manejar situaciones apremiantes; por esta razón, existe un mayor riesgo de aparición de infecciones bacterianas traqueopulmonares. El objetivo del estudio fue analizar la caracterización de las infecciones en pacientes pediátricos portadores de cánula de traqueotomía en las diferentes publicaciones científicas. Materiales y métodos: se realizó una revisión sistemática mediante la búsqueda de la literatura existente entre los años 2015-2020 en las bases de datos Elsevier, PubMed, Google Académico y SciELO, teniendo en cuenta los criterios de inclusión artículos en idioma inglés, español y población de edad entre los 0-15 años con infección de cánula de traqueotomía en los años 2015-2020. Resultados: de 258 artículos distribuidos en las bases de datos, se seleccionaron 21 artículos que cumplían con los criterios de inclusión. Conclusiones: a pesar de que en la actualidad existan criterios clínicos, factores de riesgo y pruebas de laboratorio asociados a infecciones de la cánula postraqueotomía en pacientes pediátricos, se requiere mayor investigación para definir las guías clínicas de manejo en la toma de decisiones médicas. Asimismo, se consideró como limitación importante la cantidad de literatura existente con respecto al tema.


Abstract Introduction: Currently, health professionals face the management of artificial airways in pediatric groups, this requires delicate care and a lot of attention to detect, establish and manage pressing situations, which is why there is a greater risk of tracheo-pulmonary bacterial infections. The objective was to analyze the characterization of infections in pediatric patients with tracheostomy tubes in the different scientific publications. Method: A systematic review of the literature was carried out between the years 2015-2020 in Elsevier, PubMed, Google Academic and SciELO databases, taking into account the inclusion criteria of the population aged 0-15 years in the years 2015-2020. The amount of existing literature on the subject was considered an important limitation. Results: From 258 articles distributed in the databases, 21 articles were selected that met the inclusion criteria. Conclusions: Although there are currently clinical criteria, risk factors and laboratory tests associated with infections of the post-tracheotomy tube in pediatric patients, further research is required to define clinical guidelines for management in medical decision-making.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Bacterial Infections/etiology , Tracheitis/microbiology , Tracheotomy/adverse effects , Bronchitis/microbiology , Cannula/adverse effects , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Tracheitis/diagnosis , Tracheitis/drug therapy , Bronchitis/diagnosis , Bronchitis/drug therapy
5.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(2): 199-208, abr. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098892

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: Un 20% de los niños con síndrome febril se presenta como síndrome febril sin foco (SFSF). Las es trategias de manejo en este grupo presentan alta sensibilidad, pero baja especificidad. Objetivos: Ca racterizar las infecciones bacterianas serias (IBS) en menores de 3 meses hospitalizados por SFSF, y evaluar utilidad de parámetros clínicos y de laboratorio en la identificación de pacientes con alto riesgo de IBS. Pacientes y Método: Estudio prospectivo en pacientes < 3 meses hospitalizados entre enero 2014 y noviembre 2015 por SFSF en dos hospitales pediátricos de la Región Metropolitana. Criterios de inclusión: edad 4 días - 3 meses, fiebre > 38°C de < 72 h de evolución sin causa demostra ble. Criterios de exclusión: uso de antimicrobianos hasta 7 días previo a su ingreso, prematuros < 34 semanas, peso de nacimiento < 2 kg e inmunocomprometidos. Se registraron datos demográficos, clínicos, y exámenes de laboratorio, hemograma y PCR, diagnóstico de egreso, IBS descartada, IBS probable o confirmada. Resultados: 32% de los pacientes egresó con diagnóstico de IBS, 28% con diagnóstico de infección viral o probablemente viral, 34% con diagnóstico de SFSF no especificado y 6% SFSF por otras causas. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en PCR, leucocitosis, aspecto tóxico ni horas de fiebre al ingreso al comparar los grupos con y sin IBS (p > 0,05). La combinación de parámetros clínicos y de laboratorio mostro sensibilidad de 27%, especificidad de 90%, VPP 60% y VPN 71%. Conclusión: No fue posible establecer que parámetros clínicos y de laboratorio permitan identificar menores de 3 meses con alto riesgo de IBS, manteniendo su utilidad como indicadores de bajo riesgo. Es necesario contar con otros elementos clínicos y de laboratorio que permitan discrimi nar IBS de infecciones virales.


