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1.
Cambios rev. méd ; 20(1): 10-14, 30 junio 2021. tabs.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292684

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN. Las infecciones del tracto urinario son causa de mayor morbilidad en la población adulta y afectan con frecuencia a la mujer. Al ser un problema prevalente, fue fundamental realizar estudios sobre perfiles de susceptibilidad locales para establecer medidas de vigilancia y control de uso de antibióticos. OBJETIVO. Determinar el perfil de farmacorresistencia microbiana en adultos con infección del tracto urinario. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS. Estudio descriptivo, transversal. La población fue de 437 urocultivos y una muestra de 176 positivos con su antibiograma, realizados en el laboratorio del Hospital Básico de Sangolquí entre enero de 2017 hasta abril de 2018. Los criterios de inclusión fueron: pacientes mayores de 15 años de edad de ambos sexos, ambulatorios y hospitalizados, que presentaron urocultivos positivos definidos por una cuenta mayor a 100 000 Unidades Formadoras de Colonia. RESULTADOS. Del 40,27% (176; 437) de urocultivos positivos, la bacteria aislada con frecuencia fue Escherichia coli. 69,31% (122; 176), con resistencia a ampicilina 77,97% (92; 118), trimetropim-sulfametoxazole 62,26% (66; 106), norfloxacino 37,50% (42; 112), ciprofloxacino 35,65 % (41; 115), ampicilina/sulbactam 32,20% (38; 118) y con susceptibilidad a: fosfomicina, ceftriaxona, amikacina y nitrofurantoina. CONCLUSIÓN. Se determinó el perfil de farmacorresistencia microbiana en adultos con infección del tracto urinario; donde Escherichia coli. fue aislada con frecuencia, con susceptibilidad favorable para nitrofurantoína y fosfomicina.


INTRODUCTION. Urinary tract infections are the cause of greater morbidity in the adult population and it often affects women. As it is a prevalent problem, it was essential to carry out studies on local susceptibility profiles to establish surveillance measures and control of antibiotic use. OBJECTIVE. To determine the microbial drug resistance profile in adults with urinary tract infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Descriptive, cross-sectional study. The population was 437 urine cultures and a sample of 176 positive with their antibiogram, carried out in the laboratory of the Hospital Básico de Sangolquí between january 2017 and april 2018. Inclusion criteria were: patients older than 15 years of age of both sexes, ambulatory and hospitalized, who presented positive urine cultures defined by a count greater than 100 000 Colony Forming Units. RESULTS. Of the 40,27% (176; 437) of positive urine cultures, the bacterium frequently isolated was Escherichia coli. 69,31% (122; 176), with resistance to ampicillin 77,97% (92; 118), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 62,26% (66; 106), norfloxacin 37,50% (42; 112), ciprofloxacin 35,65% (41; 115), ampicillin / sulbactam 32,20% (38; 118) and with susceptibility to: fosfomycin, ceftriaxone, amikacin and nitrofurantoin. CONCLUSION. The microbial drug resistance profile was determined in adults with urinary tract infection; where Escherichia coli. was frequently isolated, with favorable susceptibility to nitrofurantoin and fosfomycin.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Urinary Tract , Urinary Tract Infections , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Staphylococcus , Bacteriuria , Ampicillin Resistance , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Escherichia coli
2.
Afr. J. Clin. Exp. Microbiol ; 22(4): 489-497, 2021.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1342264

ABSTRACT

Background: Significant bacteriuria is commonly reported in pregnancy which greatly predisposes pregnant women to urinary tract infection (UTI), one of the commonest health challenges in pregnancy worldwide especially in developing countries such as Nigeria. The objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with significant bacteriuria among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic (ANC) of Adeoyo Maternity Hospital, Yemetu, Ibadan, Nigeria, as well as determine the bacterial aetiology and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the isolates. Methodology: This is a laboratory-based cross-sectional study of 206 pregnant women between the ages of 15 and 47 years attending the ANC of the hospital, selected by simple random sampling method. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from the subjects using a structured questionnaire. Clean-catch specimen of mid-stream voided urine was collected from each subject participant. Urine samples were processed for culture and isolation of significant bacterial pathogens using standard bacteriological methods, and isolates identified to species level by the combination of colony morphology, Gram reaction, conventional biochemical tests and Analytical Profile Index (API) 20E test kits. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of the isolates to selected antibiotics was performed using the disk diffusion method. Results: The prevalence of significant bacteriuria in the study population was 8.7% (18/206), with 27.8% (5/18) symptomatic and 72.2% (13/18) asymptomatic. All isolated bacteria were Gram-negative with the most frequent being Escherichia coli 9 (50.0%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae 6 (33.3%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa 1 (5.6%), Acinetobacter haemolyticus 1 (5.6%) and Enterobacter aerogenes 1 (5.6%). The isolates were most sensitive to gentamicin (100%) and nitrofurantoin (94.4%), while they demonstrated highest resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (33.3%). Significant bacteriuria was associated with pyuria (p=0.01) and past history of UTI (p=0.004). Conclusions: The high prevalence of asymptomatic significant bacteriuria in this study necessitates the need for screening and treatment of pregnant women for this entity to prevent the subsequent development of UTI that may have grave consequences on pregnancy outcome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pregnancy , Bacteriuria , Urinary Tract Infections , Pregnant Women , Nigeria
3.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(2): 347-353, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002202

