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1.
Infectio ; 25(3): 197-199, jul.-set. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1250093

ABSTRACT

Abstract Mycetoma is a chronic and slow-developing granulomatous disease characterized by the triad of large painless tumour-like subcutaneous swellings, the formation of sinuses, and discharge that usually contains grains. Phellinus spp. are saprophytic wood-decaying filamentous basidiomycetes. They are an under-recognised cause of invasive fungal infections and are rarely reported worldwide. We report a 59-year-old male patient with mycetoma caused by Phellinus spp. The diagnosis was confirmed with clinical examination, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study, soft tissue and bone biopsy culture, and polymerase chain reaction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of mycetoma due to Phellinus spp. without chronic granulomatous disease (CGD).


Resumen El micetoma es una enfermedad granulomatosa crónica y de lento desarrollo caracterizada por la tríada de grandes inflamaciones subcutáneas similares a tumores indoloras, la formación de los senos nasales y secreción que generalmente contiene granos. Phellinus spp. son basidiomicetos filamentosos saprofitos que descomponen la madera. Son un poco reconocido causa de infecciones fúngicas invasivas y rara vez se informan en todo el mundo. Presentamos un paciente masculino de 59 años con micetoma causado por Phellinus spp. El diagnostico se confirmó con examen clínico, estudio de resonancia magnética (RM), cultivo de biopsia de tejido blando y óseo y reacción en cadena de la polimerasa. A lo mejor que sepamos, este es el primer caso reportado de micetoma debido a Phellinus spp. sin enfermedad granulomatosa crónica (EGC).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Basidiomycota , Phellinus , Mycetoma , Brazil , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Invasive Fungal Infections , Mycoses
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879005

ABSTRACT

Coptis chinensis is one of bulk traditional herbal medicines in China. In recent years, the occurrence of various diseases has caused great yield loss and quality reduction of C. chinensis, which has become an important threat of herbal medicine industry. Here we reviewed the symptoms, pathogens, epidemiology and control methods of 6 common diseases of C. chinensis including root rot, southern blight, violet root rot, leaf spot, powdery mildew, and anthracnose. This review aims at providing guidance for the disease diagnostic, pathogen identification, and control strategies of the diseases on C. chinensis, and facilitate the growth of traditional medicine industry.


Subject(s)
Basidiomycota , China/epidemiology , Coptis , Plants, Medicinal
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878973

ABSTRACT

In order to identify the species and biological characteristics of the pathogen of southern blight from three kinds of Chinese medicine of Iridaceae(Belamcanda chinensis, Iris tectorum and I. japonica) in Dabie Mountains, the isolation, identification, pathogenicity and biological characteristics of the pathogens were studied according to Koch's postulates. In addition, 9 chemical fungicides, 3 botanical fungicides and 5 microbial fungicides were used to evaluate their inhibition to the isolates in vitro. The results showed that all the strains(SG-Q, YW-Q, and HDH-Q) isolated and purified from the diseased plants of B. chinensis, I. tectorum and I. japonica, respectively, were identified as Sclerotium rolfsii through morphological observation and sequence aligement of 18 S rDNA, rDNA-ITS and TEF. Field observations showed that the intensity of the disease incidence of three Iridaceae plants was B. chinensis>I. japonica> I. tectorum, and the pathogenicity of the strains was SG-Q>YW-Q>HDH-Q. For biological characteristics, SG-Q strain was suitable for growth under the 12 h light/12 h dark cycle, with the optimal growth temperature of 30 ℃ and pH of 5. Among the 9 tested chemical fungicides, 29% lime sulphure and 10% flusilazole had stronger inhibitory effect on mycelia growth of SG-Q. For 3 botanical fungicides, 1% osthol, 20% eugenol and 0.5% berberine could effectively inhibt the mycelial growth of SG-Q and cause the morphological variation of the pathogen. For 5 microbial fungicides, Trichoderma harzianum and Bacillus subtilis had better inhibition on the mycelium growth of SG-Q.