Abstract: Introduction: In 20% of children with febrile syndrome, it appears as fever of unknown origin (FUO) syndrome. Management strategies in this group have high sensitivity but low specificity. Objectives: To cha racterize serious bacterial infections (SBI) in children younger than three months old hospitalized because of FUO syndrome and to evaluate the utility of clinical and laboratory parameters in the identification of patients that are at high risk of SBI. Patients and Method: Prospective study in patients aged < 3 months hospitalized due to FUO syndrome between January 2014 and November 2015 in two pediatric hospitals in the Metropolitan Region. Inclusion criteria: age 4 days - 3 months, fever > 38°C longer than 72 hours after onset without demonstrable cause. Exclusion criteria: anti microbial use up to 7 days before admission, preterm infants < 34 weeks, birth weight < 2 kg, and im munocompromised. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory tests data were recorded as well as blood count and CRP, discharge diagnosis, and ruled out, probable or confirmed SBI. Results: 32% of the patients were discharged with diagnosis of SBI, 28% with diagnosis of viral or probably viral infec tion, 34% with diagnosis of not specified FUO syndrome, and 6% due to other causes. There were no significant differences in the CRP value, altered WBCs count, toxic aspect, or hours of fever at the admission when comparing groups with and without SBI (p < 0.05). The combination of clinical and laboratory parameters showed 27% of sensitivity, 90% of specificity, 60% of PPV, and 71% of NPV. Conclusion: It was not possible to establish clinical and laboratory parameters that allow the identifi cation of children younger than 3 months old at high risk of SBI, however, they maintain their value as low risk indicators. It is necessary further investigation of other clinical and laboratory elements that allow discriminating SBI from viral infections.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Bacterial Infections/complications , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Severity of Illness Index , Fever of Unknown Origin/etiology , Clinical Decision Rules , Hospitalization , Syndrome , Bacterial Infections/blood , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Biomarkers/blood , Logistic Models , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Risk Assessment
6.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 57(1): e2139, ene.-mar. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126489

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Introdução: A saliva humana é constituída de um vasto arsenal de produtos secretórios com imenso potencial informativo e útil para detecção de determinadas patologias. A facilidade de obtenção e a especificidade dos biomarcadores, faz desta uma importante ferramenta clínica como método diagnóstico. Objetivo: Verificar, através de uma revisão de literatura, a utilização da saliva como método diagnóstico para doenças orais e sistêmicas. Métodos: Foram selecionados artigos publicados em inglês, no banco de dados online PubMed com descritores "saliva", "biomarkers" e "diagnosis", entre o período de 2013 a setembro 2018. Foram incluídos artigos no idioma inglês, dos últimos 5 anos. Foram obtidos 245 artigos. O estudo se conteve em 17 destes. Análise e integração da informação: Foi notória a aplicabilidade da saliva como método diagnóstico para uma variedade de doenças, entre as quais se podem citar: doenças bacterianas como a cárie dentária, pela detecção do Streptococcus mutans e Lactobacillus spp.; doenças autoimunes como a Síndrome de Sjögren, indicada não apenas pela redução do fluxo salivar, como também pelo aumento na concentração de sódio, cloro, Imunoglobulina A (IgA), Imunoglobulina G (IgG), e Prostaglandina E2 (PGE2); doenças virais como no diagnóstico auxiliar do HIV 1 e 2 pela expressão de IgG e também no diagnóstico precoce de enfermidades malignas como o carcinoma de células escamosas e o câncer de mama, pela detecção de anticorpos frente à proteína p53 e pela presença de marcadores tumorais como o c-erbB-2. Conclusão: O diagnóstico molecular na cavidade oral por meio da saliva mostra ser um método simples, não invasivo e muito promissor para o diagnóstico e monitoramento de inúmeras patologias(AU)


RESUMEN Introducción: La saliva humana está constituida de un considerable arsenal de productos secretorios con inmenso potencial informativo y útil para la detección de determinadas enfermedades. La facilidad de obtención y la especificidad de los biomarcadores, hace de esta una importante herramienta clínica como método diagnóstico. Objetivo: Verificar, por medio de una revisión bibliográfica, la utilización de la saliva como método diagnóstico para enfermedades bucales y sistémicas. Métodos: Se seleccionaron artículos publicados en inglés, en la base de datos online PubMed con descriptores "saliva", "biomarkers" y "diagnosis", entre el período de 2013 a septiembre de 2018. Se incluyeron artículos en idioma inglés, de los últimos 5 años. Se obtuvieron 245 artículos. El estudio se circunscribió a 17. Análisis e integración de la información: Se observó la aplicabilidad de la saliva como método diagnóstico para una variedad de enfermedades, entre las que cabe citar: enfermedades bacterianas como la caries, por la detección del Streptococcus mutans y Lactobacillus spp.; las enfermedades autoinmunes como el síndrome de Sjögren, indicado no solo por la reducción del flujo salivar, sino también por el aumento en la concentración de sodio, cloro, Inmunoglobulina A (IgA), Inmunoglobulina G (IgG), y Prostaglandina E2 (PGE2); las enfermedades virales como el diagnóstico auxiliar del VIH 1 y 2 por la expresión de IgG y también el diagnóstico precoz de enfermedades malignas como el carcinoma de células escamosas y el cáncer de mama, por la detección de anticuerpos contra la proteína p53 y por la presencia de marcadores tumorales como el c-erbB-2. Conclusiones: El diagnóstico molecular en la cavidad bucal por medio de la saliva muestra ser un método simple, no invasivo y muy prometedor para el diagnóstico y monitoreo de innumerables enfermedades(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Human saliva consists of a vast arsenal of secretory products with huge information potential useful for the detection of certain diseases. The easy availability and the specificity of biomarkers make them an important clinical tool as a diagnostic method. Objective: By means of a bibliographic review, verify the use of saliva as a diagnostic method for oral and systemic diseases. Methods: A bibliographic search was conducted in the online database PubMed for papers published in English from 2013 to September 2018, using the search terms "saliva", "biomarkers" and "diagnosis". Papers written in English in the last five years were selected. Of the 245 papers obtained, the study considered 17. Data analysis and integration: It was found that saliva may be used as a diagnostic method for a variety of diseases. These include bacterial diseases such as dental caries, by detection of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp.; autoimmune diseases such as Sjögren's syndrome, indicated not only by the decrease in salivary flow, but also by the increase in the concentration of sodium, chlorine, immunoglobulin A (IgA), immunoglobulin G (IgG), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2); viral diseases as in the auxiliary diagnosis of HIV 1 and 2 by IgG expression and also in the early diagnosis of malignant diseases such as squamous cell carcinoma and breast cancer by detection of antibodies against p53 protein and the presence of tumor markers such as c-erbB-2. Conclusions: Molecular diagnostic examination of the oral cavity using saliva has shown to be a simple, non-invasive and very promising method for the diagnosis and monitoring of numberless diseases(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Saliva/microbiology , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Biomarkers/analysis , Mouth Diseases/diagnosis , Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , Review Literature as Topic
7.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 87: e0092020, 2020. tab
Article in English | VETINDEX, LILACS | ID: biblio-1121090

