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1.
African Journal of Health Sciences ; 34(4): 475-481, 2021.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1337588

ABSTRACT

Milk, a nutrient-rich liquid food produced in the mammary glands of mammals, contains low bacterial counts when it leaves the udder, but it may get contaminated from the environment, exterior of udder, water, soil, milkers' hands and utensils. Contamination can serve as a source of spread of certain harmful human bacterial diseases like tuberculosis, diphtheria, salmonellosis and food poisoning if consumed in raw form. This study, therefore, was designed to evaluate bacteriological quality of milk samples collected from various localities within Ilesha metropolis. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty (20) samples of fresh raw milk were collected in sterilized bottles from various nomadic milk hawkers in Ilesha. Methylene blue reductase test, standard plate count on standard plate count agar and isolation of possible pathogens using selective culture media was carried out on the samples. RESULTS Of the 20 samples of raw milk collected for bacteriological analysis, 3 samples were found to be of excellent quality, 5 were very good, 4 were good, 5 were fair and 3 were of poor quality. The actual standard plate count for excellent and very good quality ranged between 33-54 and 62 - 80 colony forming units (cfu). The organisms isolated and biochemically characterized from the raw milk samples were found contaminated with Escherichia coli (4 strains), Staphylococcus aureus (8 strains), Streptococcus pyogenes (5 strains), Streptococcus agalactiae (3 strains) and Enterobacter aerogenes (5 strains). African Journal of Health Sciences Volume 34, Issue No.4, July- August 2021 476 CONCLUSION The results obtained from this study showed that the milk sold in raw form could be hazardous to human health if sold without adopting hygienic measures


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacteriological Techniques , Milk Sickness , Homeless Persons , Cities , Nigeria
2.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 13: 17-26, jan.-dez. 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1145877

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: verificar a demanda de hemoculturas, aspirados traqueais e uroculturas realizadas no HU-UNIVASF/ EBSERH e a prevalência dos microrganismos identificados no período de janeiro a junho de 2016. Métodos: estudo retrospectivo documental com abordagem quantitativa. Resultados: o setor de microbiologia realizou 488 hemoculturas, 427 uroculturas e 197 aspirados traqueais. A positividade de hemoculturas mostrou-se entre 10,9 à 25,7%, e o percentual de contaminações variou de 6,8 à 14,0%. Os microrganismos mais prevalência nas hemoculturas foram Staphylococcus epidermidis (23,7%), Staphylococcus aureus (19,3%) e Klebisiella pneumoniae (9,6%). Nas uroculturas foram Klebisiella pneumoniae (23,1%), Candida sp. (13,5%) e Escherichia coli (12,5%). Nos aspirados traqueais foram Acinetobacter baumannii (29,2%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (26,6%) e Staphylococcus aureus (16,2%). Conclusão: a cultura mais solicitada foi hemocultura. A bactéria mais prevalente nas hemoculturas foi Staphylococcus epidermidis, nos aspirados traqueais Acinetobacter baumannii e nas uroculturas Klebisiella pneumoniae


Objective: the study's purpose has been to verify the demand for blood cultures, tracheal aspirates and urine cultures performed at a University Hospital from the Universidade Federal do Vale do São Francisco (HU-UNIVASF/EBSERH), as well as the predominance of microorganisms identified over the period from January to June 2016. Methods: it is a retrospective documentary study with a quantitative approach. Results: the microbiology sector carried out 488 blood cultures, 427 urine cultures and 197 tracheal aspirates. The positivity of blood cultures was between 10.9 and 25.7%, and the percentage of contaminations ranged from 6.8 to 14.0%. The most prevalent microorganisms in blood cultures were Staphylococcus epidermidis (23.7%), Staphylococcus aureus (19.3%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (9.6%). In urine cultures were Klebsiella pneumoniae (23.1%), Candida sp. (13.5%) and Escherichia coli (12.5%). In tracheal aspirates were Acinetobacter baumannii (29.2%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (26.6%) and Staphylococcus aureus (16.2%). Conclusion: the most requested culture was blood culture. The most prevalent bacterium in blood cultures was Staphylococcus epidermidis, in tracheal aspirates was Acinetobacter baumannii, and in urine cultures was Klebsiella pneumoniae


Objetivo: el propósito del trabajo es verificar la demanda de hemocultivos, aspirados traqueales y urocultivos realizados en el Hospital Universitário de la Universidade Federal do Vale do São Francisco (HU-UNIVASF/ EBSERH) y la prevalencia de los microorganismos identificados en el período de enero a junio de 2016. Métodos: este trabajo es un estudio retrospectivo documental con abordaje cuantitativo. Resultados: el sector de microbiología realizó 488 hemocultivos, 427 urocultivos y 197 aspirados traqueales. La positividad de hemocultivos se mostró entre el 10,9 al 25,7%, y el porcentaje de contaminaciones varía de 6,8 a 14,0%. Los microorganismos más prevalentes en los hemocultivos fueron Staphylococcus epidermidis (23,7%), Staphylococcus aureus (19,3%) y Klebsiella pneumoniae (9,6%). En los urocultivos fueron Klebisiella pneumoniae (23,1%), Candida sp. (13,5%) y Escherichia coli (12,5%). En los aspirados traqueales fueron Acinetobacter baumannii (29,2%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (26,6%) y Staphylococcus aureus (16,2%). Conclusión: la cultura más solicitada fue hemocultivo. La bacteria más prevalente en los hemocultivos fue Staphylococcus epidermidis, en los aspirados traqueales, Acinetobacter baumannii y en los urocultivos, Klebisiella pneumoniae