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Study design: Retrospective cohort of patients with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) that have been hospitalized for physical-functional rehabilitation purposes. Objectives: To compare the incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) after urodynamic study (UDS) in three hospitals that adopted different protocols with regard to the preparation of patients. Setting: Sarah Network of Rehabilitation Hospitals, Brazil. Materials and Methods: Between 2014 and 2015, 661 patients from three units of the same hospital network, one of which does not use antimicrobial prophylaxis independently of urine culture results, were evaluated after having undergone UDS. The results were compared in both univariate and multivariate analyses (logistic regression). Results: The global rate of UTI after UDS was that of 3.18% (IC 95% 2.1-4.8), with no differences between the units. In the univariate analysis the only variable that was associated with UTI after UDS was that of T6 injuries or above (P = 0.029). The logistic regression has confirmed this result, with an adjusted odds ratio of 3.06 (IC 95% 1.01 to 9.26; P = 0.0476). The use of antimicrobial prophylaxis did not alter that risk. Conclusions: This study has demonstrated that the use of antimicrobials does not prevent UTI after UDS. Patients with T6 traumatic SCI or above have got three times more chance of developing UTI after UDS if compared to those with a T7 injury or below, independently of the use of antimicrobials. Even in these patients the use of antimicrobials would not be justified.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Spinal Cord Injuries/physiopathology , Urinary Tract Infections/prevention & control , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/methods , Bacteriuria/prevention & control , Bacteriuria/epidemiology , Urinary Tract Infections/epidemiology , Urodynamics , Brazil/epidemiology , Asymptomatic Infections , Middle Aged
4.
Rev. bras. med. fam. comunidade ; 14(41): 1922-1922, fev. 2019. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1023530

ABSTRACT

A bacteriúria assintomática (BUA) tem estado associada a aumento do risco de pielonefrite materna e parto pré-termo. As normas de orientação clínica internacionais recomendam a sua pesquisa e tratamento durante a gravidez. No entanto, os benefícios e riscos da sua pesquisa e tratamento não são consensuais. Esta revisão tem por objetivo analisar a evidência disponível quanto à influência do tratamento da BUA na morbimortalidade materna e fetal. Os autores realizaram pesquisa na base de dados MEDLINE e sites de Medicina Baseada na Evidência, de revisões baseadas na evidência, normas de orientação clínica, meta-análises, revisões sistemáticas e ensaios clínicos controlados e aleatorizados, utilizando os termos MeSH: Bacteriuria e Pregnancy, de artigos publicados entre janeiro de 2008 e maio de 2018, em Inglês, Francês, Espanhol e Português. Para avaliação dos níveis de evidência e atribuição de forças de recomendação, foi utilizada a escala Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT) da American Family Physician. Foram identificados 136 artigos, dos quais 10 cumpriam critérios de inclusão. A evidência existente, maioria baseada em estudos antigos com importantes limitações metodológicas, não permite concluir de forma clara se o tratamento da BUA influencia positivamente a morbimortalidade materna e fetal, no entanto dados recentes apontam para ausência de benefício com o tratamento da BUA em gravidezes únicas de baixo risco (Força de recomendação B), o que questiona a prática clínica corrente. Para colmatar as limitações dos estudos encontrados, são necessários estudos controlados, aleatorizados, de elevada qualidade e maior dimensão que avaliem a influência do tratamento da BUA na morbimortalidade materna e fetal.


Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) has been associated with an increased risk of maternal pyelonephritis (PN) and preterm birth (PTB). International clinical guidelines recommend its research and treatment during pregnancy. However, the benefit and risk of screening and treating ASB is not consensual, and this review intends to analyze the available evidence regarding the influence of ASB treatment on maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. We search on MEDLINE database and Evidence-Based Medicine sites of evidence-based reviews, clinical guidelines, meta-analysis, systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials, using the MeSH terms "Bacteriuria AND Pregnancy", of articles published between January 2008 and May 2018, in English, French, Spanish and Portuguese. The Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT) scale of the American Family Physician was used to assess the levels of evidence and assignment of recommendation forces. We identified 136 articles, of which ten met the inclusion criteria. The existing evidence, mostly based on outdated or small and with methodological shortcomings clinical trials, does not allow a clear conclusion as to whether the treatment of ASB positively influences maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality; the most recent data effectively points to a lack of benefit with ASB treatment (SOR B). To address the limitations of the studies found, controlled, randomized, higher quality and larger studies are needed to assess the influence of ASB treatment on maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality.


