Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 94
Filter
1.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 251-259, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010332

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the mechanism of electroacupuncture (EA) in promoting recovery of the facial function with the involvement of autophagy, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway.@*METHODS@#Seventy-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into the control, sham-operated, facial nerve injury (FNI), EA, EA+3-methyladenine (3-MA), and EA+GDNF antagonist groups using a random number table, with 12 rats in each group. An FNI rat model was established with facial nerve crushing method. EA intervention was conducted at Dicang (ST 4), Jiache (ST 6), Yifeng (SJ 17), and Hegu (LI 4) acupoints for 2 weeks. The Simone's 10-Point Scale was utilized to monitor the recovery of facial function. The histopathological evaluation of facial nerves was performed using hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. The levels of Beclin-1, light chain 3 (LC3), and P62 were detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC), immunofluorescence, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Additionally, IHC was also used to detect the levels of GDNF, Rai, PI3K, and mTOR.@*RESULTS@#The facial functional scores were significantly increased in the EA group than the FNI group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). HE staining showed nerve axons and myelin sheaths, which were destroyed immediately after the injury, were recovered with EA treatment. The expressions of Beclin-1 and LC3 were significantly elevated and the expression of P62 was markedly reduced in FNI rats (P<0.01); however, EA treatment reversed these abnormal changes (P<0.01). Meanwhile, EA stimulation significantly increased the levels of GDNF, Rai, PI3K, and mTOR (P<0.01). After exogenous administration with autophagy inhibitor 3-MA or GDNF antagonist, the repair effect of EA on facial function was attenuated (P<0.05 or P<0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#EA could promote the recovery of facial function and repair the facial nerve damages in a rat model of FNI. EA may exert this neuroreparative effect through mediating the release of GDNF, activating the PI3K/mTOR signaling pathway, and further regulating the autophagy of facial nerves.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Animals , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Electroacupuncture , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/metabolism , Facial Nerve Injuries/therapy , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Beclin-1 , Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Signal Transduction , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Autophagy , Mammals/metabolism
2.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 1152-1162, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010338

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#The phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/mTOR) pathway is one of the main signaling pathways related to autophagy. Autophagy plays a key role in the formation of silicosis fibrosis. The phenotypic transformation of lung fibroblasts into myofibroblasts is a hallmark of the transition from the inflammatory phase to the fibrotic phase in silicosis. This study aims to investigate whether the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway affects the phenotypic transformation of silicosis-induced lung fibroblasts into myofibroblasts via mediating macrophage autophagy.@*METHODS@#The human monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 cells were differentiated into macrophages by treating with 100 ng/mL of phorbol ester for 24 h. Macrophages were exposed to different concentrations (0, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 μg/mL) and different times (0, 6, 12, 24, 48 h) of SiO2 dust suspension. The survival rate of macrophages was measured by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) method. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the contents of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the cell supernatant. The co-culture system of macrophages and HFL-1 cells was established by transwell. A blank control group, a SiO2 group, a LY294002 group, a SC79 group, a LY294002+SiO2 group, and a SC79+SiO2 group were set up in this experiment. Macrophages in the LY294002+SiO2 group were pretreated with LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor) for 18 hours, and macrophages in the SC79+SiO2 group were pretreated with SC79 (Akt activator) for 24 hours, and then exposed to SiO2 (100 μg/mL) dust suspension for 12 hours. The expression of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) protein in macrophages was detected by the immunofluorescence method. The protein expressions of PI3K, Akt, mTOR, Beclin-1, LC3 in macrophages, and collagen III (Col III), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), fibronectin (FN), matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), tissue metalloproteinase inhibitor-1 (TIMP-1) in HFL-1 cells were measured by Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#After the macrophages were exposed to SiO2 dust suspension of different concentrations for 12 h, the survival rates of macrophages were gradually decreased with the increase of SiO2 concentration. Compared with the 0 μg/mL group, the survival rates of macrophages in the 100, 200, and 400 μg/mL groups were significantly decreased, and the concentrations of TGF-β1 and TNF-α in the cell supernatant were obviously increased (all P<0.05). When 100 μg/mL SiO2 dust suspension was applied to macrophages, the survival rates of macrophages were decreased with the prolonged exposure time. Compared with the 0 h group, the survival rates of macrophages were significantly decreased (all P<0.05), the concentrations of TGF-β1 and TNF-α in the cell supernatant were significantly increased, and the protein expression levels of Beclin-1 and LC3II were increased markedly in the 6, 12, 24, and 48 h groups (all P<0.05). Immunofluorescence results demonstrated that after exposure to SiO2 (100 μg/mL) dust for 12 h, LC3 exhibited punctate aggregation and significantly higher fluorescence intensity compared to the blank control group (P<0.05). Compared with the blank control group, the protein expressions of Col III, FN, α-SMA, MMP-1, and TIMP-1 in HFL-1 cells were up-regulated in the SiO2 group (all P<0.05). Compared with the SiO2 group, the protein expressions of PI3K, Akt, and mTOR were down-regulated and the protein expressions of LC3II and Beclin-1 were up-regulated in macrophages (all P<0.05), the contents of TNF-α and TGF-β1 in the cell supernatant were decreased (both P<0.01), and the protein expressions of Col III, FN, α-SMA, MMP-1, and TIMP-1 in HFL-1 cells were down-regulated (all P<0.05) in the LY294002+SiO2 group. Compared with the SiO2 group, the protein expressions of PI3K, Akt, and mTOR were up-regulated and the protein expressions of LC3II and Beclin-1 were down-regulated in macrophages (all P<0.05), the contents of TNF-α and TGF-β1 in the cell supernatant were increased (both P<0.01), and the protein expressions of Col III, FN, α-SMA, MMP-1, and TIMP-1 in HFL-1 cells were up-regulated (all P<0.05) in the SC79+SiO2 group.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Silica dust exposure inhibits the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, increases autophagy and concentration of inflammatory factors in macrophages, and promotes the phenotype transformation of HFL-1 cells into myofibroblasts. The regulation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway can affect the autophagy induction and the concentration of inflammatory factors of macrophages by silica dust exposure, and then affect the phenotype transformation of HFL-1 cells into myofibroblasts induced by silica dust exposure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , Silicon Dioxide/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 1/metabolism , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 , Sirolimus , Beclin-1/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Dust , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Silicosis/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , Autophagy
3.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 751-758, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982023