Subject(s)
Basidiomycota , Hypocreales , Iridaceae , Medicine
4.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 207-217, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878555

ABSTRACT

Scleroglucan is a high-molecular water-soluble microbial exopolysaccharide and mainly applied in the fields of petroleum, food, medicine and cosmetics. The high molecular weight of scleroglucan produced by microbial fermentation leads to low solubility, high viscosity and poor dispersibility, thus bringing a series of difficulties to extraction, preservation and application. It is important to explore suitable degradation method to adjust the molecular weight of scleroglucan for expanding its industrial application. Taking Sclerotium rolfsii WSH-G01 as a model strain, in which functional annotations of the glucanase genes were conducted by whole genome sequencing. Based on design of culture system for culture system for differential expression of β-glucanase, endogenous β-glucanase genes in S. rolfsii WSH-G01 were excavated by transcriptomics analysis. Functions of these potential hydrolases were further verified. Finally, 14 potential endogenous hydrolase genes were obtained from S. rolfsii. After heterologous overexpression in Pichia pastoris, 10 soluble enzymes were obtained and 5 of them had the activity of laminarin hydrolysis by SDS-PAGE and enzyme activity analysis. Further investigation of the 5 endogenous hydrolases on scleroglucan degradation showed that enzyme GME9860 has positive hydrolysis effect. The obtained results provide references not only for obtaining low and medium molecular weight of scleroglucan with enzymatic hydrolysis, but also for producing different molecular weight of scleroglucan during S. rolfsii fermentation process with metabolic engineering.


Subject(s)
Basidiomycota/genetics , Glucans , Hydrolysis , Saccharomycetales
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878781

ABSTRACT

In order to screen the endophytic fungi that can enhance the host(Dendrobium catenatum) resistance to Sclerotium delphinii, the antagonism between each of the 43 endophytic fungi and the pathogen S. delphinii were tested. The results showed that 6 endophytic fungi(DCR2, DCR5, DCR21, DCR22, DCR42, DCR43) have strong activities against the pathogen, the inhibition rates were 49.2%, 49.2%, 47.2%, 56.2%, 53.2%, 48.0%, respectively. Then D. catenatum plantlets were inoculated with both S. delphinii and each of these six endophytic fungi. As a result, the incidence rates of leaves and stems of the D. catenatum plantlets inoculated with DCR2 and the pathogen were both significantly lower than those with other treatments, and the plantlet death rate was 0. It showed that DCR2 Trichoderma polysporum could effectively inhibit the southern blight disease of D. catenatum. Through the endophytic fungal re-isolation test, it was found that DCR2 can colonize in the roots, stems, and leaves of D. catenatum. The research will provide new ideas for the prevention and treatment of the southern blight disease of D. catenatum. It is also significant for reducing pesticide use, ensuring food safety, and promoting the sustainable development of D. catenatum industry. Furthermore, it will provide a basis for the disease control in other crops.


Subject(s)
Basidiomycota , Dendrobium , Endophytes , Fungi , Hypocreales , Plant Roots
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828007

ABSTRACT

Glucomannan is the key active ingredient of Dendrobium catenatum, and CSLA family is responsible for glucomannan biosynthesis. In order to systematically evaluate the CSLA family members of D. catenatum, the bioinformatics methods were performed for genome-wide identification of DcCSLA gene family members through the genomic data of D. catenatum downloaded from the NCBI database, and further analyses of their phylogenetic relationship, gene structure, protein conserved domains and motifs, promoter cis-elements and gene expression profiles in response to stresses. The results showed that D. catenatum contains 13 CSLA members, all of which contain 9-10 exons. In the evolutionary relationship, CSLA genes were clustered into 5 groups, DcCSLA genes were distributed in all branches. Among which the ancestral genes of groupI existed before the monocot-dicot divergence, and groupⅡ-Ⅴ only existed in the monocot plants, indicating that group Ⅰ represents the earliest origin group. CSLA proteins are characteristic of the signature CESA_CaSu_A2 domain. Their promoter regions contain cis elements related to stresses and hormones. Under different stress treatments, low temperature induces the expression of DcCSLA5 and inhibits the expression of DcCSLA3. Infection of Sclerotium delphinii inhibits DcCSLA3/4/6/8/9/10 expression. Under the treatment of jasmonic acid, DcCSLA11 expression was significantly up-regulated, and DcCSLA2/5/7/12/13 were significantly down-regulated. These results laid a foundation for further study on the function of DcCSLA genes in glucomannan biosynthesis and accumulation.


