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2.
Infectio ; 22(3): 136-140, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-953981

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: Nematodes of the Anisakidae family are parasites found in aquatic organisms. The lack of studies on anisakidosis and Anisakis in Colombia has meant this type of parasitosis is not widely known by health personnel and underreporting of the disease is highly likely. The objective of this study was to identify anisakid nematodes in the armed snook fish (Centropomus armatus) obtained by artisanal fishing and sold commercially in the coastal port city of Buenaventura. Material and methods: Morphological identification of these worms was performed using taxonomic keys and supplemented with microscopic study using the histochemical Hematoxylin-Eosin technique. Results: Nematodes of the genus Anisakis were found in 42% and the mean abundance was 2.8 in the C. armatus. Conclusions: The findings confirm the presence of Anisakis sp. in fish for human consumption in Buenaventura, the main fishing port in the Colombian Pacific region. This finding in itself warrants further investigation into the possibility of an emerging disease in Colombia.


Resumen Objetivos: Los nematodos de la familia Anisakidae son parásitos de organismos acuáticos. La falta de estudios en anisakidosis y anisakidos en Colombia ha resultado en el desconocimiento de esta infección por parte del personal de salud y un posible subregistro de la enfermedad. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar nematodos anisakidos en el pez róbalo (Centropomus armatus), obtenido por pesca artesanal y comercializado en la localidad de Buenaventura. Materiales y métodos: La identificación morfológica se realizó usando claves taxonómicas para estos gusanos complementada con estudio microscópico mediante técnica histoquímica de Hematoxilina-Eosina. Resultados: Se encontraron nemátodos del género Anisakis en 42% y una abundancia promedio de 2.8 en el hospedero C. armatus. Conclusiones: Los hallazgos confirman la presencia de Anisakis sp. en peces de consumo humano de Buenaventura, principal puerto pesquero en la región Pacífica colombiana, lo cual abre el camino en la investigación de una posible enfermedad emergente en este país.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anisakis , Aquatic Organisms , Fisheries , Fishes , Parasites , Bass , Colombia , Eosine Yellowish-(YS) , Hematoxylin , Infections , Larva , Nematoda
3.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719020

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to provide basic data for establishing the clinical basis for dental hygienist-led dental hygiene process of care by identifying multiple risk factors for self-support program participants in Gangneung city; we also compared oral health status and behavioral changes through customized oral health care. Four dental hygienists who were evaluated for degree of conformity provided dental hygiene process of care to eight self-support program participants who were selected as having an oral health risk among people in the self-support center. The clinical indicators measured during dental hygiene assessment and evaluation and behavioral changes due to dental hygiene intervention were compared and analyzed. With respect to clinical indicators, at the time of probe, the retention rate of patients with gingival bleeding decreased from 61.4% to 14.7% after intervention (p=0.004). Furthermore, the retention rate of patients with a periodontal pocket >4 mm decreased from 15.6% to 5.8% (p=0.001). The average modified O'Leary index of the patients improved from 23 to 40 (p=0.002). Previously, all eight subjects used the vertical or horizontal method of brushing; after dental hygiene care interventions regarding method and frequency of toothbrushing, use of oral care products, and individual interventions, they started using the rolling or Bass method of toothbrushing. Four of eight subjects reported using interdental toothbrushes after intervention. As a result of applying the change model to the transtheoretical behavior change of the subject, the result of strengthening the health behavior was confirmed. For promotion of oral health by the prevention-centered incremental oral health care system, dental hygienist-led dental hygiene management and maintenance is essential. It is thought that continuous research, such as for feasibility evaluation, cost benefit analysis, and preparation of legal systems, is needed to establish and activate dental hygiene management.


Subject(s)
Bass , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Dental Hygienists , Dental Prophylaxis , Health Behavior , Hemorrhage , Humans , Methods , Oral Health , Oral Hygiene , Periodontal Pocket , Risk Factors , Toothbrushing
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742271

ABSTRACT

Present study was performed to survey infection status of digenetic trematode metacercariae in 2 alien fish species, Micropterus salmoides (largemouth bass) and Lepomis macrochirus (bluegill), in 2 rivers draining Chungcheongbuk-do, Republic of Korea. A total of 107 largemouth bass and 244 bluegills were caught in Daecheong-ho (ho=lake) and Musim-cheon (a branch of Geum-gang), in Chungcheongbuk-do April–July 2015. Additionally, 68 native fish of 5 species, i.e., Zacco platypus, Hemibarbus longirostris, Carassius auratus, Pseudogobio esocinus and Puntungia herzi, were caught from the same water bodies. All of the fish collected were examined by artificial digestion method. The metacercariae of Centrocestus armatus, Clinostomum complanatum, Metagonimus sp. and Diplostomum spp. were detected from 4 out of 5 native fish species in Daecheong-ho. However, any metacercariae were not found from 87 M. salmoides and 177 L. macrochirus in Daecheong-ho. In Musim-cheon, metacercariae of Exorchis oviformis and Metacercaria hasegawai were detected from 78% Z. platypus and 34% L. macrochirus, but any metacercariae not found in M. salmoides. We report here that the 2 alien fish species were less infected with the metacercariae than the native ones. Surveys on the metacercariae in the alien fish species in geographically various rivers should be undertaken for better understanding on the role of alien fish species in the trematode infections in Republic of Korea.