Subject(s)
Urine/microbiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Bacteriological Techniques/methods , Blood Culture , Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus epidermidis , Prevalence , Acinetobacter baumannii , Escherichia coli , Hospitals, University , Klebsiella pneumoniae
3.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 87: e0812019, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1130055

ABSTRACT

Food prepared with products derived from animals are involved in most cases of staphylococcal poisoning; therefore, the research of Staphylococcus spp. in Emmental cheese is more applicable. The objective of this study was to identify coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. (CNS) in cheese using biochemical and molecular techniques to detect the presence of nine genes responsible for the production of enterotoxins. From 180 samples analyzed, 204 CNS strains were obtained and identified as being 46 (22.6%) S. saprophyticus strains, 27 (13.2%) S. hominis spp. hominis strains, 22 (10.8%) S. sciuri strains, 21 (10.3%) S. xylosus strains, 19 (9.3%) S. epidermidis strains, 19 (9.3%) S. haemolyticus strains, 17 (8.3%) S. lentus strains, 17 (8.3%) S. warneri strains, 11 (5.4%) S. equorum strains and 5 (2.5%) S. cohnni . Using the PCRm protocol, 14 (6.9%) strains with the presence of the genes on the enterotoxin E (SEE)11 (78.6%), J (SEJ) 1 (7%), C (SEC) 1 (7%) and I (SEI) 1 (7%) were detected. Based on the results, the type of package is not interfered of growth and isolated that Staphylococcus spp. in cheese. It was observed that bacteria capacity to produce coagulase cannot be understood as an indicative of enterotoxigenicity; therefore, the CNS should be considered as a target of importance in the epidemiology of staphylococcal intoxications. It can be concluded that CNS need to be included in bacterial foodborne disease research, since the genes responsible for the production of toxins were detected and none of the studied samples presented Staphylococcus spp. counting above the limits allowed by legislation.(AU)


Os alimentos preparados com produtos de origem animal são os mais envolvidos em casos de intoxicação alimentar estafilocócica; portanto a pesquisa do Staphylococcus spp. em queijos tipo Emmental é relevante. O objetivo foi isolar e identificar espécies de Staphylococcus coagulase negativas (CNS)de queijo Emmental acondicionado em vários tipos de embalagem, por meio de técnicas bacteriológicas e bioquímicas e detectar, por PCR, a presença de nove genes responsáveis pela produção de enterotoxinas. Das 180 amostras, foram isoladas 204 cepas de CNS, que foram identificadas por provas bioquímicas como: 46 (22,6%) S. saprophyticus, 27 (13,2%) S. hominis spp. hominis, 22 (10,8%) S. sciuri, 21 (10,3%) S. xylosus, 19 (9,3%) S. epidermidis , 19 (9,3%) S. haemolyticus , 17 (8,3%) S. lentus , 17 (8,3%) S. warneri , 11(5,4%) S. equorum e 5 (2,5%) S. cohnii . Na PCR multiplex, em 14 (6,9%) isolados foi detectada a presença dos genes para enterotoxina E (SEE), em 11 (78,6%) J (SEJ), em 1 (7%) C (SEC) e em 1 (7%) I (SEI). Com base nos resultados, o tipo de embalagem não interferiu na multiplicação dos Staphylococcus spp. isolados dos queijos. Neste estudo, verificou-se que a capacidade para a produção de coagulase pela bactéria não pode ser concebida como indicativa de enterotoxigenicidade, portanto devem-se considerar os CNS como objeto de importância na epidemiologia das intoxicações estafilocócicas, fazendo-se necessária a atenção com relação à pesquisa dos CNS nos alimentos, uma vez que foram detectados genes responsáveis pela produção de toxinas, e nenhuma das amostras apresentou contagem para Staphylococcus spp. acima do limite permitido pela legislação.(AU)


Subject(s)
Staphylococcal Food Poisoning , Staphylococcus/virology , Enterotoxins , Foodborne Diseases , Bacteria , Cheese , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Bacteriological Techniques , Product Packaging , Foods of Animal Origin , Food Safety , Food Supply
4.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 908-919, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826885

