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1.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(3): 304-311, jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013788

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La expresión de β-lactamasas CTX-M pertenecientes a los grupos 1 y 9 en Klebsiella pneumoniae produce grados altos de resistencia a ceftazidima, y presentan una amplia distribución mundial. Objetivo: Identificar y caracterizar los genes blaCTX-M-Grupo1 y blaCTX-M-Grupo9 en aislados de K. pneumoniae resistentes a ceftazidima en un hospital de San José de Cúcuta, Colombia. Material y Método: Se diseñaron partidores para la identificación de K. pneumoniae y los genes blaCTX-M mediante reacción de polimerasa en cadena (RPC). Posteriormente se realizó el análisis de la relación genética de estos aislados por medio de la RPC basada en secuencias repetitivas (RPC-REP). Resultados: Treinta y ocho por ciento de los 24 aislados identificados por RPC como K. pneumoniae presentaron los genes blaCTX-M-3, blaCTX-M-15 y blaCTX-M-32 (Grupo CTX-M-1) y 42% los genes blaCTX-M14, blaCTX-M-24 y blaCTX-M-27 (Grupo CTX-M-9). El análisis filogenético agrupó los aislados de K. pneumoniae en cuatro clusters, mostrando correlación en los clusters I, II y IV, al comparar los perfiles genéticos con el tipo de muestra y grupo de genes. Discusión: Se encontró una frecuencia similar de los genes blaCTX-M-Grupo1 y blaCTX-M-Grupo 9 en aislados de K. pneumoniae resistentes a ceftazidima. La correlación entre la RPC-REP con los grupos de CTX-M y el tipo de muestra reveló la presencia de tres patrones clonales.


Background: The expression of CTX-M β-lactamases belonging to groups 1 and 9 in Klebsiella pneumoniae produces high levels of resistance to ceftazidime, and they have a wide distribution worldwide. Aim: To identify and characterize the blaCTX-M-Group1 and blaCTX-M-Group9 genes in K. pneumoniae isolates resistant to ceftazidime in a hospital in San José de Cúcuta, Colombia. Material and Methods: Primers were designed for the identification of K. pneumoniae and blaCTX-M genes by PCR. Subsequently, the genetic relationship of these isolates was analyzed by REP-PCR. Results: A 38% of the 24 isolates identified by PCR as K. pneumoniae showed blaCTX-M-3. blaCTX-M-15 y blaCTX-M-32 genes (Group CTX-M-1) and 42% blaCTX-M14. blaCTX-M-24 y blaCTX-M-27 genes (Group CTX-M-9). The phylogenetic analysis grouped the K. pneumoniae isolates into 4 clusters, showing correlation in clusters I, II and IV, when comparing the genetic profiles with the type of sample and group of genes. Discussion: We found a similar frequency of blaCTX-M-Group 1 and blaCTX-M-Group 9 genes in isolates of K. pneumoniae resistant to ceftazidime. The correlation between the REP-PCR with the CTX-M groups and the type of sample revealed the presence of three clonal patterns.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Molecular Typing , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genetics , Phylogeny , Bacterial Proteins/isolation & purification , beta-Lactamases/isolation & purification , Ceftazidime , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Colombia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Anti-Bacterial Agents
2.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(3): 392-395, jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013799

ABSTRACT

Resumen Presentamos un caso de bacteriemia por Vibrio cholerae no-O1/ no-O139 en una mujer de 81 años con un cuadro de dolor abdominal, fiebre, vómitos, diarrea, coluria e ictericia, mientras visitaba una zona rural sin acceso a agua potable. La identificación se realizó por la técnica de espectrometría de masa MALDI-TOF, confirmándose una cepa no toxigénica no-O1/no-139. La caracterización molecular del aislado demostró la ausencia del gen de la toxina del cólera (CTX), y pilus TCP; sin embargo, presentó cinco de los seis genes de virulencia presentes en la isla de patogenicidad homóloga denominada VPaI-7 del V. parahaemolyticus (vcs N2+, vcs C2+, vcs V2+,toxR-, vspD+, T vopF+). Además, el aislado presentó los genes de virulencia hylA y rtxA. Este es el primer caso reportado en Chile de una cepa clínica de V. cholerae no-O1, no-O139 aislada de hemocultivos portador de un segmento homólogo de la isla de patogenicidad denominada VPaI-7 de V. parahaemolyticus, el cual codifica para un sistema de secreción tipo III (TTSS), que probablemente contribuye a su virulencia.


We report a case of V. cholerae non-O1 / non-O139 bacteremia in an 81-year-old woman with abdominal pain, fever, vomiting, liquid stools, choluria and jaundice, while visiting a rural area without access to potable water. The identification was made by the MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry technique and subsequently the non-toxigenic non-O1 / non-139 strain was confirmed in the national reference laboratory. The molecular characterization demonstrated the absence of the cholera toxin gene (CTX), and the TCP pilus, however, presented 5 of 6 virulence genes present in an island of homologous pathogenicity named VPaI-7 of V. parahaemolyticus (vcs N2 +, vcs C2 +, vcs V2 +, toxR-, vspD +, T vopF +) and in addition it was positive for hylAy rtxA virulence genes recognized outside the island. This is the first case reported in Chile of a clinical strain of V. cholerae non-O1, non-O139 isolated from blood culture that carries in its genome a homologous segment of the pathogenicity island named VPaI-7 of V. parahaemolyticus, which codifies for a type III secretion system (TTSS) that probably contributes to his virulence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Bacterial Proteins/chemistry , Vibrio cholerae/chemistry , Bacteremia/etiology , Vibrio cholerae non-O1/chemistry , Bacterial Proteins/isolation & purification , Vibrio cholerae/isolation & purification , Vibrio cholerae/pathogenicity , Virulence , Cholera/complications , Cholera/microbiology , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization , Vibrio cholerae non-O1/isolation & purification , Vibrio cholerae non-O1/pathogenicity , Genomic Islands
3.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(4): 848-855, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974300

