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2.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 72(3): 217-223, jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115545

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Es importante mantener programas de vigilancia bacteriana para disminuir resistencia y definir esquemas farmacológicos adecuados. Los pacientes con abdomen agudo representan un grupo microbiológico especial. Objetivos: Hacer una revisión de agentes patógenos en pacientes adultos operados en nuestro Servicio de Urgencia por patología abdominal con líquido libre y analizar los resultados obtenidos de cultivos respecto a las cepas y la susceptibilidad a los antibióticos. Materiales y Método: Estudio de cohorte prospectiva con estadística descriptiva. Se incluyen pacientes consecutivos, mayores de 18 años, operados por abdomen agudo que presentan líquido libre intraperitoneal entre noviembre de 2017 y abril de 2018. Se excluyen casos con terapia antimicrobiana, hospitalización y/o cirugía en los 3 meses previos. Se registran los cultivos positivos, cepas aisladas, susceptibilidad antimicrobiana, datos demográficos y evolución clínica. Resultados: De 63 pacientes 55% fueron hombres, edad promedio 52,2 años. Las patologías más frecuentes fueron de origen apendicular (62%) y de causa entérica (30%). En un 44% el cultivo fue positivo y en 36% con más de un germen. Escherichia coli fue el patógeno más frecuente (64,2%) seguidos de Enterococcus faecium y Streptococcus anginosus (7,1%). De los otros patógenos cultivados sólo se observó resistencia múltiple en un caso aislado de Morganella Morganii. Conclusiones: Estos datos constituyen la realidad microbiológica local en abdomen agudo. La Escherichia Coli sigue siendo el germen más frecuente, debe enfrentarse con profilaxis y tratamiento antibiótico adecuado. Es necesario mantener vigilancia microbiología local para un manejo acorde.


Introduction: It is important to maintain bacterial surveillance programs to decrease resistance and define adequate pharmacological schemes. Patients with abdomen represent a special microbiological group. Objetives: Make a review of pathogens in adult patients operated in our Emergency Service for abdominal pathology with free fluid and analyze the results obtained from cultures with respect to the strains and susceptibility to antibiotics. Materials and Method: Prospective cohort study with descriptive statistics. We include consecutive patients, older than 18 years old, operated on by abdomen who present free intraperitoneal fluid between November 2017 and April 2018. Cases with antimicrobial therapy, hospitalization and/or surgery 3 months prior are excluded. Positive cultures, isolated strains, antimicrobial susceptibility, demographic data and clinical evolution are recorded. Results: Of 63 patients, 55% were men and the average age was 52.2 years. The most frequent pathologies were of appendicular origin (62%) and of enteric origin (30%). In 44% the crop was positive and in 36% with more than one germ. Escherichia coli was the most frequent pathogen (64.2%) followed by Enterococcus faecium and Streptococcus anginosus (7.1%). Of the others, cultivated pathogens have only observed multiple resistance in an isolated case of Morganella Morganii. Conclusions: These data include the local microbiological reality in acute abdomen. Escherichia coli is still the most frequent germ that must be faced with the profile and the appropriate treatment. It is necessary to maintain local microbiology surveillance for a proper management.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Abdomen, Acute/surgery , Abdomen, Acute/complications , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Infections/etiology , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Ascitic Fluid , Ciprofloxacin/therapeutic use , Enterococcus faecium/drug effects , Streptococcus anginosus , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Abdomen, Acute/pathology , Metronidazole
3.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(2): 172-180, mar.-abr. 2020.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249889

ABSTRACT

Resumen La Organización Mundial de la Salud estima que en 2050 la resistencia bacteriana ocasionará 10 millones de muertes. Como parte del Plan de Acción Mundial sobre la Resistencia a los Antimicrobianos propuso redes de laboratorios especializados, para conservar cepas y optimizar el uso de los antimicrobianos. En un estudio de 2019 se identificó que las principales bacterias del grupo ESKAPE (con alta resistencia a los antibióticos más usados) que causan infecciones en hospitales de México son Klebsiella spp. resistentes a múltiples fármacos (MDR) y productoras de betalactamasa de espectro extendido (BLEE), Enterobacter spp. BLEE, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa MDR, Staphylococcus aureus meticilinorresistente y Enterococcus faecium resistente a vancomicina. Con la información de resistencia a los fármacos se recomiendan esquemas para tratar la infección causada por Helicobacter pylori, relacionado con el desarrollo de cáncer y cuya prevalencia en la población adulta de Latinoamérica se estima es de entre 60 y 70 %.


Abstract The World Health Organization estimates that bacterial resistance will cause 10 million deaths by 2050. As part of the Global Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance, it proposed networks of specialized laboratories in order to preserve strains and optimize the use of antimicrobials. In a 2019 study, the main bacteria of the ESKAPE group (which are highly-resistant to the most widely used antibiotics) that cause infections in Mexican hospitals were identified to be multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella spp., ESBL-producing Enterobacter spp., Acinetobacter baumannii, MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. With information on drug resistance, regimens are recommended to treat infection caused by Helicobacter pylori, a pathogen related to the development of cancer and whose prevalence in the adult population of Latin America is estimated to range between 60 and 70%.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Latin America/epidemiology
4.
Rev. bras. med. trab ; 18(1): 109-112, jan-mar.2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116156

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A acupuntura integra o escopo das práticas integrativas e complementares em saúde, sendo de extrema importância o uso das normas de biossegurança durante essa técnica. Objetivo: Refletir sobre biossegurança em acupuntura visando diminuir riscos ocupacionais relacionados ao evento adverso de infecção, tanto para o profissional quanto para o paciente. Método: Para a elaboração desta reflexão teórica, utilizaram-se estudos da literatura selecionados de forma intencional. As reflexões sobre biossegurança em acupuntura ocorreram no período de junho a outubro de 2019. Resultados: As infecções constituem os efeitos adversos associados à acupuntura mais relatados na literatura. Nessa prática, verifica-se elevado potencial de inoculação de microrganismos. Assim, devem-se seguir os princípios de promoção em biossegurança conscientizando os profissionais sobre a importância de tais cuidados para a própria segurança e a do paciente, sem minimizar a eficácia do tratamento. Conclusões: Recomenda-se adoção das práticas universais de biossegurança durante a realização de procedimentos de acupuntura.