ABSTRACT

Abortion and complications in reproduction are important causes of economic loss in horse breeding. Studies of its causal agents can help to identify the primary pathogens or other factors involved and define appropriate measures to reduce its occurrence. This research aimed to investigate the primary causes of equine abortion, stillbirth, and perinatal mortality in regions of Brazil. Tissue from aborted fetuses, stillbirths, neonates and foals submitted to the Biological Institute of São Paulo, Brazil, from January 2010 to July 2013 were processed for viral and bacterial isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), histology, and immunohistochemistry. Bacterial infection was the primary detected cause of abortion, found in 16 of the 53 animals submitted for bacterial analysis followed by viruses analysis in 2 of 105 animals, and noninfectious causes (neonatal isoerythrolysis) in 2 of 105 animals. Fungi were found in a single sample of 53 tested. The most frequent bacteria recovered were Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, combined E. coli and Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Bacillus spp. The following agents were each observed in a single sample: Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Streptococcus spp., Corynebacterium spp., Actinobacillus spp., and Rhodococcus equi. The predominant identification of fecal and other opportunistic bacteria as opposed to pathogens commonly associated with equine abortion, such as Leptospira spp. and equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1), suggests the need of improving hygiene management of breeding mares to prevent bacterial infection that may cause fetal loss, stillbirth, and perinatal mortality.(AU)


Abortamento e complicações na reprodução são importantes causas de perda econômica na equideocultura. Estudos dos agentes causais podem ajudar a identificar patógenos ou outros fatores envolvidos e definir medidas apropriadas para reduzir sua ocorrência. Esta pesquisa investigou as causas primárias de aborto, natimortalidade e mortalidade perinatal em equinos de diversas regiões do Brasil. Tecidos de fetos abortados, natimortos e potros submetidos ao Instituto Biológico de São Paulo, Brasil, no período de janeiro de 2010 a julho de 2013, foram processados por meio de técnicas de isolamento viral e bacteriano, PCR, histologia e imuno-histoquímica. Infecção bacteriana foi a causa mais detectada, encontrada em 16 de 53 amostras submetidas à análise bacteriana, seguida de causa viral em 2 de 105 amostras, e causas não infecciosas (isoeritrólise neonatal) em 2 de 105 amostras. Fungo foi encontrado em uma única amostra de 53 testadas. As bactérias isoladas mais frequentemente foram Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, E. coli associada a Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp. associado a Bacillus spp. Os seguintes agentes foram observados em uma única amostra cada: Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Streptococcus spp., Corynebacterium spp., Actinobacillus spp. e Rhodococcus equi. A identificação predominante de bactérias fecais e outras bactérias oportunistas, ao invés de outros patógenos comumente associados a quadros de abortamento equino, tais como Leptospira spp. e Herpesvírus equino tipo 1, sugere a necessidade de maior atenção no manejo higiênico das éguas em reprodução, a fim de prevenir infecções bacterianas que possam causar perda fetal, natimortalidade e mortalidade perinatal.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Bacterial Infections/complications , Abortion, Veterinary/etiology , Horses , Staphylococcus/isolation & purification , Streptococcus/isolation & purification , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Brazil , Virus Diseases/complications , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Immunohistochemistry , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cause of Death , Enterobacter aerogenes/isolation & purification , Abortion, Veterinary/mortality , Aborted Fetus , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Mycoses/complications , Mycoses/diagnosis
8.
Rev. gastroenterol. Perú ; 39(4): 348-354, oct.-dic 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144620

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La peritonitis bacteriana espontánea requiere un diagnóstico temprano para el inicio de antibioticoterapia. El estudio diagnóstico ideal es el citoquímico del líquido ascítico, el cual puede ser costoso, demorado y de disponibilidad limitada en centros primarios de atención en salud. Objetivo: Evaluar la utilidad y precisión diagnóstica de las tiras reactivas Multistix 10SG para el diagnóstico de peritonitis bacteriana espontánea en pacientes cirróticos con ascitis. Materiales y métodos: Estudio observacional descriptivo de prueba diagnóstica en pacientes cirróticos con ascitis. Se determinó el conteo de leucocitos del líquido ascítico por la escala colorimétrica de la tira reactiva Multistix 10SG y se comparó con el gold standard para el diagnóstico (polimorfonucleares ≥ 250 células/mm³). Resultados: De 174 pacientes con ascitis (51,7% mujeres, promedio de edad 59 años) 30 fueron diagnosticados con peritonitis bacteriana espontánea. Con un punto de corte grado ++, la tira reactiva tuvo sensibilidad 73,3%, especificidad 96,5%, valor predictivo positivo 81,4%, valor predictivo negativo 94,5%, razón de probabilidad positiva 21,2 y razón de probabilidad negativa 0,27. Conclusiones: Las tiras reactivas tienen adecuada especificidad y valor predictivo negativo, siendo una herramienta de bajo costo, uso sencillo, rápida interpretación y fácil acceso, para apoyar la decisión de no iniciar antibiótico en pacientes con ascitis y sospecha de peritonitis bacteriana espontánea. Por su baja sensibilidad no reemplazan al estudio citoquímico como prueba de elección para el diagnóstico definitivo, pero si es útil para optimizar el abordaje inicial de estos pacientes.


