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Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2554-2562, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887821


This study attempts to develop a reference substance for the live bacteria count of Streptococcicosis live vaccines in order to evaluate the validity of live bacterial count in inspection and testing. We prepared a batch of live Streptococcus suis reference substance for live bacterial count, tested their physical property, purity, vacuum degree, remaining moisture, and determined their homogeneity, thermal stability and transportation stability. Moreover, we organized collaborative calibration to assign count values to the reference substance and determine the shelf life of the reference substance in 12 months. The results showed that the physical property, the purity, the remaining moisture and the vacuum degree of the reference substance were all in compliance with the requirements of the Chinese Veterinary Pharmacopoeia. The homogeneity test showed that the coefficient of variation of the count of the reference substance was less than 10%, indicating a good homogeneity. Transportation stability test showed that the reference substance remained active after 72 h transportation in summer and winter with the package of styrofoam boxes and ice packs. Thermal stability test showed that the reference substance could be stored for up to 3 months at -20 °C, or up to 21 days at 4 °C. According to the collaborative calibration, the reference vaccine was assigned a count value range of (8.5-12.1)×107 CFU/ampoule. The shelf life test showed that the reference substance was stable for 12 months when stored at -70 °C. The reference substance could provide a reference for the live bacterial count of Streptococcicosis live vaccines. Moreover, it could also be used as a reference to evaluate the quality of corresponding agar media.

Bacterial Load , Reference Standards , Vaccines, Attenuated
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 42(10): 634-641, Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144164


Abstract Objective To identify clinical, microscopic, and biochemical characteristics that differentiate cytolytic vaginosis (CV) from vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). Methods The present cross-sectional study analyzed the vaginal contents of 24 non-pregnant women aged 18 to 42 years who were attended at the Genital Infections Clinic at Centro de Atenção Integral à Saúde da Mulher da Universidade Estadual de Campinas (CAISM-UNICAMP). They were diagnosed either with (CV = 8, VVC = 8) or without vulvovaginitis or vaginal dysbiosis (controls). The socio-demographic, clinical, and gynecological data were obtained from a detailed patient interview. Samples of the vaginal contents were collected for analysis of vaginal pH, gram stain, and specific fungal culture. The Kruskal-Wallis and Fisher exact tests were used to compare the differences between the groups. Odds ratios were used to compare the categorical variables. The significance level was considered at p < 0.05. Results Both women with CV and VVC had a lumpy vaginal discharge (p = 0,002) and vaginal hyperemia (p = 0.001), compared with controls. The inflammatory process was more intense in the VVC group (p = 0.001). In the CV group, there was statistical significance for the lactobacillus amount (p = 0.006), vaginal epithelium lysis (p = 0.001), and vaginal pH (p = 0.0002). Conclusion Cytolytic vaginosis and VVC diagnoses rarely differ on clinical characteristics but have different laboratorial findings. The present study highlights the importance of conducting an accurate investigation through laboratory tests rather than clinical criteria to avoid misdiagnosis.

Resumo Objetivo Identificar características clínicas, microscópicas e bioquímicas que diferenciam a vaginose citolítica (VC) da candidíase vulvovaginal (CVV). Métodos O presente estudo de corte transversal analisou o conteúdo vaginal de 24 mulheres não grávidas, com idades entre 18 e 42 anos, atendidas no ambulatório de Infecções Genitais do Centro de Atenção Integral à Saúde da Mulher da Universidade Estadual de Campinas (CAISM-UNICAMP). Elas foram diagnosticadas com (CV = 8, CVV = 8) ou sem vulvovaginite ou disbiose vaginal (controles = 8). Os dados sociodemográficos, clínicos e ginecológicos foram obtidos em uma entrevista detalhada do paciente. Amostras do conteúdo vaginal foram coletadas para análise do pH vaginal, coloração de Gram e cultura específica de fungos. Os testes exatos de Kruskal-Wallis e Fisher foram utilizados para comparar as diferenças entre os grupos. A razão de chances foi utilizada para comparar as variáveis categóricas. O nível de significância considerado foi de p < 0,05. Resultados As mulheres com VC e CVV apresentaram corrimento vaginal irregular (p = 0,002) e hiperemia vaginal (p = 0,001), em comparação aos controles. O processo inflamatório foi mais intenso no grupo CVV (p = 0,001). No grupo VC, houve significância estatística para a quantidade de lactobacilos (p = 0,006), lise do epitélio vaginal (p = 0,001) e pH vaginal (p = 0,0002). Conclusão Os diagnósticos de VC e CVV raramente diferem nas características clínicas, mas apresentam achados laboratoriais diferentes. O presente estudo destaca a importância de conduzir uma investigação precisa por meio de testes laboratoriais, em vez de critérios apenas clínicos, a fim de evitar erros de diagnóstico.

Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal/diagnosis , Vaginosis, Bacterial/diagnosis , Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal/pathology , Pilot Projects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Predictive Value of Tests , Vaginosis, Bacterial/pathology , Bacterial Load , Middle Aged
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135489


Abstract Objective: To compare colony forming unit (CFU) of oral bacterial from buccal mucosa and lingual buccal tongue among patients with a dental implant and normal oral hygiene individuals without a dental implant. Material and Methods: Twenty-six individuals with a dental implant and twenty-six individuals without dental implants were included in this study. The samples were sent to the laboratory to culture with Brain Heart Infusion Broth (BHI), prepared serial dilution and then spread to the blood agar. CFU was counted when a single layer of bacteria is formed on the blood agar at any dilution level. An independent-T test was used to compare the means different of CFU oral bacterial between control and test groups from buccal mucosa and lingual buccal mucosa, respectively. Results: Buccal mucosa control group (186.19 ± 5.61) and test group (186.65 ± 6.24) (p>0.05). The result from the lingual buccal tongue control group (198.38 ± 6.12) and test group (197.96 ± 6.50) (p>0.05). There was no significant difference between the control group and test group CFU bacterial load. Conclusion: The presence of implants in the oral cavity do not interfere or worsen the oral condition; nevertheless, the effect of implants surrounding oral flora is similar to natural teeth.