Subject(s)
Basidiomycota , Cold Temperature , Dendrobium , Genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Genome, Plant , Multigene Family , Phylogeny , Plant Proteins , Genetics , Stress, Physiological , Transcriptome
8.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1686-1697, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771762

ABSTRACT

Translationally controlled tumor proteins (TCTP) and SNF1- related protein kinase (SnRK1) are conserved and widely present in eukaryotic cells. TCTP regulates cell division, plant growth and development, and mediates plant resistance against pathogen infection. SnRK1 participates in a range of physiological processes including sugar metabolism and resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Previous work in our laboratory demonstrated that wheat TCTP can respond to Puccinia triticina infection and induce host defense responses. In order to further investigate the mechanism of TaTCTP in wheat resistance to Puccinia triticina infection, we used TAP (tandem affinity purification) and mass spectrometry to screen the potential interactants of TaTCTP. A SNF1- related protein kinase (SnRK1) was identified as a potential interacting protein of TaTCTP. The results of yeast two-hybrid assay showed that TCTP could interact with SnRK1 in yeast, and the yeast carrying TCTP and SnRK1 could grow on SD/-Leu/-Trp/-His/-Ade (SD/-LWHA) medium. The fluorescence signal of the interaction between TCTP and SnRK1 was found to be distributed in the cytoplasm in the Bi-fluorescense complementation experiment. Co-IP experiments further showed that TCTP and SnRK1 could interact in plant cells. This study lays an important foundation for further studying the mechanism of TaTCTP in the interaction between wheat and Puccinia triticina, and it play a great influence on further improving the molecular mechanism of wheat resistant to Puccinia triticina.


Subject(s)
Basidiomycota , Humans , Neoplasms , Protein Biosynthesis , Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases , Triticum
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773166

ABSTRACT

In order to scientifically prevent and control Dendrobium catenatum southern blight disease,the main factors related to this disease occurrence,the pathogen( Sclerotium delphinii),environmental factors( temperature and humidity) and D. catenatum germplasms,were investigated. The results showed that reaching 25-30 ℃ temperature and over 95% humidity simultaneously should be the main conditions for the occurrence and prevalence of D. catenatum southern blight disease. Moreover,the S. delphinii-infected plants and their contaminated substrates were the disease spreading sources. Therefore,removing the infected plants,dealing with the contaminated substrates,keeping air ventilation,and reducing air humidity are the effective ways to prevent and control the occurrence and prevalence of D. catenatum southern blight disease. The research also indicated that D. catenatum has different resistances to the southern blight disease depending on germplasm. The present study lays important foundations for the breeding of D. catenatum diseaseresistant varieties and the further analysis of the infection and resistance mechanisms underlying southern blight disease.


Subject(s)
Basidiomycota , Virulence , Dendrobium , Microbiology , Humidity , Plant Diseases , Microbiology , Temperature
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773159

ABSTRACT

The chemical constituents from the fruiting bodies of Tremella sanguinea were separated and purified by column chromatography on silica gel,ODS,Sephadex LH-20,and RP-HPLC. The structures of the isolated compounds were identified on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectroscopic data analysis,as well as comparisons with the data reported in the literature. Sixteen compounds were isolated from the 90% ethanol extract of the fruiting bodies of T. sanguinea,which were identified as( 22 E)-5α,8α-epidioxy-24-methyl-cholesta-6,9( 11),22-trien-3β-ol( 1),( 22 E)-5α,8α-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3β-ol( 2),cerevisterol( 3),ergosta-7-ene-3β,5α,6β-triol( 4),( 22 E)-6β-methoxyergosta-7,22-diene-3β,5α-diol( 5),ergosta-7-en-3β-ol( 6),4-hydroxy-methylincisterol( 7),2-pyrrolidone( 8),nicotinamide( 9),1-( 3-indolyl)-3-dihydroxypropan-1-one( 10),yangambin( 11),linoleic acid( 12),( 9 Z,12 Z,15 Z)-2,3-dihydroxypropyl octadeca-trienoate( 13),( 9 Z,12 Z)-2,3-dihydroxypropyl-octadeca-dienoate( 14),crypticin B( 15)and 3-phenyllactic acid( 16). All compounds were isolated from T. sanguinea for the first time. Except for compounds 6,9 and 12,the remained compounds were isolated from the genus Tremella for the first time.