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the effect of ligustrazine injection on mitophagy in neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) and its molecular mechanism.@*METHODS@#Neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats, aged 7 days, were randomly divided into a sham-operation group with 8 rats, a model group with 12 rats, and a ligustrazine group with 12 rats. The rats in the model group and the ligustrazine group were used to establish a neonatal rat model of HIE by ligation of the left common carotid artery followed by hypoxia treatment, and blood vessels were exposed without any other treatment for the rats in the sham-operation group. The rats in the ligustrazine group were intraperitoneally injected with ligustrazine (20 mg/kg) daily after hypoxia-ischemia, and those in the sham-operation group and the model group were intraperitoneally injected with an equal volume of normal saline daily. Samples were collected after 7 days of treatment. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and Nissl staining were used to observe the pathological changes of neurons in brain tissue; immunohistochemical staining was used to observe the positive expression of PINK1 and Parkin in the hippocampus and cortex; TUNEL staining was used to measure neuronal apoptosis; Western blotting was used to measure the expression levels of the mitophagy pathway proteins PINK1 and Parkin and the autophagy-related proteins Beclin-1, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3), and ubiquitin-binding protein (P62).@*RESULTS@#Compared with the sham-operation group, the model group had a significant reduction in the number of neurons, an increase in intercellular space, loose arrangement, lipid vacuolization, and a reduction in Nissl bodies. The increased positive expression of PINK1 and Parkin, apoptosis rate of neurons, and protein expression levels of PINK1, Parkin, Beclin1 and LC3 (P<0.05) and the decreased protein expression level of P62 in the hippocampus were also observed in the model group (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, the ligustrazine group had a significant increase in the number of neurons with ordered arrangement and an increase in Nissl bodies, significant reductions in the positive expression of PINK1 and Parkin, the apoptosis rate of neurons, and the protein expression levels of PINK1, Parkin, Beclin1, and LC3 (P<0.05), and a significant increase in the protein expression level of P62 (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Ligustrazine can alleviate hypoxic-ischemic brain damage and inhibit neuronal apoptosis in neonatal rats to a certain extent, possibly by inhibiting PINK1/Parkin-mediated autophagy.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/metabolism , Animals, Newborn , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Beclin-1 , Autophagy , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Protein Kinases/metabolism
4.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 626-632, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981909

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effect of H2O2-induced oxidative stress on autophagy and apoptosis of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs). Methods hBMSCs were isolated and cultured. The cells were divided into control group, 3-MA group, H2O2 group, H2O2 combined with 3-MA group. DCFH-DA staining was used to analyze the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). hBMSCs were treated with 0, 50, 100, 200, 400 μmol/L H2O2, and then the cell viability was detected by CCK-8 assay. The level of autophagy was detected by monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining and LysoTracker Red staining. The cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry. Western blotting was used to detect the expression of beclin 1, mTOR, phosphorylated mTOR (p-mTOR), cleaved caspase-3(c-caspase-3) and caspase-3 proteins. Results Compared with the control group and 3-MA group, ROS level and autophagosomes were increased and the proliferation and apoptosis were decreased in H2O2 group. The protein expression of beclin 1, mTOR, c-caspase-3 was up-regulated, while the p-mTOR was down-regulated. Compared with the 3-MA group, the H2O2 combined with 3-MA group also had an increased ROS level and autophagosomes, but not with significantly increased apoptosis rate; The protein expression of beclin 1, mTOR, c-caspase-3 was up-regulated, and the p-mTOR was down-regulated. Conclusion H2O2 can induce hMSCs to trigger oxidative stress response. It enhances the autophagy and inhibits the proliferation and apoptosis of hBMSCs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Beclin-1/metabolism , Caspase 3/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Apoptosis , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Autophagy , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Cell Proliferation
5.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3308-3316, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981468

ABSTRACT

Based on the O-GlcNAc transferase(OGT)-PTEN-induced putative kinase 1(PINK1) pathway, the mechanism of 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde(DBD) on mitochondrial quality control was investigated. Middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion(MCAO/R) rats were established. SD rats were randomized into sham operation group(sham), model group(MCAO/R), DBD-L group(5 mg·kg~(-1)), and DBD-H group(10 mg·kg~(-1)). After 7 days of administration(ig), MCAO/R was induced in rats except the sham group with the suture method. Twenty-four h after reperfusion, the neurological function and the percentage of cerebral infarct area were measured. Based on hematoxylin and eosin(HE) staining and Nissl staining, the pathological damage of cerebral neurons was examined. Then the ultrastructure of mitochondria was observed under the electron microscope, and the co-localization of light chain-3(LC3), sequestosome-1(SQSTM1/P62), and Beclin1 was further detected by immunofluorescence staining. It has been reported that the quality of mitochondria can be ensured by inducing mitochondrial autophagy through the OGT-PINK1 pathway. Therefore, Western blot was employed to detect the expression of OGT, mitophagy-related proteins PINK1 and E3 ubiquitin ligase(Parkin), and mitochondrial kinetic proteins dynamin-like protein 1(Drp1) and optic atrophy 1(Opa1). The results showed that MCAO/R group had neurological dysfunction, large cerebral infarct area(P<0.01), damaged morphological structure of neurons, decreased number of Nissl bodies, mitochondrial swelling, disappearance of mitochondrial cristae, decrease of cells with LC3 and Beclin1, rise of cells with P62(P<0.01), inhibited expression of OGT, PINK1, and Parkin, up-regulated expression of Drp1, and down-regulated expression of Opa1 compared with the sham group(P<0.01). However, DBD improved the behavioral deficits and mitochondrial health of MCAO/R rats, as manifested by the improved morphology and structure of neurons and mitochondria and the increased Nissl bodies. Moreover, DBD increased cells with LC3 and Beclin1 and decreased cells with P62(P<0.01). In addition, DBD promoted the expression of OGT, PINK1, Parkin, and Opa1 and inhibited the expression of Drp1, enhancing mitophagy(P<0.05, P<0.01). In conclusion, DBD can trigger PINK1/Parkin-mediated brain mitophagy through the OGT-PINK1 pathway, which plays a positive role in maintaining the health of the mitochondrial network. This may be a mitochondrial therapeutic mechanism to promote nerve cell survival and improve cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Beclin-1 , Mitochondria , Cerebral Infarction , Protein Kinases
6.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3066-3073, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981437