Humans , Oral Hygiene/education , Bacteria , Dental Implants , Dental Materials , Mouth Mucosa/pathology , Tongue , Control Groups , Statistics, Nonparametric , Agar , Bacterial Load , Malaysia/epidemiology
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811444


The presence of bowel contents during colorectal surgery has been related to surgical site infections (SSI), anastomotic leakage (AL) and postoperative complications theologically. Mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) for elective colorectal surgery aims to reduce fecal materials and bacterial count with the objective to decrease SSI rate, including AL. Based on many observational data, meta-analysis and multicenter randomized control trials (RTC), non-MBP did not increase AL rates or SSI and other complications in colon and even rectal surgery. In 2011 Cochrane review, there is no significant benefit MBP compared with non-MBP in colon surgery and also no better benefit MBP compared with rectal enemas in rectal surgery. However, in surgeon's perspectives, MBP is still in widespread surgical practice, despite the discomfort caused in patients, and general targeting of the colon microflora with antibiotics continues to gain popularity despite the lack of understanding of the role of the microbiome in anastomotic healing. Recently, there are many evidence suggesting that MBP+oral antibiotics (OA) should be the growing gold standard for colorectal surgery. However, there are rare RCT studies and still no solid evidences in OA preparation, so further studies need results in both MBP and OA and only OA for colorectal surgery. Also, MBP studies in patients with having minimally invasive surgery (MIS; laparoscopic or robotics) colorectal surgery are still warranted. Further RCT on patients having elective left side colon and rectal surgery with primary anastomosis in whom sphincter saving surgery without MBP in these MIS and microbiome era.

Anastomotic Leak , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bacterial Load , Colon , Colorectal Surgery , Enema , Humans , Microbiota , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures , Postoperative Complications , Surgical Wound Infection
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190266, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1056586


Abstract Objective: The microbial composition of pericoronitis (Pc) is still controversial; it is not yet clear if the microbial profile of these lesions is similar to the profile observed in periodontitis (Pd). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to describe the microbial profile of Pc lesions and compare it directly with that of subjects with Pd. Methodology: Subjects with Pc and Pd were selected, and subgingival biofilm samples were collected from (i) third molars with symptomatic Pc (Pc-T), (ii) contralateral third molars without Pc (Pc-C) and (iii) teeth with a probing depth >3 mm from subjects with Pd. Counts and proportions of 40 bacterial species were evaluated using a checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique. Results: Twenty-six patients with Pc and 18 with Pd were included in the study. In general, higher levels of microorganisms were observed in Pd. Only Actinomyces oris and Eubacterium nodatum were present in higher mean counts in the Pc-T group in comparison with the Pc-C and Pd-C groups (p<0.05). The microbiota associated with Pc-T was similar to that found in Pc-C. Sites with Pc lesions had lower proportions of red complex in comparison with the Pd sites. Conclusion: The microbiota of Pc is very diverse, but these lesions harbour lower levels of periodontal pathogens than Pd.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pericoronitis/microbiology , Periodontitis/microbiology , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Reference Values , Activation Analysis , DNA Probes , Cross-Sectional Studies , Biofilms , Bacterial Load , Gingiva/microbiology
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190100, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1056594


Abstract Objective: This clinical study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of passive ultrasonic activation (PUA) in eliminating microorganisms in primary endodontic infection (PEI) after instrumentation of root canals using microbiological culture and checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. Methodology: Twenty root canals with PEI and apical periodontitis were selected. The root canals were instrumented and then randomly divided into 2 groups, according to the irrigation method: PUA and conventional needle irrigation (CNI). Microbiological samples were collected before instrumentation (S1), after instrumentation (S2) and after irrigation with 17% EDTA (S3). The samples were subjected to anaerobic culture technique and checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization analysis. Results: A statistically significant difference was found between CNI (23.56%) and PUA (98.37%) regarding the median percentage values for culturable bacteria reduction (p<0.05). In the initial samples, the most frequently detected species was S. constellatus (50%), and after root canal treatment was E. faecalis (50%). Conclusion: Both treatments significantly decreased the number of bacterial species compared with the initial sample. However, no statistical difference in the total microbial load between PUA and CNI groups was detected. The number of cultivable anaerobic bacteria reduced significantly using PUA, and the bacterial composition and number of bacterial species after using either CNI or PUA was similar.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Periapical Periodontitis/therapy , Root Canal Therapy/instrumentation , Ultrasonic Therapy/instrumentation , Dental Pulp Cavity/microbiology , Root Canal Irrigants/therapeutic use , Root Canal Therapy/methods , Sodium Hypochlorite/therapeutic use , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Ultrasonic Therapy/methods , Colony Count, Microbial , DNA Probes , Linear Models , Analysis of Variance , Treatment Outcome , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Bacterial Load , Therapeutic Irrigation/instrumentation , Therapeutic Irrigation/methods
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(4): 1355-1363, jul.-ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038611