La bacteriuria asintomática (BUA) se ha asociado a un aumento del riesgo de pielonefritis materna y parto prematuro. Las pautas en general recomiendan la detección y tratamiento de BUA en el embarazo. Sin embargo, el beneficio y riesgo de la detección y tratamiento de la BUA no son consensuales, y esta revisión pretende analizar la evidencia disponible sobre la influencia del tratamiento de la BUA en la morbilidad y mortalidad materna y fetal. Buscamos en la base de datos MEDLINE y en los sitios de Medicina Basada en la Evidencia, de revisiones basadas en la evidencia, guías clínicas, metanálisis, revisiones sistemáticas y ensayos controlados aleatorios, utilizando los términos MeSH "Bacteriuria Y Embarazo", de artículos publicados entre enero 2008 y mayo de 2018, en inglés, francés, español y portugués. Para la evaluación de los niveles de evidencia y asignación de fuerzas de recomendación, se utilizó la escala Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT) de la American Family Physician. Se identificaron 136 artículos, de los cuales 10 cumplían los criterios de inclusión. La evidencia existente, basada principalmente en ensayos clínicos obsoletos o pequeños y con deficiencias metodológicas, no permite una conclusión clara sobre si el tratamiento de la BUA influye positivamente la morbilidad y mortalidad materna y fetal; los datos más recientes apuntan a una falta de beneficio con el tratamiento de la BUA (SOR B). Para colmar las limitaciones de los estudios encontrados se necesitan estudios controlados, aleatorizados, de mayor calidad y tamaño para evaluar la influencia del tratamiento de la BUA en la morbilidad y mortalidad materna y fetal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Primary Health Care , Bacteriuria , Pregnancy , Premature Birth
5.
Zagazig univ. med. j ; 25(6): 928-934, 2019. tab
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1273877

ABSTRACT

Background: Proteus mirabilis is thought to contribute inrheumatoid arthritis (RA) development in susceptible individuals through molecular mimicry mechanism. This study was detecting the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) caused by Proteus mirabilis in RA patients to shed light on its rule in RA pathogenesis.Methods: This work has been conducted in medical Microbiology and Immunology Department and Rheumatology and Rehabitilation Department, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, during the period from May 2017 to May 2018 over a period of 12 months. This study is a case control included 70 RA patients (66 females and 4 males), with age ranged from 25 to 65 years, and 70 healthy controls (67 females and 3 males), with age ranged from 24 to 65 years. Two consecutive urine samples one week interval were collected from each participant for urine count and culture. Blood samples were collected from each participant for detection the level of IgG antibodies against both Proteus mirabilis and E. coli (the most frequent isolated organism from the RA urine) by homely prepared ELISA. Results: The ABU was detected in (40%) of RA patients and in (4.3%) of healthy controls. The most common isolated organisms were E. coli (50%) followed by Proteus mirabilis (25%). A significant difference between both studied groups regarding IgG antibodies levels against Proteus mirabilis was detected (P< 0.001). No significant difference was observed between both studied groups regarding IgG antibodies levels against E. coli (P= 0.902). Significant positive correlation was found between Proteus mirabilis IgG antibodies levels and the levels of ESR and CRP in RA patients. In conclusion: Proteus mirabilis seems to have a role in RA development


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Bacteriuria , Cross Reactions , Egypt , Proteus mirabilis
6.
Afr. J. Clin. Exp. Microbiol ; 20(4): 299-305, 2019. tab
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1256087

ABSTRACT

Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) in children is a predisposing factor to symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI) that may be complicated by blood stream infections if not appropriately treated with resultant mortality or morbidity. The objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence of ASB, and evaluate both biochemical and bacteriological characteristics of urine samples of primary school pupils in Ago-Iwoye, Ijebu North Local Government Area (LGA), Ogun State, Nigeria. Methodology: Three hundred and seventy-two (186 males and 186 females) apparently healthy (asymptomatic) pupils aged 2-16 years from four randomly selected primary schools in the LGA were screened for ASB. Clean catch specimen of midstream urine was collected from each subject. Biochemical analysis of the urine was performed with Combi 10 reagent strip. MacConkey and Cysteine Lactose Electrolyte Deficient (CLED) agar plates were inoculated with calibrated wireloop delivering 0.01 ml of urine for aerobic culture at 37oC for 24 hours. Identification of significant bacteria on culture plates was done using conventional biochemical tests. Results: The frequency of clear, slightly turbid and turbid urine were 31 (8.3%), 99 (26.6%) and 56 (15.1%) respectively. All analyzed urine samples were alkaline and negative for ketone, glucose and blood, but contained protein in 230 (61.8%), bilirubin in 184 (49.5%), nitrites in 64 (17.2%) and urobilinogen in 14 (3.7%) subjects. The prevalence of significant bacteriuria was 11.8% (44 of 372) with 7.0% in males and 16.7% in females (p = 0.0063). The frequency of bacteria isolated in descending order were Escherichia coli 61.4%, Staphylococcus saprophyticus 61.4%, Staphylococcus aureus 45.5%, Bacillus subtilis 45.5%, Enterococcus faecalis 43.2%, Enterobacter spp 36.4%, Serratia marscencen 31.8%, Klebsiella pneumoniae 22.7%, Proteus mirabilis 22.7% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 20.5%. Conclusion: This result highlights the presence of significant bacteriuria among apparently healthy pupils in the study area, with higher prevalence in the female pupils. The apparent risk of developing symptomatic UTI with the attendant complications in these pupils should spur preventive education of parents/guardians and the general populace about this entity