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the effect of Wenyang Zhenshuai Granules(WYZSG) on autophagy and apoptosis of myocardial cells in rats with sepsis via regulating the expression of microRNA-132-3p(miR-132-3p)/uncoupling protein 2(UCP2). Sixty SD rats were randomly divided into modeling group(n=50) and sham operation group(n=10). The sepsis rat model was constructed by cecal ligation and perforation in the modeling group. The successfully modeled rats were randomly divided into WYZSG low-, medium-and high-dose groups, model group and positive control group. Rats in the sham operation group underwent opening and cecum division but without perforation and ligation. Hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining was used to observe the pathological changes of rat myocardial tissue. Myocardial cell apoptosis was detected by TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling(TUNEL) assay. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction(RT-qPCR) was performed to detect the expression of miR-132-3p and the mRNA expressions of UCP2, microtubule-associated protein light chain 3(LC3-Ⅱ/LC3-Ⅰ), Beclin-1 and caspase-3 in rat myocardial tissue. The protein expressions of UCP2, LC3-Ⅱ/LC3-Ⅰ, Beclin-1 and caspase-3 in myocardial tissue were detected by Western blot. Dual luciferase reporter assay was used to verify the regulatory relationship between miR-132-3p and UCP2. The myocardial fibers of sepsis model rats were disordered, and there were obvious inflammatory cell infiltration as well as myocardial cell edema and necrosis. With the increase of the WYZSG dose, the histopathological changes of myocardium were improved to varying degrees. Compared with the conditions in the sham operation group, the survival rate and left ventricular ejection fraction(LVEF) of rats in the model group, positive control group and WYZSG low-, medium-and high-dose groups were decreased, and the myocardial injury score and apoptosis rate were increased. Compared with the model group, the positive control group and WYZSG low-, medium-and high-dose groups had elevated survival rate and LVEF, and lowered myocardial injury score and apoptosis rate. The expression of miR-132-3p and the mRNA and protein expressions of UCP2 in myocardial tissue in the model group, positive control group and WYZSG low-, medium-and high-dose groups were lower, while the mRNA and protein expressions of LC3-Ⅱ/LC3-Ⅰ, Beclin-1 and caspase-3 were higher than those in the sham operation group. Compared with model group, the positive control group and the WYZSG low-, medium-and high-dose groups had an up-regulation in the expression of miR-132-3p and the mRNA and protein expressions of UCP2, while a down-regulation in the mRNA and protein expressions of LC3-Ⅱ/LC3-Ⅰ, Beclin-1 and caspase-3. WYZSG inhibited excessive autophagy and apoptosis of myocardial cells in septic rats and improved myocardial injury, possibly by regulating the expression of miR-132-3p/UCP2.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Caspase 3 , Beclin-1/genetics , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left , Apoptosis/genetics , Autophagy/genetics , Heart Injuries , MicroRNAs/genetics
7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3022-3031, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981432

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the effect and mechanism of arctigenin(ARC) in the treatment of vascular endothelial injury in rats with pregnancy-induced hypertension(PIH). Fifty SD rats pregnant for 12 days were randomly assigned into a control group, a model group, an ARC group, a rapamycin(RAP, autophagy inducer) group, and an ARC+3-methyladenine(3-MA, autophagy inhibitor) group, with 10 rats in each group. The rats in the other groups except the control group were intraperitoneally injected with nitrosyl-L-arginine methyl ester(50 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)) to establish the PIH model on the 13th day of pregnancy. On the 15th day of pregnancy, the rats in ARC, RAP, and ARC+3-MA groups were intraperitoneally injected with ARC(50 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), RAP(1 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), and 3-MA(15 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1))+ARC(50 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), respectively. The pregnant rats in the control group and the model group were intraperitoneally injected with the same amount of normal saline. The blood pressure and 24 h urine protein(24 h-UP) of pregnant rats in each group were measured before and after intervention. Cesarean section was performed to terminate pregnancy on day 21, and the body weight and body length of fetal rats were compared among groups. Hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining was employed to observe the pathological changes of placenta. The expression of endothelin-1(ET-1) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase(eNOS) in placenta was detected by immunohistochemistry. The serum levels of ET-1 and nitric oxide(NO) were determined with corresponding kits. The expression of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3(LC3), Beclin-1, NOD-like receptor protein 3(NLRP3), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein with CARD domain(ASC), caspase-1, interleukin(IL)-1β, and IL-18 was determined by immunofluorescence and Western blot. The level of reactive oxygen species(ROS) in placenta was measured by fluorescence staining. The results showed that on day 12 of pregnancy, the blood pressure and 24 h-UP had no significant differences among groups. On days 15, 19, and 21, the blood pressure and 24 h-UP in the model group were higher than those in the control group(P<0.05). On days 19 and 21, the blood pressure and 24 h-UP in ARC group and RAP group were lower than those in the model group(P<0.05), and they were higher in the ARC+3-MA group than in the ARC group(P<0.05). On day 21, the model group had lower body weight and body length of fetal rats(P<0.05), higher serum level of ET-1, and lower serum level of NO(P<0.05) than the control group. Moreover, the placental tissue showed typical pathological damage, down-regulated expression of LC3-Ⅱ/LC3-Ⅰ, Beclin-1 and eNOS(P<0.05), up-regulated expression of ET-1, NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, IL-1β, and IL-18(P<0.05), and elevated ROS level. Compared with the model group, ARC and RAP groups showed increased body weight and body length of fetal rats(P<0.05), lowered serum level of ET-1, elevated serum level of NO(P<0.05), reduced pathological damage of placental tissue, up-regulated expression of LC3-Ⅱ/LC3-Ⅰ, Beclin-1, and eNOS(P<0.05), down-regulated expression of ET-1, NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, IL-1β, and IL-18(P<0.05), and lowered ROS level. Compared with ARC group, 3-MA reversed the effects of ARC on the above indicators. In conclusion, ARC can inhibit the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome and mitigate vascular endothelial damage in PIH rats by inducing autophagy of vascular endothelial cells.