ABSTRACT

A multiplex PCR method was developed to detect the main pathogens of Qinghai Tibetan sheep endometritis. First, the genomes of five standard bacterial strains were extracted and specific primers were selected; the multiplex PCR method was established by using the genome of the standard strain as a template. The samples were collected by sterile cotton swab from Tibetan sheep uterus, and then placed in LB medium and numbered. After 48 h, the genomes of cultured bacteria were extracted and detected by single PCR method, then the positive samples were recorded. The positive samples detected by single PCR were selected for multiplex PCR detection and recorded again. The coincidence rate between these two methods was calculated to measure the accuracy of multiplex PCR. In order to identify the species of the pathogen, 30 positive samples verified by single and multiplex PCR were randomly selected for bacterial isolation and identification. In the 600 samples, the infected ratio of Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) was 47.33%, Escherichia coli 34.83%, Staphylococcus aureus 6.5%, Salmonella and Trueperella pyogenes were negatively detected. Among the positive samples detected by multiplex PCR, the positive ratio of GBS was 45.50%, E. coli 33.50%, S. aureus 6.5%. Comparison of two detection results, Multiplex PCR detection coincidence rate is more than 95%. The isolated pathogens were identified as E. coli, GBS and S. aureus, which was consistent with the results of two methods. The multiplex PCR method was successfully established and the main pathogens of endometritis in Qinghai Tibetan sheep were GBS, E. coli and S. aureus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacteria , Genetics , Bacteriological Techniques , Methods , Endometritis , Microbiology , Female , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reference Standards , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sheep , Sheep Diseases , Microbiology , Tibet
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(4): 555-565, Nov. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001469

ABSTRACT

Abstract Different methodologies have been developed throughout the years to identify environmental microorganisms to improve bioremediation techniques, determine susceptibility profiles of bacteria in contaminated environments, and reduce the impact of microorganisms in ecosystems. Two methods of bacterial biochemical identification are compared and the susceptibility profile of bacteria, isolated from residential and industrial wastewater, is determined. Twenty-four bacteria were retrieved from the bacteria bank of the Environmental Microbiology Laboratory at the Institute of Biology (IB) of the Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil. Bacteria were identified by conventional biochemical tests and by the VITEK ®2 automated system. Further, the susceptibility profile to antibiotics was also determined by the automated system. Six species of bacteria (Raoutella planticola, K. pneumoniae ssp. pneumoniae , Serratia marcescens, Raoutella sp., E. cloacae and Klebsiella oxytoca) were identified by conventional biochemical tests, while three species of bacteria (K. pneumoniae ssp. pneumoniae, S. marcescens and K. oxytoca ) were identified by VITEK®2 automated system. VITEK ®2 indicated agreement in 19 (79.17%) isolates and difference in five (20.83%) isolates when compared to results from conventional biochemical tests. Further, antibiotic susceptibility profile results showed that all isolates (100%) were resistant to at least one out of the 18 antibiotics tested by VITEK®2. Thus, no multi-resistant bacteria that may be used in effluent treatment systems or in bioremediation processes have been reported. Results indicate VITEK ® 2 automated system as a potential methodology in the determination of susceptibility profile and identification of environmental bacteria.


Resumo Diferentes metodologias foram desenvolvidas ao longo dos anos para identificar microrganismos ambientais para melhorar as técnicas de biorremediação, determinar perfis de suscetibilidade de bactérias em ambientes contaminados e reduzir o impacto de microrganismos nos ecossistemas. Dois métodos de identificação bioquímica bacteriana são comparados e o perfil de susceptibilidade de bactérias, isoladas de efluentes residenciais e industriais, é determinado. Vinte e quatro bactérias foram coletadas do banco de bactérias do Laboratório de Microbiologia Ambiental do Instituto de Biologia (IB) da Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas, Brasil. As bactérias foram identificadas por testes bioquímicos convencionais e pelo sistema automatizado VITEK®2. Além disso, o perfil de suscetibilidade aos antibióticos também foi determinado pelo sistema automatizado. Seis espécies de bactérias (Raoutella planticola , K. pneumoniae ssp. pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Raoutella sp., E. cloacae e Klebsiella oxytoca) foram identificadas por testes bioquímicos convencionais, enquanto três espécies de bactérias (K. pneumoniae ssp. pneumoniae, S. marcescens e K. oxytoca) foram identificados pelo sistema automatizado VITEK®2. VITEK®2 indicou concordância em 19 (79,17%) isolados e diferença em cinco (20,83%) isolados quando comparados aos resultados de testes bioquímicos convencionais. Além disso, os resultados do perfil de suscetibilidade aos antibióticos mostraram que todos os isolados (100%) foram resistentes a pelo menos um dos 18 antibióticos testados pelo VITEK®2. Assim, não foram relatadas bactérias multirresistentes que possam ser usadas em sistemas de tratamento de efluentes ou em processos de biorremediação. Os resultados indicam que o sistema automatizado VITEK ® 2 é uma metodologia potencial na determinação do perfil de suscetibilidade e identificação de bactérias ambientais.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacteria/drug effects , Bacteriological Techniques/methods , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Brazil , Bacteriological Techniques/instrumentation , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
6.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(4): 224-231, Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001360