Subject(s)
Basidiomycota , Chemistry , Fruiting Bodies, Fungal , Chemistry , Molecular Structure
11.
Mycobiology ; : 191-199, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760540

ABSTRACT

Most of lichens are formed by Ascomycota, less than 1% are lichenized Basidiomycota. The flora investigation of lichenized Ascomycota of South Korea has been well studied in the past three decades; however, prior to this study, none of basidiolichens was discovered. During the recent excursion, an unexpected clavarioid basidiolichen, Sulzbacheromyces sinensis was collected. Morphology and ecology has been recorded in detail. DNA was extracted, and ITS, 18S, 28S nuclear rDNA were generated. In order to further confirm the systematic position of the Korean specimens, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analysis including all the species of the order Lepidostromatales were conducted based on the ITS. As a result, the phylogenetic tree of the order Lepidostromatales was reconstructed, which differed from the previous studies. The inferred phylogenetic tree showed that species of Sulzbacheromyces in three different continents (Asia, South Africa and South America) were separated into three clades with support. In this study, the species worldwide distribution map of Lepidostromatales was illustrated, and S. sinensis had a widest distribution range (paleotropical extend to the Sino-Japanese) than other species (paleotropical or neotropical). Prior to this study, the range of distribution, southernmost and northernmost points and the fruiting time of S. sinensis were recorded, and the genus Sulzbacheromyces was firstly reported from Korean peninsula and Philippines.


Subject(s)
Ascomycota , Asia , Basidiomycota , DNA , DNA, Ribosomal , Ecology , Fruit , Geography , Korea , Lichens , Philippines , Phylogeny , South Africa , Trees
12.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 6(1): 34-42, 2019. ^c27 cmilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1025506

ABSTRACT

Volvariella bombycina es una especie de hongo saprófito comestible que crece en troncos de árboles muertos y sobre la cual existe abundante información acerca de su sabor y propiedades nutricionales y medicinales. En Guatemala esta especie se consume en diversas regiones templado-cálidas del país, pero a la fecha no existe ningún estudio sobre su cultivo a nivel local. La presente investigación se realizó con el fin de conocer el comportamiento de tres cepas guatemaltecas de V. bombycina cultivadas en desechos agroindustriales. Las cepas fueron aisladas de basidiomas recolectados en bosques cercanos a la Ciudad de Guatemala, utilizándose medio PDA para el aislamiento y temperatura de 30 ºC para incubación. En la producción de inóculo se calculó la tasa de extensión radial (RER) sobre granos de sorgo y trigo en cajas de Petri. Para la obtención de basidiomas se evaluaron seis sustratos de desechos agrícolas: pasto jaraguá, caña y olote de maíz, rastrojo de frijol, paja de trigo, paja de arroz y tronco de tonché (Ipomoea murucoides), en frascos de vidrio. Se encontró que no hubo diferencia estadística significativa en el análisis de la RER entre las cepas VNPNU-01 y AADM-01 (p > .05), pero sí con la cepa VNPNU-02 (p < .05). Se obtuvieron basidiomas de V. bombycina en los seis sustratos evaluados, siendo la cepa AADM-01 la más productiva. De acuerdo con este estudio, las tres cepas guatemaltecas de V. bombycina pueden ser utilizadas en la producción de basidiomas en desechos agrícolas, lo que permitiría obtener un alimento nutritivo y generar ingresos a quienes deseen cultivar este hongo.


Volvariella bombycina is a species of edible saprophyte fungus that grows on logs of dead trees and about which there is information about its taste and nutritional and medicinal properties. In Guatemala this species is consumed in several warm regions of the country, but there is still no study on its cultivation locally. The present investigation was carried out in order to know the behavior of three Guatemalan strains of V. bombycina when cultivated in agricultural wastes. The strains were isolated from basidiomata collected in forests close to Guatemala City, using PDA medium and a temperature of 30ºC for incubation. In the inoculum production, the radial extension rate (RER) was calculated using sorghum and wheat grains in Petri dishes. For obtaining basidiomata, six agricultural wastes substrates were analyzed: grazing grass, cane and corn cob, stubble of bean, wheat straw, rice straw and tonché trunk (Ipomoea murucoides), in glass jars. There was found no significant difference in the statistical analysis of the RER with the VNPNU-01 and AADM-01 strains (p > .05), but it was significant with the VNPNU-02 strain (p > .05). Basidiomata of V. bombycina were obtained in the six substrates evaluated, being the AADM-01 strain the most productive. According to this evaluation, the three Guatemalan strains of V. bombycina can be used in the production of basidiomas using agricultural wastes, what would allow the production of a nutritious food and generate another income for those who want to grow this mushroom.