Subject(s)
Female , Pregnancy , Animals , Rats , Humans , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced/drug therapy , Endothelial Cells , Inflammasomes , Interleukin-18 , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , Beclin-1 , Cesarean Section , Reactive Oxygen Species , Placenta , Caspase 1 , Autophagy
8.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1724-1730, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981389

ABSTRACT

Diabetic ulcer(DU) is a chronic and refractory ulcer which often occurs in the foot or lower limbs. It is a diabetic complication with high morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis of DU is complex, and the therapies(such as debridement, flap transplantation, and application of antibiotics) are also complex and have long cycles. DU patients suffer from great economic and psychological pressure while enduring pain. Therefore, it is particularly important to promote rapid wound healing, reduce disability and mortality, protect limb function, and improve the quality of life of DU patients. By reviewing the relevant literatures, we have found that autophagy can remove DU wound pathogens, reduce wound inflammation, and accelerate ulcer wound healing and tissue repair. The main autophagy-related factors microtubule-binding light chain protein 3(LC3), autophagy-specific gene Beclin-1, and ubiquitin-binding protein p62 mediate autophagy. The traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) treatment of DU mitigates clinical symptoms, accelerates ulcer wound healing, reduces ulcer recurrence, and delays further deterioration of DU. Furthermore, under the guidance of syndrome differentiation and treatment and the overall concept, TCM treatment harmonizes yin and yang, ameliorates TCM syndrome, and treats underlying diseases, thereby curing DU from the root. Therefore, this article reviews the role of autophagy and major related factors LC3, Beclin-1, and p62 in the healing of DU wounds and the intervention of TCM, aiming to provide reference for the clinical treatment of DU wounds and subsequent in-depth studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ulcer/therapy , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Beclin-1 , Quality of Life , Wound Healing , Diabetes Complications , Autophagy , Diabetic Foot/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/genetics
9.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2360-2367, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981312

ABSTRACT

This study explored the effect and underlying mechanism of Stellera chamaejasme extract(SCE) on multidrug resistance of breast cancer. The chemotherapy-sensitive breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and adriamycin(ADR)-resistant cell line MCF-7/ADR were used as experimental subjects. MTT assay was used to detect cell proliferation activity. Pi staining was used to detect the cell cycle. 4',6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole, dihydrochloride(DAPI) staining and flow cytometry were used to detect apoptosis. Dansylcadaverine(MDC) staining and GFP-LC3B-Mcherry adenovirus transfection were used to detect autophagy. The protein expression of Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-9, caspase-3, LC3B, p62, and Beclin-1 was detected by Western blot. The results showed that SCE could significantly inhibit the proliferation of both sensitive and resistant breast cancer cell lines. The drug resistance factor was 0.53, which was significantly lower than 59 of ADR. Meanwhile, the proportion of sensitive/resistant cells in the G_0/G_1 phase increased significantly after SCE treatment. In addition, DAPI staining showed that a series of apoptosis phenomena such as nuclear pyknosis, staining deepening, and nuclear fragmentation appeared in sensitive/resistant cell lines after SCE administration. Moreover, the results of flow cytometry double staining showed that the proportion of apoptotic cells in sensitive/resistant cell lines increased significantly after SCE administration. Besides, Western blot showed that the protein expression levels of caspase-3, caspase-9, and Bcl-2 significantly decreased and the expression level of Bax protein significantly increased in both breast cancer cell lines after SCE administration. Furthermore, SCE could also increase the positive fluorescent spots after MDC staining and yellow fluorescent spots after GFP-LC3B-mcherry transfection, and up-regulate the expression levels of autophagy-related proteins LC3B-Ⅱ, p62, and Beclin-1 in breast cancer cells. In summary, SCE may play the role of anti-multidrug resistance by blocking the cell cycle of breast cancer multidrug-resistant cells, blocking autophagy flow, and ultimately interfering with the apoptosis resistance of drug-resistant cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms/metabolism , MCF-7 Cells , Caspase 3/metabolism , Caspase 9/metabolism , Beclin-1/pharmacology , Apoptosis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Cell Proliferation
10.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2343-2351, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981310

ABSTRACT

This study explored the molecular mechanism of acteoside against hepatoma 22(H22) tumor in mice through c-Jun N-terminal kinase(JNK) signaling pathway. H22 cells were subcutaneously inoculated in 50 male BALB/c mice, and then the model mice were classified into model group, low-dose, medium-dose, and high-dose acteoside groups, and cisplatin group. The administration lasted 2 weeks for each group(5 consecutive days/week). The general conditions of mice in each group, such as mental status, diet intake, water intake, activity, and fur were observed. The body weight, tumor volume, tumor weight, and tumor-inhibiting rate were compared before and after administration. Morphological changes of liver cancer tissues were observed based on hematoxylin and eosin(HE) staining, and the expression of phosphorylated(p)-JNK, JNK, B-cell lymphoma-2(Bcl-2), Beclin-1, and light chain 3(LC3) in each tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. qRT-PCR was performed to detect the mRNA expression of JNK, Bcl-2, Beclin-1, and LC3. The general conditions of mice in model and low-dose acteoside groups were poor, while the general conditions of mice in the remaining three groups were improved. The body weight of mice in medium-dose acteoside group, high-dose acteoside group, and cisplatin group was smaller than that in model group(P<0.01). The tumor volume in model group was insignificantly different from that in low-dose acteoside group, and the volume in cisplatin group showed no significant difference from that in high-dose acteoside group. Tumor volume and weight in medium-dose and high-dose acteoside groups and cisplatin group were lower than those in the model group(P<0.001). The tumor-inhibiting rates were 10.72%, 40.32%, 53.79%, and 56.44% in the low-dose, medium-dose, and high-dose acteoside groups and cisplatin group, respectively. HE staining showed gradual decrease in the count of hepatoma cells and increasing sign of cell necrosis in the acteoside and cisplatin groups, and the necrosis was particularly obvious in the high-dose acteoside group and cisplatin group. Immunohistochemical results suggested that the expression of Beclin-1, LC3, p-JNK, and JNK was up-regulated in acteoside and cisplatin groups(P<0.05). The results of immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and qRT-PCR indicated that the expression of Bcl-2 was down-regulated in the medium-dose and high-dose acteoside groups and cisplatin group(P<0.01). Western blot showed that the expression of Beclin-1, LC3, and p-JNK was up-regulated in acteoside and cisplatin groups(P<0.01), and there was no difference in the expression of JNK among groups. qRT-PCR results showed that the levels of Beclin-1 and LC3 mRNA were up-regulated in the acteoside and cisplatin groups(P<0.05), and the level of JNK mRNA was up-regulated in medium-dose and high-dose acteoside groups and cisplatin group(P<0.001). Acteoside promotes apoptosis and autophagy of H22 cells in mice hepatoma cells by up-regulating the JNK signaling pathway, thus inhibiting tumor growth.