Subject(s)
Bacteriuria , Child , Morbidity , Nigeria , Prevalence , Staphylococcus saprophyticus
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775983

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the correlation between asymptomatic bacteriuria(AB)and surgical site infection(SSI)in middle-aged and elderly women undergoing open hysterectomy.Methods The clinical data of 1469 middle-aged and elderly women undergoing open hysterectomy in the Third Affiliated Hospital of Guizhou Medical University from June 2011 to August 2018 were retrospectively analyzed.Factors associated with SSI after operation were analyzed by univariate and multivariate regression models to identify the relationship of AB with SSI after open hysterectomy.Results Of these 1469 patients,101(6.88%)had SSI and 124 had AB[including 14 patients(11.29%)with infections].In addition,1345 patients had no AB,among whom 87(6.47%)had infections.Thus,the infection rate in patients with AB was significantly higher than that in patients without AB(=4.123,=0.042).Univariate analysis showed AB,history of diabetes mellitus,surgical procedure,length of stay(>15 d),season(summer and autumn),body mass index(≥25 kg/m ),nature of lesions(malignant tumors),ASA grade(>grade Ⅱ),incision length(≥10 cm),and operative time(≥3 h),bleeding volume(≥1000 ml),serum albumin concentration(grade Ⅱ)were risk factors for SSI in these patients(all <0.05). Conclusions AB is one of the risk factors for SSI in middle-aged and elderly women undergoing open hysterectomy.Screening and treatment of AB before surgery can reduce the risk of SSI.ASA grading shall be performed before surgery before corresponding preparation was offered.Effective control of blood glucose,improved surgical skills,and shorter operative time are helpful for lowering postoperative SSI.


Subject(s)
Aged , Bacteriuria , Blood Glucose , Female , Humans , Hysterectomy , Middle Aged , Operative Time , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Surgical Wound Infection
8.
Rev. Soc. Argent. Diabetes ; 53(2): 70-78, mayo-ago. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102841

ABSTRACT

Las infecciones del tracto urinario (ITUs) son frecuentes en la práctica médica diaria. Existen factores patogénicos que modulan el riesgo de su aparición que dependen del germen responsable y el huésped. La diabetes mellitus es un factor predisponente para la aparición de infecciones urinarias. Como factores de riesgo para estas infecciones se mencionan la mayor duración de la diabetes, la albuminuria y neuropatía con menor vaciamiento vesical, siendo controversial la presencia de glucosuria. Según su ubicación en el árbol urinario pueden ser bajas y altas, y de acuerdo a la severidad, complicada o no. La bacteriuria asintomática, detectada por análisis rutinario, es más frecuente en mujeres con diabetes. La elección del esquema antibiótico en las infecciones urinarias se basa en la severidad de la infección, el antecedente de microorganismos resistentes y la sensibilidad en el antibiograma, recordando ajustar la dosis de acuerdo al grado de insuficiencia renal. En este trabajo nuestro objetivo es describir las características clínicas y el diagnóstico para un adecuado tratamiento antibiótico


Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are frequent in daily medical practice. There are pathogenic factors that modulate the risk of their onset depending on the responsible germ and host. Diabetes mellitus is a predisposing factor for developing urinary infections. The longest duration of diabetes, albuminuria and neuropathy with less bladder emptying are mentioned as risk factors for these infections, being controversial the presence of glycosuria. Depending on their location in the urinary tract, infections can be lower and upper tract infections, and according to severity, complicated or not. Asymptomatic bacteriuria, detected by routine urinalysis, is more frequent in women with diabetes. The choice of the antibiotic scheme in urinary tract infections is based on the severity of the infection, history of resistant microorganisms and sensitivity in the antibiogram, adjusting the dose according to the degree of renal insufficiency. The aim of our work is to describe the clinical characteristics and diagnosis for an adequate antibiotic treatment


Subject(s)
Bacteriuria , Diabetes Mellitus , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Reproductive Tract Infections
9.
Rev. Soc. Argent. Diabetes ; 53(1): 38-40, Ene.-Abr. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1021901

ABSTRACT

La bacteriuria asintomática (BA) se descubre con frecuencia en forma incidental mediante la realización rutinaria de análisis de orina. La prevalencia es tres a cuatro veces mayor en las pacientes con diabetes. Los factores de riesgo son la mayor duración de la diabetes, neuropatía periférica, macroalbuminuria, menor índice de masa corporal y un evento de infección urinaria del tractor urinario (ITU) previo. El diagnóstico de BA es el aislamiento de una cantidad especificada de colonias de una bacteria en muestras de orina, de un individuo sin signos o síntomas de ITU. La Escherichia coli y bacterias gram negativas son las más frecuentes. Se sugiere no tratar la BA en mujeres diabéticas con buen control metabólico, independientemente de la aparición de piuria. No debería hacerse pesquisa de bacteriuria ni tratamiento en pacientes diabéticos asintomáticos con buen control metabólico, excepto en embarazadas, con procedimientos urológicos y receptores de trasplante renal


Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) is often discovered incidentally by performing routine urinalysis. The prevalence is three to four times higher in patients with diabetes. The risk factors are the longer duration of diabetes, peripheral neuropathy, macroalbuminuria, lower body mass index and a previous urinary tract infection (UTI) event. The diagnosis of AB is the isolation of a specified number of colonies of a bacterium in urine samples from an individual without signs or symptoms of UTI. Escherichia coli and gram-negative bacteria are the most frequent. It is suggested not to treat AB in women with diabetes with good metabolic control, regardless of pyuria onset. Bacteriuria and treatment should not be studied in asymptomatic diabetic patients with good metabolic control, except pregnant women, with urological procedures and kidney transplant recipients


Subject(s)
Pyuria , Bacteriuria , Diabetes Mellitus
10.
Rev. Soc. Argent. Diabetes ; 53(1): 28-50, Ene.-Abr. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1021890

ABSTRACT

Las infecciones del tracto urinario (ITUs) son frecuentes en la práctica médica diaria. Existen factores patogénicos que modulan el riesgo de su aparición que dependen del germen responsable y el huésped. La diabetes mellitus es un factor predisponente para la aparición de infecciones urinarias. Como factores de riesgo para estas infecciones se mencionan la mayor duración de la diabetes, la albuminuria y neuropatía con menor vaciamiento vesical, siendo controversial la presencia de glucosuria. Según su ubicación en el árbol urinario pueden ser bajas y altas, y de acuerdo a la severidad, complicadas o no. La bacteriuria asintomática, detectada por análisis rutinario, es más frecuente en mujeres con diabetes. La elección del esquema antibiótico en las infecciones urinarias se basa en la severidad de la infección, el antecedente de microorganismos resistentes y la sensibilidad en el antibiograma, recordando ajustar la dosis de acuerdo al grado de insuficiencia renal. En este trabajo nuestro objetivo es describir las características clínicas y el diagnóstico para un adecuado tratamiento antibiótico


Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are frequent in daily medical practice. There are pathogenic factors that modulate the risk of their onset depending on the responsible germ and host. Diabetes mellitus is a predisposing factor for developing urinary infections. The longest duration of diabetes, albuminuria and neuropathy with less bladder emptying are mentioned as risk factors for these infections, being controversial the presence of glycosuria. Depending on their location in the urinary tract, infections can be lower and upper tract infections, and according to severity, complicated or not. Asymptomatic bacteriuria, detected by routine urinalysis, is more frequent in women with diabetes. The choice of the antibiotic scheme in urinary tract infections is based on the severity of the infection, history of resistant microorganisms and sensitivity in the antibiogram, adjusting the dose according to the degree of renal insufficiency. The aim of our work is to describe the clinical characteristics and diagnosis for an adequate antibiotic treatment


Subject(s)
Bacteriuria , Urinary Tract Infections , Diabetes Mellitus , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic
11.
Hip & Pelvis ; : 1-3, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740454

ABSTRACT

Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is one of the most serious complications after total joint arthroplasty (TJA). The prevalence of urinary tract infection (UTI) is common, particularly among elderly women, a group for whom TJA may be required. The association between preoperative UTI and increased risk of PJI after TJA is unclear. We reviewed key articles concerning the relationship between UTIs and PJI, and summarized recommendations of international consensus on PJI, which was established in Philadelphia in July of 2018. In addition, we distinguish between symptomatic UTI and asymptomatic bacteriuria, because their causative effects on PJI are quite different.


Subject(s)
Aged , Arthroplasty , Bacteriuria , Consensus , Female , Hip , Humans , Joints , Prevalence , Urinary Tract Infections , Urinary Tract
14.
World J. Biomed. Res. (Online) ; 5(1): 39-46, 2018. tab
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1273723

ABSTRACT

Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) can increase the risk for developing symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI) and diabetes mellitus is one of the high risk medical condition for ASB. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria in diabetic patients attending Central Hospital, Benin City. The descriptive cross-sectional study design was adopted for this study, while data was obtained with the use of a structured questionnaire administered on 695 consented diabetic patients. Statistical analysis was done using the statistical software INSTAT� (Graph Pad Software Inc., La Jolla, CA, USA). Mid-stream urine samples were aseptically collected from these patients, processed and analysed using standard techniques. Identification of bacterial isolates and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were carried out using standard microbiological techniques. ESBL-producers were detected using appropriate phenotypic method. A total of 253(36.4%) patients were culture positive with Escherichia coli being the most predominant organism (37.5%). Proteus mirabilis was the highest ESBL producer and was statistically significant (50.0%) (p=0.0095). Uncontrolled glycaemia was associated with ESBL-production among bacterial isolates (P=0.0129). Age, gender and source of clinical isolates did not significantly affect ESBL production by the isolated uropathogenic bacteria (P >0.05).The prevalence of ESBL-producing bacteria among diabetic patients having ASB was 36.8%. Adherence to proper and effective antimicrobial regimen and laboratory guidance in treatment of ASB among diabetic patients are recommended