Subject(s)
Bass , Digestion , Emigrants and Immigrants , Goldfish , Heterophyidae , Humans , Metacercariae , Methods , Perciformes , Platypus , Republic of Korea , Rivers , Trematode Infections , Water
5.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 26(4): 491-495, Oct.-Dec. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042456

ABSTRACT

Abstract Scuticociliatosis, which is caused by an opportunistic ciliate protozoan, is responsible for significant economic losses in marine ornamental fish. This study reports the occurrence of Uronema sp., which was found to be parasitizing three species of marine reef fish imported into Brazil and maintained in quarantine: Vanderbilt's Chromis (Chromis vanderbilti), blue-green damselfish (Chromis viridis), and sea goldie (Pseudanthias squamipinnis). During the quarantine period, some fish presented with behavioral disorders and hemorrhages and ulcerative lesions on the body surface. Histopathological analysis showed hemorrhages, inflammation comprising mononuclear and granular cells in the skeletal muscle, and necrosis of the skin and the secondary lamellae of the gills, and parasites were also observed in the renal capsule. The absence of transboundary measures available to prevent the occurrence of ornamental fish diseases is also discussed.


Resumo Scuticociliatose, causada por protozoários ciliados oportunistas, é responsável por perdas econômicas significativas em peixes ornamentais marinhos. O presente estudo relata a ocorrência de Uronema sp., parasitando três espécies de peixes ornamentais de recife importados para o Brasil e mantidos em quarentena: Vanderbilt's Chromis (Chromis vanderbilti), blue-green damselfish (Chromis viridis), e sea goldie (Pseudanthias squamipinnis). Durante o período de quarentena, alguns peixes apresentaram alterações comportamentais tais com hemorragias e lesões ulcerativas na superfície da pele. A histopatologia mostrou hemorragias, inflamação com células mononucleares e granulares na musculatura, e necrose da pele e lamelas secundárias das brânquias, e parasitas também foram observados na cápsula renal. A ausência de medidas transfronteiriças disponíveis para prevenir a ocorrência de doenças de peixes ornamentais também é discutida.


Subject(s)
Animals , Protozoan Infections, Animal/parasitology , Perciformes/parasitology , Fish Diseases/parasitology , Bass/parasitology , Brazil
6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-111008

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to define and clarify the concept of volition for health behavior. METHODS: For this study the process of Walker & Avant’s concept analysis was used. Seventeen studies from electronic data basses met criteria for selection. RESULTS: Volition can be defined by the following attributes: 1) planning, 2) maintenance of self-efficacy, and 3) self regulation. The antecedents of volition consisted of: 1) risk awareness, 2) outcome expectation, 3) perceived self-efficacy, and 4) social support. The consequences occurring as a result of volition were: 1) prevention of disability and complications, 2) improvement of functional ability, and 3) enhencement of quailty of life. CONCLUSION: Definition and attributes of volition identified by this results can be applied to develop measurements and intervention programs for chronic patients health behavior.


Subject(s)
Bass , Chronic Disease , Health Behavior , Humans , Self-Control , Volition , Walkers
7.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 13(1): 93-102, Jan-Mar/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744504

ABSTRACT

In the last years, technological advances enhanced the utilization of baited underwater video (BUV) to monitor the diversity, abundance, and size composition of fish assemblages. However, attempts to use static single-camera devices to estimate fish length were limited due to high errors, originated from the variable distance between the fishes and the reference scale included in the scene. In this work, we present a novel simple method to obtain accurate length estimates of carnivorous fishes by using a single downward-facing camera baited video station. The distinctive feature is the inclusion of a mirrored surface at the base of the stand that allows for correcting the apparent or "naive" length of the fish by the distance between the fish and the reference scale. We describe the calibration procedure and compare the performance (accuracy and precision) of this new technique with that of other single static camera methods. Overall, estimates were highly accurate (mean relative error = -0.6%) and precise (mean coefficient of variation = 3.3%), even in the range of those obtained with stereo-video methods.


En los últimos años, los avances tecnológicos permitieron intensificar el uso de estaciones de video fijas para estudiar la abundancia, composición de especies y estructura de tamaños de los ensambles ícticos. Sin embargo, la utilización de una única cámara estática para estimar el tamaño de los peces puede conducir a determinaciones poco exactas, provocadas por la distancia variable entre los peces y la escala de referencia incluida en la escena. En este trabajo presentamos un método novedoso para obtener estimaciones exactas del largo de peces carnívoros, que utiliza una estación de video fija con una única cámara orientada verticalmente. La característica que distingue a este sistema es la inclusión de una superficie espejada en la base del soporte de la cámara que permite corregir la longitud aparente o "naive" en función de la distancia entre los peces y la escala de referencia. En este trabajo describimos el procedimiento de calibración y comparamos el rendimiento de esta técnica (exactitud y precisión) con la de otros métodos que utilizan una única cámara estática. Las estimaciones obtenidas fueron exactas (error relativo promedio = -0,6%) y precisas (coeficiente de variación promedio = 3,3%), en el rango de valores obtenidos con estéreo-video.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bass/growth & development , Video Recording , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Coral Reefs
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-120110