Subject(s)
Male , Animals , Mice , Cisplatin/pharmacology , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/genetics , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Beclin-1 , Apoptosis , Liver Neoplasms/genetics , Necrosis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Autophagy
11.
West China Journal of Stomatology ; (6): 260-268, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981122

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#This work aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of cyclic tensile stress (CTS) stimulating autophagy in human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs).@*METHODS@#hPDLCs were isolated and cultured from normal periodontal tissues. hPDLCs were loaded with tensile stress by force four-point bending extender to simulate the autophagy of hPDLCs induced by orthodontic force du-ring orthodontic tooth movement. XMU-MP-1 was used to inhibit the Hippo signaling pathway to explore the role of the Hippo-YAP signaling pathway in activating hPDLC autophagy by tensile stress. The expression levels of autophagy-related genes (Beclin-1, LC3, and p62) in hPDLCs were detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Western blot was used to detect the expression levels of autophagy-related proteins (Beclin-1, LC3-Ⅱ/LC3-Ⅰ, and p62) and Hippo-YAP pathway proteins (active-YAP and p-YAP) in hPDLCs. Immunofluorescence was used to locate autophagy-related proteins (LC3-Ⅱand p62) and Hippo-YAP pathway proteins (active-YAP) of hPDLCs.@*RESULTS@#CTS-activated autophagy in hPDLCs and expression of autophagy-related proteins initially increased and then decreased; it began to increase at 30 min, peaked at 3 h, and decreased (P<0.05). CTS increased the expression of active-YAP protein and decreased the expression of p-YAP protein (P<0.05). When XMU-MP-1 inhibited the Hippo-YAP signaling pathway (P<0.05), active-YAP protein was promoted to enter the nucleus and autophagy expression was enhanced (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The Hippo-YAP signaling pathway is involved in the regulation of autophagy activation in hPDLCs under CTS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hippo Signaling Pathway , Periodontal Ligament/metabolism , Beclin-1/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Autophagy
12.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 1279-1286, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007473

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To explore the effect mechanism of electroacupuncture (EA) on functional constipation (FC) at the combined lower he-sea and front-mu points of large intestine based on enteric neuronal autophagy.@*METHODS@#A total of 40 SPF Kunming mice were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 8), i.e. a control group, a model group, an acupuncture group, a 3-methyl adenine (3-MA) group, and a 3-MA + acupuncture group. Except the control group, the FC model was established by gavage with compound diphenoxylate suspension for 14 days in the other 4 groups. After successful modeling, the mice of the acupuncture group and the 3-MA + acupuncture group received EA at bilateral "Tianshu" (ST 25) and "Shangjuxu" (ST 37), stimulated for 30 min with disperse-dense wave, 2 Hz/15 Hz of frequency, 1 mA of intensity. EA was delivered once daily. One course of treatment was composed of 5 days and 2 courses were needed, with an interval of 2 days. An intraperitoneal injection of 3-MA (15 mg/kg) was administered 30 min before EA in the mice of the 3-MA group and the 3-MA + acupuncture group, once daily. Before and after intervention, the time of the first black stool defecation and defecation behaviors in 6 h were observed in each group. After intervention, in every group, the small intestine propulsion rate was calculated, the colon tissue morphology was observed using HE staining, the ultrastructure of enteric neuronal autophagy was observed under transmission electron microscope, and the expressions of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3), Beclin-1 and neuronal nuclear antigen protein (NeuN) in neurons of colonic muscularis were determined by immunohistochemistry.@*RESULTS@#Before intervention, when compared with those in the control group, the time of the first black stool defecation was prolonged (P<0.01, P<0.05), and numbers (P<0.01), wet weight (P<0.01, P<0.05) and water content (P<0.05, P<0.01) of stool in 6 h were reduced in the model, acupuncture, 3-MA and 3-MA + acupuncture groups. After intervention, compared with those in the control group, the time of the first black stool defecation was longer (P<0.05), and numbers (P<0.01), wet weight (P<0.01) and water content (P<0.01) of stool in 6 h were decreased in the model group. The time of the first black stool defecation was shortened (P<0.01), and numbers (P<0.01), wet weight (P<0.01) and water content (P<0.01) of stool in 6 h were increased in the acupuncture group when compared with those in the model group. The time of the first black stool defecation was extended (P<0.01), and numbers (P<0.01), wet weight (P<0.01) and water content (P<0.01) of stool in 6 h were declined in the 3-MA + acupuncture group in comparison with those in the acupuncture group. All layers of colon tissue were normal and intact in each group. When compared with the control group, the small intestine propulsion rate and the average optical density (OD) values of LC3, Beclin-1 and NeuN in neurons of colonic muscularis were decreased (P<0.01), and autophagosomes were dropped in the model group. In the acupuncture group, the small intestine propulsion rate and the average OD values of NeuN, LC3 and Beclin-1 in neurons of colonic muscularis increased (P<0.01,P<0.05), and autophagosomes were elevated when compared with those in the model group. The small intestine propulsion rate and the average OD values of NeuN, LC3 and Beclin-1 in neurons of colonic muscularis were dropped (P<0.05,P<0.01) in the 3-MA + acupuncture group in comparison with those in the acupuncture group.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Electroacupuncture may promote enteric neuronal autophagy and increase the number of neurons so that the intestinal motility can be improved and constipation symptoms can be relieved in FC mice.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Electroacupuncture , Beclin-1 , Acupuncture Points , Constipation/therapy , Intestine, Small , Autophagy , Water
13.
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 1136-1141, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009200

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore pro-oxidative state of rotator cuff tissue and expression levels of Beclin-1 and mam-malian target of rapamycin(mTOR) in patients with acute and chronic rotator cuff injury, and then analyzed relationship between rotator cuff injury and oxidative stress and autophagy.@*METHODS@#Forty patients with rotator cuff injury were seleceted from July 2019 to December 2020, and divided into male chronic injury group, male acute injury group, female chronic injury group, and female acute injury group, 10 patients in each group. All patients were performed rotator cuff repair under arthroscopy. The sample of tendon at the rotator cuff injury site of the patient was taken during operation, and total reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide dismutase(SOD) were detected by detection kit;expression of Beclin-1 and mTOR mRNA were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and Western-blot was applied to detect protein expression of Beclin-1 and p-mTOR/mTOR.@*RESULTS@#There were no significant difference in expression of ROS, SOD, Beclin-1mRNA and mTOR mRNA between male and female chronic injury groups, and between male and female acute injury groups (P>0.05); ROS, SOD and Beclin-1mRNA in male chronic injury group were higher than those in male chronic injury group, while mTOR mRNAand protein decreased (P<0.05);ROS, SOD and Beclin-1 mRNA in female chronic injury group were up-regulated compared with female acute injury group, while mTOR mRNA was down-regulated (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Chronic rotator cuff injury is more likely to stimulate the pro-oxidation state of rotator cuff tissue than acute rotator cuff injury, which could up-regulating expression of autophagy factor Beclin-1 and down-regulating expression of mTOR. Therefore, patients with chronic rotator cuff injury may have higher levels of oxidative stress and autophagy.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Beclin-1/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Rotator Cuff/surgery , Rotator Cuff Injuries/surgery , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
14.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5278-5284, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008725