The influence of seasonality and the training and implementation of good dairy farming practices on raw milk production and quality was evaluated on dairy farms in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The physico-chemical composition, somatic cell count (SCC) and total bacterial count (TBC) were determined in 3,096 milk samples collected from bulk tanks originated from 43 dairy farms over a three-year period and correlated with key climatic factors. The recommended milking management practices were applied through a training program and correlated with the seasonal data in three stages: I) prior to training (dry period); II) 48 days after the training (transition period); III) 96 days after the training (rainy period). In the first stage, a diagnosis of the situation was performed with raw milk samplings for laboratory analysis, and training for implementation of good milking practices. In stages II and II, the checklist and laboratory analysis were also performed. The rainfall and high temperatures were found to represent the main factors affecting the milk composition and production, and TBC. The composition and physical properties of raw milk, and the TBC and SCC parameters can be controlled or minimized by applying proper milking management practices and constant monitoring.(AU)

Avaliou-se a influência das condições climáticas em regiões tropicais, bem como do treinamento e da implementação de boas práticas de manejo na produção e qualidade do leite em distintos períodos em fazendas leiteiras no estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. No presente estudo, as características físico-químicas do leite, a contagem bacteriana total (CBT) e a contagem de células somáticas (CCS) foram determinadas em 3.096 amostras de tanques de leite proveniente de 43 fazendas leiteiras, durante um período de três anos, e correlacionadas com os principais fatores climáticos (temperatura diária do ar mínima, média e máxima; pluviosidade e umidade relativa). Foram avaliados os resultados obtidos nas análises das amostras de leite cru coletadas no ano anterior (2009/2010) e também no posterior (2011/2012) àquele em que foi realizado o treinamento para implementação das boas práticas de manejo de ordenha (2010/2011), compreendendo três etapas: antes do treinamento (período seco - tempo 0, etapa I), 48 dias após o treinamento (período de transição - etapa II) e 96 dias após o treinamento (período chuvoso - etapa III). Na etapa I foi realizado um diagnóstico de situação com coleta de amostras para análises laboratoriais, aplicação da lista de verificação padronizada e treinamento para a implementação das boas práticas de manejo de ordenha; na etapa II foram realizadas novas análises laboratoriais e reaplicação da lista de verificação para avaliar a eficiência do treinamento; e na etapa III foi realizada a repetição da etapa II. Com base no histórico dos três anos, observou-se que condições climáticas de alta temperatura e pluviosidade representam importantes fatores que afetam a composição do leite e o volume produzido, assim como parâmetros higiênico-sanitários do leite. Ademais, as boas condições de manejo são ferramentas úteis, eficazes, práticas e essenciais para a maior produção de leite com qualidade, desde que constantemente monitoradas.(AU)

Animals , Cattle , Food Quality , Milk/microbiology , Bacterial Load/veterinary , Animal Husbandry/methods , Seasons , Brazil
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(2): 118-123, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019444


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: High prevalence of dental caries in ulcerative colitis (UC) has been attributed to diet and changes in salivary environment. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to characterize the prevalence of dental caries, salivary flow rates, salivary buffering capacity and cariogenic bacteria counts of Mutans streptococci and Lactobacillus spp and to evaluate their relationship with drug therapy, disease activity and duration. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed with UC patients followed in a tertiary center. Participants were submitted to a questionnaire (including demographic data, oral hygiene, eating habits) and a clinical observation with assessment of plaque index and Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth index. Unstimulated/stimulated saliva was collected. Medical records, disease activity (Partial Mayo Score) and disease duration were collected. Laboratory data included salivary flow rates, salivary buffering capacity (CRT® buffer) and cariogenic bacteria count (Mutans streptococci and Lactobacillus spp) in saliva using the CRT® bacteria test (results: high or low counts). RESULTS: Thirty UC patients were recruited. Oral hygiene routines were daily teeth brushing once or more (96.7%) and fluoride toothpaste (73.3%). Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth index (mean 16.17±6.428) was not affected by the frequency of soft drinks, cakes, sweets and sugars between meals (P>0.2). Long-term disease showed a trend towards higher prevalence of caries (P=0.06). Most presented normal salivary flow rates, unstimulated (73.3%) and stimulated (60.0%), and high salivary buffering capacity (66.7%). Any association was found with age, gender, disease activity, disease duration and drug therapy. High Mutans streptococci and low Lactobacillus spp count were observed in 73.3% and 60% of patients, respectively. Patients with active disease (100%) and longer duration (88.9%) displayed higher Mutans streptococci count. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of dental caries observed in UC patients was significant and did not seem to be influenced by their eating habits. The high prevalence of Mutans streptococci count may be a major risk factor for dental caries and may be looked as part of the UC dysbiosis. Dental care of UC patients should be planned according with this microbiota variation.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: Uma elevada prevalência de cáries dentárias em doentes com retocolite ulcerativa (RCU) tem sido atribuída à dieta e alterações no ambiente salivar. OBJETIVO: Este estudo pretende caracterizar a prevalência de cáries dentárias, taxas de fluxo salivar, capacidade de tamponamento da saliva e contagem de bactérias cariogénicas, Streptococcus mutans e Lactobacillus spp e avaliar a sua relação com a terapêutica farmacológica e a atividade e duração da doença. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com doentes com RCU seguidos num centro terciário. Os participantes foram submetidos a um questionário (incluindo questões sobre dados sociodemográficos, higiene oral e hábitos alimentares), e a uma observação clínica com avaliação do índice de placa e índice Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth. Amostras de saliva não estimulada e estimulada foram colhidas. Os registos clínicos, a atividade da doença (score parcial de Mayo) e a sua duração foram avaliados. Os dados laboratoriais incluíram taxas de fluxo salivar, capacidade de tamponamento da saliva (CRT® buffer) e a contagem de bactérias cariogénicas (Streptococcus mutans e Lactobacillus spp) utilizando o teste CRT® (resultado: contagem elevada ou reduzida). RESULTADOS: Foram recrutados 30 doentes com RCU. As rotinas de higiene oral incluíram a escovagem dos dentes uma ou mais vezes por dia (96,7%) e o uso de pasta com flúor (73,3%). O índice Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth (média 16,17±6,428) não foi afetado pela frequência de ingestão de refrigerantes, bolos, doces e açucares entre as refeições (P>0,2). Doentes com doença de longa duração apresentaram uma tendência para maior prevalência de cáries dentárias (P=0,06). A maioria possuía taxas de fluxo salivar normais, quer de saliva estimulada (60%) quer de saliva não estimulada (73,3%), assim como taxas de tamponamento salivar elevadas (66,7%). Não foi encontrada associação entre estas características com a idade, género, atividade/duração da doença e tipo de terapêutica farmacológica. Contagens elevadas de Streptococcus mutans e reduzidas de Lactobacillus spp foram observadas em 73,3% e 60% dos doentes, respectivamente. Doentes com doença ativa e maior tempo de evolução apresentaram contagens superiores de Streptococcus mutans. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de cárie dentária observada em doentes com RCU foi significativa e não parece ser influenciada pelos hábitos alimentares. A prevalência aumentada de Streptococcus mutans foi o fator de risco maior para a cárie dentária e provavelmente constitui parte da conhecida disbiose oral associada à RCU. Os cuidados dentários a estes doentes deverão ter em consideração esta variação da microbiota.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Saliva/microbiology , Streptococcus mutans/isolation & purification , Colitis, Ulcerative/complications , Dental Caries/etiology , Dental Caries/chemically induced , Oral Hygiene , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Dental Caries/microbiology , Bacterial Load , Middle Aged
Braz. dent. j ; 30(2): 117-122, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001437


