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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(2): 248-256, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989445

ABSTRACT

Abstract The use of GMO expressing Bt toxin in soybean production has increased significantly in the last years in Brazil in order to manage the damage caused by lepidopteran pests. In this study, we compared the richness and abundance of owlet moths (Noctuoidea) associated with Bt and non-Bt soybean. We determined the temporal variations as a function of phenology, and correlated the population variations of the most common species with meteorological variables. The research was conducted at the experimental area of Embrapa Cerrados. The collection method used was differentiated being suppressive and absolute. A total of 13 species were collected, of which eight occurred on Bt soybeans. The most representative taxa were Chrysodeixis includens (72.87%), Anticarsia gemmatalis (18.17%) and Spodoptera spp (5.22%). The number of larvae belonging to species targeted by the Bt technology was 10 times lower on Bt than on non-Bt soybeans. Utetheisa ornatrix and Elaphria deltoides were recorded on soybean for the first time, observing larvae of both species in non-Bt soybean and those of U. ornatrix also in Bt soybean. Only A. gemmatalis larvae correlated (p <0.05) negatively with precipitation. This study provided field information on the abundance and species richness of owlet moths on non-Bt soybeans, associated with the effects of Bt soybean. When considering the different levels of infestation between cultivars as a criterion, larvae monitoring is of substantial importance in order to develop the lost control program.


Resumo O uso de OGM que expressam toxina Bt na produção de soja tem aumentado significativamente nos últimos anos no Brasil e são utilizados para conter os danos causados ​​pelos lepidópteros pragas. Neste estudo comparamos a riqueza e a abundância de Noctuoides (Noctuoidea) associados à soja Bt e não-Bt. Determinamos as variações temporais em função da fenologia e correlacionamos às variações populacionais das espécies mais comuns com variáveis ​​meteorológicas. A pesquisa foi conduzida na área experimental da Embrapa Cerrados. O método de coleta utilizado foi diferenciado sendo supressivo e absoluto. Um total de 13 espécies foram coletadas, das quais oito ocorreram em soja Bt. Os taxa mais representativos foram Chrysodeixis includens, Anticarsia gemmatalis e Spodoptera spp. O número de larvas pertencentes às espécies alvo da tecnologia Bt foram 10 vezes menores na soja Bt do que em soja não-Bt . Utetheisa ornatrix e Elaphria deltoides foram registradas na soja pela primeira vez, observando-se larvas de ambas espécies na soja não-Bt e as de U. ornatrix também na soja Bt. Somente as larvas de A. gemmatalis se correlacionaram (p <0,05) negativamente com a precipitação. Este estudo forneceu informações em campo sobre a abundância e riqueza de espécies na soja não- Bt, associada aos efeitos da soja Bt. A importância do monitoramento das lagartas é substancial, a fim de tomar a melhor decisão de controle, considerando-se os diferentes níveis de infestação entre cultivares como critério.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/pharmacology , Endotoxins/genetics , Endotoxins/pharmacology , Hemolysin Proteins/genetics , Hemolysin Proteins/pharmacology , Soybeans/genetics , Soybeans/parasitology , Brazil , Pest Control, Biological , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Plants, Genetically Modified/parasitology , Larva/drug effects , Moths/drug effects
2.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(3): 1089-1094, July-Sept. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-727042