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study evaluated the operational characteristics of the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with cellular and biochemical characteristics of acute bacterial meningitis and positive or negative CSF cultures. Methods: Multiplex PCR was performed for 36 CSF samples: culture-proven acute bacterial meningitis (n = 7), culture-negative acute bacterial meningitis (n = 17), lymphocytic meningitis (n = 8), and normal CSF (n = 4). The operational characteristics of multiplex PCR were evaluated with definite and probable bacterial meningitis, using culture positive, cytological and biochemical CSF characteristics as the gold standard. Results: Multiplex PCR for CSF was efficient in the group with CSF cellular and biochemical characteristics of acute bacterial meningitis but with a negative CSF culture. This group demonstrated high specificity, positive predictive value, and efficiency. Conclusions: Multiplex PCR for CSF can improve the speed and accuracy of acute bacterial meningitis diagnosis in a clinical setting as a complement to classical immunological and bacteriological assays in CSF. It is also useful for CSF culture-negative acute bacterial meningitis.


RESUMO Este estudo avaliou as características funcionais da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) multiplex para amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR) de pacientes com características celulares e bioquímicas de meningite bacteriana aguda e culturas de LCR positivas ou negativas. Métodos: O PCR multiplex foi realizado em 36 amostras de LCR: meningite bacteriana aguda comprovada por cultura (n = 7), meningite bacteriana aguda com cultura negativa (n = 17), meningite linfocítica (n = 8) e LCR normal (n = 4). As características funcionais do PCR multiplex foram avaliadas para meningite bacteriana definitiva e provável, utilizando cultura positiva, características citológicas e bioquímicas do LCR como padrão-ouro. Resultados: O PCR multiplex do LCR foi eficiente no grupo com características celulares e bioquímicas do LCR de meningite bacteriana, mas com cultura do LCR negativa. Este grupo demonstrou especificidade, valor preditivo positivo e eficiência altos. Conclusões: Os autores concluíram que o PCR multiplex do LCR pode melhorar a velocidade e a precisão do diagnóstico de meningite bacteriana em um ambiente clínico como complemento aos ensaios imunológicos e bacteriológicos clássicos no LCR. Também é útil para meningite bacteriana aguda com cultura de LCR negativa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Cerebrospinal Fluid/microbiology , Meningitis, Bacterial/diagnosis , Meningitis, Bacterial/cerebrospinal fluid , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Reference Standards , Acute Disease , Predictive Value of Tests , Reproducibility of Results , Bacteriological Techniques/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity , Meningitis, Bacterial/microbiology , Statistics, Nonparametric
7.
J. appl. sci. environ. manag ; 23(1): 35-40, 2019. ilus
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1263364

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: As water is a major life sustainer, hence its portability is of great importance in performing that role well. In this study, various water samples were collected within Efon-Alaaye for both physicochemical and bacteriological tests. A total of nine (9) water samples were taken for analysis with six (6) from various surface sources and three (3) from groundwater sources in the study area. The mean turbidity value, temperature, total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration, hardness and EC are 2.92 NTU, 23°C, 447.8 mg/l, 48.1 mg/l and 138.4 µS/cm respectively. Manganese has mean value of 0.27 mg/l. The concentration of both copper and zinc ranges from 0.07 ­ 0.13 mg/l and 0.16 ­ 0.55 mg/l with an average value of 0.04 mg/l and 0.28 mg/l respectively. Water samples collected were also analyzed for total coliform bacteria and ranged from 1 to 4.6/100 ml with an average value of 3.29 colony/100 ml. On the basis of findings, the physico-chemical analysis reveals that some of the water samples were above the WHO standards for parameters like turbidity and TDS while the bacteriological test reveals that seven (7) of the water samples considered met the WHO requirement of portability while the other two samples contain faecal contaminant as E.coli was discovered, though at reasonable rate


Subject(s)
Absorption, Physicochemical , Bacteriological Techniques , Groundwater , Nigeria
8.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e039, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001610

ABSTRACT

Abstract: This clinical study compared the effectiveness of two rotary systems: HyFlex CM (Coltene-Whaledent, Altstetten, Switzerland) and ProTaper Next (Dentsply Sirona, Ballaigues, Switzerland) on the removal of cultivable bacteria and endotoxins from primarily infected root canals. This study was designed as a randomized single-blinded, 2-arm, clinical trial. Twenty-four primarily infected root canals were selected and randomly divided into 2 groups: HyFlex CM (n = 12); and ProTaper Next (n = 12). Samples were collected before and after the biomechanical preparation and inoculated in specific flasks. Irrigation was performed using 2.5% sodium hypochlorite. A kinetic turbidimetric lysate assay of limulus amoebocytes was used to quantify endotoxins. Microbiological culture technique was used to determine the count of bacterial colony forming units (CFU/mL). Data collected were statistically analyzed using SigmaPlot 12.0 for Windows. The Two-Way ANOVA statistical test was performed and the level of significance was 5%. In the samples before the biomechanical preparation, cultivable bacteria and endotoxins were evidenced in 100% of the cases. The culture analysis revealed that there was no statistically significant difference in the bacterial reduction between the two instrumentation systems. Endotoxins were present in 100% of the canals after instrumentation and there was no statistical difference between the two systems in endotoxin reduction. Thus, it was concluded that both instrumentation systems were effective in reducing root canal bacteria and endotoxins with primary endodontic infection and that there was no statistical difference between them. However, no system was able to eliminate 100% of the bacteria and their by-products.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Lipopolysaccharides/analysis , Dental Instruments , Dental Pulp Cavity/microbiology , Materials Testing , Bacteriological Techniques , Treatment Outcome , Root Canal Preparation/instrumentation , Endotoxins/analysis , Bacterial Load , Middle Aged
9.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180267, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041521