Subject(s)
Basidiomycota/growth & development , Volvariella/growth & development , Basidiomycota/isolation & purification , Agricultural Cultivation , Substrates for Biological Treatment/analysis , Nutritive Value
13.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(4): 749-756, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974295

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) are high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) recalcitrant to microbial attack. Although studies related to the microbial degradation of PAHs have been carried out in the last decades, little is known about degradation of these environmental pollutants by fungi from marine origin. Therefore, this study aimed to select one PAHs degrader among three marine-derived basidiomycete fungi and to study its pyrene detoxification/degradation. Marasmiellus sp. CBMAI 1062 showed higher levels of pyrene and BaP degradation and was subjected to studies related to pyrene degradation optimization using experimental design, acute toxicity, organic carbon removal (TOC), and metabolite evaluation. The experimental design resulted in an efficient pyrene degradation, reducing the experiment time while the PAH concentration applied in the assays was increased. The selected fungus was able to degrade almost 100% of pyrene (0.08 mg mL-1) after 48 h of incubation under saline condition, without generating toxic compounds and with a TOC reduction of 17%. Intermediate metabolites of pyrene degradation were identified, suggesting that the fungus degraded the compound via the cytochrome P450 system and epoxide hydrolases. These results highlight the relevance of marine-derived fungi in the field of PAH bioremediation, adding value to the blue biotechnology.


Subject(s)
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons/metabolism , Seawater/microbiology , Basidiomycota/metabolism , Phylogeny , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons/chemistry , Pyrenes/metabolism , Pyrenes/chemistry , Basidiomycota/isolation & purification , Basidiomycota/classification , Basidiomycota/genetics , Benzo(a)pyrene/metabolism , Benzo(a)pyrene/chemistry , Biodegradation, Environmental , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Fungal Proteins/metabolism , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/genetics , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/metabolism
14.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(2): 220-231, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889224

ABSTRACT

Abstract Basidiomycetes have several biotechnological and industrial applications such as enzyme production, bioremediation, pharmaceutical and functional food production. Due to climatic features, the preservation of several basidiomycetes is threatened, and to guarantee the preservation of this genetic resource, the development of long-term preservation techniques is necessary once there is no universal protocol for the cryopreservation of basidiomycetes. Cryopreservation is a technique in which microorganisms are submitted to ultralow temperatures. Therefore, this study aimed to collect information on the main conditions for long-term cryopreservation of basidiomycetes in the last 20 years. Scientific articles on cryopreservation of basidiomycetes published from 1997 to 2016, were researched, and only the studies on two intervals of cryopreservation were considered: from 1 to 2 years and for longer than 2 years. The analyzed conditions of basidiomycete cryopreservation were: most studied genera, cryopreservation temperature, substrate, cryoprotectant (and preservation substrate), cryopreservation period, thawing temperature and cultivation medium after thawing, physiological and genetic stability of basidiomycetes after thawing in cryopreservation. In this review, the viability of the main cryopreservation conditions of basidiomycetes studied in the last 20 years are presented and discussed.


Subject(s)
Basidiomycota/physiology , Cryopreservation/methods , Microbial Viability/radiation effects , Basidiomycota/radiation effects , Cryoprotective Agents/metabolism , Culture Media/chemistry , Time Factors
15.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(2): 285-295, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889238

ABSTRACT

Abstract Different technologies may be used for decolorization of wastewater containing dyes. Among them, biological processes are the most promising because they seem to be environmentally safe. The aim of this study was to determine the efficiency of decolorization of two dyes belonging to different classes (azo and triphenylmethane dyes) by immobilized biomass of strains of fungi (Pleurotus ostreatus - BWPH, Gleophyllum odoratum - DCa and Polyporus picipes - RWP17). Different solid supports were tested for biomass immobilization. The best growth of fungal strains was observed on the washer, brush, grid and sawdust supports. Based on the results of dye adsorption, the brush and the washer were selected for further study. These solid supports adsorbed dyes at a negligible level, while the sawdust adsorbed 82.5% of brilliant green and 19.1% of Evans blue. Immobilization of biomass improved dye removal. Almost complete decolorization of diazo dye Evans blue was reached after 24 h in samples of all strains immobilized on the washer. The process was slower when the brush was used for biomass immobilization. Comparable results were reached for brilliant green in samples with biomass of strains BWPH and RWP17. High decolorization effectiveness was reached in samples with dead fungal biomass. Intensive removal of the dyes by biomass immobilized on the washer corresponded to a significant decrease in phytotoxicity and a slight decrease in zootoxicity of the dye solutions. The best decolorization results as well as reduction in toxicity were observed for the strain P. picipes (RWP17).


Subject(s)
Basidiomycota/metabolism , Water Pollutants, Chemical/metabolism , Coloring Agents/metabolism , Azo Compounds/metabolism , Trityl Compounds/metabolism , Biotransformation , Cells, Immobilized/metabolism , Adsorption , Waste Water
16.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 32: 6-12, Mar. 2018. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1022493

ABSTRACT

Background: Hydrophobins are small proteins secreted by filamentous fungi, which show a highly surface activity. Because of the signally self-assembling abilities and surface activities, hydrophobins were considered as candidates in many aspects, for example, stabilizing foams and emulsions in food products. Lentinus tuber-regium, known as tiger milk mushroom, is both an edible and medicinal sclerotium-producing mushroom. Up to now, the hydrophobins of L. tuber-regium have not been identified. Results: In this paper, a Class I hydrophobin gene, Ltr.hyd, was cloned from L. tuber-regium and expressed in the yeast-like cells of Tremella fuciformis mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The expression vector pGEH-GH was under the control of T. fuciformis glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (gpd) promoter. The integration of Ltr.hyd into the genome of T. fuciformis was confirmed by PCR, Southern blot, fluorescence observation and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) demonstrated that recombinant hydrophobin rLtr.HYD with an expected molecular mass of 13 kDa was extracted. The yield of rLtr.HYD was 0.66 mg/g dry weight. The emulsifying activity of rLtr.HYD was better than the typical food emulsifiers sodium caseinate and Tween 20. Conclusions: We evaluated the emulsifying property of hydrophobin Ltr.HYD, which can be potentially used as a food emulsifier.


Subject(s)
Basidiomycota/metabolism , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Lentinula/genetics , Lentinula/metabolism , Transformation, Genetic , Basidiomycota/enzymology , Yeasts , Fungal Proteins/metabolism , Blotting, Southern , Cloning, Molecular , Agrobacterium tumefaciens/metabolism , Sequence Analysis , Emulsifying Agents , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenases/metabolism , Microscopy, Fluorescence
17.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 70(2): 437-442, mar.-abr. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-910446

ABSTRACT

O fungo Rhodotorula sp. era considerado como não patogênico, mas, com o aumento de casos de humanos imunossuprimidos nas últimas duas décadas, as espécies R. mucilaginosa, R. glutinis e R. minuta se tornaram agentes potencialmente patogênicos. Poucos relatos clínicos veterinários associados à Rhodotorula spp. foram descritos, e o objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever um caso de dermatite fúngica causada por R. glutinis em cão imunossuprimido devido à leishmaniose visceral e osteossarcoma, na cidade de Cuiabá-Mato Grosso. Um cão, macho, 11 anos, sem raça definida, foi trazido ao Hospital Veterinário apresentando lesões de pele com diagnóstico de dermatofitose e foi prescrito tratamento tópico à base de óleo de melaleuca, sem melhora após um mês de tratamento. O animal retornou ao Hospital Veterinário com hemorragia na região lesionada da cauda, e foi realizada biópsia para exames microbiológico e histopatológico. Nas análises microbiológica e histopatológica, foi isolada uma levedura e detectada a presença de estrutura semelhante a leveduras na coloração de prata, respectivamente. A levedura isolada foi identificada como R. glutinis por meio do sequenciamento do DNA. Um novo tratamento foi instituído, sem melhora do quadro clínico. O animal foi diagnosticado também com leishmaniose e osteossarcoma, provavelmente ocasionando a immunossupressão, e seu quadro evoluiu a óbito.(AU)