ABSTRACT

P34 is an antimicrobial peptide produced by a Bacillus sp. strain isolated from the intestinal contents of a fish in the Brazilian Amazon basin with reported antibacterial activity. The aim of this work was to evaluate the peptide P34 for its in vitro antiviral properties against canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), canine coronavirus (CCoV), canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), equine arteritis virus (EAV), equine influenza virus (EIV), feline calicivirus (FCV) and feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1). The results showed that the peptide P34 exhibited antiviral activity against EAV and FHV-1. The peptide P34 inhibited the replication of EAV by 99.9% and FHV-1 by 94.4%. Virucidal activity was detected only against EAV. When P34 and EAV were incubated for 6 h at 37 °C the viral titer reduced from 10(4.5) TCID50 to 10(2.75) TCID50, showing a percent of inhibition of 98.6%. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that P34 inhibited EAV and FHV-1 replication in infected cell cultures and it showed virucidal activity against EAV. Since there is documented resistance to the current drugs used against herpesviruses and there is no treatment for equine viral arteritis, it is advisable to search for new antiviral compounds to overcome these infections.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Domestic/virology , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Bacillus/metabolism , Viruses/drug effects , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Brazil , Bacillus/isolation & purification , Bacterial Proteins/isolation & purification , Bacterial Proteins/pharmacology , Fishes/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Tract/microbiology , Microbial Viability/drug effects , Temperature , Time Factors , Viral Load , Virus Replication/drug effects
3.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(7): 894-900, 1jan. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-696005

ABSTRACT

Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) is increasingly used worldwide for mosquito control and is the only larvicide used in the French Rhône-Alpes region since decades. The artificial selection of mosquitoes with field-persistent Bti collected in breeding sites from this region led to a moderate level of resistance to Bti, but to relatively high levels of resistance to individual Bti Cry toxins. Based on this observation, we developed a bioassay procedure using each Bti Cry toxin separately to detect cryptic Bti-resistance evolving in field mosquito populations. Although no resistance to Bti was detected in none of the three mosquito species tested (Aedes rusticus, Aedes sticticus and Aedes vexans), an increased tolerance to Cry4Aa (3.5-fold) and Cry11Aa toxins (8-fold) was found in one Ae. sticticus population compared to other populations of the same species, suggesting that resistance to Bti may be arising in this population. This study confirms previous works showing a lack of Bti resistance in field mosquito populations treated for decades with this bioinsecticide. It also provides a first panorama of their susceptibility status to individual Bti Cry toxins. In combination with bioassays with Bti, bioassays with separate Cry toxins allow a more sensitive monitoring of Bti-resistance in the field.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aedes/drug effects , Biological Control Agents , Bacillus thuringiensis/chemistry , Bacterial Proteins/pharmacology , Endotoxins/pharmacology , Hemolysin Proteins/pharmacology , Biological Assay , Bacterial Proteins/isolation & purification , Endotoxins/isolation & purification , Hemolysin Proteins/isolation & purification , Insecticide Resistance , Mosquito Control/methods
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 72(2): 243-247, May 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-639432

ABSTRACT

The entomophatogenic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis produces crystal proteins, named Cry proteins which are encoded by the cry genes. This bacterium is used on biological control of important economical pests, as well as in the control of disease´s vectors, such as Aedes aegypti, a mosquito that transmits the dengue viruses. Isolates of this bacterium can be characterized by the content of cry genes and this prediction helps target different insect orders. In this research, we isolated 76 colonies of B. thuringiensis from 30 soil samples that were taken from Ilha Bela (SP, Brazil), a place where simulids are already biologically controlled by B. thuringiensis, to find bacterial isolates that were capable of controlling A. aegypti. The 16S ribosomal subunit genes of the selected isolates were sequenced, and the isolates were molecularly characterized based on their Dipteran-specific cry gene contents. Eight of the 76 isolates (10.52%) contained the cry4Aa, cry4Ba or cry10Aa genes, these isolates were carried out against A. aegypti larvae on bioassay. The presence or absence of specific cry genes was associated with the observed average larval mortalities. From the 76 isolates, seven (9.2%) were potentially able to control A. aegypti larvae. Therefore these are promising isolates for the biological control of A. aegypti larvae.