Abstract This clinical study was conducted to correlate the levels of endotoxins and culturable bacteria found in primary endodontic infection (PEI) with the volume of root canal determined by using Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT); and to evaluate the bacterial diversity correlating with clinical features. Twenty patients with PEI were selected and clinical features were recorded. The volume (mm3) of root canal was determined by CBCT analysis. Root canal samples were analyzed by using kinetic LAL-assay test to determine the levels of endotoxins and anaerobic technique to determine the bacterial count (CFU/mL). DNA was extracted from all samples to determine bacterial diversity and quantified by using Checkerboard-DNA-DNA- Hybridization. Culturable bacteria and endotoxins were detected in 100% of the root canal samples. Linear regression analysis revealed a correlation between root canal volume and presence of anaerobic bacteria (p<0.05). Positive correlations were found between bacteria species and presence of different clinical features (p<0.05). After grouping the bacteria species into bacterial complexes, positive associations were found between green, orange and red complexes with presence of sinus tract (p<0.05). This clinical study revealed that larger root canals hold higher levels of culturable bacteria in PEI. Thus, the interaction of different virulent bacteria species in complexes seems to play an important role in the development of clinical features.

Resumo Este estudo clínico foi conduzido para correlacionar os níveis de endotoxinas e bactérias cultiváveis encontradas na infecção endodôntica primária (IEP) com o volume do canal radicular determinado pelo uso da Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico (TCFC); e avaliar a diversidade bacteriana correlacionada com características clínicas. Vinte pacientes com IEP foram selecionados e as características clínicas foram registradas. O volume (mm3) do canal radicular foi determinado pela análise TCFC. As amostras do canal radicular foram analisadas usando o teste cinético de análise LAL para determinar os níveis de endotoxinas e técnicas anaeróbicas para determinar a contagem bacteriana (UFC/mL). O DNA foi extraído de todas as amostras para determinar a diversidade bacteriana e quantificado utilizando o teste Checkerboard-DNA-DNA-Hybridization. Bactérias cultiváveis e endotoxinas foram detectadas em 100% das amostras do canal radicular. A análise de regressão linear revelou uma correlação entre o volume do canal radicular e a presença de bactérias anaeróbicas (p<0,05). Foram encontradas correlações positivas entre espécies de bactérias e presença de diferentes características clínicas (p<0,05). Após agrupamento das espécies dos micro-organismos em complexos bacterianos, foram encontradas associações positivas entre os complexos verde, laranja e vermelho com presença de fístula (p<0,05). Este estudo clínico revelou que os canais radiculares mais amplos possuem níveis mais elevados de bactérias cultiváveis na IEP. Assim, a interação de diferentes espécies de bactérias virulentas em complexos parece desempenhar um papel importante no desenvolvimento de características clínicas.