Introduction: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis requires an early diagnosis to start antibiotic therapy. The ideal diagnostic study is the cytochemical of ascites fluid, which can be expensive, delayed and of limited availability in primary health care centers. Objective: Evaluate the usefulness and diagnostic accuracy of Multistix 10SG test strips for the diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhotic patients with ascites. Materials and methods: Observational descriptive study of diagnostic test in cirrhotic patients with ascites. The leukocyte count of ascites fluid was determined by the colorimetric scale of the Multistix 10SG test strip and compared with the gold standard for diagnosis (polymorphonuclear ≥ 250 cells / mm³). Results: Of 174 patients with ascites (51.7% women, average age 59 years) 30 were diagnosed with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. With a grade ++ cut-off point, the test strip had sensitivity 73.3%, specificity 96.5%, positive predictive value 81.4%, negative predictive value 94.5%, positive likelihood ratio 21.2 and negative likelihood ratio of 0.27. Conclusions: The test strips have adequate specificity and negative predictive value, being a low cost tool, simple use, quick interpretation and easy access, to support the decision not to start an antibiotic in patients with ascites and suspected spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Due to their low sensitivity they do not replace the cytochemical study as the test of choice for the definitive diagnosis, but it is useful for optimizing the initial approach of these patients.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Peritonitis/diagnosis , Ascites/complications , Reagent Strips , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Early Diagnosis , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Peritonitis/microbiology , Ascites/microbiology , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity , Leukocyte Count , Liver Cirrhosis/microbiology
9.
Rev. gastroenterol. Perú ; 39(2): 111-115, abr.-jun. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058500

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is challenging to treat and diagnose and is associated with diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Although no FDA-approved medications exist for treatment of SIBO, rifaximin has recently received approval to treat diarrhea-predominant IBS and patients with methane-positive SIBO breath tests. The aim of this study is to evaluate patient response to rifaximin for SIBO based on breath test results. Materials and methods: All patients underwent breath testing to evaluate for SIBO during a 42-month period. Patients were defined as having a positive glucose breath test for SIBO based on an increase of ≥ 20 ppm of hydrogen and/or ≥ 10 ppm of methane 90 minutes after ingesting glucose. Patient demographic and symptom data, antibiotic treatment regimens, symptomatic response to therapy, and repeat treatments were recorded. Institutional review board approval was obtained. Results: A total of 53 of 443 patients had positive breath testing for SIBO. Response rates to rifaximin (550 mg three times daily for 14 days) were 47.4% for hydrogen positivity alone and 80% for both hydrogen and methane positivity. Conclusions: Rifaximin was the most commonly prescribed antibiotic regimen for SIBO therapy. Patients with hydrogen or hydrogen and methane positive breath tests responded well to rifaximin therapy. For patients with hydrogen-positive SIBO, rifaximin may prove a highly effective therapy in providing symptom relief from the effects of SIBO.


Objetivos: El sobrecrecimiento bacteriano de intestino delgado es una entidad difícil de diagnosticar y tratar, frecuentemente asociada con el síndrome de intestino irritable. A pesar que la FDA no ha aprobado medicamentos para tratar el sobrecrecimiento bacteriano, la rifaximina ha sido recientemente aprobada para tratar el intestino irritable tipo diarrea y en pacientes con test de aliento metano positivo en sobrecrecimiento bacteriano. El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la respuesta a rifaximina de los pacientes con sobrecremiento bacteriano con prueba de aliento positiva. Material y métodos: Todos los pacientes que se realizaron prueba de aliento por sobrecrecimiento bacteriano durante un periodo de 42 meses. Se definió un paciente con sobrecrecimiento bacteriano positivo si tenía un incremento mayor a 20 ppm de hidrógeno y/o 10 ppm de metano luego de 90 minutos de la ingesta de glucosa. Se registraron los datos demográficos, síntomas, tratamiento antibióticos recibidos, respuesta a la terapia, y repetición de tratamientos. Resultados: Un total de 53 de 443 pacientes tuvieron prueba de aliento positiva para sobrecrecimiento bacteriano. La tasa de respuesta a rifaximina (550 mg tres veces x día x 14 días) fue 47.4% para pacientes con sólo test de hidrógeno positivo, y 80% para pacientes con tanto test de hidrógeno como metano positivos. Conclusiones: La rifaximina es el régimen antibiótico más frecuentemente utilizado en sobrecrecimiento bacteriano. Los pacientes con prueba de aliento de hidrógeno o hidrógeno y metano positivos respondieron bien a la rifaximina. Para pacientes con sobrecrecimiento bacteriano prueba de hidrógeno positiva, la rifaximina puede ser una terapia efectiva en mejorar síntomas.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Rifaximin/therapeutic use , Intestine, Small/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Bacterial Infections/metabolism , Breath Tests , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Hydrogen/analysis , Hydrogen/metabolism , Methane/analysis , Methane/metabolism
10.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1150791