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION The prevalence of hematogenous dissemination of mycobacteria is high in immunosuppressed patients. The isolation of mycobacteria in culture remains the standard procedure. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study based on the results of solid (Löwenstein-Jensen medium) and semi-automated liquid (BACTEC 9240) blood cultures, obtained from the Lacen-GO database. RESULTS The implementation of a semi-automated procedure resulted in an increase of 61.5% and 350.0% in the positive results for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and nontuberculous mycobacteria, respectively. This technique also accelerated the detection of positive results. CONCLUSIONS Semi-automated liquid blood culture showed a better performance in the diagnosis of mycobacteremia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacteriological Techniques/methods , Automation, Laboratory/methods , Mycobacterium/isolation & purification , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Time Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Culture Media
10.
Rev. costarric. salud pública ; 27(2): 82-92, jul.-dic. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978353

ABSTRACT

Resumen La epidemiología de las posibles poblaciones en riesgo de sufrir una infección por bacterias anaerobias a nivel nacional es desconocida, se debería de incentivar el conocimiento en los servicios de salud sobre este tipo de infecciones. Las bacterias anaerobias están relacionadas en los medios hospitalarios como causa importante de morbilidad, razón por la cual es conveniente conocer la epidemiologia y prevalecía de especies involucradas. En el Laboratorio de Bacteriología del Hospital San Juan de Dios, durante tres años, se analizaron un total de 1545 pacientes sospechosos de microorganismos anaerobios en medios prerreducidos, mediante un tamizaje se redujeron a un total de 469 posibles muestras, las cuales, fueron enviadas al Laboratorio de Investigación en Bacteriología Anaerobia (LIBA) para su correspondiente identificación. A lo largo de las semanas epidemiológicas de los tres años se encontraron en promedio de 1.77 casos confirmados / semana, con razón de sexo positiva a favor de los masculinos. Se determinó que solo 245 de las muestras enviadas presentaban uno o varios microorganismos anaerobios estrictos representando un 15.85% del total, identificándose 39 especies diferentes, en 306 cepas aisladas. Las mayormente importante fue el género Bacteriodes, provenientes de cavidad abdominal seguido de abscesos y heridas de piel. El presente estudio tiene como objetivo presentar datos que respalden la importancia clínica de la búsqueda de microorganismos anaerobios y que ayuden a los analistas de bacteriología a guiar cuales son los principales microorganismos esperables en muestras clínicas, además de conocer la prevalencia en general.


Abstract The epidemiology of the possible populations at risk of suffering an infection by anaerobic bacteria a national level is unknown, it should be encouraged the knowledge in the health services about this type of infections. Anaerobic bacteria are related in hospital environments as an important cause of morbidity, which is why it is convenient to know the epidemiology and prevalence of species involved. In the Bacteriology Laboratory of the Hospital San Juan de Dios, for three years, a total of 1545 patients suspected of anaerobic microorganisms in prereduced media were analyzed, through a screening was reduced to a total of 469 possible samples, which were sent to the Anaerobic Bacteriology Research Laboratory (LIBA) for its corresponding identification. Throughout the epidemiological weeks of the three years were found on average of 1.77 confirmed cases / week, with a positive sex ratio in favor of men. It was determined that only 245 of the samples sent had one or several strict anaerobic microorganisms representing 15.85% of the total, identifying 39 different species, in 306 isolated strains. The most important was the genus Bacteriodes, coming from the abdominal cavity followed by abscesses and skin wounds. The present study aims to present data that support the clinical importance of the search for anaerobic microorganisms and that help the analysts of bacteriology to guide which are the main expected microorganisms in clinical samples, in addition to knowing the prevalence in general.


Subject(s)
Bacteria, Anaerobic/chemistry , Bacteriological Techniques , Clostridium/chemistry , Costa Rica
11.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(4): 528-532, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041475

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION Molecular techniques for the detection of pathogens have been shown to be effective diagnostic tools with high sensitivity and short turnaround times. METHODS This study compared five Staphylococcus aureus DNA extraction methods for detection by the polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: The concentration and purity of the extracted DNA showed that the methods did not yield DNA of significant quality. However, most protocols yielded 100% positivity, even with low DNA concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Although one protocol seemed more efficient than the others, PCR was sensitive enough to allow for detection of S. aureus with all the protocols.