Bacillus thuringiensis é entomopatogênica, por produzir proteínas cristais, denominadas proteínas Cry, as quais são codificadas pelos genes cry. Essa bactéria atua no controle biológico de insetos-praga de culturas economicamente importantes, bem como no controle de insetos vetores causadores de doenças, como o Aedes aegypti, mosquito transmissor do vírus da dengue. Os isolados dessa bactéria podem ser caracterizados pelo conteúdo de genes cry que possuem e, assim, predizer o alvo de controle dos mesmos às diferentes ordens de insetos. Com o objetivo de encontrar isolados eficientes no controle do vetor A. aegypti, o presente trabalho isolou 76 colônias de B. thuringiensis a partir de 30 amostras de solo oriundas de Ilhabela-SP, município que se caracteriza por realizar controle biológico de simulídeos com essa bactéria. Os 76 isolados foram sequenciados na região da subunidade ribossomal 16S e caracterizados molecularmente quanto ao conteúdo de genes cry díptero-específicos. No total, oito isolados (10,52% do total) apresentaram bandas para os genes cry4Aa, cry4Ba e cry10Aa, sendo os mesmos testados contra larvas de A. aegypti por meio de bioensaios. A presença e/ou ausência dos genes cry foi associada à mortalidade média de larvas. Dentre os isolados estudados, sete (9,2% do total) apresentaram elevado potencial de controle às larvas de A. aegypti, sendo assim considerados como promissores para o manejo do controle biológico de larvas de A. aegypti com a bactéria B. thuringiensis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aedes/drug effects , Bacillus thuringiensis/chemistry , Bacterial Proteins/pharmacology , Endotoxins/pharmacology , Hemolysin Proteins/pharmacology , Soil Microbiology , Biological Assay , Bacillus thuringiensis/isolation & purification , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/isolation & purification , Endotoxins/genetics , Endotoxins/isolation & purification , Hemolysin Proteins/genetics , Hemolysin Proteins/isolation & purification , Larva/drug effects , Pest Control, Biological/methods
5.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(1): 74-79, Feb. 2012. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-612808

ABSTRACT

To study the potential for the emergence of resistance in Aedes aegypti populations, a wild colony was subjected to selective pressure with Cry11Aa, one of four endotoxins that compose the Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis toxin. This bacterium is the base component of the most important biopesticide used in the control of mosquitoes worldwide. After 54 generations of selection, significant resistance levels were observed. At the beginning of the selection experiment, the half lethal concentration was 26.3 ng/mL and had risen to 345.6 ng/mL by generation 54. The highest rate of resistance, 13.1, was detected in the 54th generation. Because digestive proteases play a key role in the processing and activation of B. thuringiensis toxin, we analysed the involvement of insect gut proteases in resistance to the Cry11Aa B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis toxin. The protease activity from larval gut extracts from the Cry11Aa resistant population was lower than that of the B. thuringiensisserovar israelensis susceptible colony. We suggest that differences in protoxin proteolysis could contribute to the resistance of this Ae. aegypti colony.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacterial Proteins/pharmacology , Culex/drug effects , Endotoxins/pharmacology , Hemolysin Proteins/pharmacology , Insecticide Resistance/genetics , Peptide Hydrolases/genetics , Selection, Genetic/genetics , Culex/enzymology , Culex/genetics , Insecticide Resistance/drug effects , Selection, Genetic/drug effects
6.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-136347

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: A cyclic lipopeptide, surfactin produced by a strain of Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis (VCRC B471) was found to exhibit activity against both the larval and pupal stages of mosquitoes. The present study was aimed at increasing the production of the mosquitocidal metabolite by modifying the conventional medium. Methods: Enhancement of mosquitocidal metabolite production was attempted by replacing the existing micronutrients of the conventional NYSM and supplementing the medium with additional amounts of glucose. The LC50 value of culture supernatant (CS) against the larval and pupal stages of Anopheles stephensi was determined. Crude mosquitocidal metabolite (CMM) was separated from the CS, identified by MALDI-TOF analysis and its LC50 dosage requirement for the pupal stage of the above mosquito species determined. Results: The medium containing a new composition of micronutrients and glucose up to 1 per cent resulted in increased metabolite production. The LC50 value of the CS obtained in the improved medium against larvae and pupae of An. stephensi was 5.57 and 0.71 μl/ml, respectively. The yield of CMM was doubled in the improved medium. MALDI-TOF analysis revealed that the CMM was surfactin. Interpretation & conclusions: The new improved medium enhanced the production of mosquitocidal metabolite as the dosage required for inciting 50 per cent mortality among the pupal stages of mosquitoes was only half of that required when the metabolite was produced in the conventional medium. The mosquitocidal metabolite was identified as surfactin, a cyclic lipopeptide and biosurfactant.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacillus subtilis/growth & development , Bacillus subtilis/metabolism , Bacterial Proteins/biosynthesis , Bacterial Proteins/chemistry , Bacterial Proteins/pharmacology , Culicidae/drug effects , Culture Media/chemistry , Humans , Insecticides , Lipopeptides/biosynthesis , Lipopeptides/chemistry , Lipopeptides/pharmacology , Peptides, Cyclic/biosynthesis , Peptides, Cyclic/chemistry , Peptides, Cyclic/pharmacology
7.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2011 Apr; 48(2): 95-100
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135306

ABSTRACT

A halotolerant bacterium Bacillus acquimaris VITP4 was used for the production of extracellular protease. Fractional precipitation using ammonium chloride was used to obtain the enzyme. The protease exhibited optimum activity at pH 8.0 and 40°C and retained 50% of its optimal proteolytic activity even in the presence of 4 M NaCl, suggesting that it is halotolerant. The molecular mass of protease, as revealed by SDS-PAGE was found to be 34 kDa and the homogeneity of the enzyme was confirmed by gelatin zymography and reverse-phase HPLC. Upon purification, the specific activity of th enzyme increased from 533 U/mg to 1719 U/mg. Protease inhibitors like phenyl methane sulphonyl fluoride and 2-mercaptoethanol did not affect the activity of the enzyme, but EDTA inhibited the activity, indicating the requirement of metal ions for activity. Cu­­­2+, Ni2+ and Mn2+ enhanced the enzyme activity, but Zn2+, Hg2+ and Fe2+ decreased the activity, while Mg2+, Ca2+ and K+ had no effect on the enzyme activity. The protease was quite stable in the presence of cationic (CTAB), anionic (SDS) and neutral detergents (Triton X-100 and Tween-20) and exhibited antimicrobial activity against selected bacterial and fungal strains. The stability characteristics and broad spectrum antimicrobial activity indicated the potential use of this protease in industrial applications.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/isolation & purification , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Bacillus/classification , Bacillus/cytology , Bacillus/drug effects , Bacillus/enzymology , Bacterial Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Bacterial Proteins/chemistry , Bacterial Proteins/isolation & purification , Bacterial Proteins/pharmacology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Detergents/pharmacology , Electrophoresis , Endopeptidases/chemistry , Endopeptidases/isolation & purification , Endopeptidases/pharmacology , Enzyme Stability/drug effects , Extracellular Space/enzymology , Fungi/drug effects , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Metals/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Sodium Chloride/pharmacology , Temperature
9.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 38(11): 1585-1592, Nov. 2005.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-414712

ABSTRACT

Lactococcus lactis, the model lactic acid bacterium, is a good candidate for heterologous protein production in both foodstuffs and the digestive tract. We attempted to produce Streptomyces tendae antifungal protein 1 (Afp1) in L. lactis with the objective of constructing a strain able to limit fungal growth. Since Afp1 activity requires disulfide bond (DSB) formation and since intracellular redox conditions are reportedly unfavorable for DSB formation in prokaryotes, Afp1 was produced as a secreted form. An inducible expression-secretion system was used to drive Afp1 secretion by L. lactis; Afp1 was fused or not with LEISSTCDA, a synthetic propeptide (LEISS) that has been described to be a secretion enhancer. Production of Afp1 alone was not achieved, but production of LEISS-Afp1 was confirmed by Western blot and immunodetection with anti-Afp1 antibodies. This protein (molecular mass: 9.8 kDa) is the smallest non-bacteriocin heterologous protein ever reported to be secreted in L. lactis via the Sec-dependent pathway. However, no anti-fungal activity was detected, even in concentrated samples of induced supernatant. This could be due to a too low secretion yield of Afp1 in L. lactis, to the absence of DSB formation, or to an improper DSB formation involving the additional cysteine residue included in LEISS propeptide. This raises questions about size limits, conformation problems, and protein secretion yields in L. lactis.


Subject(s)
Lactococcus lactis/metabolism , Bacterial Proteins , Carrier Proteins , Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification , Antifungal Agents/metabolism , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Aspergillus fumigatus/drug effects , Blotting, Western , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Paecilomyces/drug effects , Plasmids/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/pharmacology , Carrier Proteins/genetics , Carrier Proteins/pharmacology , Trichophyton/drug effects
10.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2005 Sep; 43(9): 773-81
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-60596

ABSTRACT

Oral administration of cadmium (6mg/kg body weight/day) as cadmium chloride (CdCl2) for 30 days resulted in a significant increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level and a decrease in the levels of copper, zinc, iron, selenium, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase when compared to normal control. Administration of either Liv-52 alone or in combination with spirulina produced a well pronounced protective effect in respect to these parameters in cadmium intoxicated rats. The protective effect of spirulina and Liv-52 in respect to biochemical changes were also confirmed by histopathological study in the liver and kidney sections.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants/metabolism , Appetite Depressants/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/pharmacology , Cadmium/toxicity , Cadmium Chloride/toxicity , Catalase/blood , Copper/blood , Drug Combinations , Glutathione/blood , Glutathione Peroxidase/blood , Iron/blood , Kidney/metabolism , Liver/metabolism , Male , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Selenium/blood , Spirulina , Superoxide Dismutase/blood , Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances/metabolism , Zinc/blood
11.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2004 Oct; 42(10): 998-1002
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-57263

ABSTRACT

Administration of mercuric chloride (HgCl2; 5.0 mg/kg body weight) to male Swiss albino-mice resulted in significantly higher levels of testicular acid phosphatase (ACP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities as compared to control. In combination group where S. fusiformis (800 mg/kg body weight) was given before and after HgCl2 treatment, the mercury induced toxicity reduced in terms of decreased levels of ACP and ALP activities in the testis. The animal treated with only Spirulina did not show any alteration in ACP and ALP values. It is suggested that oral administration of Spirulina can modulate mercury induced testicular toxicity.


Subject(s)
Acid Phosphatase/metabolism , Alkaline Phosphatase/metabolism , Animals , Bacterial Proteins/pharmacology , Male , Mercuric Chloride/toxicity , Mice , Spirulina , Testis/drug effects
12.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 52(3): 232-240, Sept. 2002.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-334514

ABSTRACT

Spirulina (Arthrospira), a filamentous, unicellular alga, is a cyanobacterium grown in certain countries as food for human and animal consumption. It is also used to derive additives in pharmaceuticals and foods. This alga is a rich source of proteins, vitamins, amino acids, minerals, and other nutrients. Its main use, therefore, is as a food supplement. Over the last few years, however, it has been found to have many additional pharmacological properties. Thus, it has been experimentally proven, in vivo and in vitro that it is effective to treat certain allergies, anemia, cancer, hepatotoxicity, viral and cardiovascular diseases, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, immunodeficiency, and inflammatory processes, among others. Several of these activities are attributed to Spirulina itself or to some of its components including fatty acids omega-3 or omega-6, beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol, phycocyanin, phenol compounds, and a recently isolated complex, Ca-Spirulan (Ca-SP). This paper aims to update and critically review the results published over the last few years with regards to these properties. The conclusion is that even if this cyanobacterium has been one of the most extensively studied from the chemical, pharmacological and toxicological points of view, it is still necessary to expand the research in order to have more consistent data for its possible use in human beings.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Dietary Supplements , Bacterial Proteins/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/therapeutic use
13.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2001 Jan; 39(1): 70-4
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-56038

ABSTRACT

Lead (100 ppm) was given in doubly deionised water for 30 days to one group of rats. The other groups received lead along with exogenous antioxidants like vitamin E (50 IU/kg), vitamin C (800 mg/kg) or Spirulina (1500 mg/kg) in food for a similar period. Levels of lipid peroxidation products such as malondialdehyde, conjugated diene and hydroperoxide were measured in liver, lung and kidney of treated rats. In lead treated animals there was a significant increase in the levels of these lipid peroxidative products. Administration of exogenous antioxidants in the lead treated animals reduced the levels of malondialdehyde, conjugated diene and hydroperoxide. It indicated that vitamin E, vitamin C and Spirulina had significant (P < 0.001) antioxidant activity thereby protecting the animals from lead induced toxicity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/pharmacology , Female , Hydrogen Peroxide/metabolism , Lead/pharmacology , Male , Malondialdehyde/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Spirulina , Vitamin E/pharmacology
14.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 1997 Nov; 35(11): 1191-3
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-62569

ABSTRACT

In vivo treatment of intestinal brush border membrane vesicles with solubilized insecticidal crystal proteins (ICP) from the two strains of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis (VCRC B17 and VCRC MB24) caused no adverse effect on gamma glutamyl transpeptidase, Na+K+ATPase, sucrase and lactase enzymes. But, exposure of membrane vesicles to solubilized ICP's in vitro, lead to significant reduction in the activity of Na+K+ATPase, sucrase and lactase enzymes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacillus thuringiensis , Bacterial Proteins/pharmacology , Bacterial Toxins/pharmacology , Endotoxins/pharmacology , Hemolysin Proteins , Insecticides/pharmacology , Intestines/drug effects , Male , Microvilli/drug effects , Pest Control, Biological , Rats
15.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 1996 Dec; 34(12): 1241-4
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-58624

ABSTRACT

Effect of intact and alkali solubilized insecticidal crystal protein (ICP) preparations from a mutant strain of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis (VCRC MB24) and the wild type strain (VCRC B17) in vitro on human erythrocytes with respect to lipid peroxidation, osmofragility and membrane bound enzymes was determined. The alkali solubilized ICPs of both B. thuringiensis strains caused increased lipid peroxidation, decreased resistance to hypotonic lysis and reduction in the activity of membrane bound enzymes. On the contrary, the intact ICPs did not produce any such adverse effect on RBCs under the same experimental conditions. It is suggested that the ICPs are safe when they are intact when compared with solubilized ones.


Subject(s)
Bacillus thuringiensis , Bacterial Proteins/pharmacology , Bacterial Toxins/pharmacology , Endotoxins/pharmacology , Erythrocytes/drug effects , Hemolysin Proteins , Humans , Insecticides/pharmacology , Lipid Peroxides/blood , Osmotic Fragility/drug effects , Pest Control, Biological
16.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 1992 May; 30(5): 380-3
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-58536

ABSTRACT

Elastase of B. subtilis 6a caused lysis of freshly grown cells of Gram-negative (Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive (B. subtilis) bacteria. Heat killed and lyophilised Gram-positive and negative bacteria showed higher sensitivity to elastase. Both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria were lysed maximally by elastase at pH 8.0. At this pH, activity of elastase was maximum in Tris-HCl and glycine-NaOH buffers followed by Tris-maleate and cacodylate buffers.


Subject(s)
Bacillus subtilis/enzymology , Bacterial Proteins/pharmacology , Bacteriolysis , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Pancreatic Elastase/pharmacology
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