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT We studied the role of Thermus thermophilus Recombinase A (RecA) in enhancing the PCR signals of DNA viruses such as Hepatitis B virus (HBV). The RecA gene of a thermophilic eubacterial strain, T. thermophilus, was cloned and hyperexpressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant RecA protein was purified using a single heat treatment step without the use of any chromatography steps, and the purified protein (>95%) was found to be active. The purified RecA could enhance the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) signals of HBV and improve the detection limit of the HBV diagnosis by real time PCR. The yield of recombinant RecA was ∼35 mg/L, the highest yield reported for a recombinant RecA to date. RecA can be successfully employed to enhance detection sensitivity for the diagnosis of DNA viruses such as HBV, and this methodology could be particularly useful for clinical samples with HBV viral loads of less than 10 IU/mL, which is interesting and novel.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Hepatitis B virus/isolation & purification , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Thermus thermophilus/enzymology , Cloning, Molecular , Recombinases/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/isolation & purification , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Gene Expression , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/instrumentation , Thermus thermophilus/genetics , Recombinases/isolation & purification , Recombinases/metabolism , Escherichia coli/genetics , Escherichia coli/metabolism
4.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 146(5): 596-602, mayo 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-961436

ABSTRACT

Background: Helicobacter pylori is the most significant pathogen associated with gastric diseases, including gastric cancer. Infected patients with strains that are CagA-positive generally have worse outcomes than those infected with CagA-negative strains. Patients infected with CagA-positive strains have a higher risk for developing gastric cancer. Aim: To determine the prevalence of CagA-positive H. pylori strains in fecal samples of patients from the Coquimbo Region of Chile, using a non-invasive, nested-qPCR method. Material and Methods: We evaluated 160 patients with gastrointestinal symptoms subjected to an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. DNA was extracted from fecal samples and tested for the presence of H. pylori using nested-qPCR for the ureC gene, and subsequently compared with the results of histology-Giemsa stain from the patients' endoscopic biopsies. When H. pylori was found, the presence of CagA-positive strains was determined via nested-qPCR. Results: The histology-Giemsa stain was positive for H. pylori infection in 123 patients (76.9%), while the analysis of fecal samples detected H. pylori in 129 patients (80.6%). The sensitivity and specificity of nested-qPCR to detect the bacterium was 96.7 and 73.0% respectively. Among patients with the infection, 25% had CagA-positive strains. Conclusions: In this sample of patients, there is a low prevalence of CagA-positive H. pylori strains.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Stomach Diseases/microbiology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Helicobacter pylori/genetics , Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis , Feces/microbiology , Antigens, Bacterial/genetics , Stomach Diseases/diagnosis , Bacterial Proteins/isolation & purification , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Sensitivity and Specificity , Antigens, Bacterial/isolation & purification
5.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(2): 99-105, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951629

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Staphylococcus spp. - both S. aureus, including methicillin-resistant strains (MRSA) and coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) - are relevant agents of healthcare-associated infections. Therefore, the rapid recognition of MRSA and methicillin-resistant CoNS from blood stream infections is critically important for patient management. It is worth noting that inappropriate empiric therapy has been associated with higher in-hospital mortality. Material and methods: In this study we evaluated a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (multiplex PCR) standardized to detect Staphylococcus spp., S. aureus, and mecA gene-encoded oxacillin resistance directly from blood culture bottles. A total of 371 blood cultures with Gram-positive microorganisms confirmed by Gram-stain were analyzed. Results from multiplex PCR were compared to phenotypic characterization of isolates. Results: Staphylococcus aureus was detected in 85 (23.0%) blood cultures and CoNS in 286 (77.0%). There was 100% agreement between phenotypic and multiplex PCR identification. Forty-three (50.6%) of the 85 S. aureus carried the mecA gene and among the 286 CoNS, 225 (78.7%) were positive for the mecA gene. Conclusions: The multiplex PCR assay developed here was found to be sensitive, specific, rapid, and showed good agreement with the phenotypic results besides being less expensive. This PCR method could be used in clinical laboratories for rapid identification and initiation of specific and effective treatment, reducing patient mortality and morbidity. Furthermore, this method may reduce misuse of antimicrobial classes that are more expensive and toxic, thus contributing to the selection of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus spp.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Blood/microbiology , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Penicillin-Binding Proteins/genetics , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Oxacillin/pharmacology , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Bacterial Proteins/isolation & purification , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Bacteremia/microbiology , Penicillin-Binding Proteins/isolation & purification , Blood Culture , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
6.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(3): 647-657, July-Sept. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-788974