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of oral health education interval and toothbrushing instruction, the difference between the demonstration-only method and the demonstration with chairside practice toothbrushing instruction method, and the effect of initial patient plaque control ability on the plaque index. METHODS: Patients (n=60) were randomly assigned to receive a 1-week, 2-week, or 3-week interval of oral health education and toothbrushing instruction. Each group was further subdivided into the demonstration-only group and the demonstration with chairside practice group. Patients were categorized as having "good", "fair", or "poor" initial plaque control ability, based on the Turesky modification of the Quigley-Hein plaque index (TQHI). Patients attended five sessions during which they received oral health education and toothbrushing instruction of the modified Bass technique. Plaque evaluation was performed at each visit using the TQHI. RESULTS: The plaque index tended to improve from the first visit to the fifth visit, but there were no significant differences between the 1-week, 2-week, and 3-week education interval. The demonstration with the chairside practice group showed significantly greater improvements in the plaque index, compared to the demonstration-only group. In the good, fair, and poor plaque control ability groups, the plaque index improved gradually from the first to the fifth visit. When plaque control was poor, the improvement in the plaque index increased to a greater degree after oral health education and toothbrushing instruction. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study may be helpful for suggesting appropriate individualized oral hygiene management methods to improve plaque control ability.


Subject(s)
Bass , Dental Plaque , Dental Plaque Index , Education , Humans , Oral Health , Oral Hygiene , Toothbrushing
9.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 12(4): 845-852, Oct-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-732638

ABSTRACT

Three experiments were designed to assess the accumulation and acute toxicity of copper (Cu) in juvenile fat snook Centropomus parallelus. The first experiment was performed to determine the 96-h lethal concentration (LC50) of Cu. The second experiment was designed to assess the effects of sublethal concentrations of Cu (0.47 and 0.94 mg/L), while the third one allowed us to test the recovery capacity of fish exposed to the sublethal concentrations Cu and kept in sea water without Cu addition. The LC50 value for Cu was found to be 1.88 mg/L Cu. Fish exposed to the sublethal concentrations of Cu showed a significant accumulation of Cu in gills at 96 h respect to the control ones (0.43 µg/g Cu). No significant difference was observed in the accumulation of Cu in gills between fish exposed to 0.47 mg/L (1.09 µg/g Cu) and 0.94 mg/L (1.26 µg/g Cu). Exposure (24 and 96 h) to the sublethal concentrations of Cu tested induced DNA damage in the erythrocytes. The results show that acute exposure to sublethal concentrations induces Cu accumulation and DNA damage in fish, these effects being recovered after 240 h in sea water without Cu addition.


Três experimentos foram realizados para avaliar o acúmulo e toxicidade aguda do cobre (Cu) em juvenis de robalo-peva Centropomus parallelus. O primeiro experimento foi realizado para determinar a concentração letal (96h-CL50) de Cu. O segundo experimento foi realizado para avaliar os efeitos de concentrações subletais de Cu (0,47 e 0,94 mg/L), enquanto o terceiro permitiu testar a capacidade de recuperação dos peixes expostos a concentrações subletais do Cu e posteriormente mantidos em água do mar sem acréscimo de Cu. O valor de LC50 encontrado para o Cu foi de 1,88 mg/L. Os peixes expostos as concentrações subletais de Cu mostraram um acúmulo significativo nas brânquias em relação ao controle em 96 h de exposição (0,43 µg/g Cu). Nenhuma diferença significativa foi observada entre os peixes expostos a 0,47 mg/L de Cu (1,09 µg/g) e 0,94 mg/L de Cu (1,26 µg/g). A exposição (24 e 96 h) para as concentrações subletais de Cu induziram danos no DNA. Os resultados mostram que a exposição aguda a concentrações subletais induz o acúmulo de Cu e danos ao DNA nas brânquias dos peixes, onde estes efeitos são recuperados após 240 h em água do mar sem adição de Cu.


Subject(s)
Animals , Seawater/adverse effects , Bass/physiology , Copper/toxicity , Toxicology/methods , Comet Assay/veterinary , Micronucleus Tests/veterinary
10.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 66(2): 593-601, Jan.-Apr. 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-709302

ABSTRACT

Com o objetivo de analisar a intensidade das alterações histológicas em brânquias de Centropomus undecimalis para avaliar a qualidade da água do Parque Ecológico Laguna da Jansen, em São Luís, Estado do Maranhão, coletaram-se exemplares de peixes no período chuvoso de 2012 e amostras de água nos períodos seco de 2011 e chuvoso de 2012 para análises físico-química e bacteriológica. Os resultados mostraram que a maioria dos parâmetros físico-químicos e bacteriológicos estava de acordo com os valores estabelecidos pela Resolução do CONAMA nº 357 de 2005. As alterações histológicas observadas foram: elevação do epitélio lamelar; proliferação excessiva de células dos epitélios filamentar e lamelar causando fusão total ou parcial das lamelas; alteração da estrutura das lamelas; hiperplasia das células mucosas; ruptura do epitélio lamelar; espessamento descontrolado do tecido proliferativo filamentar e lamelar e aneurismas de vários tamanhos. Também foi observada a presença de parasito em alguns exemplares. O Índice de Alteração Histológica (IAH) por indivíduo variou de 2 a 114. O valor médio do IAH obtido foi de 40,3, demonstrando que as brânquias dos indivíduos amostrados da espécie C. undecimalis apresentaram alterações de moderadas para severas no tecido. As alterações histológicas encontradas indicam que esses indivíduos desenvolveram mecanismos de defesa contra a ação de estressores presentes na água da laguna e a um provável desequilíbrio parasito-hospedeiro-ambiente associado à baixa qualidade do ambiente...