Humans , Periapical Periodontitis , Dental Pulp Cavity , Root Canal Therapy , Bacteria , Endotoxins , Bacterial Load
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786019


OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study was to determine if the number of missing teeth could be predicted by oral disease pathogens, and the secondary objective was to assess whether deep learning is a better way of predicting the number of missing teeth than multivariable linear regression (MLR).METHODS: Data were collected through review of patient’s initial medical records. A total of 960 participants were cross-sectionally surveyed. MLR analysis was performed to assess the relationship between the number of missing teeth and the results of real-time PCR assay (done for quantification of 11 oral disease pathogens). A convolutional neural network (CNN) was used as the deep learning model and compared with MLR models. Each model was performed five times to generate an average accuracy rate and mean square error (MSE). The accuracy of predicting the number of missing teeth was evaluated and compared between the CNN and MLR methods.RESULTS: Model 1 had the demographic information necessary for the prediction of periodontal diseases in addition to the red and the orange complex bacteria that are highly predominant in oral diseases. The accuracy of the convolutional neural network in this model was 65.0%. However, applying Model 4, which added yellow complex bacteria to the total bacterial load, increased the expected extractions of dental caries to 70.2%.On the other hand, the accuracy of the MLR was about 50.0% in all models. The mean square error of the CNN was considerably smaller than that of the MLR, resulting in better predictability.CONCLUSIONS: Oral disease pathogens can be used as a predictor of missing teeth and deep learning can be a more accurate analysis method to predict the number of missing teeth as compared to MLR.

Bacteria , Bacterial Load , Citrus sinensis , Dental Caries , Hand , Learning , Linear Models , Medical Records , Methods , Periodontal Diseases , Periodontitis , Pilot Projects , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Tooth
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785953


BACKGROUND: Smoking exerts an adverse effect on the periodontal tissue by reorganizing the ecosystem of oral microorganisms and is considered to be an important factor in the development of periodontal disease. Although cross-sectional studies on smokers and non-smokers have been attempted to investigate the microbial differences in periodontal oral cavity, only few studies have been conducted to investigate the changes in oral microorganisms during smoking cessation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes of bacteria in saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) over a period of one year among 11 smokers trying to quit smoking.METHODS: Eleven smokers trying to quit smoking visited the clinic at baseline, two weeks, two months, four months, six months, and 12 months to give saliva and GCF samples. The amounts of 16S rRNA, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. nucleatum, Streptococcus mutans, and Streptococcus sobrinus in saliva and GCF were quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction TaqMan probe assay. The results were analyzed by nonparametric statistical analysis using Friedman test and Spearman correlation coefficient.RESULTS: After cessation of smoking, the amounts of 16S rRNA corresponding to P. gingivalis, F. nucleatum, P. intermedia, and T. denticola in saliva decreased and then again increased significantly. The amount of F. nucleatum 16S rRNA in GCF decreased significantly after smoking cessation. Positive correlations were observed between 16S rRNA and F. nucleatum and between F. nucleatum and T. denticola in saliva and GCF.CONCLUSION: Even if the number of subjects in this study was small, we suggest that smoking cessation may reduce the total bacterial amount and F. nucleatum in GCF. However, the results regarding changes in the microbial ecosystem due to smoking or smoking cessation were inconsistent. Therefore, further in-depth studies need to be carried out.

Bacteria , Bacterial Load , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ecosystem , Fusobacterium nucleatum , Gingival Crevicular Fluid , Mouth , Periodontal Diseases , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Prevotella intermedia , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Saliva , Smoke , Smoking Cessation , Smoking , Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus sobrinus , Treponema denticola
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e021, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001593


Abstract: This study investigated the effectiveness of XP-Endo Finisher (XPF) associated with XP-Endo Shaper (XPS) or Reciproc Blue (RB) files in reducing bacterial load in oval-shaped root canals (RC) during chemomechanical preparation (CMP) using 0.9% saline solution (NaCl) or 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Eighty mandibular incisors with single oval-shaped RC were contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis. The teeth were randomly assigned to eight experimental groups (n = 10) according to the CMP, as follows: G1: XPS, G2: XPS + XPF, G3: RB, and G4: RB + XPF. CMP was performed with NaCl or NaOCl. The reduction of bacterial load was assessed by colony-forming unit count before (S1) and after (S2) CMP. Data normality was verified by using Shapiro-Wilk test. ANOVA, Tukey's test, and Bonferroni post-hoc test were used at a 5% significance level. Culturable bacteria were present in all S1 samples (p>0.05). All instrumentation techniques were effective in reducing bacterial load, irrespective of the irrigating solution (p < 0.05). With the use of NaCl, RB was more effective than XPS (p = 0.035). With the use of NaOCl, XPS and RB presented similar effectiveness (p = 0.779). XPF enhanced the bacterial reduction of both systems tested (p < 0.05). The use of NaOCl improved the CMP, irrespective of the instrumentation technique used (p < 0.05). In conclusion, XPS and RB files are effective in reducing bacterial levels in oval-shaped RC. The use of XPF as a method of agitation of the irrigating solution improved the cleaning efficiency of both file systems tested. Mechanical preparation performed with saline solution decreased culturable bacteria from the root canal, but antimicrobial substances such as NaOCl should be used to achieve a significantly better disinfection.

Humans , Root Canal Preparation/instrumentation , Dental Instruments , Dental Pulp Cavity/anatomy & histology , Bacterial Load , Sodium Hypochlorite/therapeutic use , Materials Testing , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections , Enterococcus faecalis/isolation & purification , Dental Pulp Cavity/microbiology , Disinfectants/therapeutic use , Saline Solution/therapeutic use , Incisor
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e039, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001610


Abstract: This clinical study compared the effectiveness of two rotary systems: HyFlex CM (Coltene-Whaledent, Altstetten, Switzerland) and ProTaper Next (Dentsply Sirona, Ballaigues, Switzerland) on the removal of cultivable bacteria and endotoxins from primarily infected root canals. This study was designed as a randomized single-blinded, 2-arm, clinical trial. Twenty-four primarily infected root canals were selected and randomly divided into 2 groups: HyFlex CM (n = 12); and ProTaper Next (n = 12). Samples were collected before and after the biomechanical preparation and inoculated in specific flasks. Irrigation was performed using 2.5% sodium hypochlorite. A kinetic turbidimetric lysate assay of limulus amoebocytes was used to quantify endotoxins. Microbiological culture technique was used to determine the count of bacterial colony forming units (CFU/mL). Data collected were statistically analyzed using SigmaPlot 12.0 for Windows. The Two-Way ANOVA statistical test was performed and the level of significance was 5%. In the samples before the biomechanical preparation, cultivable bacteria and endotoxins were evidenced in 100% of the cases. The culture analysis revealed that there was no statistically significant difference in the bacterial reduction between the two instrumentation systems. Endotoxins were present in 100% of the canals after instrumentation and there was no statistical difference between the two systems in endotoxin reduction. Thus, it was concluded that both instrumentation systems were effective in reducing root canal bacteria and endotoxins with primary endodontic infection and that there was no statistical difference between them. However, no system was able to eliminate 100% of the bacteria and their by-products.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Lipopolysaccharides/analysis , Dental Instruments , Dental Pulp Cavity/microbiology , Materials Testing , Bacteriological Techniques , Treatment Outcome , Root Canal Preparation/instrumentation , Endotoxins/analysis , Bacterial Load , Middle Aged
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180635, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1012524


Abstract Acetaldehyde, associated with consumption of alcoholic beverages, is known to be a carcinogen and to be related to the tongue dorsum. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between acetaldehyde concentration in mouth air and bacterial characteristics on the tongue dorsum. Methodology Thirty-nine healthy volunteers participated in the study. Acetaldehyde concentrations in mouth air were evaluated by a high-sensitivity semiconductor gas sensor. A 16S rRNA gene sequencing technique was used to compare microbiomes between two groups, focusing on the six samples with the highest acetaldehyde concentrations (HG) and the six samples with lowest acetaldehyde concentrations (LG). Results Acetaldehyde concentration increased in correlation with the increase in bacterial count (p=0.048). The number of species observed in the oral microbiome of the HG was higher than that in the oral microbiome of the LG (p=0.011). The relative abundances of Gemella sanguinis, Veillonella parvula and Neisseria flavescens in the oral microbiome of the HG were higher than those in the oral microbiome of the LG (p<0.05). Conclusion Acetaldehyde concentration in mouth air was associated with bacterial count, diversity of microbiome, and relative abundance of G. sanguinis, V. parvula, and N. flavescens.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Tongue/microbiology , Microbiota , Acetaldehyde/analysis , Mouth/surgery , Reference Values , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacteria/genetics , Tongue/metabolism , Candida/isolation & purification , Alcohol Drinking/metabolism , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/analysis , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/metabolism , Smoking/metabolism , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Statistics, Nonparametric , Bacterial Load , Japan , Acetaldehyde/metabolism , Mouth/metabolism
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766115


PURPOSE: Direct application of atmospheric-pressure plasma jets (APPJs) has been established as an effective method of microbial decontamination. This study aimed to investigate the bactericidal effect of direct application of an APPJ using helium gas (He-APPJ) on Porphyromonas gingivalis biofilms on sandblasted and acid-etched (SLA) titanium discs. METHODS: On the SLA discs covered by P. gingivalis biofilms, an APPJ with helium (He) as a discharge gas was applied at 3 different time intervals (0, 3, and 5 minutes). To evaluate the effect of the plasma itself, the He gas–only group was used as the control group. The bactericidal effect of the He-APPJ was determined by the number of colony-forming units. Bacterial viability was observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and bacterial morphology was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). RESULTS: As the plasma treatment time increased, the amount of P. gingivalis decreased, and the difference was statistically significant. In the SEM images, compared to the control group, the bacterial biofilm structure on SLA discs treated by the He-APPJ for more than 3 minutes was destroyed. In addition, the CLSM images showed consistent results. Even in sites distant from the area of direct He-APPJ exposure, decontamination effects were observed in both SEM and CLSM images. CONCLUSIONS: He-APPJ application was effective in removing P. gingivalis biofilm on SLA titanium discs in an in vitro experiment.

Bacterial Load , Biofilms , Decontamination , Helium , In Vitro Techniques , Methods , Microbial Viability , Microscopy, Confocal , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Plasma Gases , Plasma , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Porphyromonas , Stem Cells , Titanium
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741711


BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Oxidative stress is a major effector of various diseases; accordingly, antioxidants are frequently ingested in order to prevent or alleviate disease symptoms. Kimchi contains various natural antioxidants, and it is known that the functional activity varies depending on the ingredients and fermentation state. Black raspberries (BR) contain various bioactive compounds with antioxidant effects. This study investigated the antioxidant and liver-protection effects of kimchi supplemented with black raspberry juice powder (BJP). MATERIALS/METHODS: BJP-added kimchi (BAK; at 0.5%, 1%, and 2% concentrations of BJP) and control (without BJP) were prepared and fermented at 4℃ for 4 weeks. Changes in the antioxidant effects of BAK during fermentation were investigated. In addition, the protective activity of BAK against oxidative stress was investigated in a liver cirrhosis-induced animal model in vivo. RESULTS: BAK groups showed the acidity and pH of optimally ripened (OR) kimchi at 2 weeks of fermentation along with the highest lactic acid bacterial counts. Additionally, BAK groups displayed a higher content of phenolic compounds and elevated antioxidant activities relative to the control, with the highest antioxidant effect observed at 2 weeks of fermentation of OR 1% BAK. After feeding the OR 1% BAK to thioacetamide-induced liver cirrhosis rats, we observed decreased glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase activities and elevated superoxide dismutase activity. CONCLUSIONS: These findings showed that the antioxidant effects of OR BAK and feeding of OR 1% BAK resulted in liver-protective effects against oxidative stress.

Animals , Antioxidants , Bacterial Load , Fermentation , Glutamic Acid , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Lactic Acid , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver , Models, Animal , Oxaloacetic Acid , Oxidative Stress , Phenol , Pyruvic Acid , Rats , Rubus , Superoxide Dismutase
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758948


As an important zoonotic pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus has led to serious mastitis and endometritis in infected dairy cows. In this study, a total of 164 strains of S. aureus were isolated from dairy cows in Xinjiang Province, China, and subjected to assays to determine drug susceptibility and biofilm (BF) formation ability. Enterotoxin-related genes were detected, and the transcription levels of genes related to BF formation were determined by using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Moreover, the pathogenicity of isolates with different BF formation abilities was determined by measuring their hemolysis activity, half lethal dose (LD₅₀) and organ bacterial load. The results showed that 86.0% of S. aureus isolates could form BF. Among them, 42.1% of the strains had weak BF formation ability, and most strains with a strong BF formation ability were ica gene carriers. The S. aureus isolates displayed multidrug resistance and their drug resistance was positively correlated with their BF formation ability. Moreover, 96.3% of the S. aureus isolates carried enterotoxin genes. Among them, the detection rates of the novel enterotoxin genes were higher than those of conventional enterotoxin genes. Furthermore, isolates with a strong BF formation ability had higher LD50 but lower hemolysis ability and organ bacterial load than those of the isolates with weak or no BF ability. However, isolates without BF ability produced more severe pathological changes than those of isolates with strong BF formation ability. These findings suggest that higher BF ability and presence of novel enterotoxin genes are important characteristics of S. aureus isolates from dairy cows in Xinjiang Province, China, and such isolates may pose potential threats to food safety.

Bacterial Load , Biofilms , China , Drug Resistance , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Endometritis , Enterotoxins , Female , Food Safety , Hemolysis , Lethal Dose 50 , Mastitis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus , Virulence
Rev. SOBECC ; 23(3): 155-159, jul.-set. 2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-911465


Objetivo: Discorrer sobre a eficácia do gluconato de clorexidina e do povidona-iodo em soluções aquosas ou alcoólicas na redução de infecções do sítio cirúrgico e na contagem bacteriana da pele, no preparo pré-operatório do paciente. Método: Estudo de reflexão acerca do melhor antisséptico a ser usado no preparo cirúrgico da pele. Resultados: Verificou-se que tanto a clorexidina quanto o povidona-iodo são igualmente seguros e efetivos e que os manuais de boas práticas internacionais têm recomendado a sua utilização em soluções alcoólicas. Observou-se uma tendência na indicação da clorexidina alcoólica e a emergência de estudos que têm avaliado o uso sequencial ou concomitante da clorexidina e do povidona-iodo com resultados favoráveis a essa prática. Conclusão: Há uma tendência mundial mais favorável ao uso da clorexidina alcoólica em detrimento ao povidona-iodo. Contudo, a decisão pelo melhor agente antisséptico deve considerar cada caso clínico, (contra) indicações e situação

Objective: To discuss the efficacy of chlorhexidine gluconate and povidone-iodine in aqueous or alcoholic solutions in reducing surgical site infections and skin bacterial counts in the preoperative preparation of the patient. Method: Reflective study about the best antiseptic to use in preoperative skin preparation. Results: We found that chlorhexidine and povidone-iodine are equally safe and effective and that international guidelines for good practices have recommended their use in alcoholic solutions. We observed a trend in recommending alcoholic chlorhexidine and an emergence of studies that have evaluated the sequential or concurrent use of chlorhexidine and povidone-iodine with favorable results for this practice. Conclusion: There is a global trend that favors the use of alcoholic chlorhexidine over povidone-iodine. However, the decision about the best antiseptic agent to useshould be based on each clinical case, (contra)indications, and situation

Objetivo: Discutir sobre la eficacia del gluconato de clorhexidina y del povidona-yodo en soluciones acuosas o alcohólicas en la reducción de infecciones del sitio quirúrgico y en el recuento bacteriano de la piel en la preparación preoperatoria del paciente. Método: Estudio de reflexión acerca del mejor antiséptico a utilizarse en la preparación quirúrgica de la piel. Resultados: Se ha comprobado que tanto la clorhexidina como el povidona yodo son igualmente seguros y efectivos y que los manuales de buenas prácticas internacionales han recomendado su utilización en soluciones alcohólicas. Se observó una tendencia en la indicación de la clorhexidina alcohólica y la emergencia de estudios que han evaluado el uso secuencial o concomitante de la clorhexidina y del povidona-yodo con resultados favorables a esa práctica. Conclusión: Hay una tendencia mundial más favorable al uso de la clorhexidina alcohólica en detrimento del povidona-yodo. Sin embargo, la decisión por el mejor agente antiséptico debe considerar cada caso clínico, (contra) indicaciones y situación.

Humans , Povidone-Iodine , Chlorhexidine , Anti-Infective Agents, Local , Surgical Wound Infection , Preoperative Care , Bacterial Load
Braz. dent. j ; 29(3): 290-295, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951552


Abstract The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to compare the remaining microbial load after treatments based on complete and selective caries removal and sealing. Patients with active carious lesions in a permanent molar were randomly allocated into 2 groups: a test group (selective caries removal-SCR; n=18) and a control group (complete caries removal - CCR; n=18). Dentin samples were collected following the excavation and three months after sealing. Streptococcus species, Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus species, and total viable microorganisms were cultured to count the viable cells and frequency of species isolation. CCR resulted in significant lower total viable microorganisms counts (p≤0.001), Streptococcus species (p≤0.001) and Lactobacillus species (p≤0.001) initially. However, after sealing, a decrease in total viable microorganisms, Streptococcus species, and Lactobacillus species in the SCR resulted in no difference between the groups after 3 months. In conclusion, selective caries removal is as effective as complete caries removal in reducing dentin bacterial load 3 months after sealing.

Resumo O objetivo deste ensaio clínico randomizado foi comparar os microrganismos remanescentes após tratamentos baseados em remoção total de tecido cariado e selamento e a remoção seletiva de tecido cariado e selamento. Pacientes com lesões de cárie ativas em molares permanentes foram divididos aleatoriamente em dois grupos: grupo teste (remoção seletiva de tecido cariado-SCR; n=18), e grupo de controle (remoção total de tecido cariado-CCR; n=18). Amostras de dentina foram obtidas após a remoção da tecido cariado e após 3 meses de selamento das cavidades. Streptococcus spp., Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus spp. e microrganismos viáveis totais foram cultivados para contagem de células e frequência de isolamento de espécies. CCR resultou em menores contagens totais de microorganismos viáveis (p≤0,001), Streptococcus spp. (p≤0,001) e Lactobacillus spp. (p≤0,001) inicialmente. Entretanto, após o selamento, uma redução significativa nas contagens totais de microrganismos viáveis, Streptococcus spp. e Lactobacillus spp. resultou em nenhuma diferença entre os grupos após 3 meses. Conclui-se que a remoção seletiva de cárie é tão seletiva quanto a remoção completa de cárie na redução da infecção dentinária após três meses com selamento da lesão.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Pit and Fissure Sealants , Bacteria, Anaerobic/isolation & purification , Dental Caries/therapy , Bacterial Load , Lactobacillus/isolation & purification , Molar/microbiology , Streptococcus/isolation & purification , Case-Control Studies , Double-Blind Method , Molar/diagnostic imaging
Braz. dent. j ; 29(3): 249-253, May-June 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951547


Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the WaveOne Gold and One Shape New Generation systems regarding the bacterial removal from root canals infected with Enterococcus faecalis by comparing them to the conventional WaveOne and One Shape systems. Forty-eight distobuccal root canals of maxillary molars sterilized with ethylene oxide were infected with E. faecalis for 21 days, and then root canal initial bacterial sample was collected with paper cones and plated on M-enterococcus agar. The specimens were randomly divided into 4 groups according to the instrumentation: WaveOne Gold, One Shape New Generation, WaveOne and One Shape. After instrumentation, samples were collected with use of scraping and paper cones at immediate and 7 days after instrumentation. The bacterial reduction was calculated and then made intragroup analysis by Friedman test and intergroup analysis by Kruskal-Wallis with Dunn's post-hoc test, all at 5% significance. All techniques significantly reduced the number of bacteria in the root canal (p<0.05). WaveOne Gold and One Shape New Generation promoted higher bacterial reduction than WaveOne and One Shape systems (p<0.05), but no significant difference was found between WaveOne Gold and One Shape New Generation or between WaveOne and One Shape (p>0.05). Novel single-file systems promote better bacterial removal than the conventional single-file systems.

Resumo A proposta deste estudo foi avaliar os sistemas WaveOne Gold e One Shape New Generation em relação à remoção bacteriana de canais infectados com Enterococcus faecalis, comparando-os com seus sistemas convencionais WaveOne e One Shape. Quarenta e oito canais disto vestibulares de molares superiores esterilizados em óxido de etileno foram contaminados com E. faecalis por 21 dias, e então acoleta bacteriana inicial foi feita com cone de papel e plaqueadas em M-enterococcus agar. Os espécimes foram aleatoriamente divididos em quarto grupos de acordo com a instrumentação: WaveOne Gold, One Shape New Generation, WaveOne e One Shape. Após instrumentação, amostras foram coletadas utilizando limagem e cones de papel imediatamente e 7 dias após o preparo. A redução bacteriana foi calculada e então feita análise intra grupos com teste de Friedman, e entre grupos utilizando Kruskal-Wallis e teste de Dunn, todos a 5% de significância. Todas as técnicas reduziram significantemente o número de bactérias do canal radicular (p<0.05). WaveOne Gold e One Shape New Generation promoveram maior redução bacteriana que WaveOne e One Shape (p<0.05), mas nenhuma diferença significante foi encontrada entre WaveOne Gold e One Shape New Generation ou entre WaveOne e One Shape (p>0.05). Novos sistemas de lima-única promovem melhor remoção bacteriana que seus sistemas convencionais.

Humans , Enterococcus faecalis/isolation & purification , Root Canal Preparation/instrumentation , Dental Pulp Cavity/microbiology , In Vitro Techniques , Pilot Projects , Dental Instruments/standards , Equipment Design , Bacterial Load , Maxilla , Molar/surgery