The fungi Rhodotorula sp was considered nonpathogenic, but with the increase of immunosuppressed humans in the last two decades, the species R. mucilaginosa, R. glutinis and R. minuta became potentially pathogenic agents. There have been few veterinary clinical reports associated with Rhodotorula spp. and this work aims to describe the first case of fungal dermatitis caused by R. glutinis in immunosuppressed dog due to visceral leishmaniasis and osteosarcoma in the city of Cuiabá-Mato Grosso. An 11-year-old male mongrel dog was examined to the Veterinary Hospital with skin lesions and the diagnosis was dermatophytosis and the treatment was implemented with topical tea tree oil for one month, but the treatment failed. The animal returned to the Veterinary Hospital with bleeding in the injured area of the tail and biopsy was performed for microbiological and histopathology evaluation. In the microbiological and histopathological analysis, yeast was isolated and yeast-like structures in silver staining were observed, respectively. The isolated yeast was identified as R. glutinis by DNA sequencing. A new treatment was implemented without clinical improvement. The animal was diagnosed with leishmaniasis and osteosarcoma, which probably caused immunosuppression, and its clinical conditions evolved to death.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Dermatitis/veterinary , Dogs/microbiology , Rhodotorula/pathogenicity , Basidiomycota/pathogenicity
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771712

ABSTRACT

In this study, an endophytic bacteria strain BZJN1 was isolated from Atractylodes macrocephala, and identified as Bacillus subtilis by physiological and biochemical tests and molecular identification. Strain BZJN1 could inhibit the growth of mycelia of Ceratobasidium sp. significantly, and the inhibition rate was more than 70%. The mycelium growth deformity with bulge as spherical and partially exhaustible in apex or central with microscopic observation. The inhibitory rates under 3% and 6% concentrations of the cell free fermentation were 22.7% and 38.7% expectively. The field test proved that the control efficacy of treatment of 1×10⁸ cfu·mL⁻¹ is 75.27% and 72.37% after 10 and 20 days. All the treatments of strain BZJN1 was able to promote the growth of A. macrocephala, the treatment of 1×10⁸ cfu·mL⁻¹ could able to increase the yield to 14.1%.


Subject(s)
Atractylodes , Microbiology , Bacillus subtilis , Physiology , Basidiomycota , Virulence , Biological Control Agents , Endophytes , Classification , Plant Diseases , Microbiology
19.
Mycobiology ; : 349-360, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729741

ABSTRACT

Whole-genome sequencing of Flammulina ononidis, a wood-rotting basidiomycete, was performed to identify genes associated with carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes). A total of 12,586 gene structures with an average length of 2009 bp were predicted by the AUGUSTUS tool from a total 35,524,258 bp length of de novo genome assembly (49.76% GC). Orthologous analysis with other fungal species revealed that 7051 groups contained at least one F. ononidis gene. In addition, 11,252 (89.5%) of 12,586 genes for F. ononidis proteins had orthologs among the Dikarya, and F. ononidis contained 8 species-specific genes, of which 5 genes were paralogous. CAZyme prediction revealed 524 CAZyme genes, including 228 for glycoside hydrolases, 21 for polysaccharide lyases, 87 for glycosyltransferases, 61 for carbohydrate esterases, 87 with auxiliary activities, and 40 for carbohydrate-binding modules in the F. ononidis genome. This genome information including CAZyme repertoire will be useful to understand lignocellulolytic machinery of this white rot fungus F. ononidis.


Subject(s)
Basidiomycota , Esterases , Flammulina , Fungi , Genome , Glycoside Hydrolases , Glycosyltransferases , Polysaccharide-Lyases
20.
Mycobiology ; : 13-23, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-730005

ABSTRACT

Depending on the mode of nutrition exploitation, major fungal guilds are distinguished as ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi. It is generally known that diverse environmental factors influence fungal communities; however, it is unclear how fungal communities respond differently to environment factors depend on fungal guilds. In this study, we investigated basidiomycetes communities associated with Quercus mongolica using 454 pyrosequencing. We attempted to detect guild pattern (ectomycorrhizal or saprotrophic fungal communities) by comparing the influence of geography and source (root and surrounding soil). A total of 515 mOTUs were detected from root (321) and soil (394) of Q. mongolica at three sites of Mt. Jeombong in Inje County. We found that patterns of diversity and community structure were different depending on the guilds. In terms of alpha diversity, only ectomycorrhizal fungi showed significant differences between sources. In terms of community structure, however, geography significantly influenced the ectomycorrhizal community, while source appeared to have a greater influence on the saprotrophic community. Therefore, a guild-based view will help to elucidates novel features of the relationship between environmental factors and fungal communities.


Subject(s)
Basidiomycota , Fungi , Geography , Quercus , Republic of Korea , Soil
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