ABSTRACT

El género Klebsiella tiene importancia en hospitales y sanatorios por su tendencia a causar brotes. Una característica sobresaliente es la resistencia natural y/o adquirida a antimicrobianos. Según la red WHONET - Argentina, existe circulación de Klebsiella en nosocomios, particularmente en salas de terapia intensiva. En este trabajo se evaluó la presencia de Klebsiella spp. en 1233 pacientes de un sanatorio de la ciudad de Resistencia (Chaco), durante el período 2015 ­ 2017. La detección de la bacteria se realizó por cultivo y la sensibilidad se determinó por difusión en agar. Se detectó Klebsiella en 5.6% (69) de las muestras y multirresistencia en 84% de los aislamientos. Se concluye que existe circulación de Klebsiella en la institución, debe ser correctamente identificada y establecido su nivel de resistencia. Esto es fundamental para disminuir los fracasos terapéuticos


The Klebsiella genus is important in hospitals and sanatoriums because of its tendency to cause outbreaks. An outstanding characteristic is the natural and / or acquired resistance to antimicrobials. According to the WHONET-Argentina network, there is Klebsiella circulation in hospitals, particularly in intensive care rooms. In this work, we searched Klebsiella spp. in 1233 patients from a sanatorium in the city of Resistencia (Chaco), during the period 2015 - 2017. The detection of the bacteria was carried out by culture and the sensitivity was determined by agar diffusion. Klebsiella was detected in 5.6% (69) of the samples and multiresistance in 84% of the isolates. It is concluded that there is Klebsiella circulation in the institution, it must be correctly identified and its level of resistance established. This is essential to reduce therapeutic failures


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Disease Outbreaks , Hospitals , Klebsiella , Nursing Homes , Patients
11.
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1263861

ABSTRACT

Introduction : les décès des nouveau-nés demeurent encore un problème majeur de santé en Afrique malgré les ressources déployées. Le diagnostic des infections bactériennes materno-fœtales semble être souvent fait en excès avec un usage abusif des antibiotiques. L'objectif de l'étude était d'analyser les critères de diagnostic des infections materno-fœtales bactériennes et d'apprécier l'usage abusif des antibiotiques. Patients et méthodes : il s'agissait d'une enquête descriptive réalisée dans le service de Néonatologie de l'hôpital de la Mère et de l'Enfant de Ndjamena et basée sur l'étude des dossiers de tous les nouveau-nés hospitalisés au cours de la période du 1er Janvier au 30 Avril 2019 avec un âge inférieur à 72 heures de vie à l'admission, diagnostiqués pour une infection materno-fœtale et ayant reçu une antibiothérapie pendant au moins 48 heures. L'antibiothérapie a été considérée comme abusive si elle n'avait pas été arrêtée à la 48ème heure, en l'absence de tout argument biologique en faveur d'une infection materno-fœtale bactérienne. Résultats : Sur 404 nouveau-nés hospitalisés au cours de la période d'étude, 170 étaient retenus pour infection maternofœtale soit une fréquence de 42%. En se basant sur les critères rigoureusement définis d'infection néonatale certaine, d'infection néonatale probable ou pas d'infection néonatale, la fréquence était de 16,3% avec 1 cas d'infection certaine et 65 cas d'infection probable. Les nouveau-nés prématurés représentaient 24,2% du lot. Les détresses respiratoires et les signes neurologiques étaient les principales manifestations cliniques à l'admission. Tous les nouveau-nés avaient reçu comme antibiotiques Céfotaxime et Gentamycine. L'évolution s'était faite vers le décès dans 19,7% des cas et chez 62,5% des nouveau-nés prématurés. Le point de l'antibiothérapie à 48 heures d'hospitalisation a été faite chez 15,3% des nouveau-nés. L'usage des antibiotiques n'était pas justifié et était considéré comme abusif chez les 104 nouveau-nés ne présentant pas une infection soit 25% des admissions du service. Conclusion : La fréquence des infections materno-fœtales était surestimée à 42% dans le service de néonatologie de Ndjamena avec un taux d'usage abusif des antibiotiques de 25%. Cela amène à suggérer le renforcement des capacités sur la prévention des infections en maternité et une meilleure application des recommandations de l'Agence nationale d'accréditation et d'évaluation en santé


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Chad , Drug Misuse , Infant, Newborn , Inpatients
12.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 116(1): 35-41, feb. 2018. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-887424