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the effect and mechanism of saikosaponin D on the proliferation, apoptosis, and autophagy of pancreatic cancer Panc-1 cells. The cell counting kit(CCK-8) was used to examine the effects of 7, 10, 13, 16, 19, 22, 25, and 28 μmol·L~(-1) saikosaponin D on the proliferation of Panc-1 cells. Three groups including the control(0 μmol·L~(-1)), low-concentration(10 μmol·L~(-1)) saikosaponin D, and high-concentration(16 μmol·L~(-1)) saikosaponin D groups were designed. The colony formation assay was employed to measure the effect of saikosaponin D on the colony formation rate of Panc-1 cells. The cells treated with saikosaponin D were stained with hematoxylin-eosin(HE), and the changes of cell morphology were observed. Hoechst 33258 fluorescent staining was used to detect the effect of saikosaponin D on the cell apoptosis. The autophagy staining assay kit with MDC was used to examine the effect of saikosaponin D on the autophagy of Panc-1 cells. Western blot and immunocytochemistry(ICC) were employed to examine the effect of saikosaponin D on the expression levels and distribution of B-cell lymphoma-2(Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein(Bax), cysteine-aspartic acid protease-3(caspase-3), cleaved caspase-3, autophagy-associated protein Beclin1, microtubule-associated protein light chain 3(LC3), protein kinase B(Akt), phosphorylated protein kinase B(p-Akt), mammalian target of rapamycin(mTOR), and phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin(p-mTOR). The results showed that compared with the control group, saikosaponin D decreased the proliferation rate of Panc-1 cells in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. The colony formation rate of the cells significantly decreased after saikosaponin D treatment. Compared with the control group, the cells treated with saikosaponin D became small, accompanied by the formation of apoptotic bodies. The saikosaponin D groups showed increased apoptosis rate and autophagic vesicle accumulation. Compared with the control group, saikosaponin D up-regulated the expression of Bax, cleaved caspase3, Beclin1, LC3Ⅱ/LC3Ⅰ and down-regulated the expression of Bcl-2, caspase-3, p-Akt/Akt, and p-mTOR/mTOR. In addition, these proteins mainly existed in the cytoplasm. In conclusion, saikosaponin D can inhibit the proliferation and induce the apoptosis and autophagy of Panc-1 cells via inhibiting the Akt/mTOR pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/genetics , Caspase 3 , bcl-2-Associated X Protein , Beclin-1/pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics , Apoptosis , Pancreatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Caspases , Autophagy
15.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5271-5277, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008724

ABSTRACT

This study explored the protective effect of astragaloside Ⅳ(AS-Ⅳ) on oxygen-glucose deprivation(OGD)-induced autophagic injury in PC12 cells and its underlying mechanism. An OGD-induced autophagic injury model in vitro was established in PC12 cells. The cells were divided into a normal group, an OGD group, low-, medium-, and high-dose AS-Ⅳ groups, and a positive drug dexmedetomidine(DEX) group. Cell viability was measured using the MTT assay. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe autophagosomes and autolysosomes, and the MDC staining method was used to assess the fluorescence intensity of autophagosomes. Western blot was conducted to determine the relative expression levels of functional proteins LC3-Ⅱ/LC3-Ⅰ, Beclin1, p-Akt/Akt, p-mTOR/mTOR, and HIF-1α. Compared with the normal group, the OGD group exhibited a significant decrease in cell viability(P<0.01), an increase in autophagosomes(P<0.01), enhanced fluorescence intensity of autophagosomes(P<0.01), up-regulated Beclin1, LC3-Ⅱ/LC3-Ⅰ, and HIF-1α(P<0.05 or P<0.01), and down-regulated p-Akt/Akt and p-mTOR/mTOR(P<0.05 or P<0.01). Compared with the OGD group, the low-and medium-dose AS-Ⅳ groups and the DEX group showed a significant increase in cell viability(P<0.01), decreased autophagosomes(P<0.01), weakened fluorescence intensity of autophagosomes(P<0.01), down-regulated Beclin1, LC3-Ⅱ/LC3-Ⅰ, and HIF-1α(P<0.05 or P<0.01), and up-regulated p-Akt/Akt and p-mTOR/mTOR(P<0.01). AS-Ⅳ at low and medium doses exerted a protective effect against OGD-induced autophagic injury in PC12 cells by activating the Akt/mTOR pathway, subsequently influencing HIF-1α. The high-dose AS-Ⅳ group did not show a statistically significant difference compared with the OGD group. This study provides a certain target reference for the prevention and treatment of OGD-induced cellular autophagic injury by AS-Ⅳ and accumulates laboratory data for the secondary development of Astragali Radix and AS-Ⅳ.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , PC12 Cells , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/genetics , Glucose/therapeutic use , Oxygen/metabolism , Beclin-1/pharmacology , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Autophagy , Apoptosis , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy
16.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 633-637, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982645