Subject(s)
Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/isolation & purification , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Bacteriological Techniques/methods , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
12.
An. bras. dermatol ; 93(3): 454-456, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038271

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Leprosy can be classified according to its operational form as paucibacillary or multibacillary. Bacilloscopy integrates its diagnostic armamentarium. Patients with the disease may present leprosy reactions. This study describes the association of bacilloscopy results and the type of operational classification of leprosy in patients with leprosy reactions. Medical records were analyzed at a reference center between 2010 and 2015. Reactions occurred in almost half of the patients, making their identification important. The bacilloscopic and operational characterization indicates a greater occurrence of leprosy reactions in patients with positive bacilloscopy and also in multibacillary.


Subject(s)
Humans , Leprosy/microbiology , Skin/microbiology , Bacteriological Techniques/methods , Leprosy/classification , Leprosy/diagnosis , Mycobacterium leprae/isolation & purification
13.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(2): 358-361, Apr.-June 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889242

ABSTRACT

Abstract Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, the etiologic agent of Johne's disease or paratuberculosis, was identified by culture and/or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 50% and 30% of water samples for animal and human consumption, respectively, from ten dairy goat farms in Brazil. IS1311 restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis identified the isolates as cattle type C.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Drinking Water/microbiology , Molecular Typing/methods , Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis/classification , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Animals, Domestic , Bacteriological Techniques/methods , Brazil , Genotype , Goats , Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis/isolation & purification
14.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(2): 215-218, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041453

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Bloodstream infections can be fatal, and timely identification of the etiologic agent is important for treatment. METHODOLOGY: An alternative method, consisting of direct identification and susceptibility testing of blood culture bottles using the automated VITEK 2® system, was assessed. RESULTS: All 37 of the Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) identifications and 57.1% of the 28 Gram-positive cocci (GPC) identifications matched those obtained with standard methods. In susceptibility testing, the agreement was greater than 90%. CONCLUSIONS: This alternative methodology may assist in the early identification and susceptibility testing of GNB. Further research is necessary to develop appropriate methods for GPC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Bacteremia/microbiology , Gram-Positive Cocci/drug effects , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Prospective Studies , Bacteriological Techniques , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Gram-Positive Cocci/classification , Qualitative Research , Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification
16.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(1): 85-87, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041445

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION. This study aimed to evaluate different methods for differentiation of species of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) that caused infections in hospitalized immunocompromised patients. METHODS. A total of 134 CoNS strains were characterized using four different methods. RESULTS. The results of matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis were in complete agreement with those of tuf gene sequencing (kappa index = 1.00). The kappa index of Vitek 2® Compact analysis was 0.85 (very good) and that of the conventional method was 0.63 (moderate). CONCLUSIONS . MALDI-TOF MS provided rapid and accurate results for the identification of CoNS (134; 100%).


Subject(s)
Humans , Staphylococcus/genetics , Bacteriological Techniques/methods , Coagulase/metabolism , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization , Phenotype , Staphylococcus/drug effects , Staphylococcus/enzymology , Reproducibility of Results , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
17.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 70(4): 1141-1149, jul.-ago. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-916642

ABSTRACT

O presente estudo objetivou avaliar o perfil das Ig durante os diferentes tratamentos de vacas com mastite clínica. Para isso, 30 vacas com mastite clínica em um quarto mamário foram utilizadas e divididas em três grupos. O primeiro grupo foi composto por 10 animais submetidos ao tratamento combinado com infusão intramamária de 8,5mg de sulfato de cefquinoma após cada ordenha, totalizando três aplicações e administração intramuscular de 2,5mg/kg de enrofloxacina por três dias. O segundo grupo foi composto por 10 animais submetidos ao tratamento intramamário, com infusão intramamária de 8,5mg de sulfato de cefquinoma, após cada ordenha, totalizando três aplicações. O terceiro grupo foi composto por 10 animais submetidos ao tratamento sistêmico, com 2,5mg/kg de enrofloxacina, durante três dias. As amostras de leite foram coletadas de todos os animais antes dos tratamentos (momento 0), no segundo (momento 1), no quinto (momento 2) e no 12º dia (momento 3) após o término dos tratamentos. Estas foram submetidas à contagem de células somáticas, ao California Mastitis Test (CMT), ao exame bacteriológico e à quantificação das IgG1, IgG2, IgA e IgM. O tratamento combinado foi mais eficaz e precoce na taxa de cura clínica, na redução dos escores de CMT e da contagem de células somáticas. Além disso, os resultados do presente estudo demonstraram que as concentrações lácteas das diferentes classes de Ig, apesar de sua importância biológica, não estão relacionadas ao prognóstico da mastite clínica bovina, ou seja, não podem ser consideradas marcadores robustos associados à cura clínica e/ou bacteriológica da infecção intramamária.(AU)