Aiming to analyze the intensity of the histological changes in the gills of Centropomus undecimalis to assess the water quality at Ecological Park of the Laguna da Jansen, in São Luís, State of Maranhão, specimens of fish were collected during the rainy season of 2012 and water samples during the dry season in 2011 and rainy season in 2012 for physical-chemical and bacteriological analyses. The results showed that most of the physical-chemical and bacteriological parameters analyzed agreed with the values established by CONAMA Resolution nº 357 of 2005. The histological changes were elevation of the lamellar epithelium, excessive cell proliferation of the filamentum and lamellar epithelium causing total or partial melting of the lamellar; changing the structure of the lamellar, hyperplasia of mucous cells, disruption of the lamellar epithelium, uncontrolled proliferative tissue filamentum thickening and lamellar and aneurysms in various sizes. We noted the presence of parasites in some samples. The Index Histological Amendment (IAH) per individual ranged from 2 to 114. The mean IAH obtained was 40.3, demonstrating that the gills of the individuals of the C. undecimalis species showed moderate to severe changes in the tissue. The histological findings indicate that these individuals have developed defense mechanisms against the action of stressors present in the water of the Laguna da Jansen and a probable parasite-host-environment imbalance associated with the environment's low quality...


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacteriological Techniques , Bass/anatomy & histology , Bass/physiology , Gills/physiopathology , Gills/microbiology , Water Bacteriological Characteristics , Bass/immunology , Coliforms
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-36942

ABSTRACT

The non-metric analysis of the skulls is very useful for estimating sex and determination of ancestry, the accuracy tends to depend on the amount of experiences of the observers, and so inter-observer errors might be happened. Many researchers are trying to find out more objective methods for determination of ancestry. The purpose of this presentation is to show the usefulness of moire contourography for analyzing the skull. The master screen that is similar to the gratings was made by steel rods, which were arranged as equally spaced parallel lines. Halogen light source was illuminated by lantern slide projector. The skeletal materials were documented crania, composed of 87 male and 47 female, from William M. Bass Donated Skeletal Collection housed at the Department of Anthropology, University of Tennessee. The skulls were placed just behind the master screen as anatomical position using cubic craniophore. The angle between the light source and camera was 65degrees, the distance between camera and the master screen was 1.2 m. Frontal view, left lateral and right lateral view were taken. From the frontal view, fringe patterns were analyzed for first five contour lines which were mainly located around the Glabella. The results were as followed; Type I for male was 53% and female was 4%; Type II for male was 29% and female was 2%; Type III for male was 2% and female was 15%; Type IV for male was 6% and female was 55%. From the lateral view, fringe patterns were analyzed for first four contour lines. However, first and second contour lines were critical to determine the shape and the results were as followed; Type I for male was 52% and female was 22%; Type II for male was 38% and female was 26%; Type III for male was 8% and female was 17%; Type IV for male was 2% and female was 35%. According to this study, different fringe patterns might be dependent on the degree of development of bone marker such as Glabella, Supercillary arch, Euryon and Mastoid process. For example, Supercillary arches were very well developed and slope of forehead above the Glabella was declined, fringe pattern showed reverse triangle shape. If Supercillary arches were poorly developed and slope of forehead above the Glabella was flat, fringe pattern showed home plate shape. The present research shows that moire contourography might be used as more objective methods for estimating sex. And it would be helpful to determine the ancestry when the lateral aspects were analyzed. In the future, continuing study need to be performed with same master screen for different ancestry.


Subject(s)
Anthropology , Bass , Female , Forehead , Humans , Male , Mastoid , Skull , Steel , Tennessee
12.
Rev. biol. trop ; 61(3): 1313-1325, sep. 2013. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-688478

ABSTRACT

Micropterus salmoides is an important fish species for sport fishing activities, condition that has promoted its introduction to different reservoirs in Mexico and worldwide. With the aim to improve its fisheries management, this research dealt with some reproductive aspects of this species in the Gustavo Díaz Ordaz reservoir, where it was studied from August 2008 through March 2011. To this end, we obtained 938 specimens, with gillnets of different sizes, to determine their total length (Lt, in cm), weight (Pt, in g), sex, gonadosomatic index, condition factor, fecundity and size at first maturity. Lt and Pt ranged from 15.9 to 63cm (37.4±78.0) and 57 to 4 431g (731.7±619.0), respectively. The Pt-Lt relationship showed a positive allometric growth, with no significant difference between males and females (F=0.9955, p=0.3187). The male: female ratio obtained was 1:0.83. Mass spawning lasted from December to April. Size at first maturity was 33.7cm and average fecundity was 32 294±12 878.7 oocytes/female. The gonadosomatic index was low from May through November, and increased between January and March. The condition factor was high before the spawning season and decreased after the reproductive period. We recommend a fishing ban from January to March, and to allow the capture size between 33 and 40cm.