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate whether hydrogen-rich water exerts a protective effect against cellular injury by affecting the level of autophagy after oxygen glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) in a mouse hippocampal neuronal cell line (HT22 cells).@*METHODS@#HT22 cells in logarithmic growth phase were cultured in vitro. Cell viability was detected by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay to find the optimal concentration of Na2S2O4. HT22 cells were divided into control group (NC group), OGD/R group (sugar-free medium+10 mmol/L Na2S2O4 treated for 90 minutes and then changed to normal medium for 4 hours) and hydrogen-rich water treatment group (HW group, sugar-free medium+10 mmol/L Na2S2O4 treated for 90 minutes and then changed to medium containing hydrogen-rich water for 4 hours). The morphology of HT22 cells was observed by inverted microscopy; cell activity was detected by CCK-8 method; cell ultrastructure was observed by transmission electron microscopy; the expression of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and Beclin-1 was detected by immunofluorescence; the protein expression of LC3II/I and Beclin-1, markers of cellular autophagy, was detected by Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#Inverted microscopy showed that compared with the NC group, the OGD/R group had poor cell status, swollen cytosol, visible cell lysis fragments and significantly lower cell activity [(49.1±2.7)% vs. (100.0±9.7)%, P < 0.01]; compared with the OGD/R group, the HW group had improved cell status and remarkably higher cell activity [(63.3±1.8)% vs. (49.1±2.7)%, P < 0.01]. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the neuronal nuclear membrane of cells in the OGD/R group was lysed and a higher number of autophagic lysosomes were visible compared with the NC group; compared with the OGD/R group, the neuronal damage of cells in the HW group was reduced and the number of autophagic lysosomes was notably decreased. The results of immunofluorescence assay showed that the expressions of LC3 and Beclin-1 were outstandingly enhanced in the OGD/R group compared with the NC group, and the expressions of LC3 and Beclin-1 were markedly weakened in the HW group compared with the OGD/R group. Western blotting assay showed that the expressions were prominently higher in both LC3II/I and Beclin-1 in the OGD/R group compared with the NC group (LC3II/I: 1.44±0.05 vs. 0.37±0.03, Beclin-1/β-actin: 1.00±0.02 vs. 0.64±0.01, both P < 0.01); compared with the OGD/R group, the protein expression of both LC3II/I and Beclin-1 in the HW group cells were notably lower (LC3II/I: 0.54±0.02 vs. 1.44±0.05, Beclin-1/β-actin: 0.83±0.07 vs. 1.00±0.02, both P < 0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Hydrogen-rich water has a significant protective effect on OGD/R-causing HT22 cell injury, and the mechanism may be related to the inhibition of autophagy.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Oxygen/metabolism , Beclin-1/pharmacology , Glucose/metabolism , Actins , Sincalide , Autophagy/physiology , Hydrogen/pharmacology , Reperfusion Injury , Apoptosis
17.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 627-632, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982644

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of tanshinone IIA on apoptosis and autophagy induced by hypoxia/reoxygenation in H9C2 cardiomyocytes and its mechanism.@*METHODS@#H9C2 cardiomyocytes in logarithmic growth phase were divided into control group, hypoxia/reoxygenation model group and tanshinone IIA low-dose, medium-dose and high-dose groups (50, 100, 200 mg/L tanshinone IIA were treated after hypoxia/reoxygenation respectively). The dose with good therapeutic effect was selected for follow-up study. The cells were divided into control group, hypoxia/reoxygenation model group, tanshinone IIA+pcDNA3.1-NC group and tanshinone IIA+pcDNA3.1-ABCE1 group. The cells were transfected with the overexpressed plasmids pcDNA3.1-ABCE1 and pcDNA3.1-NC and then treated accordingly. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) was used to detect H9C2 cell activity in each group. The apoptosis rate of cardiomyocytes was detected by flow cytometry. The ATP-binding cassette transporter E1 (ABCE1), apoptosis-related proteins Bcl-2 and Bax, caspase-3, autophagy-related proteins Beclin-1, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3II/I) and p62 mRNA expression level of H9C2 cells in each group were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The protein expression levels of the above indexes in H9C2 cells were detected by Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#(1) Cell activity and ABCE1 expression: tanshinone IIA inhibited the activity of H9C2 cells induced by hypoxia/reoxygenation, and the effect was significant at medium-dose [(0.95±0.05)% vs. (0.37±0.10)%, P < 0.01], mRNA and protein expression of ABCE1 were significantly reduced [ABCE1 mRNA (2-ΔΔCt): 2.02±0.13 vs. 3.74±0.17, ABCE1 protein (ABCE1/GAPDH): 0.46±0.04 vs. 0.68±0.07, both P < 0.05]. (2) Expression of apoptosis-related proteins: medium-dose of tanshinone IIA inhibited the apoptosis of H9C2 cells induced by hypoxia/reoxygenation [apoptosis rate: (28.26±2.52)% vs. (45.27±3.07)%, P < 0.05]. Compared with the hypoxia/reoxygenation model group, medium-dose of tanshinone IIA significantly down-regulated the protein expression of Bax and caspase-3 in H9C2 cells induced by hypoxia/reoxygenation, and significantly up-regulated the protein expression of Bcl-2 [Bax (Bax/GAPDH): 0.28±0.03 vs. 0.47±0.03, caspase-3 (caspase-3/GAPDH): 0.31±0.02 vs. 0.44±0.03, Bcl-2 (Bcl-2/GAPDH): 0.53±0.02 vs. 0.37±0.05, all P < 0.05]. (3) Expression of autophagy-related proteins: compared with the control group, the positive rate of LC3 in the hypoxia/reoxygenation model group was significantly increased, while the positive rate of LC3 in the medium-dose of tanshinone IIA group was significantly decreased [(20.67±3.09)% vs. (42.67±3.86)%, P < 0.01]. Compared with hypoxia/reoxygenation model group, medium-dose of tanshinone IIA significantly down-regulated Beclin-1, LC3II/I and p62 protein expressions [Beclin-1 (Beclin-1/GAPDH): 0.27±0.05 vs. 0.47±0.03, LC3II/I ratio: 0.24±0.05 vs. 0.47±0.04, p62 (p62/GAPDH): 0.21±0.03 vs. 0.48±0.02, all P < 0.05]. (4) Expression of apoptosis and autophagy related proteins after transfection with overexpressed ABCE1 plasmid: compared with tanshinone IIA+pcDNA3.1-NC group, the protein expression levels of Bax, caspase-3, Beclin-1, LC3II/I and p62 in tanshinone IIA+pcDNA3.1-ABCE1 group were significantly up-regulated, while the protein expression level of Bcl-2 was significantly down-regulated.@*CONCLUSIONS@#100 mg/L tanshinone IIA could inhibit autophagy and apoptosis of cardiomyocytes by regulating the expression level of ABCE1. So, it protects H9C2 cardiomyocytes injury induced by hypoxia/reoxygenation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Apoptosis , ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters/metabolism , Autophagy , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism , Beclin-1/metabolism , Caspase 3/metabolism , Follow-Up Studies , Myocytes, Cardiac , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Cell Hypoxia
18.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 381-386, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982598