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Evaluamos el nivel de reactantes de fase aguda y la prueba LightCycler® SeptiFast para diferenciar infecciones bacterianas vs.virales. Métodos. Estudio prospectivo en niños febriles. Se analizaron recuento de leucocitos, proteína C-reactiva y procalcitonina en días 1, 3 y 7 de hospitalización. El día 1 se realizaron hemocultivo y radiografía de tórax. Se evaluaron dos grupos de niños que presentaron infecciones bacterianas o virales. Resultados. Se incluyeron 94 niños febriles. La temperatura media de la fiebre fue significativamente más alta en niños con infecciones bacterianas que con infecciones virales (p < 0,001). En 34 (72,3%) niños con infecciones bacterianas, el hemocultivo fue negativo. De ellos, 12 (35,2%) presentaron prueba SeptiFast positiva. No hubo resultados positivos en hemocultivos de niños con infecciones virales y todos tuvieron resultado negativo para la prueba SeptiFast. La media de proteína C-reactiva el primer día de hospitalización fue significativamente más alta en el grupo con infecciones bacterianas (p < 0,001) y en los días 3 y 7 junto con la procalcitonina fueron significativamente más altas en niños con infecciones bacterianas (p <0,001). La sensibilidad y especificidad de los leucocitos, la proteína C-reactiva y la procalcitonina fueron 63,8%, 44,7%, 74,5% y 78,7%, 68,1% y 100%, respectivamente. Las áreas bajo la curva de los leucocitos, la proteína C-reactiva y la procalcitonina fueron 0,519, 0,764 y 0,835, respectivamente. Conclusiones. Los reactantes de fase aguda, en especial procalcitonina, y la prueba LightCycler® SeptiFast podrían ayudar a diferenciar infecciones bacterianas de virales.


Introduction: This study was performed to investigate the value of acute phase reactants and LightCycler® SeptiFast test to differentiate bacterial and viral infections. Population and methods: Children with fever were enrolled to this prospective study. Peripheral white blood cell (WBC), C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) were studied from all patients on day 1, 3 and 7. Blood culture and chest X-ray were also obtained on day 1. Blood samples for LightCycler® SeptiFast test were obtained in all patients to use them if there was uncertain diagnosis between bacterial or viral infection. The patients were divided into two groups as bacterial and viral infection. Results: A total of 94 children with fever were enrolled. The mean value of fever was significantly higher in bacterial group than viral group (p <0.001). In bacterial infection group, 34 (72.3%) patients had negative blood culture. Of those, 12 (35.2%) had positive SeptiFast test. There were no positive blood culture in patients with viral infection group and all of them had negative SeptiFast test. The mean levels of CRP on the first day of admission were significantly higher in bacterial group than viral group (p <0.001). CRP and PCT levels of day 3 and 7 were significantly higher in bacterial group (p <0.001). The sensitivity and specificity levels of WBC, CRP and PCT were 63.8%, 44.7%, 74.5% and 78.7% ,68.1% and 100%, respectively. Conclusions: We found that acute phase reactants, especially PCT, and LightCycler® SeptiFast test may help to differentiate bacterial and viral infections.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Bacterial Infections/blood , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Virus Diseases/blood , Acute-Phase Proteins/analysis , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prospective Studies , Diagnosis, Differential , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
13.
Med. infant ; 24(4): 331-335, dic. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-878305

ABSTRACT

Los sistemas de derivación ventricular de líquido cefalorraquí- deo son frecuentemente utilizados en neurocirugía pediátrica para el tratamiento de la hidrocefalia de diversas etiologías. La infección es una de las principales causas de morbimortalidad en niños que son sometidos a procedimientos de colocación de derivaciones. Resumimos en esta actualización el manejo de las infecciones asociadas a shunt de acuerdo a la mejor evidencia disponible. (AU)


Shunting systems of the ventricular cerebrospinal fluid are often used in pediatric neurosurgery for the treatment of hydrocephalus due to different etiologies. Infection is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in children who undergo shunting procedures. We present an evidence-based update on the management of shunt-related infections. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Bacterial Infections/therapy , Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunts/adverse effects , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt/adverse effects
14.
Medisan ; 21(10)oct.2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-996114

ABSTRACT

El constante desarrollo de las enfermedades infecciosas, conjuntamente con la aparición de la resistencia microbiana a los antibióticos, ha originado que nuevamente se piense en los fagos como opción terapéutica. De hecho, existe una importante aportación bibliográfica sobre los bacteriófagos y su utilidad para eliminar los procesos infecciosos, lo que ha justificado el continuar investigando acerca del posible uso de estos y de sus productos génicos, como esperanzadora alternativa a los tratamientos con antimicrobianos disponibles en la actualidad. Por ello, en este artículo se ofrece información sobre estos microorganismos, en específico sobre los enzibióticos, y se propone que sean considerados en el combate contra las infecciones bacterianas.


The constant development of the infectious diseases, together with the emergence of the microbial resistance to the antibiotics, has originated that again it is thought on the phages as therapeutic option. In fact, an important literature contribution exists about the bacteriophages and their use to eliminate infectious processes, what has justified the continuity in investigating about the possible use of them and of their genic products, as a promising alternative for treatments with antimicrobials currently available. That is why, information on these microorganisms is offered in this work, specifically on the enzibiotics, and is it intended them to be considered in the bacterial infections control.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Bacteriophages/enzymology , Drug Resistance , Communicable Diseases , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Mud Therapy/methods
15.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 49(1): 18-21, jun.16, 2017. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151732