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to isolate, purify and optimize the production conditions of an organic solvent tolerant and thermostable lipase from Acinetobacter sp. AU07 isolated from distillery waste. The lipase production was optimized by response surface methodology, and a maximum production of 14.5 U/mL was observed at 30 ºC and pH 7, using a 0.5% (v/v) inoculum, 2% (v/v) castor oil (inducer), and agitation 150 rpm. The optimized conditions from the shake flask experiments were validated in a 3 L lab scale bioreactor, and the lipase production increased to 48 U/mL. The enzyme was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and ion exchange chromatography and the overall yield was 36%. SDS-PAGE indicated a molecular weight of 45 kDa for the purified protein, and Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight analysis of the purified lipase showed sequence similarity with GDSL family of lipases. The optimum temperature and pH for activity of the enzyme was found to be 50 ºC and 8.0, respectively. The lipase was completely inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride but minimal inhibition was observed when incubated with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and dithiothreitol. The enzyme was stable in the presence of non-polar hydrophobic solvents. Detergents like SDS inhibited enzyme activity; however, there was minimal loss of enzyme activity when incubated with hydrogen peroxide, Tween 80 and Triton X-100. The kinetic constants (Km and Vmax) revealed that the hydrolytic activity of the lipase was specific to moderate chain fatty acid esters. The Vmax, Km and Vmax/Km ratio of the enzyme were 16.98 U/mg, 0.51 mM, and 33.29, respectively when 4-nitrophenyl palmitate was used as a substrate.


Subject(s)
Organic Chemicals , Solvents , Bacterial Proteins/isolation & purification , Bacterial Proteins/biosynthesis , Acinetobacter/enzymology , Lipase/isolation & purification , Lipase/biosynthesis , Organic Chemicals/chemistry , Solvents/chemistry , Substrate Specificity , Temperature , Bacterial Proteins/chemistry , Enzyme Stability , Kinetics , Chromatography, Ion Exchange , Enzyme Activation , Extracellular Space/enzymology , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Ions , Lipase/chemistry , Lipolysis , Metals , Molecular Weight
7.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(2): 518-526, Apr.-June 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-780835

ABSTRACT

Abstract Citrus canker, caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xac), is one of the most devastating diseases to affect citrus crops. There is no treatment for citrus canker; effective control against the spread of Xac is usually achieved by the elimination of affected plants along with that of asymptomatic neighbors. An in depth understanding of the pathogen is the keystone for understanding of the disease; to this effect we are committed to the development of strategies to ease the study of Xac. Genome sequencing and annotation of Xac revealed that ∼37% of the genome is composed of hypothetical ORFs. To start a systematic characterization of novel factors encoded by Xac, we constructed integrative-vectors for protein expression specific to this bacterium. The vectors allow for the production of TAP-tagged proteins in Xac under the regulation of the xylose promoter. In this study, we show that a TAP-expression vector, integrated into the amy locus of Xac, does not compromise its virulence. Furthermore, our results also demonstrate that the polypeptide TAP can be overproduced in Xac and purified from the soluble phase of cell extracts. Our results substantiate the use of our vectors for protein expression in Xac thus contributing a novel tool for the characterization of proteins and protein complexes generated by this bacterium in vivo.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Xanthomonas/genetics , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/genetics , Plant Diseases/microbiology , Bacterial Proteins/isolation & purification , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Xanthomonas/metabolism , Xanthomonas/chemistry , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/isolation & purification , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism , Open Reading Frames , Citrus/microbiology , Genetic Vectors/genetics , Genetic Vectors/metabolism
8.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2015 Apr; 52 (2): 179-188
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158217

ABSTRACT

Lipases are the enzymes of choice for laundry detergent industries, owing to their triglyceride removing ability from the soiled fabric, which eventually reduces the usage of phosphate-based chemical cleansers in the detergent formulation. In this study, a novel thermo-alkaline lipase-producing strain identified as Bacillus stearothermophilus was isolated from the soil samples of olive oil mill. Enhanced lipase production was observed at 55°C, pH 11 and after 48 h of incubation. Among the substrates tested, xylose (a carbon source), peptone (a nitrogen source) and olive oil at a concentration of 1% were suitable substrates for enhancing lipase production. MgSO4 and Tween-80 were suitable substrates for maximizing lipase production. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity by a single CM-Sephadex column chromatography and revealed molecular mass of 67 kDa. The enzyme (BL1) was active over a wide range of pH from 9.0 to 13.0, with an optimum at pH 11.0, exhibited maximal activity at 55°C and retained more than 70% of its activity after incubation at 70°C or pH 13 for 0.5 h or 24 h, respectively. The enzyme hydrolyzed both short and long-chain triacylglycerols at comparable rates. BL1 was studied in a preliminary evaluation for use in detergent formulation solutions. This novel lipase showed extreme stability towards non-ionic and anionic surfactants after pre-incubation for 1 h at 40°C, and good stability towards oxidizing agents. Additionally, the enzyme showed excellent stability and compatibility with various commercial detergents, suggesting its potential as an additive in detergent formulations.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins/chemistry , Bacterial Proteins/isolation & purification , Detergents/chemistry , Geobacillus stearothermophilus/enzymology , Lipase/chemistry , Lipase/isolation & purification , Solvents/chemistry , Temperature
9.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(12): 1085-1090, 12/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-727669

ABSTRACT

Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of hospital-acquired diarrhea in patients treated with antibiotics, chemotherapeutic agents, and other drugs that alter the normal equilibrium of the intestinal flora. A better understanding of the risk factors for C. difficile-associated disease (CDAD) could be used to reduce the incidence of CDAD and the costs associated with its treatment. The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors for CDAD in a cohort of Chinese patients in a Beijing hospital. Medical charts of a total of 130 inpatients (62 males and 68 females) with hospital-acquired diarrhea (45 with CDAD; 85 without CDAD) were retrospectively reviewed. C. difficile toxins A and B were detected in fecal samples using enzyme-linked fluorescence assays. The drugs used by patients with and without CDAD before the onset of diarrhea were compared. Factors that differed significantly between the two groups by univariate analysis were analyzed by multivariate analysis using a logistic regression model. Multivariate analysis showed that cephalosporin treatment was associated with a significantly higher risk of CDAD in hospitalized patients, while treatment with glycopeptides was significantly associated with a reduction in CDAD (P<0.001 for cephalosporin; P=0.013 for glycopeptides). Our data confirmed previous findings that empirical treatment with cephalosporins is positively associated with CDAD compared to individuals using other CDAD-related drugs. Additionally, we showed that treatment with glycopeptides was negatively associated with CDAD, compared to individuals using other CDAD-related drugs.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Clostridioides difficile/pathogenicity , Cross Infection/microbiology , Diarrhea/microbiology , Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous/microbiology , Bacterial Proteins/isolation & purification , Bacterial Toxins/isolation & purification , Cephalosporins/adverse effects , China/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous/epidemiology , Enterotoxins/isolation & purification , Feces/microbiology , Glycopeptides/therapeutic use , Incidence , Logistic Models , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric
11.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-157098

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: PFGE, rep-PCR, and MLST are widely used to identify related bacterial isolates and determine epidemiologic associations during outbreaks. This study was performed to compare the ability of repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to determine the genetic relationships among Escherichia coli isolates assigned to various sequence types (STs) by two multilocus sequence typing (MLST) schemes. Methods: A total of 41 extended-spectrum β-lactamase- (ESBL-) and/or AmpC β-lactamase-producing E. coli clinical isolates were included in this study. MLST experiments were performed following the Achtman’s MLST scheme and the Whittam’s MLST scheme, respectively. Rep-PCR experiments were performed using the DiversiLab system. PFGE experiments were also performed. Results: A comparison of the two MLST methods demonstrated that these two schemes yielded compatible results. PFGE correctly segregated E. coli isolates belonging to different STs as different types, but did not group E. coli isolates belonging to the same ST in the same group. Rep-PCR accurately grouped E. coli isolates belonging to the same ST together, but this method demonstrated limited ability to discriminate between E. coli isolates belonging to different STs. Interpretation & conclusions: These results suggest that PFGE would be more effective when investigating outbreaks in a limited space, such as a specialty hospital or an intensive care unit, whereas rep-PCR should be used for nationwide or worldwide epidemiology studies.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/isolation & purification , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Escherichia coli/enzymology , Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Humans , Molecular Epidemiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , beta-Lactamases/genetics , beta-Lactamases/isolation & purification
12.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 34(10): 957-962, out. 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-730540

ABSTRACT

O teste intradérmico para o diagnóstico da tuberculose bovina utiliza derivados proteicos purificados (PPD) de Mycobacterium bovis que são capazes de induzir reações de hipersensibilidade em animais infectados. No entanto, apresenta baixa especificidade devido à ocorrência de reações cruzadas com outras micobactérias. Neste sentido, o objetivo desse trabalho foi produzir proteínas recombinantes (ESAT-6, PE13, PE5 e ESX-1) de Mycobacterium bovis e avaliá-las como antígenos em teste intradérmico utilizando Cavia porcellus como modelo, e verificar se as condições empregadas na purificação (nativa ou desnaturante) interferem no desempenho antigênico dessas proteínas. As proteínas foram testadas em Cavia porcellus previamente sensibilizados com cepa M. bovis AN5 inativada, individualmente (160 µg) ou combinadas na forma de um coquetel (40 µg cada). O coquetel de proteínas induziu reações de hipersensibilidade nos animais sensibilizados significativamente superiores (p=0,002) as observadas nos animais não sensibilizados, possibilitando diferenciação. No entanto, as proteínas isoladamente não foram capazes de promover essa diferenciação. As condições de solubilização e purificação influenciaram o desempenho antigênico da proteína ESAT-6, pois, quando produzida em condição desnaturante desencadeou reações inespecíficas nos animais não sensibilizados, enquanto que aquela produzida em condições nativas e aplicada em concentrações de 6, 12, 24 e 48µg induziu reações significativas apenas nos animais sensibilizados, confirmando o seu potencial como antígeno.


The intradermal skin test for diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis has been used the purified protein derivative (PPD) of Mycobacterium bovis, that is able to induce a hypersensitivity reaction in infected animals. However, shows low specificity due to the occurrence of cross reactions with other mycobacteria. Thus, the aim of this study was to produce recombinant proteins (ESAT-6, PE13, PE5 and ESX-1) of Mycobacterium bovis and assess them as antigens in skin test using guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) as a model, and check if the conditions employed in the purification (native or denaturing condition) interfere in the antigenic performance of these proteins. The proteins were tested in guinea pigs previously sensitized with inactivated M. bovis strain AN5, individually (160 µg/µl), or as a mixed cocktail (40 µg each). The cocktail of proteins induced hypersensitivity reactions in sensitized animals significantly (p=0.002) higher than those observed in non-sensitized animals, allowing differentiation. On the other hand, the proteins individually were not able to promote this differentiation. The conditions of solubilization and purification influenced the antigenic performance of the protein ESAT-6, since, when produced in denaturing condition triggered nonspecific reaction in non-sensitized animals. Whereas when produced under native conditions and used at concentrations (6, 12, 24 and 48µg/µl) induced a significant response only in sensitized animals, confirming its potential as antigen.


Subject(s)
Animals , Guinea Pigs/immunology , Mycobacterium bovis/isolation & purification , Recombinant Proteins , Bacterial Proteins/isolation & purification , Intradermal Tests , Tuberculosis, Bovine/diagnosis , Models, Animal , Intradermal Tests/veterinary
13.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(3): 1089-1094, July-Sept. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-727042

ABSTRACT

P34 is an antimicrobial peptide produced by a Bacillus sp. strain isolated from the intestinal contents of a fish in the Brazilian Amazon basin with reported antibacterial activity. The aim of this work was to evaluate the peptide P34 for its in vitro antiviral properties against canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), canine coronavirus (CCoV), canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), equine arteritis virus (EAV), equine influenza virus (EIV), feline calicivirus (FCV) and feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1). The results showed that the peptide P34 exhibited antiviral activity against EAV and FHV-1. The peptide P34 inhibited the replication of EAV by 99.9% and FHV-1 by 94.4%. Virucidal activity was detected only against EAV. When P34 and EAV were incubated for 6 h at 37 °C the viral titer reduced from 10(4.5) TCID50 to 10(2.75) TCID50, showing a percent of inhibition of 98.6%. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that P34 inhibited EAV and FHV-1 replication in infected cell cultures and it showed virucidal activity against EAV. Since there is documented resistance to the current drugs used against herpesviruses and there is no treatment for equine viral arteritis, it is advisable to search for new antiviral compounds to overcome these infections.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Domestic/virology , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Bacillus/metabolism , Viruses/drug effects , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Brazil , Bacillus/isolation & purification , Bacterial Proteins/isolation & purification , Bacterial Proteins/pharmacology , Fishes/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Tract/microbiology , Microbial Viability/drug effects , Temperature , Time Factors , Viral Load , Virus Replication/drug effects
14.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 51(3): 180-185, Jul-Sep/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723852

ABSTRACT

Context Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has a worldwide distribution, but the prevalence of infection, virulence factors, and clinical presentation vary widely according to the studied population. In Brazil, a continental country composed of several ethnicities and cultural habits, the behavior of infection also appears to vary, as many other studies have shown. Objectives Describe the prevalence of infection with cagA-positive H. pylori strains in a group of children and adolescents who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul. Methods Fifty-four gastric biopsy specimens of children and adolescents with H. pylori infection demonstrated by histology, urease test and molecular analysis were tested for the presence of cagA positive H. pylori strains by the polymerase chain reaction method. Results he prevalence of cagA-positive H. pylori was 29.6% (95% confidence interval, 18 to 43.6%). There were no statistically significant differences in clinical or demographic characteristics or in the endoscopic and histological features of patients infected with cagA-positive strains as compared with those infected by cagA-negative strains. Conclusions he study showed a low prevalence of infection with cagA-positive H. pylori strains among children and adolescents who underwent EGD in southern Brazil, in comparison to studies conducted with children from other regions of Brazil. There was no association between the presence of cagA-positive strains and more severe clinical presentations in the studied sample. .


Contexto Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) tem distribuição geográfica universal, embora a prevalência da infecção, os fatores de virulência, bem como a apresentação clínica, variem de acordo com a população estudada. No Brasil, um país continental composto por várias etnias e hábitos culturais diversos, o comportamento da infecção também parece variar, como muitos estudos têm demonstrado. Objetivos Descrever a prevalência da infecção por cepas de H. pylori cagA-positivo em um grupo de crianças e adolescentes submetidos a esofagogastroduodenoscopia em Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul. Métodos Cinquenta e quatro (54) fragmentos de biópsia gástrica com presença de H. pylori demonstrada pela análise histológica, teste da urease e análise molecular foram testados para a presença de cepas de H. pylori cagA-positivo pelo método da reação em cadeia da polimerase. Resultados prevalência de cepas de H. pylori cagA-positivo foi de 29,6% (intervalo de confiança de 95%, 18% a 43,6%). Não houve diferenças estatisticamente significativas nas características clínicas e demográficas e nos achados endoscópicos e histológicos entre os pacientes infectados por cepas de H. pylori cagA-positivo em comparação com os cagA-negativo. Conclusões O estudo demonstrou uma baixa prevalência de infecção por cepas de H. pylori cagA-positivo nas crianças e adolescentes submetidas a esofagogastroduodenoscopia no Sul do Brasil em comparação com os estudos realizados com crianças de outras regiões do Brasil. Não houve associação entre a presença de cepas cagA-positivo e desfechos clínicos desfavoráveis na amostra estudada. .


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Antigens, Bacterial/isolation & purification , Bacterial Proteins/isolation & purification , Helicobacter Infections/microbiology , Helicobacter pylori/isolation & purification , Stomach Diseases/microbiology , Antigens, Bacterial/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Endoscopy, Digestive System/methods , Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis , Helicobacter Infections/epidemiology , Helicobacter pylori/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Stomach Diseases/diagnosis , Stomach Diseases/epidemiology
15.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 34(supl.1): 114-123, abr. 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-712428

ABSTRACT

Introducción . Los microorganismos patógenos como Enterobacter cloacae producen betalactamasas que les confieren resistencia frente a los antibióticos betalactámicos; se ha identificado, además, la actividad limitada de los inhibidores enzimáticos, de modo que la única posibilidad de enfrentar la resistencia es el diseño de nuevos fármacos y su uso racional. Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de la chalcona dihidroxifenil propenona sobre un aislamiento clínico de E. cloacae y sobre la betalactamasa aislada a partir de este microorganismo resistente como un aporte en la búsqueda de compuestos inhibidores de las betalactamasas. Materiales y métodos. Se sintetizó la chalcona dihidroxifenil propenona y se evaluó su efecto sobre el aislamiento clínico de E. cloacae para determinar la concentración inhibitoria mínima mediante el método de microdilución en caldo y con la betalactamasa purificada mediante cromatografía de afinidad se realizaron estudios espectrofotométricos de cinética enzimática. Resultados. La concentración inhibitoria mínima de la dihidroxifenil propenona sobre E. cloacae fue de 35 µg/ml; el porcentaje de recuperación de la betalactamasa a partir del microorganismo fue de 31,75 %; en el estudio cinético se evidenció actividad inhibitoria de acuerdo con los parámetros cinéticos de V max =1,7 x 10 -3 µM/minuto y K M´ =2330 µM. Conclusión. La chalcona dihidroxifenil propenona ejerce su actividad inhibitoria por medio de la interacción con la betalactamasa y, de esta manera, protege la integridad estructural de los antibióticos betalactámicos; dicho efecto sinérgico la convierte en un compuesto promisorio en la búsqueda de alternativas para enfrentar la resistencia bacteriana.


Introduction: Enterobacter cloacae is a pathogenic microorganism with the ability to produce betalactamase enzymes, which makes them resistant to betalactamic antibiotics. Additionally, the limited activity of enzymatic inhibitors has been identified, and, therefore, the design of new drugs and the promotion of their rational use are the only possibilities to overcome this problem. Objective: The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of dihydroxy-phenyl-propenone on a clinical isolate of E. cloacae , as well as its activity on a betalactamase isolated from this resistant microorganism in order to contribute to the search for new betalactamase inhibitors. Materials and methods: Dihydroxy-phenyl-propenone chalcone was synthesized and evaluated on a clinical isolate of E. cloacae to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration by broth microdilution; once the betalactamase enzyme was purified by affinity chromatography, a spectrophotometric analysis was done to evaluate its kinetic activity. Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration value of dihydroxy-phenyl-propenone on E. cloacae was 35 µg/ml; the recovery percentage of the betalactamase from the microorganism was 31.75% and the kinetic parameters were V max =1.7 x 10 -3 µM/min and K M = 2330 µM, which show an important inhibitory activity. Conclusion: Dihydroxy-phenyl-propenone has shown inhibitory activity on betalactamase enzymes and the ability to protect the chemical integrity of betalactamic antibiotics; this synergistic effect turns it into a promising compound in the search for new alternatives to overcome bacterial resistance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Chalcones/pharmacology , Enterobacter cloacae/drug effects , Penicillinase/metabolism , beta-Lactam Resistance/drug effects , beta-Lactamase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Ampicillin/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/isolation & purification , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Chromatography, Affinity , Colony Count, Microbial , Colorimetry , Chalcones/chemistry , Chalcones/chemical synthesis , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Drug Synergism , Enterobacter cloacae/enzymology , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Structure , Penicillanic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Penicillanic Acid/antagonists & inhibitors , Penicillinase/isolation & purification , beta-Lactamase Inhibitors/chemistry , beta-Lactamase Inhibitors/chemical synthesis
16.
Clin. biomed. res ; 34(1): 47-52, 2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-834451

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: A disseminação de Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) no Brasil e a recente detecção de bactérias produtoras de New Delhi metalo-β-lactamase (NDM-1) em hospital terciário do sul do Brasil indicam a necessidade da avaliação da presença destas enzimas em enterobactérias resistentes a carbapenêmicos (ERC).OBJETIVO: Avaliar prevalência de carbapenemases nas ERC em quatro hospitais terciários de Porto Alegre, por meio de PCR multiplex em tempo real. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo, período de abril a dezembro de 2013. Isolados bacterianos de pacientes internados foram identificados pelo sistema automatizado VITEK 2, com realização do teste de suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos. Amostras com isolados de ERC foram encaminhadas ao laboratório de referência para análise por PCR em tempo real para identificação de carbapenemases. RESULTADOS: Total de 701 isolados. As ERC predominantes foram K. pneumoniae (47% das amostras positivas) e Enterobacter cloacae (18%). As carbapenemases mais frequentes foram KPC (48%), OXA-48-like (3%) e NDM (2%). Em 47% das amostras não foi identificado o mecanismo de resistência. Isolados originados de culturas de vigilância foram associados com maior positividade para carbapenemases do que isolados de amostras clínicas (p<0,0001). Isolados de ERC pertencentes ao grupo Proteae (Proteus spp., Morganella spp., Providencia spp.) foram associados a menor positividade para carbapenemase do que isolados de outras ERC (p<0,0001). CONCLUSÃO: KPC foi a carbapenemase mais frequentemente detectada. A circulação de uma enzima OXA-48-like foi demonstrada, um achado novo e preocupante. O achado da carbapenemase NDM também é preocupante devido ao seu potencial de disseminação. Esses dados e outros estudos poderão contribuir para um entendimento maior da epidemiologia das ERC.


BACKGROUND: The spread of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) in Brazil and the recent detection of bacteria producing New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM-1) in a tertiary care hospital in Porto Alegre indicate the need to evaluate the presence of these enzymes in carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). AIM: To evaluate the prevalence of carbapenemases in CRE in four tertiary care hospitals in Porto Alegre using multiplex real-time PCR.METHODS: Descriptive study from April to December 2013. Bacterial isolates from hospitalized patients were identified by VITEK 2 automated system, with antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Samples with CRE isolates were sent to the reference laboratory for analysis using real-time PCR for identification of carbapenemases. RESULTS: Total of 701 isolates. The predominant CRE were K. pneumoniae (46% of positive samples) and Enterobacter cloacae (18%). The most frequent carbapenemases were KPC (48%), OXA-48-like (3%), and NDM-1 (2%). In 47% of the samples no carbapenemase was identified. Isolates originated from surveillance cultures were associated with higher positivity for carbapenemases than isolates from clinical samples (p<0.0001). CRE isolates belonging to the Proteae group (Proteus spp., Morganella spp., Providencia spp.) were associated with less positivity for carbapanemase than isolates of other CRE (p<0.0001). CONCLUSION: KPC was the most frequently detected carbapenemase. The movement of an OXA-48-like enzyme was demonstrated, a novel and worrisome finding. The finding of carbapenemase NDM is also worrisome due to its dissemination potential. These data and further studies may contribute to a better understanding of the epidemiology of CRE.


Subject(s)
Carbapenems/antagonists & inhibitors , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Proteins/isolation & purification , Cross-Sectional Studies , Clinical Enzyme Tests/methods , Bacterial Proteins/analysis , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
17.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(7): 894-900, 1jan. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-696005

ABSTRACT

Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) is increasingly used worldwide for mosquito control and is the only larvicide used in the French Rhône-Alpes region since decades. The artificial selection of mosquitoes with field-persistent Bti collected in breeding sites from this region led to a moderate level of resistance to Bti, but to relatively high levels of resistance to individual Bti Cry toxins. Based on this observation, we developed a bioassay procedure using each Bti Cry toxin separately to detect cryptic Bti-resistance evolving in field mosquito populations. Although no resistance to Bti was detected in none of the three mosquito species tested (Aedes rusticus, Aedes sticticus and Aedes vexans), an increased tolerance to Cry4Aa (3.5-fold) and Cry11Aa toxins (8-fold) was found in one Ae. sticticus population compared to other populations of the same species, suggesting that resistance to Bti may be arising in this population. This study confirms previous works showing a lack of Bti resistance in field mosquito populations treated for decades with this bioinsecticide. It also provides a first panorama of their susceptibility status to individual Bti Cry toxins. In combination with bioassays with Bti, bioassays with separate Cry toxins allow a more sensitive monitoring of Bti-resistance in the field.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aedes/drug effects , Biological Control Agents , Bacillus thuringiensis/chemistry , Bacterial Proteins/pharmacology , Endotoxins/pharmacology , Hemolysin Proteins/pharmacology , Biological Assay , Bacterial Proteins/isolation & purification , Endotoxins/isolation & purification , Hemolysin Proteins/isolation & purification , Insecticide Resistance , Mosquito Control/methods
18.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-144675

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: AmpC β-lactamases are clinically significant since these confer resistance to cephalosporins in the oxyimino group, 7-α methoxycephalosporins and are not affected by available β-lactamase inhibitors. In this study we looked for both extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) and AmpC β-lactamases in Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates. Methods: One hundred consecutive, non-duplicate clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae collected over a period of one year (June 2008 - June 2009) were included in the study. An antibiotic susceptibility method was used with 10 antibiotics for Gram-negative infections which helped in screening for ESBL and AmpC β-lactamases and also in confirmation of ESBL production. The detection of AmpC β-lactamases was done based on screening and confirmatory tests. For screening, disc diffusion zones of cefoxitin <18 mm was taken as cefoxitin resistant. All cefoxitin resistant isolates were tested further by AmpC disk test and modified three dimensional test. Multiplex-PCR was performed for screening the presence of plasmid-mediated AmpC genes. Results: Of the 100 isolates of K. pneumoniae studied, 48 were resistant to cefoxitin on screening. AmpC disk test was positive in 32 (32%) isolates. This was also confirmed with modified three dimensional test. Indentation indicating strong AmpC producer was observed in 25 isolates whereas little distortion (weak AmpC) was observed in 7 isolates. ESBL detection was confirmed by a modification of double disk synergy test in 56 isolates. Cefepime was the best cephalosporin in synergy with tazobactam for detecting ESBL production in isolates co-producing AmpC β-lactamases. The subsets of isolates phenotypically AmpC β-lactamase positive were subjected to amplification of six different families of AmpC gene using multiplex PCR. The sequence analysis revealed 12 CMY-2 and eight DHA-1 types. Interpretation & conclusions: Tazobactam was the best β-lactamase inhibitor for detecting ESBL in presence of AmpC β-lactamase as this is a very poor inducer of AmpC gene. Amongst cephalosporins, cefepime was the best cephalosporin in detecting ESBL in presence of AmpC β-lactamase as it is least hydrolyzed by AmpC enzymes. Cefepime-tazobactam combination disk test would be a simple and best method in detection of ESBLs in Enterobacteriaceae co-producing AmpC β-lactamase in the routine diagnostic microbiology laboratories.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins/isolation & purification , Cefoxitin , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Humans , India , Penicillanic Acid/analogs & derivatives , beta-Lactamases/isolation & purification
19.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 29(3): 263-272, jun. 2012. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-645593

ABSTRACT

Bacterial identification is important for the proper treatment of infected patients hospitalized with serious infections especially in critical care units. Identification by conventional methods used in microbiology laboratories takes at least 16 hours since a culture is positive. The introduction of mass spectrometry, specifically MALDI-TOF MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer) in the microbiology laboratory could mean a radical change in the identification accuracy, turn around time (6 minutes per bacteria) and cost (about 5 times cheaper than conventional identification). Since its introduction in clinical microbiology laboratories in 2008, many reports about its usefulness in identifying microorganisms from colonies, as well as directly from positive blood cultures and urine samples have been published. This review describes MALDI-TOF MS methodology, its identification performance for bacteria (aerobic and anaerobic), mycobacterium and yeasts, its future applications in microbiology and its main disadvantages.


La identificación bacteriana es muy importante en el manejo adecuado de los pacientes infectados, especialmente aquellos con infecciones graves hospitalizados en unidades de pacientes críticos. La identificación por los métodos convencionales utilizados en los laboratorios de microbiología clínica demora al menos 16 horas desde que un cultivo es positivo. La introducción de la espectrometría de masas, específicamente del espectrómetro de masas por tiempo de migración (tiempo de vuelo) con desorción/ionización laser asistida por una matriz (MALDI-TOF MS, por su sigla en inglés matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer), en el laboratorio de microbiología podría significar un cambio radical en la precisión de la identificación, el tiempo de detección (6 minutos por bacterias) y el costo (aproximadamente 5 veces más económico que la identificación convencional). Desde su introducción en los laboratorios de microbiología clínica en el año 2008, se han escrito numerosas publicaciones sobre su utilidad en la identificación de microorganismos desde colonias, así como directamente desde hemocultivos positivos y de muestras de orina. Esta revisión describe la metodología de MALDI-TOF MS, su rendimiento en la identificación de bacterias aerobias, anaerobias, micobacterias y levaduras, sus futuras aplicaciones en microbiología y sus principales desventajas.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/classification , Bacterial Proteins/isolation & purification , Phylogeny , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacterial Proteins/blood , Bacterial Proteins/urine , Databases, Protein , Mass Spectrometry/trends , Mycobacterium/classification , Ribosomal Proteins/isolation & purification , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization , Yeasts/classification
20.
Braz. j. biol ; 72(2): 243-247, May 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-639432

ABSTRACT

The entomophatogenic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis produces crystal proteins, named Cry proteins which are encoded by the cry genes. This bacterium is used on biological control of important economical pests, as well as in the control of disease´s vectors, such as Aedes aegypti, a mosquito that transmits the dengue viruses. Isolates of this bacterium can be characterized by the content of cry genes and this prediction helps target different insect orders. In this research, we isolated 76 colonies of B. thuringiensis from 30 soil samples that were taken from Ilha Bela (SP, Brazil), a place where simulids are already biologically controlled by B. thuringiensis, to find bacterial isolates that were capable of controlling A. aegypti. The 16S ribosomal subunit genes of the selected isolates were sequenced, and the isolates were molecularly characterized based on their Dipteran-specific cry gene contents. Eight of the 76 isolates (10.52%) contained the cry4Aa, cry4Ba or cry10Aa genes, these isolates were carried out against A. aegypti larvae on bioassay. The presence or absence of specific cry genes was associated with the observed average larval mortalities. From the 76 isolates, seven (9.2%) were potentially able to control A. aegypti larvae. Therefore these are promising isolates for the biological control of A. aegypti larvae.


Bacillus thuringiensis é entomopatogênica, por produzir proteínas cristais, denominadas proteínas Cry, as quais são codificadas pelos genes cry. Essa bactéria atua no controle biológico de insetos-praga de culturas economicamente importantes, bem como no controle de insetos vetores causadores de doenças, como o Aedes aegypti, mosquito transmissor do vírus da dengue. Os isolados dessa bactéria podem ser caracterizados pelo conteúdo de genes cry que possuem e, assim, predizer o alvo de controle dos mesmos às diferentes ordens de insetos. Com o objetivo de encontrar isolados eficientes no controle do vetor A. aegypti, o presente trabalho isolou 76 colônias de B. thuringiensis a partir de 30 amostras de solo oriundas de Ilhabela-SP, município que se caracteriza por realizar controle biológico de simulídeos com essa bactéria. Os 76 isolados foram sequenciados na região da subunidade ribossomal 16S e caracterizados molecularmente quanto ao conteúdo de genes cry díptero-específicos. No total, oito isolados (10,52% do total) apresentaram bandas para os genes cry4Aa, cry4Ba e cry10Aa, sendo os mesmos testados contra larvas de A. aegypti por meio de bioensaios. A presença e/ou ausência dos genes cry foi associada à mortalidade média de larvas. Dentre os isolados estudados, sete (9,2% do total) apresentaram elevado potencial de controle às larvas de A. aegypti, sendo assim considerados como promissores para o manejo do controle biológico de larvas de A. aegypti com a bactéria B. thuringiensis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aedes/drug effects , Bacillus thuringiensis/chemistry , Bacterial Proteins/pharmacology , Endotoxins/pharmacology , Hemolysin Proteins/pharmacology , Soil Microbiology , Biological Assay , Bacillus thuringiensis/isolation & purification , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/isolation & purification , Endotoxins/genetics , Endotoxins/isolation & purification , Hemolysin Proteins/genetics , Hemolysin Proteins/isolation & purification , Larva/drug effects , Pest Control, Biological/methods
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