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of gene of phosphate and tension homology (PTEN)-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1)/Parkin pathway on hippocampal mitophagy and cognitive function in mice with sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) and its possible mechanism.@*METHODS@#A total of 80 male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into Sham group, cecal ligation puncture (CLP) group, PINK1 plasmid transfection pretreatment groups (p-PINK1+Sham group, p-PINK1+CLP group), empty vector plasmid transfection control group (p-vector+CLP group), with 16 mice in each group. The mice in CLP groups were treated with CLP to reproduce SAE models. The mice in the Sham groups were performed laparotomy only. Animals in the p-PINK1+Sham and p-PINK1+CLP groups were transfected with PINK1 plasmid through the lateral ventricle at 24 hours before surgery, while mice in the p-vector+CLP group were transfected with the empty plasmid. Morris water maze experiment was performed 7 days after CLP. The hippocampal tissues were collected, the pathological changes were observed under a light microscope after hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, and the mitochondrial autophagy was observed under a transmission electron microscopy after uranyl acetate and lead citrate staining. The expressions of PINK1, Parkin, Beclin1, interleukins (IL-6, IL-1β) and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) were detected by Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the Sham group, CLP group mice in Morris water maze experiment had longer escape latency, shorter target quadrant residence time, and fewer times of crossing the platform at 1-4 days. Under the light microscope, the hippocampal structure of the mouse was injured, the neuronal cells were arranged in disorder, and the nuclei were pyknotic. Under the electron microscope, the mitochondria appeared swollen, round, and wrapped by bilayer or multilayer membrane structures. Compared with the Sham group, CLP group had higher expressions of PINK1, Parkin, Beclin1, LC3II/LC3I ratio, IL-6 and IL-1β in hippocampus, indicating that sepsis induced by CLP could activated inflammatory response and caused PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy. Compared with the CLP group, p-PINK1+CLP group had shorter escape latencies, spent more time in the target quadrant and had more number of crossings in the target quadrant at 1-4 days. Under the light microscope, the hippocampal structures of mice was destroyed, the neurons were arranged disorderly, and the nuclei were pyknotic. Under transmission electron microscope, swollen and rounded mitochondria and mitochondrial structure wrapped by double membrane or multilayer membrane structure were observed. Compared with the CLP group, the levels of PINK1, Parkin, Beclin1 and LC3II/LC3 ratio in the p-PINK1+CLP group were significantly increased [PINK1 protein (PINK1/β-actin): 1.95±0.17 vs. 1.74±0.15, Parkin protein (Parkin/β-actin): 2.06±0.11 vs. 1.78±0.12, Beclin1 protein (Beclin1/β-actin): 2.11±0.12 vs. 1.67±0.10, LC3II/LC3I ratio: 3.63±0.12 vs. 2.27±0.10, all P < 0.05], while the levels of IL-6 and IL-1β were significantly decreased [IL-6 protein (IL-6/β-actin): 1.69±0.09 vs. 2.00±0.11, IL-1β protein (IL-1β/β-actin): 1.11±0.12 vs. 1.65±0.12, both P < 0.05], suggesting that overexpression of PINK1 protein could further activate mitophagy and reduce the inflammatory response caused by sepsis. There was no statistically significant difference in the above pathological changes and related indicators between Sham group and p-PINK1+Sham group, CLP group and p-vector+CLP group.@*CONCLUSIONS@#PINK1 overexpression can further activate CLP-induced mitophagy by upregulating Parkin, thereby inhibiting inflammation response and alleviate cognitive function impairment in SAE mice.


Subject(s)
Male , Animals , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Sepsis-Associated Encephalopathy , Phosphates , Actins , Beclin-1 , Interleukin-6 , Autophagy , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases , Cognitive Dysfunction , Sepsis , Mitochondria , Protein Kinases
19.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 459-469, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982299

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate autophagy-related mechanisms of electroacupuncture (EA) action in improving gastrointestinal motility in mice with functional constipation (FC).@*METHODS@#According to a random number table, the Kunming mice were divided into the normal control, FC and EA groups in Experiment I. The autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) was used to observe whether it antagonized the effects of EA in Experiment II. An FC model was established by diphenoxylate gavage. Then the mice were treated with EA stimulation at Tianshu (ST 25) and Shangjuxu (ST 37) acupoints. The first black stool defecation time, the number, weight, and water content of 8-h feces, and intestinal transit rate were used to assess intestinal transit. Colonic tissues underwent histopathological assessment, and the expressions of autophagy markers microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and Beclin-1 were detected by immunohistochemical staining. The expressions of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K)-protein kinase B (AKT)-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway members were investigated by Western blot and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The relationship between enteric glial cells (EGCs) and autophagy was observed by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, localization analysis, and electron microscopy.@*RESULTS@#EA treatment shortened the first black stool defecation time, increased the number, weight, and water content of 8-h feces, and improved the intestinal transit rate in FC mice (P<0.01). In terms of a putative autophagy mechanism, EA treatment promoted the expressions of LC3 and Beclin-1 proteins in the colonic tissue of FC mice (P<0.05), with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and LC3 significantly colocalized. Furthermore, EA promoted colonic autophagy in FC mice by inhibiting PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The positive effect of EA on intestinal motility in FC mice was blocked by 3-MA.@*CONCLUSION@#EA treatment can inhibit PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling in the colonic tissues of FC mice, thereby promoting EGCs autophagy to improve intestinal motility.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Electroacupuncture , Beclin-1 , Signal Transduction , Constipation/therapy , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Autophagy , Neuroglia/metabolism , Mammals/metabolism
20.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 294-299, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971528

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of SINC, a secreted protein of Chlamydia psittaci, on autophagy of host cells and the role of MAPK/ERK signaling pathway in mediating SINC-induced autophagy.@*METHODS@#RAW 264.7 cells treated with recombinant SINC were examined for changes in expression levels of LC3-II, Beclin-1, phosphorylated and total ERK1/2 using Western blotting. The expression level of LC3 in the treated cells was detected using immunofluorescence analysis, and the formation of autophagosomes and autolysosomes was observed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effect of pretreatment with U0126 (a specific ERK inhibitor) on the expression levels of LC3-II and Beclin-1 in RAW 264.7 cells exposed to different concentrations of SINC was examined using Western blotting, and LC3 puncta in the cells was detected with immunofluorescence analysis.@*RESULTS@#The expression levels of LC3-II and Beclin-1 were the highest in RAW 264.7 cells treated with 2 μg/mL SINC for 12h. Immunofluorescence analysis showed exposure to SINC significantly increased the number of cells containing LC3 puncta, where the presence of autophagosomes and autolysosomes was detected. Exposure to 2 μg/mL SINC for 15 min resulted in the most significant increase of the ratios of p-ERK1/2/ERK1/2 in RAW 264.7 cells. Pretreatment of the cells with U0126 prior to SINC exposure significantly decreased the ratio of p-ERK1/2/ERK1/2, lowered the expression levels of LC3-II and Beclin-1, and decreased LC3 aggregation in the cells.@*CONCLUSIONS@#SINC exposure can induce autophagy in RAW 264.7 cells by activating the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
MAP Kinase Signaling System , Chlamydophila psittaci , Beclin-1 , Signal Transduction , Autophagy
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL