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1.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 23: e200005, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092620

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Introduction: In the American continent, accidents caused by honeybees are a public health problem due to the high incidence and severity of the cases. Despite its medical importance, there are few epidemiological studies on this topic in Brazil, especially referring to the Northeastern states. The present study aims to describe the epidemiological features of honeybee envenomation cases in the state of the Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil, from 2007 to 2014. Methods: Data were collected from the Notifiable Diseases Information System database of the Health Department of Rio Grande do Norte. Results: We analyzed a total of 2,168 cases. Cases occurred in all months of the years studied, reaching higher frequencies from June to October. Most incidents happened in urban areas and involved men, with victims aged between 20 and 39 years. Victims were mainly stung on the head and hand, and they received medical care predominantly within 3 hours after the injury. Local manifestations were more frequent than systemic ones. Clinically, most cases were mild and progressed to cure. Conclusion: The high number of honeybee sting cases shows that Rio Grande do Norte may be an important risk area for such injury.


RESUMO: Introdução: No continente americano, os acidentes causados por abelhas são um problema de saúde pública devido à alta incidência e severidade dos casos. Apesar de sua importância médica, há poucos estudos epidemiológicos sobre esse tema no Brasil, especialmente referentes aos estados do Nordeste. O presente estudo tem como objetivo descrever as características epidemiológicas dos casos de envenenamento por abelhas no estado do Rio Grande do Norte, no Nordeste do Brasil, de 2007 a 2014. Metodologia: Os dados foram coletados da base de dados do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação da Secretaria Estadual de Saúde do Rio Grande do Norte. Resultados: Um total de 2.168 casos foram analisados. Os casos mostraram distribuição em todos os meses dos anos estudados, com maior frequência de junho a outubro. A maioria dos casos ocorreu em áreas urbanas e envolveu homens, com vítimas entre 20 e 39 anos de idade. As vítimas foram principalmente picadas na cabeça e na mão, e receberam assistência médica predominantemente dentro de 3 horas após serem picadas. As manifestações locais eram mais frequentes do que as sistêmicas. Clinicamente, a maioria dos casos foi leve e progrediu para cura. Conclusão: O alto número casos de picadas de abelhas mostra que o Rio Grande do Norte pode ser uma importante área de risco para tal incidente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Bee Venoms/poisoning , Bees , Insect Bites and Stings/epidemiology , Seasons , Time Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Risk Factors , Analysis of Variance , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Spatial Analysis , Insect Bites and Stings/complications , Middle Aged
2.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180418, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041510

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: We evaluated the epidemiological and clinical profile of reported cases of bee sting incidents in Santa Catarina, Brazil. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included all reported cases of bee sting incidents among the population of Santa Catarina from 2007 to 2017. RESULTS: In total, 8,912 cases were reported, corresponding to an overall rate of 12.3/100,000 population. The mean age was 29,8 years with 60.2% men. The lethality rate was 0.2%. CONCLUSIONS: Santa Catarina has a high incidence rate of bee stings, which is higher than the national average. The data presented in this study may be underestimated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Bee Venoms/poisoning , Bees , Insect Bites and Stings/mortality , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Disease Notification , Spatial Analysis , Middle Aged
3.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(4): 560-562, July-Aug. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-957438

ABSTRACT

Abstract Accidents related to Africanized honey bees are growing globally and are associated with multiple stings owing to the aggressive behavior of this species. The massive inoculation of venom causes skin necrosis and rhabdomyolysis leading to renal failure. Anaphylactic manifestations are more common and are treated using well-defined treatment protocols. However, bee venom-induced toxic reactions may be serious and require a different approach. We report the case of a 3-year-old child, which would help clinicians to focus on the treatment approach required after an incident involving multiple bee stings.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Rhabdomyolysis/etiology , Bee Venoms/poisoning , Bees , Eye Infections/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Insect Bites and Stings/complications
4.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-842778

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Bee stings can cause severe reactions and have caused many victims in the last years. Allergic reactions can be triggered by a single sting and the greater the number of stings, the worse the prognosis. The poisoning effects can be systemic and can eventually cause death. The poison components are melitin, apamin, peptide 401, phospholipase A2, hyaluronidase, histamine, dopamine, and norepinephrine, with melitin being the main lethal component. Acute kidney injury (AKI) can be observed in patients suffering from bee stings and this is due to multiple factors, such as intravascular hemolysis, rhabdomyolysis, hypotension and direct toxicity of the venom components to the renal tubules. Arterial hypotension plays an important role in this type of AKI, leading to ischemic renal lesion. The most commonly identified biopsy finding in these cases is acute tubular necrosis, which can occur due to both, ischemic injury and the nephrotoxicity of venom components. Hemolysis and rhabdomyolysis reported in many cases in the literature, were demonstrated by elevated serum levels of indirect bilirubin and creatine kinase. The severity of AKI seems to be associated with the number of stings, since creatinine levels were higher, in most cases, when there were more than 1,000 stings. The aim of this study is to present an updated review of AKI associated with bee stings, including the currently advised clinical approach.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Bee Venoms/poisoning , Bees , Insect Bites and Stings/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/physiopathology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Bee Venoms/chemistry
5.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 55(1): 61-64, Jan.-Feb. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-661104

ABSTRACT

Envenoming syndrome from Africanized bee stings is a toxic syndrome caused by the inoculation of large amounts of venom from multiple bee stings, generally more than five hundred. The incidence of severe toxicity from Africanized bee stings is rare but deadly. This report reveals that because of the small volume of distribution, having fewer stings does not exempt a patient from experiencing an unfavorable outcome, particularly in children, elderly people or underweight people.


A síndrome de envenenamento por ferroadas de abelhas africanizadas é causada pela inoculação de uma grande quantidade de peçonha por múltiplas ferroadas de abelhas, geralmente acima de quinhentas. A incidência de uma intoxicação severa por ferroadas de abelhas africanizadas é rara, porém letal. Este relato de caso aponta que, devido a um menor volume de distribuição do veneno, um número menor de ferroadas por abelhas africanizadas não exime o paciente de apresentar envenenamentos com desfecho desfavorável, principalmente em crianças, idosos e pessoas com baixo peso.


Subject(s)
Aged , Animals , Humans , Male , Bees , Bee Venoms/poisoning , Insect Bites and Stings/complications , Insect Bites and Stings/therapy , Syndrome
6.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 44(6): 755-761, Nov.-Dec. 2011. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-611758

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In 1956, Africanized honeybees (AHB) migrated from Brazil to other regions of the Western Hemisphere, including South, Central, and North America, except for Canada. Despite being productive, they are highly aggressive and cause fatal accidents. This study aimed to evaluate patients at the Clinical Hospital of Botucatu Medical School (HC-FMB) and to propose treatment guidelines. METHODS: From 2005 to 2006, the clinical and laboratorial aspects of 11 patients (7 male and 4 female) and the anatomopathological aspects of one patient who had died in 2003 were analyzed. RESULTS: The age of the surviving patients varied from 5 to 87 years, with a mean of 42.5 years. The majority of accidents occurred in the afternoon, and the number of stings ranged from 20 to 500. The principal signs and symptoms were pain and local inflammatory signs, nausea, tachycardia, and vomiting. Biochemical findings presented increased levels of creatine phosphokinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and aspartate/alanine aminotransferase. An 11-year-old male patient died upon entering the attic of a two-storey building where he was attacked by a swarm, receiving more than 1,000 stings. He was sent to HC-FMB where he was treated, but he died 24h later. Observed at the autopsy were erythematous-purpuric skin lesions besides necrosis at the sting locations, rhabdomyolysis, focal myocardial necrosis, tubular hydropic degeneration and focal tubular acute necrosis of the kidneys, myoglobinuria, and centrolobular necrosis in the liver. CONCLUSIONS: Accidents caused by multiple AHB stings always constitute a medical emergency. As there is no specific antivenom, we have developed guidelines, including first aid, drugs, and the proper removal of stingers.


INTRODUÇÃO: As abelhas africanizadas (AHBs) migraram do Brasil em 1956 para todo o continente Americano. Apesar de produtivas, são agressivas causando acidentes fatais. O objetivo foi avaliar pacientes atendidos no Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu (HC-FMB) e propor um roteiro de tratamento. MÉTODOS: Entre 2005 e 2006, foram analisados os aspectos clínicos e laboratoriais de 11 pacientes e anatomopatológicos de um que foi a óbito em 2003. RESULTADOS: A idade dos pacientes variou entre 5 e 87 com média de 42,5 anos. Sete eram do sexo masculino e quatro do feminino. O número de picadas variou entre 20 e 500. Nove deles receberam mais de 50 picadas. Os principais sinais e sintomas foram dor local, náuseas, taquicardia e vômitos. Os exames hematológicos mostraram leucocitose, neutrofilia, anemia e desvio à esquerda escalonado. Os exames bioquímicos revelaram níveis elevados de creatinofosfoquinase, desidrogenase lática e aspartato/alanina aminotransferase. O paciente que foi a óbito 24h após o atendimento tinha 11 anos, era do sexo masculino e foi atacado ao adentrar um edifício de dois andares recebendo mais de 1.000 picadas. O exame anatomopatológico mostrou lesões eritemato-purpúricas, além de necrose nos locais das picadas. Apresentou também rabdomiólise, necroses focais do miocárdio, degeneração hidrópica acompanhada de necrose tubular renal aguda, mioglobinúria e necrose centrolobular no fígado. CONCLUSÕES: Os pacientes acometidos por múltiplas picadas necessitam de tratamento imediato e por não dispormos de um soro específico desenvolvemos um roteiro que inclui os primeiros socorros, as drogas a serem empregadas e a retirada dos ferrões corretamente.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Bees , Bee Venoms/poisoning , Insect Bites and Stings/therapy , Brazil , Bees/classification , Clinical Protocols , Insect Bites and Stings/complications , Insect Bites and Stings/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
7.
Acta toxicol. argent ; 16(2): 27-32, dic. 2008. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-564747

ABSTRACT

Menos del 5% de las 20.000 especies estimadas de abejas son sociales y, por lo tanto, pueden producirse ataques masivos o generarse situaciones de riesgo al enjambrar o construir panalescerca o en el interior de domicilios. El veneno de abejas está constituido por una mezcla de substancias con proteínas, siendo las principales enzimas, péptidos y aminas biogénicas. Estas proteínas poseen acciones farmacológicas y alergénicas capaces de provocar cuadros de envenenamiento en el humano y en animales. Se describe el caso clínico de un agricultor que sufrió picaduras por más de 500 abejas con desenlace fatal. Además, se realiza una breve revisión de la literatura sobre el tema.


Less than 5% of the estimated 20,000 species of bees are social, and therefore massive attacks might occur or situations of risk could be generated when swarming to build hives near or inside homes. Bee venom consists of a mixture of substances, mainly protein enzymes, peptides and biogenic amines, these proteins have pharmacological actions and allergens can induce boxes poisoning in humans and animals. We describe the case of a farmer who suffered more than 500 stings by bees with a fatal outcome. In addition, a brief review of the literature is presented.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Animals , Aged , Anaphylaxis/complications , Anaphylaxis/physiopathology , Anaphylaxis/chemically induced , Bees , Insect Bites and Stings/mortality , Bee Venoms/poisoning , Hypotension , Hymenoptera/immunology , Hypersensitivity/etiology , Hypersensitivity/therapy
8.
Gaz. homeopática ; 1(1): 16-22, jul.-set. 1986. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-87368

ABSTRACT

Apis mellifica representa, sem duvida, um dos mais impor-tantes medicamentos homeopaticos e deve, como todos os demais, ser muito bem co-nhecido. O objetivo deste artigo e apresentar, em forma telegrafica, nao so os aspectos mais importantes da patogenesia deste medicamento como tambem aspectos de toxicologia relacionados ao veneno da abelha que certamente serao de grande valia para a compreensao deste policresto


Subject(s)
Apis mellifica/poisoning , Bee Venoms/analysis , Bee Venoms/poisoning
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