Micropterus salmoides es un pez de importancia para la pesca deportiva en la mayoría de los embalses de México y del mundo, por lo que en el embalse Gustavo Díaz Ordaz se realizó un estudio sobre aspectos reproductivos entre agosto 2008 y marzo 2011. Se recolectaron 938 organismos, a los cuales se les midió la longitud (Lt cm), peso (Pt g), se determinó el sexo, índice gonadosomático, factor de condición, fecundidad y talla de primera madurez. La longitud y peso de los ejemplares recolectados varió de 15.9 a 63 cm (37.4±78.0) y de 57 a 4 431g (731.7±619.0), respectivamente. La relación peso total-longitud total se ajustó a un modelo tipo potencial, el crecimiento fue alométrico positivo, no se obtuvieron diferencias significativas entre machos y hembras (F=0.9955, p=0.3187). La proporción macho-hembra fue 1:0.83. Los desoves masivos inician en diciembre y finalizan en abril. La talla de primera reproducción fue de 33.7cm y la fecundidad promedio de 32 294±12 878.7 ovocitos/hembra. El índice gonadosomático se mantuvo bajo desde mayo hasta noviembre y alto entre enero y marzo. El factor de condición registró valores altos previos al desove y disminuyó al final del periodo reproductivo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Bass/physiology , Reproduction/physiology , Sexual Maturation/physiology , Mexico , Seasons
13.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 11(3): 667-674, jun. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-690109

ABSTRACT

This study analyzed the chemical composition and anesthetic potential of essential oil (EO) of Nectandra megapotamica in fat snook (Centropomus parallelus). For the extraction of EO by hydrodistillation, leaves were separated in young (EO-Y) or old (EO-O), and the chemical composition of the EOs was determined by CG-MS. The anesthetic potential was assessed by the evaluation of induction and recovery time of anesthesia and stress response from anesthesia and transport. Three experiments were carried out: i) four different concentrations of each EO were tested to evaluate anesthesia induction and recovery time; ii) two concentrations of EO-O were tested for the evaluation of its effects on stress parameters (glucose, lactate, and Na+ and K+ plasma levels) caused by anesthesia; and iii) fish were transported in plastic bags, supplied with two concentrations of EO-O for the evaluation of water quality and mortality. All experiments were performed on fish acclimated to 0 and 33 ppt salinity. The main constituents of the Y and O-EOs were bicyclogermacrene (46.5/34.6%), α-pinene (26.8/26.2%), β-pinene (7.9/12.3%), and germacrene D (9.6/9.1%). Mild sedation was achieved at 30 °L L-1(1.3-3.2 min) and deep anesthesia at 150 °L L-1 (5.6-8.0 min) with both EOs. The recovery time ranged from 1-10 min. The EO-O was not able to avoid the stress of anesthesia evidenced by elevated glucose and lactate plasma levels observed in all groups. Plasma levels of Na+ and K+ were not significantly affected by treatments. During transport, the use of EO-O did not prevent deterioration in water quality and the post-transport mortality. In conclusion, the EO of N. megapotamica has anesthetic activity in fat snook, but it was not able to prevent the stress of anesthesia and transport.


Este estudo analisou a composição química e o potencial anestésico do óleo essencial (OE) de Nectandra megapotamica em robalos-peva (Centropomus parallelus). Para a extração do OE por hidrodestilação, as folhas foram separadas em jovens (OE-J) ou velhas (OE-V) e a composição química foi determinada por CG-EM. O potencial anestésico foi acessado através da avaliação do tempo de indução e recuperação da anestesia e resposta ao estresse do procedimento anestésico e transporte. Foram realizados três experimentos: em primeiro lugar, quatro concentrações diferentes de cada OE foram testadas para avaliar o tempo de indução à anestesia e de recuperação; em segundo lugar, duas concentrações do OE-V foram testadas para avaliar os efeitos sobre os parâmetros de estresse (níveis plasmáticos de glicose, lactato, Na+ e K+) causados pelo procedimento anestésico; em terceiro lugar, os peixes foram transportados em sacos plásticos com duas concentrações do OE-V para avaliação da qualidade da água e mortalidade. Todos os experimentos foram realizados em peixes aclimatados à salinidade zero e 33. Os constituintes majoritários do OE-J e OE-V foram: biciclogermacreno (46,5/34,6%), α-pineno (26,8/26,2%), β-pineno (7,9/12,3%) e germacreno D (9,6/9,1%). Sedação leve foi alcançada com 30 °L L-1(1,3-3,2 min) e anestesia profunda a partir de 150 °L L-1 (5,6-8,0 min) com ambos OEs. O tempo de recuperação variou entre 1-10 min.O OE-V não foi capaz de evitar o estresse do procedimento anestésico, evidenciado pelos elevados níveis plasmáticos de glicose e lactato observados em todos os grupos. Os níveis plasmáticos de Na+ e K+ não foram significativamente afetados pelos tratamentos. Durante o transporte, o OE-V não impediu a deterioração da qualidade da água e a mortalidade pós-transporte. Concluindo, o OE de Nectandra megapotamica apresenta atividade anestésica em robalos-peva, mas não foi capaz de evitar o estresse do procedimento anestésico e transporte.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anesthesia , Bass , Hypnotics and Sedatives/analysis , Nectandra amare/analysis , Stress, Mechanical , Fishes/classification
14.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 10(2): 383-388, 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-640803