ABSTRACT

O século XXI revela um novo cenário no cuidado à saúde como consequência do avanço científico e tecnológico. Novos microrganismos têm sido documentados e as infecções têm ressurgido com nova força. Diante desta situação, a infecção tem sido apontada como um dos mais importantes riscos aos pacientes hospitalizados, e a situação fica ainda mais complicada quando as bactérias causadoras tornam-se multirresistentes aos antibióticos disponíveis. Este estudo teve como objetivo, por meio de revisão literária, associar a infecção relacionada à assistência à saúde causada por Acinetobacter baumannii nos principais sítios em pacientes comprometidos. Dentre os microrganismos envolvidos nessas infecções relacionadas à assistência à saúde, encontra-se o gênero Acinetobacter, compreendendo 31 espécies diferentes. A. baumannii é responsável por diferentes tipos de infecções, como pneumonias, septicemias, infecções urinárias e meningites, especialmente em pacientes imunocomprometidos, sendo considerado um patógeno oportunista de grande importância nas infecções nosocomiais e capaz de adquirir resistência a antimicrobianos com facilidade. Sugere-se que este gênero de bactérias tem grande importância clínica devido à sua grande incidência nas infecções relacionadas à assistência à saúde, como também à sua resistência aos antimicrobianos.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Cross Infection , Acinetobacter baumannii
16.
Mem. Inst. Invest. Cienc. Salud (Impr.) ; 15(1): 16-21, abr. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | BDNPAR, LILACS | ID: biblio-1008719

ABSTRACT

La Escherichia coli diarreogénica (ECD) se ha clasificado con base en criterios clínicos, epidemiológicos y moleculares en cinco grupos, cada uno con factores de virulencia específicos. El objetivo fue determinar la prevalencia de ECD en pacientes pediátricos con enfermedad diarreica aguda del Laboratorio Central de Salud Publica en el periodo 2012- 2015. Se procesaron muestras de heces con síndrome diarreico agudo, provenientes de pacientes pediátricos, en los cuales se buscó algún gen de virulencia ECD utilizando métodos convencionales de siembra y screening molecular, mediante PCR múltiple con cebadores diseñados específicamente para amplificar los genes de virulencia elt, est, eae, stx, ipaH y aggR. Del total de muestras analizadas, 13% (180/1379) de las muestras presentó algún factor de virulencia compatible con algún patotipo ECD con mayor predominio en niños de 1 a 3 años. La frecuencia de los distintos patotipos fue la siguiente: 61 (34%) ETEC, 40 (22%) EAEC, 41 (23%) EPEC, 27 (15%) EIEC, 7 (4%) STEC y 3 (2%) ETEC/EAEC, 1 (0.5%) ETEC/EAEC/EIEC. El porcentaje de E. coli diarreogénicas detectado tiene similitud con lo reportado en otros países de la región, lo que nos indica que estos patógenos son parte importante de la etiología de la enfermedad diarreica aguda infecciosa en la población infantil en nuestro país. Se debe destacar que para el diagnóstico de las diferentes categorías ECD, es necesario disponer de un procedimiento diagnóstico específico dirigido a la detección de los factores de virulencia utilizando métodos moleculares o métodos inmunológicos.


Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) has been classified based on clinical, epidemiological and molecular criteria in five groups, each with specific virulence factors. The objective was to determine the prevalence of DEC in pediatric patients with acute diarrheal disease of the Central Laboratory of Public Health in the 2012-2015 period. A total of 1447 fecal samples of acute diarrheal syndrome from pediatric patients were processed in which a DEC virulence gene was searched using conventional screening and molecular screening methods with multiple PCR primers specifically designed to amplify virulence genes, st, lt, eae, stx, ipaH and aggR. From the total of analyzed samples, 13% (180/1379) of the samples presented some virulence factor compatible with a DEC pathogen type with greater predominance in children from 1 to 3 years. The frequency of the different pathogen types was as follows: 61 (34%) ETEC, 40 (22%) EAEC, 41 (23%) EPEC, 27 (15%) EIEC, 7 (4%) STEC and 3 (2% ETEC/EAEC, 1 (0.5%) ETEC/EAEC/EIEC. The percentage of DEC detected is similar to that reported in other countries of the region, which indicates that these pathogens are an important part of the etiology of acute infectious diarrheal disease in children in our country. It should be noted that for the diagnosis of different DEC categories, it is necessary to have a specific diagnostic procedure aimed at the detection of virulence factors using molecular methods or immunodiagnostic methods.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Dysentery/diagnosis , Escherichia coli/genetics , Paraguay , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Dysentery/epidemiology
17.
Rev. pediatr. electrón ; 14(1): 9-12, 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-969365

ABSTRACT

La técnica de la reacción de polimerasa en cadena (PCR) en tiempo real o PCR está disponible en el Hospital Roberto del Río desde el 2015. Esta técnica rápida y muy sensible, mejora los tiempos de respuesta y facilita la toma de decisiones clínicas. Sin embargo, es importante conocer los distintos aspectos del método para hacer una correcta interpretación clínica de un resultado de PCR.


Real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a rapid and sensitive technique. It improves answer time for clinical decisions. It is important to know it well for a better clinical understanding.