The present study aimed to evaluate the profile of immunoglobins profile, clinical and bacteriological cure after different treatment routes of clinical bovine mastitis. Here, 30 Holstein cows with clinical mastitis in one quarter were uniformly divided into: 10 dairy cows that received 8.5mg of cefquinome sulphate administrated intramammarily during three consecutive milkings and 2.5mg/kg of enrofloxacin administrated parenterally during three consecutive days (Group 1); 10 dairy cows that received 8.5mg of cefquinome sulphate administrated intramammarily during three consecutive milkings (Group 2); and 10 dairy cows that received 2.5mg/kg of enrofloxacin administrated parenterally during three consecutive days (Group 3). Milk samples for somatic cell count, California Mastitis Test (CMT), bacteriological culture and quantification of IgG1, IgG2, IgM and IgA were collected before antimicrobial treatment, and after two, five and 12 days after the antimicrobial treatment. The combined treatment was more effective in the clinical cure rate, reduction of somatic cell count and CMT scores. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that milk concentration of different Igs classes were not related to prognosis of bovine clinical mastitis, and then cannot be considered as robust markers associated with clinical and bacteriological cures.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Bacteriological Techniques/classification , Immunoglobulins/classification , Mastitis, Bovine/classification
18.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(3): 253-261, 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-959439

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Las Enterobacteriaceae productoras de carbapenemasas (EPC) han tomado gran importancia en salud pública a una escala global, haciendo necesario implementar test rápidos para su detección oportuna. Objetivo: Evaluar tres metodologías para el tamizaje de EPC en hisopados rectales. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio prospectivo transversal. Se evaluaron 73 hisopados rectales por tres metodologías. Se realizó identificación y evaluación de susceptibilidad por sistemas automatizados y la producción de carbapenemasas se confirmó por test de Hodge modificado, sinergia con ácido borónico y EDTA. Resultados: Método 1 (ChromID CARBA®): detectó 20 muestras positivas (27,4%), 5 falsos positivos (6,9%), con índice de concordancia de 93,2%, sensibilidad 100% y especificidad de 90%. Método 2 (HB&L Carbapenemase®): detectó 17 muestras positivas (23,3%) y 3 falsos negativos (4,1%). La sensibilidad y especificidad fue 85 y 100% respectivamente, con concordancia de 95,9%. Método 3 (Xpert Carba-R®): detectó 19 muestras positivas (57,5 %) y 1 falso negativo (3,1%), sensibilidad 95%, especificidad 100% e índice de concordancia de 97%. Discusión: Existe amplia variedad de metodologías para búsqueda y detección rápida de microorganismos productores de carbapenemasas. La elección del método debe tener como requisito una buena sensibilidad y especificidad, rapidez y costo efectividad.


Background: Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) have taken great importance on public health at global scale, which makes it necessary to implement rapid test for its prompt detection. Aim: To evaluate three screening methods to detect CPE in rectal swabs. Material and Methods: Transverse study, prospective. Seventy three rectal swabs were evaluated by three methodologies. Microorganism identification and susceptibility testing were made using automated systems. Carbapenemase production was confirmed by modified Hodge test and synergy tests using boronic acid and EDTA. Results: The method 1 (ChromID CARBA®) detected 20 positive samples (27.4%), 5 false positives (6.9 %), with concordance index of 93.2%, sensitivity 100% and specificity of 90%. Method 2 (HB&L Carbapenemase®) detected 17 positive samples (23.3%) and 3 false negatives (4.1%). The sensitivity and specificity of the assay were 85% and 100%, with concordance index of 95.9%. Method 3 (Xpert Carba-R®) detected 19 positive samples (57.5%) and 1 false negatives (3.1%), sensitivity 95%, specificity 100% and concordance index of 97%. Discussion: There is a wide variety of methodologies for rapid detection of carbapenemase-producing microorganisms. Choosing the best method must have as requirement a good sensitivity, specificity, and cost-effectiveness.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rectum/microbiology , Mass Screening/methods , Bacteriological Techniques/methods , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/diagnosis , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
19.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 16(2): eAO4214, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-953150

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To compare the performance of the Ogawa-Kudoh method with the modified Petroff technique in diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods A total of 205 sputum samples from 166 patients with clinical suspicion or under pulmonary tuberculosis follow-up, seen at a public tertiary care hospital, from July 2014 to July 2016 were used. All samples were simultaneously processed using the Ogawa-Kudoh and modified Petroff decontamination methods, according to the recommendations of the Ministry of Health. In the statistical analysis, the McNemar test and the Kappa index were used, respectively, to compare proportions and verify agreement between data. Results The Ogawa-Kudoh and modified Petroff methods were efficient in mycobacteria detection, with no significant differences in results (p=0.549) and contamination rate of the cultures (p=0.065). The agreement between techniques was considered excellent (Kappa index of 0.877) and Ogawa-Kudoh, as compared to the modified Petroff technique, showed sensitivity of 90.4%, specificity of 96.6%, positive predictive value of 94.3% and negative predictive value of 94.2%. Conclusion The Ogawa-Kudoh technique proved to be sufficiently sensitive and specific for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis, and, therefore, suitable for routine laboratory application. Since it is simple, low-cost and has less technical requirements for biosafety and professional training, Ogawa-Kudoh is an alternative for managers and healthcare professionals to promote the expansion of bacteriological diagnostic coverage of pulmonary tuberculosis.