Subject(s)
Bacteriuria , Diabetes Mellitus , Health Facilities , Nigeria , Urinary Tract Infections
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-721496

ABSTRACT

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are infectious diseases that commonly occur in communities. Although several international guidelines for the management of UTIs have been available, clinical characteristics, etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns may differ from country to country. This work represents an update of the 2011 Korean guideline for UTIs. The current guideline was developed by the update and adaptation method. This clinical practice guideline provides recommendations for the diagnosis and management of UTIs, including asymptomatic bacteriuria, acute uncomplicated cystitis, acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis, complicated pyelonephritis related to urinary tract obstruction, and acute bacterial prostatitis. This guideline targets community-acquired UTIs occurring among adult patients. Healthcare-associated UTIs, catheter-associated UTIs, and infections in immunocompromised patients were not included in this guideline.


Subject(s)
Adult , Bacteriuria , Communicable Diseases , Cystitis , Diagnosis , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Methods , Prostatitis , Pyelonephritis , Urinary Tract Infections , Urinary Tract
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-722001

ABSTRACT

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are infectious diseases that commonly occur in communities. Although several international guidelines for the management of UTIs have been available, clinical characteristics, etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns may differ from country to country. This work represents an update of the 2011 Korean guideline for UTIs. The current guideline was developed by the update and adaptation method. This clinical practice guideline provides recommendations for the diagnosis and management of UTIs, including asymptomatic bacteriuria, acute uncomplicated cystitis, acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis, complicated pyelonephritis related to urinary tract obstruction, and acute bacterial prostatitis. This guideline targets community-acquired UTIs occurring among adult patients. Healthcare-associated UTIs, catheter-associated UTIs, and infections in immunocompromised patients were not included in this guideline.


Subject(s)
Adult , Bacteriuria , Communicable Diseases , Cystitis , Diagnosis , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Methods , Prostatitis , Pyelonephritis , Urinary Tract Infections , Urinary Tract
17.
INSPILIP ; 1(2): 1-17, jun.-dic. 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-987499

ABSTRACT

La infección de vías urinarias es una de las patologías más frecuentes en la edad pediátrica, afecta por igual tanto a hombres y mujeres en los primeros años de vida y después es más prevalente en mujeres; el principal signo es la fiebre en todas las edades y principalmente en los niños menores de 2 años, seguido de síntomas y signos más específicos en niños mayores. Para su diagnóstico es importante la clínica y el laboratorio, en donde la presencia de nitros, bacteriuria, leucocitaria en el estudio elemental y microscópico de orina (EMO) nos orienta a su diagnóstico. El cultivo permite identificar el agente etiológico, conocer su comportamiento frente a los antibióticos y orienta el tratamiento. Objetivo: Caracterizar el comportamiento de la ITU y la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana en nuestro contexto. Metodología: Estudio observacional retrospectivo, incluyó 233 pacientes. El análisis estadístico se realizó con estadística descriptiva, con método de determinación de Scott y las mediciones de correlación. Resultados: La ITU es más frecuente en mujeres, el signo más importante es el alza térmica que se presentó en 160 (68,67 %) pacientes, el signo más destacado es la puñopercusión positiva. En el EMO el principal hallazgo es la bacteriuria en el 90,56 %, seguida de piuria en el 84,55 %. En cuanto al cultivo el principal agente etiológico es E. Coli 42,49 %, y llama la atención la presencia de E. coli productora de BLEE 2,58 %. Conclusión: La ITU es más frecuente en niñas, la clínica sigue siendo el pilar fundamental para su diagnóstico con el apoyo del EMO y urocultivo, estudios sencillos y accesibles, el tratamiento de inicio es empírico con base en la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana local y el resultado del cultivo determinará la conducta ulterior.