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Viruses/isolation & purification
18.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 25(3): 348-352, July-Sept. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-795082

ABSTRACT

Abstract This work involved a serological investigation of tick-borne pathogens in opossums in eight municipalities of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Serum samples from 109 opossums (91 Didelphis aurita and 18 Didelphis albiventris) were tested to detect antibodies to Rickettsia rickettsii (Taiaçu strain, 1:64 cut-off) and Ehrlichia canis (São Paulo strain, 1:40 cut-off), by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA); and against Borrelia burgdorferi (strain G39/40) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The presence of antibodies to anti-R. rickettsii, anti-E. canis and anti-B. burgdorferi was detected in 32 (29.35%), 16 (14.67%) and 30 (27.52%) opossums, respectively. Opossum endpoint titers ranged from 64 to 1,024 for R. rickettsii, from 40 to 160 for E. canis, and from 400 to >51,200 for B. burgdorferi. These serological results suggest that opossums have been exposed to Rickettsia spp., Ehrlichia spp., and B. burgdorferi-related agents in the state of São Paulo. Our study underscores the need for further research about these agents in this study area, in view of the occurrence of Spotted Fever and Baggio-Yoshinari Syndrome disease in humans in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.


Resumo O presente estudo investigou evidência sorológica de agentes transmitidos por carrapatos em gambás em oito municípios do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Amostras de soro de 109 gambás (91 Didelphis aurita e 18 Didelphis albiventris) foram testadas para detecção de anticorpos contra Rickettsia rickettsii (cepa Taiaçu, ponto de corte 1:64) Ehrlichia canis (cepa São Paulo, ponto de corte 1:40), pela reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI); e contra Borrelia burgdorferi (cepa G39/40) pelo teste imunoenzimático (ELISA). A presença de anticorpos anti-R. rickettsii, anti-E. canis e anti-B. burgdorferi foi detectada em 32 (29,35%), 16 (14,67%) e 30 (27,52%) gambás, respectivamente. Os títulos finais variaram de 64 a 1.024 para R. rickettsii, de 40 a 160 para E. canis, e de 400 a >51.200 para B. burgdorferi. Esses resultados sugerem que os gambás foram expostos a agentes relacionados à Rickettsia spp., Ehrlichia spp., e B. burgdorferi no Estado de São Paulo. Neste estudo salienta a necessidade de novas pesquisas sobre esses agentes nessas áreas de trabalho, devido à ocorrência da Febre Maculosa e da Síndrome Baggio-Yoshinari em humanos no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rodent Diseases/microbiology , Rodent Diseases/epidemiology , Didelphis/microbiology , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Rodent Diseases/diagnosis , Ticks , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Brazil , Didelphis/immunology , Didelphis/blood
19.
Papua New Guinea medical journal ; : 155-163, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923052

ABSTRACT

@#Primary surgical infections are the second most common cause of surgical admission and contribute considerably to morbidity and mortality of surgical patients in developing countries. This study aimed to determine a bacterial profile and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in primary surgical infections. Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study including 150 patients diagnosed clinically as primary surgical infections. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done on the isolates using the disc diffusion method. Results: Positive cultures were obtained from 122 patients; Gram-positive bacteria were responsible for 48% (n = 59), Gram-negative for 39% (n = 48), mixed flora for 10% (n = 12) and Candida for 2% (n = 3) of primary surgical infections. The alarming finding was that 78% of Staphylococcus aureus were resistant to oxacillin (MRSA) and 83% resistant to cephalosporins, whilst 3 isolates showed intermediate resistance to vancomycin. Gram-negative isolates also demonstrated antibiotic resistance. Conclusions: This study provides recent baseline data both on the bacterial profile and the antibiotic susceptibility patterns in primary surgical infections in the Papua New Guinean setting and it should guide therapeutic policies in the country. There is a growing need for surveillance of the local microbiological epidemiology and for antimicrobial stewardship to ensure that the empirical use of antibiotics is appropriate.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use
20.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1139-1144, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-34051

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Patients with gout are similar to those with bacterial infection in terms of the nature of inflammation. Herein we compared the differences in procalcitonin (PCT) levels between these two inflammatory conditions and evaluated the ability of serum PCT to function as a clinical marker for differential diagnosis between acute gouty attack and bacterial infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Serum samples were obtained from 67 patients with acute gouty arthritis and 90 age-matched patients with bacterial infection. Serum PCT levels were measured with an enzyme-linked fluorescent assay. RESULTS: Serum PCT levels in patients with acute gouty arthritis were significantly lower than those in patients with bacterial infection (0.096±0.105 ng/mL vs. 4.94±13.763 ng/mL, p=0.001). However, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels showed no significant differences between the two groups. To assess the ability of PCT to discriminate between acute gouty arthritis and bacterial infection, the areas under the curves (AUCs) of serum PCT, uric acid, and CRP were 0.857 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.798-0.917, p<0.001], 0.808 (95% CI, 0.738-0.878, p<0.001), and 0.638 (95% CI, 0.544-0.731, p=0.005), respectively. There were no significant differences in ESR and white blood cell counts between these two conditions. With a cut-off value of 0.095 ng/mL, the sums of sensitivity and specificity of PCT were the highest (81.0% and 80.6%, respectively). CONCLUSION: Serum PCT levels were significantly lower in patients with acute gouty attack than in patients with bacterial infection. Thus, serum PCT can be used as a useful serologic marker to differentiate between acute gouty arthritis and bacterial infections.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Area Under Curve , Arthritis, Gouty/diagnosis , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Calcitonin/blood , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diagnosis, Differential , Inflammation , Leukocyte Count , Protein Precursors/blood , Sensitivity and Specificity , Uric Acid/blood
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