ABSTRACT

In this study we analyze the population structure and diet of the coney Cephalopholis fulva at Trindade Island, Brazil, through direct observation with SCUBA diving in 11 reef sites around the Island, up to 50 m deep. Diet was based on 77 individuals collected with speargun. Mean population density and biomass were estimated at 29 individuals/100 m² and 13 kg/100 m², respectively. This species is regularly distributed along the costal environments of the Trindade Island, with no significant differences in densities and biomass detected among the different collection habitats (reef crest, reef slope, and reef plateau). However, significantly higher densities were observed micro-habitats with greater structural complexity, which may offer more shelter and food to C. fulva. Four food item groups were identified from the gut contents of C. fulva: Annelida, Crustacea, Teleostei, and Testudinata. It is the first record of predation of the green turtle Chelonia mydas hatchlings by the coney. Trindade Island seems to present the densest concentration of C. fulva in all Brazilian and Caribbean ecosystems inhabited by this species. Scarcity of competitors, predators, and fishing pressure may explain the high densities observed in the Island.


Foram analisadas a estrutura populacional e a dieta do catuá Cephalopholis fulva na Ilha da Trindade, Brasil. Os dados foram obtidos através de censos visuais com mergulho autônomo em 11 locais no entorno da ilha, em profundidades de até 50 m. A dieta e a proporção sexual foram baseadas na análise de 77 indivíduos coletados com arpão. A densidade populacional e biomassa foram estimados em 29 indivíduos/m² e 13 kg/100 m², respectivamente. A espécie apresentou distribuição uniforme nos ambientes costeiros da ilha, não tendo sido registradas diferenças significativa em sua densidade e biomassa entre os diferentes habitats estudados (crista, talude e platô recifal). Entretanto, foi observado preferência por micro-habitats de alta complexidade estrutural. Foram registrados quatro grupos de itens alimentares no conteúdo estomacal de C. fulva: Annelida, Crustacea, Teleostei e Testudinata. É feito aqui o primeiro registro de predação de juvenis da tartaruga-verde (Chelonia mydas) por C. fulva. Trindade parece apresentar os maiores valores de densidade para o catuá, quando comparada a outras localidades do Brasil e Caribe. A escassez de competidores, predadores e a pressão pesqueira são possíveis fatores que podem explicar as altas densidades observadas para C. fulva na Ilha da Trindade.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biomass , Bass/growth & development , Diet/veterinary , Animal Distribution/classification , Population Density
15.
Rev. biol. trop ; 59(1): 247-253, mar. 2011. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-638061

ABSTRACT

Illustrated key for the Chilean fishes of the family Serranidae (Teleostei: Perciformes). A taxonomic key for identification of fish species of the family Serranidae of Chile, grouped in the subfamilies Epinephelinae, Serraninae and Anthiinae is presented. Basic data about the taxonomic of the group to facilitate the identification is given. In each specific case, the geographical distribution is showed. Reduced illustrations for the currently 13 serranid species considered in the Chilean ichthyofauna are included. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (1): 247-253. Epub 2011 March 01.


Se presenta una clave para reconocer especies de la familia Serranidae de Chile, que se agrupan en las subfamilias Epinephelinae, Serraninae y Anthiinae. Se proporcionan antecedentes básicos referidos a la taxonomía del grupo, para mayor facilidad del reconocimiento. En cada caso específico, se indica la distribución geográfica e ilustraciones reducidas de las 13 especies de la familia Serranidae que en la actualidad son consideradas en la ictiofauna de Chile.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bass/anatomy & histology , Bass/classification , Chile , Geography
16.
Rev. biol. trop ; 58(4): 1189-1198, dic. 2010. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-637993

ABSTRACT

Analysis of diet composition and overlap in four species of the genus Diplectrum (Perciformes: Serranidae) in the Mexican Central Pacific. The information of trophic interactions among species is essential to understand ecosystem function. To assess this in four Diplectrum species, we analyzed the stomach contents of 397 individuals caught using shrimp trawling nets off the coasts of Jalisco and Colima, Mexico. Main food component of D. eumelum were fish of the Order Pleuronectiformes, followed by shrimps (Metapenaeopsis spp). D. euryplectrum feeds mainly on crustaceans, with stomatopods (Squilla mantoidea) as main food items followed by shrimps and brachyurans. Fish and polychaetes had a low representation in the diet of this species. D. labarum feeds mainly on crustaceans, mollusks and fish. The stomatopod Eurysquilla veleronis contributed to with a high diet percentage by weight, followed by shrimps (mostly Solenocera florae) and brachyurans, as well as the squid Lolliguncula diomedae. Fishes (Ophidion spp.) were also an important component of the diet of this species. The most common preys of D. rostrum were crustaceans, mollusks, polychaetes and fish. The squid Lolliguncula diomedae and fishes of genus Ophidion were also well represented in the diet. Diet breadth index yielded significant differences between species. The number of diet items varied from 16 in D. euryplectrum to 6 in D. eumelum. The average value of overlap (0.247) was not significantly different (p=0.118) from the expected one for a null model (0.174). The observed variance of the overlap index (0.071) was significantly higher (V=0.025, p=0.0004) than the value expected for a null model. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (4): 1189-1198. Epub 2010 December 01.


Para comprender las interacciones tróficas en un ecosistema, es imprescindible conocer bien la composición y superposición de las dietas de las especies que coexisten en un mismo hábitat y presentan una morfología general muy similar. Se analizaron los contenidos estomacales de 397 ejemplares de cuatro especies de Diplectrum, capturados con redes camaroneras frente a las costas de Jalisco y Colima, México. D. eumelum consumió principalmente peces del orden Pleuronectiformes, seguido por camarones del género Metapenaeopsis y estomatópodos. D. euryplectrum registró en su contenido estomacal, estomatópodos (Squilla mantoidea), seguido por camarones y braquiuros. D. labarum consumió crustáceos, moluscos y peces. El estomatópodo Eurysquilla veleronis registró un alto porcentaje, seguido por camarones (principalmente Solenocera florea) y braquiuros, así como el calamar dardo Lolliguncula diomedae. Los peces (género Ophidion principalmente) constituyeron un componente importante de la dieta de esta especie. En la dieta de D. rostrum se identificaron crustáceos, moluscos, poliquetos y peces. El calamar dardo Lolliguncula diomedae y los peces del género Ophidion tuvieron una alta representación. Se observaron diferencias significativas entre los índices de amplitud de dietas de las especies analizadas. El número de entidades consumidas disminuyó desde 16 en D. euryplectrum hasta seis en D. eumelum. El valor medio de superposición (0.247) no resultó significativamente diferente (p=0.118) del esperado para un modelo nulo (0.174). La varianza observada de los índices de superposición (0.071) fue significativamente mayor (V=0.025, p=0.0004) que el valor medio obtenido en la simulación basada en un modelo nulo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bass/physiology , Diet , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Gastrointestinal Contents , Bass/classification , Mexico , Pacific Ocean , Seasons
17.
Acta sci., Biol. sci ; 32(4): 407-414, 2010. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-876403

ABSTRACT

A garoupa-verdadeira (Epinephelus marginatus) é uma espécie de serranídeo com grande importância ecológica e boas perspectivas para o cultivo. A investigação da morfologia do trato digestório, associada à atividade alimentar, é fundamental para a compreensão da biologia dessa espécie e premissa básica para pesquisas sobre requerimentos nutricionais, desenvolvimento de rações e práticas adequadas de manejo alimentar. O presente trabalho descreve a anatomia e, por meio da microscopia de luz, as variações histológicas ao longo do tubo digestório de juvenis de Epinephelus marginatus, correlacionando a histologia de cada seguimento com as respectivas funções e o hábito alimentar. Verificou-se que essa espécie possui elevado número de tipos celulares ao longo do tubo digestório que estão intimamente relacionados com a resposta imunológica inata e adaptativa, permitindo o hábito alimentar detritívoro.


The dusky grouper (Epinephelus marginatus) is a serranida species with great ecological importance and good perspectives for rearing. The investigation of the digestive tract morphology associated to the feeding activity is essential for the understanding of the biology of this species and a basic premise for research on feed requirements, feed development and appropriate feeding methods. The present study describes the anatomy and histological variations along the digestive tract of Epinephelus marginatus juveniles associating the histology with function and feeding habit. It was verified that this species possesses a high number of different cellular types along the digestive tube intimately related with the innate and adaptative immunological responses.


Subject(s)
Feeding Behavior , Histology , Marine Environment , Bass
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-168926

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Paraquat is a lethal herbicide and induces acute renal failure, hepatic dysfunction, and progressive respiratory failure. The aims of this study are to investigate the correlation between plasma paraquat concentrations and initial laboratory data at Emergency Medical Center and to investigate whether initial laboratory data is useful for predicting outcomes of paraquat-poisoned patients. METHODS: A retrospective analysis by chart review was done on 83 patients who ingested paraquat and who had presented to Emergency center of within 24 hours. Plasma paraquat concentrations, urine dithionite test and initial laboratory parameters including white blood cell count, urine pH, and AST, ALT, BUN, Creatinine, Amylase, Glucose, pH, PaCO2, PaO2, HCO3. Base Excess, Na, K, Cl were obtained at the time of Emergency Center visit. We compared urine dithionite test, plasma paraquat concentrations and Severity Index of Paraquat Pisoning (SSPI) of the survival group to those of the dead group. The patients were divided into four subgroups based on the level of plasma paraquat concentration, their initial laboratory data was compared and analyzed. RESULTS: The mean plasma paraquat concentration in the mortality group was higher than that in the survival group (88.44+/-81.56 vs. 1.32+/-1.72 microgram/mL). Among the initial laboratory data of four subgroups, WBC, Glucose, Cr, pH, HCO3, Bass excess were significantly different between the group of low level of plasma paraquat concentration and higher group. ANCOVA analysis revealed that WBC, HCO3, Bass excess correlated with the level of plasma paraquat concentration significantly. CONCLUSION: The plasma paraquat concentration and SIPP were higher in the mortality group significantly. Initial laboratory data including WBC, Glucose, Cr, pH, HCO3, Bass excess were proven to be significant prognostic factors. Especially WBC, HCO3, Bass excess can be used to predict the outcome of paraquat poisoning.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Amylases , Bass , Creatinine , Dithionite , Emergencies , Glucose , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Leukocyte Count , Paraquat , Plasma , Prognosis , Respiratory Insufficiency , Retrospective Studies
19.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 17(3): 145-149, jul.-set. 2008. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-614854

ABSTRACT

O diagnóstico precoce de patologias no meio aquático constitui-se em uma necessidade vital para o sucesso dos cultivos. Considerados como parasitos oportunistas, surtos de infestação de monogenóides capsalídeos podem ocasionar mortalidades massivas gerando enormes prejuízos nos cultivos. Exemplares de garoupa-verdadeira Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834), com peso médio de 142,74 ± 38,65 g, apresentaram recusa da alimentação e sintomas como o escurecimento do corpo, natação errática, opacidade dos olhos, exoftalmia e hemorragias em diversas áreas do corpo. Alguns peixes apresentavam lesões no globo ocular e cegueira. Após análises dos peixes foi identificada a ocorrência do parasito Neobenedenia melleni. Este trabalho teve por objetivo testar o efeito de diferentes tratamentos por imersão em diferentes concentrações de formalina e água doce na erradicação de monogenoides capsalideos na garoupa-verdadeira. Foram testados três tratamentos em forma de banhos: T1 (água doce por 10 minutos); T2 (formalina: 1:2.000 por 10 minutos) e T3: (formalina: 1:4.000 por 10 minutos). Os tratamentos foram avaliados através de raspado de tecido epitelial, montados entre lâminas e lamínulas e observado ao microscópio de luz. Observou-se que nas condições testadas o T1 e o T2 foram eficientes na eliminação dos monogenóides capsalídeos na garoupa-verdadeira.


The precocious diagnosis of pathologies in the aquatic way is constituted in a vital need for the success of the cultivations. Considered as parasites opportunists, infestations of monogeneans capsalides can cause missal mortalities resulting in enormous damages in the cultivations. Juveniles of dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834), with medium weight of 142.74 ± 38.65 g, presented refusal of the feeding and symptoms as the darkening of the body, erratic swimming, opacity of the eyes and hemorrhages in several areas of the body. Some fishes presented lesions in the eyeball and blindness. After analyses of the fish the occurrence of the parasite Neobenedenia melleni was identified. This work objective was to test therapeutic treatments seeking the monogenean capsalid eradication in juveniles of dusky grouper. Three treatments were tested in form of baths: T1 (fresh water for 10 minutes); T2 (formalin: 1:2,000 for 10 minutes) and T3: (formalin: 1:4,000 for 10 minutes). The treatments were evalueted by scraping epithelium tissue, mounted in slide glass and cover slip and observed by light microscope. It was observed that in the tested conditions T1 and T2 were efficient in the elimination of the monogeneans capsalids without presenting lethality in the dusky grouper.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bass/parasitology , Trematoda/physiology , Aquaculture , Communicable Disease Control
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-75538

ABSTRACT

The present study was conducted to examine the morphology and antigenicity of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida by culturing the bacterium in vivo in the peritoneal cavity of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) within dialysis bags with either a low molecular weight (LMW) cut-off of 25 kDa or a high molecular weight (HMW) cut-off of 300 kDa. Differences were observed in the growth rate between the bacteria cultured in vivo or in vitro. Bacteria cultured in vivo were smaller and produced a capsular layer, which was more prominent in bacteria cultured in the HMW bag. Antigenicity was examined by Western blot analysis using sera from sea bass injected with live Ph. d. subsp. piscicida. The sera recognised bands at 45 and 20 kDa in bacteria cultured in vivo in the LMW bag. Bacteria cultured in vivo in the HMW bag did not express the 45 kDa band when whole cell extracts were examined, although the antigen was present in their extracellular products. In addition, these bacteria had a band at 18 kDa rather than 20 kDa. Differences in glycoprotein were also evident between bacteria cultured in vitro and in vivo. Bacteria cultured in vitro in LMW and HMW bags displayed a single 26 kDa band. Bacteria cultured in the LMW bag in vivo displayed bands at 26 and 27 kDa, while bacteria cultured in vivo in the HMW bag possessed only the 27 kDa band. These bands may represent sialic acid. The significance of the changes observed in the bacterium's structure and antigenicity when cultured in vivo is discussed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antigenic Variation/genetics , Antigens, Bacterial/genetics , Bass/immunology , Blotting, Western , Carbohydrates/analysis , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Membranes, Artificial , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , N-Acetylneuraminic Acid/genetics , Photobacterium/genetics
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