Urinary tract infection is one of the most common pathologies in the pediatric age, affects both men and women equally in the first years of life and then is more prevalent in women, the main sign is fever in all ages and especially in children younger than 2 years, followed by more specific symptoms and signs in older children. For its diagnosis, it is important the clinic anamnesis and the laboratory exams, where the presence of nitrus, bacteriuria, leukocyte in the elemental and microscopic of urine test, guides us to its diagnosis. The culture allows identifying the etiological agent, knowing its behavior against antibiotics and directs the treatment. Objective: To characterize the behavior of UTI and antimicrobial susceptibility in our context. Methodology: Observational retrospective study, included 233 patients. Statistical analysis was performed with descriptive statistics, with Scott's method of determination and correlation measurements. Results: The UTI is more frequent in women, the most important sign is the fever that was present in 160 (68,67 %) patients, the most prominent sign is the positive percussion fist. In MSU the main finding is bacteriuria in 90,56 %, followed by pyuria in 84,55 %. As for the culture the main etiological agent is E. coli 42,49 %, and it is worth mentioning the presence of E. coli producing ESLBs 2,58 %. Conclusion: UTI is more frequent in girls, clinic remains the mainstay for diagnosis with MSU and urine culture support, simple and accessible studies, empirical initiation treatment based on local antimicrobial susceptibility and outcome Cultivation will determine the further behavior.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Pathology , Urologic Diseases , Noxae , Bacteriuria , Epidemiology , Diagnosis
18.
Rev. colomb. obstet. ginecol ; 68(1): 62-70, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-900740

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo: La bacteriuria asintomática con manejo inadecuado en el embarazo, se asocia con pielonefritis que puede llevar a complicaciones maternas y fetales. El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar los uropatógenos y su perfil de susceptibilidad, asociados a la presencia de bacteriuria asintomática en una muestra de mujeres gestantes. Materiales y métodos: Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, en gestantes atendidas en el programa de control prenatal en una institución de primer nivel en el departamento del Atlántico, Colombia. Se realizó un muestreo por conveniencia a partir del universo de pacientes atendidas en el programa. Se hizo el diagnóstico de bacteriuria asintomática por la presencia de recuentos ≥ 105 colonias / mL de un solo germen. Para la identificación y determinación del perfil de susceptibilidad de las bacterias aisladas se utilizó el sistema automatizado Phoenix® BD. Se describe la prevalencia de bacteriuria asintomática, y la frecuencia y susceptibilidad por tipo de germen. Resultados: Ingresaron 226 gestantes. La frecuencia de bacteriuria asintomática fue del 10,6 %. El uropatógeno más frecuentemente aislado fue la Escherichia coli en un 25 % de los casos, seguida por Enterococcus faecalis en un 20,8 %. La resistencia a la ampicilina fue del 33,3 y 20 % respectivamente; el resto de enterobacterias identificadas presenta una resistencia natural a dicho antibiótico. La resistencia de E. coli para el sulfametoxazol fue del 66,6%, y de la E. coli y el E. faecalis a la nitrofurantoína fue del 16,6 y 20% respectivamente. Conclusiones: Se encuentra resistencia importante en el nivel de atención de los gérmenes más frecuentemente aislados en gestantes con bacteriuria asintomática a la ampicilina y el trimetoprim. La nitrofurantoína sigue siendo una buena opción para el tratamiento en la primera mitad del embarazo.


ABSTRACT Objective: Asymptomatic bacteriuria, when inadequately managed during pregnancy, is associated with pyelonephritis, which may give rise to maternal and foetal complications. The objective of this study was to characterize uropathogens associated with the presence of asymptomatic bacteriuria and their susceptibility profile in a sample of pregnant women. Materials and methods: Descriptive, cross-sectional study in pregnant women coming to antenatal care at a Level I center in the Department of Atlantico, Colombia. A convenience sampling was made from the universe of patients seen in the programme. Asymptomatic bacteriuria was diagnosed on the basis of the finding of counts ≥ 105 colonies /mL of a single germ, unaccompanied by symptoms. An automated Phoenix® BD system was used for the identification and determination of the susceptibility profile of the bacterial isolates. The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria, and the frequency and susceptibility by germ type are described. Results: Overall, 226 pregnant women were included. The frequency of asymptomatic bacteriuria was 10.6 %. The uropathogen most frequently isolated was Escherichia coli in 25 % of cases, followed by Enterococcus faecalis in 20.8 %. Ampicillin resistance was 33.3 % and 20 %, respectively; the rest of the enterobacteria identified show natural resistance to this antibiotic. For trimetoprim sulfametoxazol resistence was 66 %. Regarding Nitrofurantoin resistance was 1.6 % and 20 % for E. coli and E. faecalis, respectively. Conclusions: There is significant resistance of the most frequently isolated germs in pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria to ampicillin, trimetoprim sulfametoxazol Nitrofurantoin continues to be a good treatment option during the first half of the pregnancy.


Subject(s)
Female , Pregnancy , Bacteriuria , Pregnant Women
19.
Med. leg. Costa Rica ; 34(1): 242-252, ene.-mar. 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-841447

ABSTRACT

ResumenLa hemoglobinuria paroxística nocturna es una anemia hemolítica crónica, adquirida, poco común, que afecta con igual frecuencia ambos sexos. Se manifiesta a cualquier edad y con mayor incidencia en países del sudeste asiático. Es el resultado de la expansión clonal no maligna de células progenitoras hematopoyéticas. Se caracteriza por anemia hemolítica intravascular, tendencia a la trombosis y un componente variable de insuficiencia medular.Se asocia a otras patologías hematológicas como anemia aplásica y síndrome mielodisplásico. La citometría de flujo es el método de elección para diagnóstico. El eculizumab y el trasplante de médula ósea alogénico son las únicas terapias efectivas.