Background: Acupuncture is an integrative and complementary practice for which biosafety standards are essential. Objective: To elicit a reflection on biosafety in acupuncture to reduce occupational hazards associated with infection as adverse effect for both provider and patient. Methods: The present theoretical essay is grounded on references intentionally selected from June through October 2019. Results: Infection is the adverse effect most frequently reported for acupuncture practice, which involves considerable risk of microorganism inoculation. Provider awareness should be raised to comply with biosafety principles and thus ensure their and patient safety without any negative implications for the effectiveness of treatment. Conclusion: We recommended providers to adopt universal biosafety practices during acupuncture procedures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Acupuncture Therapy , Patient Safety , Acupuncture Therapy/adverse effects
5.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(1): 9-18, feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092716

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Los programas de optimización de uso de antimicrobianos (PROA) se enfocan en el uso apropiado de antimicrobianos para ofrecer mejores resultados clínicos y menores riesgos de eventos adversos. Objetivos: Comparar consumo y costos de antimicrobianos antes y después de instauración de un programa de regulación de antimicrobianos y describir la proporción de resistencia de bacterias prioritarias. Métodos: Estudio cuasi-experimental, retrospectivo y prospectivo, descriptivo y analítico, que comparó el consumo y costo de antimicrobianos en un período pre- intervención (2007-2010) y un período post-intervención (2011-2017). Se realizó análisis descriptivo de resistencias bacterianas prioritarias. Resultados: El consumo de gentamicina, vancomicina, meropenem, cefotaxima, ceftazidima e imipenem disminuyó significativamente en el período post-intervención comparado con el período pre-intervención (p < 0,05), mientras que el consumo de amikacina, piperacilina/tazobactam, cefepime y levofloxacina en el período post-intervención mostró un aumento significativo. La reducción de costos no fue significativa para gentamicina, vancomicina, meropenem, cefotaxima, ceftazidima e imipenem. Para amikacina, cefepime, piperacilina/tazobactam y levofloxacina el aumento de costos no fue significativo. Los aislamientos de Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus y Enterococcus faecalis disminuyeron durante el período post-intervención. Conclusión: el PROA demostró disminución en consumo y costos de algunos antimicrobianos.


Abstract Background: Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs (ASP) focus in the appropriate use of antimicrobials to improve clinical results and minimize risk of adverse events. Aims: To compare consumption and costs of antimicrobials before and after the establishment of an antimicrobial stewardship program and to describe the resistance proportion of priority bacteria. Methods: Quasi-experimental, retrospective and prospective, descriptive and analytical study, to compare consumption and costs of antimicrobials in a pre- intervention period (2007-2010) and a post- intervention period (2011-2017). Additionally, a descriptive analysis of bacterial resistance from 2010 was performed. Results: Gentamicin, vancomycin, meropenem, cefotaxime, ceftazidime and imipenem consumption decreased significantly in the post-intervention period compared to the pre-intervention period (p < 0.05) while consumption of amikacin, piperacillin/tazobactam, cefepime and levofloxacin increased significantly in the post-intervention period. The reduction in costs was not significant for gentamicin, vancomycin, meropenem, cefotaxime, ceftazidime and imipenem, meanwhile, costs increased for amikacin, piperacillin/tazobactam, cefepime and levofloxacin, but this was not significant. The isolation of Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis decreased during the post-intervention period. Conclusion: The ASP showed a decrease in consumption and costs of some antimicrobials.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Preventive Health Services/economics , Preventive Health Services/standards , Preventive Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Antimicrobial Stewardship/economics , Antimicrobial Stewardship/standards , Antimicrobial Stewardship/statistics & numerical data , Anti-Bacterial Agents/economics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Panama , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Hospitals, Pediatric/economics , Hospitals, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data
6.
Medwave ; 20(8): e8029, 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1128727

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La intervención en poblaciones por medio de programas educativos logra aumentar el conocimiento en un determinado grupo y además, en algunos casos, se logra un cambio de conducta. OBJETIVO: Determinar si el programa educativo de lavado de manos aplicado a los estudiantes de educación secundaria reduce la colonización de bacterias infecciosas en las manos. METODOLOGÍA: Se realizó un estudio cuasi experimental no aleatorizado mediante muestreo consecutivo a los alumnos del último año de secundaria, quienes fueron divididos en dos grupos de intervención y control, analizados en dos etapas antes y después de la aplicación del programa educativo. Se tomaron las muestras de la mano dominante para el cultivo bacteriano. Además, se aplicó un cuestionario que evaluó los conocimientos sobre higiene de manos antes y después de la aplicación del programa, que estuvo dirigido a mejorar el nivel de conocimiento y de las actitudes de los estudiantes en relación a la higiene de manos. RESULTADOS: De 208 muestras obtenidas los agentes más frecuentes antes y después de la aplicación del programa educativo fueron Staphylococcus epidermidis (39% versus 23%) y Staphylococcus aureus (21%versus15%); el promedio del número de colonias fue 236 y 183 respectivamente (p = 0,35). CONCLUSIÓN: La aplicación del programa educativo logró mejorar el nivel de conocimiento sobre la higiene de manos. Sin embargo, no fue suficiente para reducir la colonización bacteriana, por lo que debería agregarse otras conductas como la supervisión directa.


INTRODUCTION: Educational interventions can raise awareness and understanding in population groups and may help to achieve changes in behavior. OBJECTIVE: To determine if the educational handwashing program applied to high-school students reduces the colonization of infectious bacteria on the hands. METHODS: A non-randomized quasi-experimental study was carried out using consecutive sampling of the students of the last year of high-school who were divided into an intervention group and a control group. Data were obtained before and after the implementation of the educational program. Samples were taken from the dominant hand for bacterial culture, and a questionnaire was applied that assessed knowledge of hand hygiene before and after the program. The program was aimed at improving the level of understanding and attitudes of students regarding hand hygiene. RESULTS: Of 208 samples obtained, the most frequent agents before and after the educational program were Staphylococcus epidermidis (39% versus 23%) and Staphylococcus aureus (21% versus 15%). The average number of colonies was 236 and 183 respectively (p = 0.35). CONCLUSION: The educational program managed to improve the level of understanding about hand hygiene; however, it was not enough to reduce bacterial colonization, so other behaviors such as direct supervision should be considered.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Students , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Hand Disinfection/standards , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Surveys and Questionnaires , Hand/microbiology
7.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 33(4): e1558, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152631

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Infection of the surgical site is the common complication, with significant rates of morbidity and mortality, representing a considerable economic problem for the health system. Objective: To carry out a narrative review of the literature on surgical site infection and the principles of antibiotic prophylaxis to update the knowledge of its use in surgery. Method: Medline, Ovid, Google Scholar, National Library of Medicine (PubMed), Cochrane and SciELO were used for the research. The keywords used were "anti-bacterial agents"; "antibioticoprophylaxis" AND "surgical wound infection". The inclusion criteria were articles of recent publication, with full texts available and performed in humans. Result: A total of 29 articles were evaluated and selected according to the eligibility criteria. Conclusion: Infection of the surgical site is the most common postoperative complication. The key point of its prevention is the combination of several interventions that aim to reduce risk factors, such as: compliance with the new guidelines of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention; the principles of the use of prophylactic antibiotics; factors and risk index of the surgical site; administration time; duration and dosage of antibiotics. These data are available in this article.


RESUMO Introdução: A infecção do sítio cirúrgico é a complicação comum, com taxas significativas de morbimortalidade, representando considerável problema econômico para o sistema de saúde. Objetivo: Realizar revisão narrativa da literatura sobre infecção de sítio cirúrgico e os princípios da antibioticoprofilaxia para atualizar o conhecimento de seu uso em cirurgia. Método: Utilizou-se para a pesquisa a base de dados Medline, Ovid, Google Scholar, National Library of Medicine (PubMed), Cochrane e SciELO. As palavras-chave usadas foram "anti-bacterial agents"; "antibioticoprophylaxis" AND "surgical wound infection". Os critérios de inclusão foram artigos de publicação recente, com textos completos disponíveis e realizados em humanos. Resultado: Um total de 29 artigos foi avaliado e selecionado de acordo com os critérios de elegibilidade. Conclusão: A infecção do sítio cirúrgico é a complicação pós-operatória mais comum. O ponto-chave da sua prevenção consiste na combinação de várias intervenções que visam reduzir os fatores de risco, tais como: a obediência às novas diretrizes do Centro de Controle e Prevenção de Doenças; aos princípios do uso de antibióticos profiláticos; fatores e índice de risco do local cirúrgico; tempo de administração; duração e dosagem dos antibióticos. Esses dados estão disponíveis neste artigo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Surgical Wound Infection/prevention & control , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Postoperative Complications , Surgical Wound Infection/microbiology , Infection Control , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
8.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO5427, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133722

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the surgical antibiotic prophylaxis. Methods: This was a descriptive study performed at a public tertiary care university hospital gathering prescription, sociodemographic and hospitalization data of inpatients admitted in 2014 who used antimicrobial drugs. This data were obtained from the hospital electronic database. The antimicrobial data were classified according to the anatomical, therapeutic chemical/defined daily dose per 1,000 inpatients. An exploratory analysis was performed using principal component analysis. Results: A total of 5,182 inpatients were prescribed surgical antibiotic prophylaxis. Of the total antimicrobial use, 11.7% were for surgical antibiotic prophylaxis. The orthopedic, thoracic and cardiovascular postoperative units, and postoperative intensive care unit comprised more than half of the total surgical antibiotic prophylaxis use (56.3%). The duration of antimicrobial use of these units were 2.2, 2.0, and 1.4 days, respectively. Third-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones had the longest use among antimicrobial classes. Conclusion: Surgical antibiotic prophylaxis was inadequate in the orthopedic, postoperative intensive care, thoracic and cardiovascular postoperative, gynecology and obstetrics, and otolaryngology units. Therefore, the development and implementation of additional strategies to promote surgical antibiotic stewardship at hospitals are essential.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a utilização de antibioticoprofilaxia cirúrgica. Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo descritivo em um hospital universitário de cuidado terciário por meio de coleta de dados de prescrição, sociodemográficos e de hospitalização sobre todos os pacientes internados em 2014 que utilizaram pelo menos um medicamento antimicrobiano. Esses dados foram coletados da base de dados eletrônica do hospital. O consumo de antimicrobianos foi analisado de acordo com a classificação anatômica terapêutica e química/dose diária definida por mil pacientes-dia. Realizou-se uma análise exploratória por meio da análise de componentes principais. Resultados: Um total de 5.182 pacientes internados receberam prescrição de antibioticoprofilaxia cirúrgica, que corresponde a 11,7% do total de antibióticos utilizados no hospital. As unidades de ortopedia, pós-operatória de cirurgia torácica e cardiovascular e terapia intensiva pós-operatória foram responsáveis pela utilização de mais da metade (56,3%) da antibioticoprofilaxia cirúrgica. A duração de uso desses antimicrobianos nessas unidades foi 2,2, 2,0 e 2,4 dias, respectivamente. Cefalosporinas de terceira geração e fluoroquinolonas foram as classes de antimicrobianos com tempo de utilização mais longo. Conclusão: A utilização de antibioticoprofilaxia cirúrgica foi inadequada nas unidades de ortopedia, pós-operatória de cirurgia torácica e cardiovascular, terapia intensiva pós-operatória, ginecologia e obstetrícia e otorrinolarigonlogia. Portanto, são importantes o desenvolvimento e a implantação de estratégias que promovam o uso racional de antibioticoprofilaxia cirúrgica nos hospitais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Prescriptions/statistics & numerical data , Surgical Procedures, Operative/adverse effects , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/methods , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Surgical Procedures, Operative/methods , Surgical Wound Infection/prevention & control , Drug Utilization Review , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/adverse effects , Hospitalization , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
10.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 56(3): e1380, jul.-set. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1093237

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La técnica de lavado de manos quirúrgico es imprescindible para la prevención de las infecciones posoperatorias en el sitio de la intervención, lo que constituye un problema actual y en evolución. Objetivo: Determinar la técnica de lavado de manos quirúrgico con mayor eficacia sobre la flora bacteriana en estudiantes de cirugía. Métodos: Ensayo controlado, aleatorio, de tratamientos no farmacológicos. Se seleccionaron 12 estudiantes de cirugía de la Facultad de Odontología, Universidad de San Martín de Porres, que cumplían con los criterios de inclusión y exclusión. Los estudiantes se dividieron en dos grupos y se les asignó una técnica de lavado de manos quirúrgico: Grupo A: técnica de una fase, y Grupo B: técnica tradicional (tres fases); para ambas técnicas se utilizó escobilla y jabón en barra. Resultados: En el medio de cultivo agar manitol salado, la técnica tradicional presentó una mediana de 52 000 UFC/mL con un mínimo de 10 000 UFC/mL y un máximo de 56 800 UFC/mL, en comparación con la técnica de una fase que presentó 19 600 UFC/mL con un mínimo de 4 400 UFC/mL y un máximo de 38 000 UFC/mL, con un valor de p= 0,117. En el agar MacConkey, la técnica tradicional presentó una mediana de 300 UFC/mL con un mínimo de 0 UFC/mL y un máximo de 18 000 UFC/mL, en comparación con la técnica de una fase que presentó 0 UFC/mL, con un valor de p= 0,054. Conclusiones: No se mostraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en ambos grupos(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Surgical hand scrubbing is indispensable to prevent postoperative infection at the intervention site, a problem both current and in progress. Objective: Determine the most effective surgical hand scrubbing technique against bacterial flora among surgery students. Methods: A controlled randomized study was conducted of non-pharmacological treatments. Twelve surgery students were selected from the School of Dentistry at the University of San Martín de Porres who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The students were divided into two groups and assigned one of two surgical hand scrubbing techniques: Group A: one-step technique and Group B: traditional technique (three steps). Both techniques used bar soap and a brush. Results: In the culture medium mannitol salt agar, the traditional technique obtained a median of 52 000 CFU/mL, with a minimum 10 000 CFU/mL and a maximum 56 800 CFU/mL, whereas the one-step technique obtained a median of 19 600 CFU/mL, with a minimum of 4 400 CFU/mL and a maximum of 38 000 CFU/mL (p= 0.117). In MacConkey agar, the traditional technique obtained a median of 300 UFC/mL, with a minimum of 0 CFU/mL and a maximum of 18 000 CFU/mL, whereas the one-step technique obtained 0 UFC/mL (p= 0.054). Conclusions: No statistically significant differences were found in the groups(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Students, Medical , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Asepsis/methods , Hand Disinfection/methods , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/administration & dosage
11.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(3): 358-368, jun. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013794

ABSTRACT

Resumen El parto prematuro (PP) es el principal contribuyente de la morbilidad/mortalidad perinatal. A pesar del conocimiento de los factores de riesgo y de la introducción de intervenciones médicas destinadas a la prevención del nacimiento prematuro, su frecuencia ha aumentado. La infección bacteriana ascendente (IBA) es la condición obstétrica más frecuente asociada al PP ocasionando un importante resultado perinatal adverso en un hospital público de Chile. Esta revisión muestra la asociación entre PP e IBA, analiza la fisiopatología y la inmunología de las infecciones vaginales en la mujer embarazada susceptible, como asimismo la aplicación en este grupo de medidas con evidencia clínica que han demostrado ser eficientes, tales como la pesquisa rutinaria y el tratamiento de las infecciones genitourinarias (IGU), el cerclaje profiláctico o terapéutico, uso de probióticos, de progesterona vaginal, control metabólico de la diabetes mellitus y del peso de la obesa. El tratamiento de las IGU, conjuntamente con el uso de intervenciones que mejoran la inmunidad vaginal en la población de riesgo, permiten predecir una reducción del PP por IBA, de sus consecuencias inmediatas y de largo plazo y costos asociados elevados, con el consiguiente beneficio de la salud pública de Chile.


Preterm birth (PB) is the main contributor to the perinatal morbidity/mortality. In spite of the knowledge of the risk factors and the introduction of medical interventions intended to prevent PB, its frequency has increased. Ascending bacterial infection (ABI) is the obstetric condition most frequently associated to PB causing an important adverse perinatal outcome in a public hospital in Chile. This review shows the association between PB and ABI, analyzes the physiopathology and immunology of vaginal infections in the susceptible pregnant woman., as well as their application in this group of effective measures demonstrated by evidence, such as routine control, treatment of genitourinary tract infections (GTI), prophylactic or therapeutic cerclage, use of probiotics, use of vaginal progesterone, metabolic control of diabetes mellitus and weight of the obese woman. Treatment GTI together with the use of medical interventions that improve the vaginal immunity in the risk population allow to predict a reduction of PB by ABI and of its immediate consequences, long term sequels and high associated costs, with the consequent benefit of the public health in Chile.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Premature Birth/prevention & control , Hospitals, Public , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/physiopathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Bacterial Infections/complications , Chile , Risk Factors , Premature Birth/etiology , Reproductive Tract Infections/complications , Reproductive Tract Infections/physiopathology , Reproductive Tract Infections/immunology
12.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(2): 123-125, abr. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003662

ABSTRACT

Resumen La atención de pacientes con cáncer, incluyendo los receptores de trasplantes de precursores hematopoyéticos, plantea numerosos desafíos para los hospitales que deben proveer ambientes seguros, en que se logre aminorar al máximo posible la exposición a patógenos que generan morbilidad y mortalidad. Al mismo tiempo deben contar con protocolos establecidos que permitan realizar un estudio racional de las posibles etiologías infecciosas que pueden presentar estos pacientes. A su vez, deben asegurar la existencia de un arsenal terapéutico adecuado, junto a algoritmos de tratamiento oportuno, actualizado según guías consensuadas y efectivo según la infección sospechada o confirmada. En este artículo se introducen algunos de los argumentos que sustentan estos requerimientos que luego se desarrollan en tres artículos sucesivos dedicados al ambiente hospitalario, protocolos diagnósticos y arsenal terapéutico.


The care of cancer patients, including recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, has numerous challenges for hospitals that must provide safe environments in which exposure to pathogens that generate morbidity and mortality is reduced at maximum. At the same time, they must have established protocols that allow a rational study of the possible infectious etiologies and the existence of an adequate therapeutic arsenal together with timely treatment algorithms, updated according to consensus guidelines and effective according to the suspected or confirmed infection. This article introduces some of the arguments that support these requirements, then that are developed in three successive articles dedicated to the hospital environment, diagnostic protocols and therapeutic arsenal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Hematologic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Equipment and Supplies, Hospital/standards , Hospitals/standards , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Risk Factors , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/standards , Hospital Administration/standards
13.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(3): 552-558, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951796

ABSTRACT

Abstract Surveillances and interventions on antibiotics use have been suggested to improve serious drug-resistance worldwide. Since 2007, our hospital have proposed many measures for regulating surgical prophylactic antibiotics (carbapenems, third gen. cephalosporins, vancomycin, etc.) prescribing practices, like formulary restriction or replacement for surgical prophylactic antibiotics and timely feedback. To assess the impacts on drug-resistance after interventions, we enrolled infected patients in 2006 (pre-intervention period) and 2014 (post-intervention period) in a tertiary hospital in Shanghai. Proportions of targeted pathogens were analyzed: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp. (VRE), imipenem-resistant Escherichia coli (IREC), imipenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (IRKP), imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (IRAB) and imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (IRPA) isolates. Rates of them were estimated and compared between Surgical Department, ICU and Internal Department during two periods. The total proportions of targeted isolates in Surgical Department (62.44%, 2006; 64.09%, 2014) were more than those in ICU (46.13%, 2006; 50.99%, 2014) and in Internal Department (44.54%, 2006; 51.20%, 2014). Only MRSA has decreased significantly (80.48%, 2006; 55.97%, 2014) (p < 0.0001). The percentages of VRE and IREC in 3 departments were all <15%, and the slightest change were also both observed in Surgical Department (VRE: 0.76%, 2006; 2.03%, 2014) (IREC: 2.69%, 2006; 2.63%, 2014). The interventions on surgical prophylactic antibiotics can be effective for improving resistance; antimicrobial stewardship must be combined with infection control practices.


Subject(s)
Humans , Postoperative Complications/microbiology , Bacteria/drug effects , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacteria/growth & development , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Preoperative Care , Drug Resistance , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , China , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Antibiotic Prophylaxis
14.
Asunción; Universidad Politécnica y Artística del Paraguay;Universidad Autónoma de Chile; 2018. 53 p. ilus.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-915988

ABSTRACT

Bacterias, ¿Por qué me enferman? Es un libro que pretende acercarnos al diminuto e invisible mundo de los microorganismos con los que convivimos día a día y con quienes interactuamos constantemente, muchas veces sin darnos cuenta. Este texto entrega material exploratorio y de divulgación científica para lectores curiosos de todas las edades, con énfasis en estudiantes y profesores, que pueden encontrar en Bacterias. ¿Por qué me enferman? una herramienta educativa útil, didáctica y visualmente atractiva


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Bacteria/pathogenicity , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacteria/classification , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Vaccines/therapeutic use , Adaptive Immunity , Microbiota , Immunity, Innate
15.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(3): 299-308, 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-959444

ABSTRACT

El aumento de la resistencia bacteriana múltiple a antimicrobianos es considerado una gran amenaza para la salud pública mundial y como generador de una importante crisis en el funcionamiento de los sistemas de salud. Esta crisis es discutida diariamente por los gobiernos y los parlamentos, las instituciones globales de salud, fundaciones benéficas y de científicos y de profesionales de la salud y también de consumidores de productos animales. En todos los países del orbe se ha identificado al uso de antimicrobianos en la crianza industrial de animales como un importante determinante en la selección de esta resistencia. Aprovechando la oportunidad que se ha planteado en Chile con el diseño del Plan Nacional Contra la Resistencia a los Antimicrobianos, hemos creído importante revisitar y actualizar sumariamente nuestros estudios sobre el uso de antimicrobianos en la acuicultura del salmón y de su potencial impacto en el ambiente y la salud humana y animal. Estos estudios indican que 95% de tres grupos de antimicrobianos importados al país, que incluyen tetraciclinas, fenicoles y quinolonas, son usados en medicina veterinaria y mayormente en la acuicultura del salmón. Nuestros estudios indican que el excesivo uso de estos antimicrobianos genera la presencia de residuos de antimicrobianos en el ambiente marino hasta 8 km de los sitios de acuicultura, los que seleccionan a bacterias con resistencia múltiple en dicho ambiente, ya que ellas contienen variados genes de resistencia a estos antimicrobianos. Estos genes de resistencia están contenidos en elementos genéticos móviles incluyendo plásmidos e integrones, los que son trasmitidos a otras bacterias permitiendo su potencial diseminación epidémica entre poblaciones bacterianas. Bacterias del ambiente marino contienen genes idénticos a los genes de resistencia a quinolonas e integrones similares a los de patógenos humanos, sugiriendo comunicación genética entre estas bacterias de diversos ambientes. Alrededor de los recintos de acuicultura, este uso exagerado de antimicrobianos contamina con ellos también a peces silvestres para consumo humano y potencialmente selecciona BRA en su carne y en los productos de acuicultura. El consumo de estos productos selecciona bacterias resistentes en el microbioma humano y facilita también el intercambio genético entre bacterias del ambiente acuático y la microbiota comensal y patógena humana. El pasaje de antimicrobianos al ambiente marino disminuye la diversidad en él, y potencialmente podría facilitar la aparición de florecimientos de algas nocivas, la infección de peces por patógenos piscícolas resistentes los antimicrobianos y la aparición de patógenos zoonóticos resistentes, incluyendo a Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Estos hallazgos sugieren que la prevención de infecciones en peces y la disminución del uso de antimicrobianos en su crianza, será en Chile un factor determinante en la prevención de infecciones humanas y animales con resistencia múltiple a los antimicrobianos, de acuerdo con el paradigma moderno e integral de Una Salud.


The emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria (ARB) is currently seen as one of the major threats to human and animal public health. Veterinary use of antimicrobials in both developing and developed countries is many-fold greater than their use in human medicine and is an important determinant in selection of ARB. In light of the recently outlined National Plan Against Antimicrobial Resistance in Chile, our findings on antimicrobial use in salmon aquaculture and their impact on the environment and human health are highly relevant. Ninety-five percent of tetracyclines, phenicols and quinolones imported into Chile between 1998 and 2015 were for veterinary use, mostly in salmon aquaculture. Excessive use of antimicrobials at aquaculture sites was associated with antimicrobial residues in marine sediments 8 km distant and the presence of resistant marine bacteria harboring easily transmissible resistance genes, in mobile genetic elements, to these same antimicrobials. Moreover, quinolone and integron resistance genes in human pathogens isolated from patients in coastal regions adjacent to aquaculture sites were identical to genes isolated from regional marine bacteria, consistent with genetic communication between bacteria in these different environments. Passage of antimicrobials into the marine environment can potentially diminish environmental diversity, contaminate wild fish for human consumption, and facilitate the appearance of harmful algal blooms and resistant zoonotic and human pathogens. Our findings suggest that changes in aquaculture in Chile that prevent fish infections and decrease antimicrobial usage will prove a determining factor in preventing human and animal infections with multiply-resistant ARB in accord with the modern paradigm of One Health.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Aquaculture/methods , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Salmon , Tetracyclines/adverse effects , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Chile , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Quinolones/adverse effects
16.
Hosp. Aeronáut. Cent ; 13(2): 123-127, 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1021425

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los catéteres venosos centrales son fundamentales en el tratamiento de pacientes en estado crítico con patologías agudas o crónicas. Los catéteres venosos centrales son utilizados para fines diagnósticos y terapéuticos. A pesar de buscar un beneficio para el paciente, este no está exento riesgos significativos durante su utilización, aumentando la morbimortalidad. 1,2En la argentina aproximadamente un tercio del total de las bacteriemias nosocomiales tienen origen en los catéteres venosos (considerada como una de las causas más frecuente de bacteriemia nosocomial). Las infecciones asociadas a catéteres son las terceras en frecuencia entre las infecciones nosocomiales asociadas a dispositivos biomédicos, con un 16%; seguida a la infección del tracto urinario asociada a la sonda vesical con el 31% y la neumonía asociada a asistencia respiratoria mecánica con el 27%. Como consecuencia las bacteriemias nosocomiales se incrementa los costos de atención, extienden la internación hospitalaria y aumentan la morbimortalidad de los pacientes.3 Material y Método: Entre los meses de agosto y septiembre del año 2018, se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica recurriendo a escritura científica, lectura crítica a base de fuentes de información como revistas científicas digitales, búsquedas avanzadas con filtros selectivos en Pubmed, y archivos de revisiones, revisiones sistemáticas y nuevas investigaciones. La búsqueda en Internet se llevó a cabo con la utilización lenguaje MeSH combinando términos como, catéteres recubiertos, infección asociada a catéteres, biomateriales mediante operadores booleanos en idioma inglés, español. Se realizó la lectura crítica y análisis de los artículos estudiados. Conclusión: Esta nueva investigación concluye que el revestimiento de los catéteres venosos centrales con un agente antimicrobiano eficiente y no tóxicas contra células humanas como el quitosan hace de este polímero un candidato potencial para otras aplicaciones en la prevención de infecciones crónicas y nosocomiales asociadas a dispositivos médicos. Los recubrimientos con quitosan se probaron con éxito en depósitos empleados en la investigación como poderosos agentes antimicrobianos para evitar el desarrollo y la diseminación de Infección por S. aureus que muestra alta citocompatibilidad y baja citotoxicidad.


Introduction: Central venous catheters are fundamental in the treatment of patients in critical condition with acute or chronic pathologies. Central venous catheters are used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Despite seeking a benefit for the patient, this is not without significant risks during its use, increasing morbidity and mortality. 1,2In Argentina about one third of all nosocomial bacteremia originates from venous catheters (considered one of the most frequent causes of nosocomial bacteremia). Catheter-associated infections are the third in frequency among nosocomial infections associated with biomedical devices, with 16%; followed by urinary tract infection associated with the bladder catheter with 31% and pneumonia associated with mechanical ventilation with 27%. As a consequence, nosocomial bacteremia increases the costs of care, extends hospitalization and increases the morbidity and mortality of patients.3 Material and Method: Between the months of August and September of the year 2018, a bibliographic search was carried out using scientific writing, critical reading based on information sources such as digital scientific journals, advanced searches with selective filters in Pubmed, and review files. , systematic reviews and new investigations. The Internet search was carried out with the use of MeSH language, combining terms such as coated catheters, infection associated with catheters, biomaterials through Boolean operators in English, Spanish. The critical reading and analysis of the articles studied was carried out. Conclusion: This new research concludes that the coating of central venous catheters with an efficient and non-toxic antimicrobial agent against human cells such as chitosan makes this polymer a potential candidate for other applications in the prevention of chronic and nosocomial infections associated with medical devices. . Chitosan coatings were successfully tested in deposits used in the research as powerful antimicrobial agents to prevent the development and spread of S. aureus infection showing high cytocompatibility and low cytotoxicity.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia/etiology , Chitosan/therapeutic use , Central Venous Catheters/adverse effects , Staphylococcal Infections/prevention & control , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control
17.
Rev. medica electron ; 39(6): 1224-1235, nov.-dic. 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-902239

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la resistencia de las bacterias a las drogas antimicrobianas es un fenómeno natural que se ha convertido en un problema mundial emergente. La Organización Mundial de la Salud ha declarado la resistencia a los antimicrobianos como una enfermedad. En la categoría de antibacterianos existe un tercer grupo, los agentes antibacterianos de reserva, los medicamentos de este grupo no tienen alternativas terapéuticas y su uso se limita a reducir el riesgo de aparición de resistencia. Objetivo: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal sobre el uso de antibacterianos de reserva y la resistencia. Materiales y Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal, durante el período enero a diciembre de 2015 a partir de los criterios normados en el Manual de Políticas de Antibióticos de la institución. La población de estudio estuvo constituida por todas las historias clínicas obtenidas del registro de uso de antibacterianos de reserva. Se incluyó en el estudio los microorganismos aislados en el periodo de estudio y la susceptibilidad /resistencia de los mismos a los antimicrobianos de reserva. Resultados: se puso en evidencia que los microorganismos con más frecuencia aislados fueron el estafilococo aureus y la echerichia coli. Conclusiones: se encontró en la amoxicilina+sulbactam los mayores patrones de resistencia, siendo más llamativo frente a la echerichia coli y en menor medida frente al estafilococo aureus. El cefepime mostró alta resistencia a ambos microorganismos. El uso de antibióticos de reserva puede ser considerado adecuado en la institución donde se realizó el trabajo (AU).


Introduction: bacteria resistance toward antimicrobial drugs is a natural phenomenon that has become an emergent problem around the world. The World Health Organization has declared the resistance toward antimicrobials a disease. There is a third group in the category of antibacterials: the reserve antibacterial agents. The medicines of this group do not have therapeutic alternatives and their usage is limited to reducing the risk of resistance emergence. Objective: to carry out a cross-sectional, descriptive study on the usage of reserve antibacterials and resistance. Materials and Methods: a cross-sectional, descriptive study was carried out in the period from January to December 2015, taking into account the criteria standardized in the Handbook of Antibiotics Policy of the institution. The studied population was formed by all the clinical records obtained from the reports of the reserve antibacterials usage. The microorganisms isolated in the studied period and their susceptibility/resistance toward the reserve antimicrobials was also included. Results: it was evidenced that the most frequently isolated microorganisms were Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Conclusions: the higher resistance patterns were found in the amoxicillin + sulbactam, being more suggestive toward the Escherichia coli and less important toward the Staphylococcus aureus. Recepime showed high resistance toward both microorganisms. The reserve antibiotics use may be considered satisfactory in the institution where the study was carried out (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Hospitals, Pediatric , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Observational Studies as Topic , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
18.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(5): 515-519, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888909

ABSTRACT

Abstract This cross-sectional study assessed the immunization status of human immune deficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients receiving care at an outpatient clinic in Brazil. The sociodemographic characteristics, CD4 count and HIV viral load of 281 out of 612 adult outpatients were analyzed. A total of 331 patients were excluded because of no availability of vaccination cards. Chi-square or Fisher's exact test were used. Immunization coverage was higher for diphtheria/tetanus (59.79%) and hepatitis B (56.7%), and lowest for hepatitis A (6.8%) and for meningococcal group C (6%). Only 11.74% of the patients had received the influenza virus vaccine yearly since their HIV-infection diagnosis. No vaccination against influenza (p < 0.034) or hepatitis B (p < 0.029) were associated with CD4 counts <500 cells/mL; no vaccination against flu or pneumococcus were associated with detectable HIV viral load (p < 0.049 and p < 0.002, respectively). Immunization coverage is still very low among HIV-infected adults in this setting despite recommendations and high infection-related mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Bacterial Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , HIV Infections/complications , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Bacterial Vaccines/classification , Viral Vaccines/classification , Cross-Sectional Studies , Immunization Programs , CD4 Lymphocyte Count
20.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 37(5): 465-470, maio 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-895435

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to evaluate the use of an internal dry period teat seal containing bismuth subnitrate (Teatseal®, Zoetis®, Florham Park, Nova Jersey, USA) associated with a long-acting cloxacilin preparation (Orbenin® Extra dry cow, Zoetis®, Florham Park, Nova Jersey, USA), in preventing new infections during the dry-off and early postpartum period. A total of 150 Holstein cows (average production of 9,000 kg of milk per lactation), with four functional udder quarters without clinical mastitis was included in the study. All animals were dried-off 60 days before the expected calving date. Two teats positioned diagonal-contralaterally received only dry cow antibiotic, control group C (n=300) and the other two teats, treatment group T (n=300) received dry cow antibiotic and infusion with an internal teat seal. Data from SCC variable were transformed by log base-10 transformation. Duncan's test was used accepting 5% as the level of statistical significance. The occurrence of intramammary infection (IMI) and chronicity rate, and frequency of microorganisms isolated at drying and immediately postpartum in teats of group C and group T were evaluated using a non-parametric Chi-square Test, accepting 10% as the statistical significance level. There was a decrease in the occurrence of new infections in the early postpartum in cows which the sealant was used (C=19.6%, T=11.4%). In the postpartum period, Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from 16 teats in C and seven in T. The greatest reduction was observed for Escherichia coli (8 vs 1) in group T. There was no effect using the internal sealant on the frequency of isolation of environmental Streptococus. The use of sealant reduced the prevalence of subclinical mastitis cows between drying-off and the early postpartum period (C=51% versus T=42%) and resulted in a lower somatic cell count (SCC) in the treatment group when compared with the control group (T=1,073x103, C=1,793x103). The use of the internal teat seal combined with dry cow antibiotic is effective in the prevention of IMI during the dry period and early lactation and results in the reduction of SCC in immediate postpartum period. The treatment is effective in reducing infection between dry-off and the immediate postpartum caused by major and minor pathogens. However, no effect on infections caused by contagious pathogens was observed.(AU)


Objetivou-se avaliar o uso de um selante interno de tetos contendo subnitrato de bismuto (Teatseal®, Zoetis®, Florham Park, Nova Jersey, EUA) associado a um antibiótico de longa ação contendo cloxacilina (Orbenin® Extra dry cow, Zoetis®, Florham Park, Nova Jersey, EUA) em prevenir novas infecções durante o período seco e pós-parto imediato. Foram utilizadas 150 vacas Holandesas (produção média de 9,000 kg de leite por lactação), com os quatro quartos mamários funcionais e sem mastite clínica, que foram secas 60 dias antes da data prevista para o parto. O teto constituiu a unidade experimental. O grupo controle (C) foi representado por dois tetos diagonais-contralaterais (n=300), que receberam somente o antibiótico de vaca seca. Os outros dois tetos (n=300) constituíam o grupo tratado (T) e recebiam o antibiótico de vaca seca associado ao selante interno. Dados da variável contagem de células somáticas (CCS) passaram por transformação logarítmica na base 10 e foram submetidos ao teste de Duncan, aceitando-se nível de 5% de significância estatística. A ocorrência de infecções intramamárias (IIM), taxa de cronicidade e frequência de microrganismos isolados na secagem e imediatamente pós-parto nos tetos do grupo controle e tratados com selante interno foram avaliados utilizando o teste não paramétrico qui-quadrado, aceitando 10% de nível de significância. Houve redução na ocorrência de novas infecções no pós-parto imediato nos animais em que se utilizou o selante (C=19,6%, T=11,4%). No período pós-parto, foram isolados microrganismos Gram-negativo de 16 tetos no C e sete no T. A maior redução ocorreu para Escherichia coli, (8 versus 1) no grupo T. Não houve efeito da utilização do selante interno na frequência de isolamento de Streptococcus ambientais. O uso do selante reduziu a prevalência de mastite subclínica das vacas no pós-parto imediato (C=51% versus T=42%) e resultou em menor CCS no grupo tratado (T = 1.073 x 103) quando comparado com o grupo controle (C=1.793x103). O uso do selante interno combinado com antibiótico de vacas secas é eficaz na prevenção de infecções intramamárias no período seco e início de lactação e resulta na redução da CCS no período pós-parto imediato. O tratamento é eficaz na redução de infecção entre a secagem e o pós-parto imediato causada por patógenos maiores e menores. Entretanto, não tem efeito sobre infecções causadas por patógenos contagiosos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Bismuth/analysis , Breast Diseases/prevention & control , Mastitis, Bovine/prevention & control , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Breast Diseases/veterinary
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