RESUMO Objetivo Comparar o desempenho do método de Ogawa-Kudoh ao de Petroff modificado no diagnóstico da tuberculose pulmonar. Métodos Utilizaram-se 205 amostras de escarro de 166 pacientes com suspeita clínica ou controle de tuberculose pulmonar atendidos em um hospital público terciário, entre os meses de julho de 2014 a julho de 2016. Todas as amostras foram processadas simultaneamente pelos métodos de descontaminação Ogawa-Kudoh e Petroff modificado, seguindo as recomendações do Ministério da Saúde. Na análise estatística, foi empregado o teste de McNemar, para comparação de proporções, e o índice Kappa, para verificar o grau de concordância entre os dados. Resultados Os métodos Ogawa-Kudoh e Petroff modificado mostraram-se eficientes na detecção de micobactérias, não sendo verificadas discordâncias significativas tanto nas comparações de pares de resultados (p=0,549), como na taxa de contaminação das culturas (p=0,065). O grau de concordância das técnicas foi considerado excelente (índice Kappa de 0,877), e o Ogawa-Kudoh, em relação ao Petroff modificado, apresentou 90,4% de sensibilidade, 96,6% de especificidade, 94,3% de valor preditivo positivo e 94,2% de valor preditivo negativo. Conclusão O método de Ogawa-Kudoh revelou-se suficientemente sensível e específico para o diagnóstico da tuberculose pulmonar e, portanto, adequado para a aplicação na rotina laboratorial. Por ser mais simples, de baixo custo e com menores exigências técnicas de biossegurança e capacitação profissional, o Ogawa-Kudoh apresenta-se como alternativa para gestores e profissionais da área promoverem a ampliação da cobertura diagnóstica bacteriológica da tuberculose pulmonar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sputum/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Bacteriological Techniques/methods , Mycobacterium/isolation & purification , Brazil , Culture Media , Mycobacterium/growth & development
20.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 16(2): eAO4150, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-953151

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the incidence of variant hemoglobins in different health regions. Methods A descriptive, observational, and cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach based on secondary data in the internal records of the neonatal screening service - Laboratório Central de Saúde Pública do Estado do Piauí (PI, Brazil). The variables related to sex, ethnicity and positive diagnosis for variant hemoglobins were analyzed, with further population distribution of hemoglobinopathies among the macroregions of the state. Results A total of 69,180 samples of newborns were analyzed, and 3,747 were diagnosed as hemoglobinopathies, from February 1st, 2014 and December 31st, 2015. Sickle cell trait was the most frequent (4.1%), followed by hemoglobinopathy C in 0.9%; homozygous hemoglobin S cases 0.1% stood out and there were no cases of hemoglobinopathy D in the state. It is also worth noting that the highest frequencies of hemoglobin alterations in Piauí were in males (49.8%) and of parda skin color (38.5%). The region of Piauí presenting the highest incidence of heteroygous variant hemoglobins was Tabuleiros do Alto Parnaíba and Vale do Sambito, due to importance of the region's population Entre Rios. Conclusion Neonatal screening programs are important for screening, orientations regarding health actions and monitoring of families with hemoglobinopathies, in order to reduce morbidity and mortality rates.


RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar a incidência de hemoglobinas variantes em diferentes regiões de saúde. Métodos Estudo descritivo, observacional e transversal com abordagem quantitativa baseada em dados secundários presentes nos registros internos do serviço de triagem neonatal do Laboratório Central de Saúde Pública do Estado do Piauí (PI, Brasil). Foram analisadas as variáveis referentes a sexo, etnia e diagnóstico positivo para hemoglobinas variantes, com posterior distribuição populacional das hemoglobinopatias entre as macrorregiões do Estado. Resultados Foram analisadas 69.180 amostras de recém-nascidos, e 3.747 diagnosticados com hemoglobinopatias, entre 1° de fevereiro de 2014 e 31 de dezembro de 2015. Constatou-se maior ocorrência do traço falciforme em 4,1% da amostra e da hemoglobinopatia C em 0,9%, com destaque para os casos de hemoglobina S em homozigose (0,1%) e ausência de hemoglobinopatia D no Estado. Destacou-se, ainda, o fato de as maiores frequências de alteração hemoglobínica do Piauí estarem presentes em recém-nascidos do sexo masculino (49,8%) e de etnia parda (38,5%). As regiões do Piauí que apresentaram as maiores incidências de hemoglobinas variantes em heterozigose foram Tabuleiros do Alto Parnaíba e Vale do Sambito, devendo-se ressaltar a relevância populacional da região Entre Rios. Conclusão Os programas de triagem neonatal são importantes para rastreamento, orientação de ações de saúde e acompanhamento de famílias acometidas com hemoglobinopatias, a fim de diminuir a morbimortalidade provocada por estas patologias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sputum/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Bacteriological Techniques/methods , Mycobacterium/isolation & purification , Brazil , Culture Media , Mycobacterium/growth & development
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