Abstract:Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria is a rare acquired chronic hemolytic anemia, which affects both sexes with equal frequency. It occurs at any age and more frequently in Southeast Asian countries. It is the result of non malignant clonal expansion of hematopoietic progenitor cells. It is characterized by intravascular hemolytic anemia, recurrent thrombosis and a variable component of bone marrow failure. It is associated with other hematologic disorders such as aplastic anemia and myelodysplastic syndrome. Flow cytometry is the method of choice for diagnosis. Eculizumab and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation is the only effective therapies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Proteinuria/complications , Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal/diagnosis , Bacteriuria/complications , Costa Rica , Myoglobinuria/complications
20.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 15(1): 34-39, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840287

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To investigate whether the urine dipstick screening test can be used to predict urine culture results. Methods A retrospective study conducted between January and December 2014 based on data from 8,587 patients with a medical order for urine dipstick test, urine sediment analysis and urine culture. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were determined and ROC curve analysis was performed. Results The percentage of positive cultures was 17.5%. Nitrite had 28% sensitivity and 99% specificity, with positive and negative predictive values of 89% and 87%, respectively. Leukocyte esterase had 79% sensitivity and 84% specificity, with positive and negative predictive values of 51% and 95%, respectively. The combination of positive nitrite or positive leukocyte esterase tests had 85% sensitivity and 84% specificity, with positive and negative predictive values of 53% and 96%, respectively. Positive urinary sediment (more than ten leukocytes per microliter) had 92% sensitivity and 71% specificity, with positive and negative predictive values of 40% and 98%, respectively. The combination of nitrite positive test and positive urinary sediment had 82% sensitivity and 99% specificity, with positive and negative predictive values of 91% and 98%, respectively. The combination of nitrite or leukocyte esterase positive tests and positive urinary sediment had the highest sensitivity (94%) and specificity (84%), with positive and negative predictive values of 58% and 99%, respectively. Based on ROC curve analysis, the best indicator of positive urine culture was the combination of positives leukocyte esterase or nitrite tests and positive urinary sediment, followed by positives leukocyte and nitrite tests, positive urinary sediment alone, positive leukocyte esterase test alone, positive nitrite test alone and finally association of positives nitrite and urinary sediment (AUC: 0.845, 0.844, 0.817, 0.814, 0.635 and 0.626, respectively). Conclusion A negative urine culture can be predicted by negative dipstick test results. Therefore, this test may be a reliable predictor of negative urine culture.


RESUMO Objetivo Verificar se a triagem de urina por fitas reativas é capaz de predizer a cultura de urina. Métodos Estudo retrospectivo realizado entre janeiro e dezembro de 2014 com 8.587 pacientes, com solicitação médica de triagem de urina (fita), sedimento urinário e cultura de urina. Foram analisados sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo, valor preditivo negativo e curva ROC. Resultados Foram positivas 17,5% das culturas. O nitrito apresentou sensibilidade de 28% e especificidade de 99%. O valor preditivo positivo foi de 89% e o valor preditivo negativo de 87%. Esterase apresentou sensibilidade de 79% e especificidade de 84%. Valor preditivo positivo e valor preditivo negativo foram de 51% e 95%, respectivamente. A combinação de nitrito ou esterase positivos apresentou sensibilidade de 85% e especificidade de 84%. Valor preditivo positivo e valor preditivo negativo foram, respectivamente, 53% e 96%. O sedimento positivo (mais de dez leucócitos por microlitro) apresentou sensibilidade de 92% e especificidade de 71%. O valor preditivo positivo foi 40% e o negativo, 98%. A combinação de nitrito e sedimento urinário positivos apresentou sensibilidade de 82% e especificidade de 99%. Os valores preditivos positivo e negativo foram 91% e 98%, respectivamente. Para o nitrito ou esterase positivos mais os leucócitos positivos, a sensibilidade foi de 94% e a especificidade de 84%. O valor preditivo positivo foi de 58% e o negativo foi de 99%. Com base na curva ROC, o melhor indicador de urocultura positiva foi a associação entre a esterase ou nitrito positivos na fita mais os leucócitos positivos no sedimento, seguido por nitrito e esterase positivos, sedimento urinário positivo isolado, esterase positiva isolada, nitrito positivo isolado e, finalmente, pela associação entre nitrito e sedimento urinário positivos (AUC: 0,845, 0,844, 0,817, 0,814, 0,635 e 0,626, respectivamente). Conclusão Uma urocultura negativa pode ser prevista com resultados negativos na fita. Portanto, este teste pode ser um preditor confiável de urocultura negativa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Adult , Middle Aged , Bacteriuria/urine , Urinalysis/instrumentation , Urinalysis/methods , Reference Standards , Reference Values , Urinary Tract Infections/urine , Urine/microbiology , Colony Count, Microbial , Retrospective Studies , Analysis of Variance , Sensitivity and Specificity , Esterases/urine , Leukocytes , Nitrites/urine
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