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1.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 29(3): 1-12, 2022-08-18. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1399357

ABSTRACT

Background: Bee pollen is a natural product collected and transformed by bees, intended for human consumption, given its nutritional and bioactive richness. The fundamental operation of adequacy is drying, which allows its preservation, avoiding chemical or microbiological degradation, typically using tray dryers with hot air that use electricity or fuel for heat generation. Solar drying is an alternative that uses radiation as an energy source. However, it should be ensured that this type of process guarantees the quality of the product while not degrading its properties and, therefore, maintaining its morphological integrity. Objective: to establish the effect of solar drying on bee pollen structure compared to the conventional cabin dehydration process. Methods: Bee pollen was dehydrated using two types of dryers: a solar dryer and a forced convection oven. The solar dryer operating conditions were an average temperature of 19-35 °C with a maximum of 38 °C and average relative humidity (RH) of 55 %. Cabin dryer operating conditions were a set point temperature of 55 ± 2 °C and 10 % RH average humidity. The morphologic and thermodynamic properties of dried bee pollen, such as phase transition enthalpy through Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), porosity and surface area through surface area analysis, and microscopic surface appearance by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), were measured. Results: The results showed dry bee pollen, both in the cabin dryer and solar dryer, did not suffer morphological changes seen through SEM compared to fresh bee pollen. Moreover, surface area analysis indicated the absence of porosity in the microscopic or macroscopic structure, demonstrating that solar or cabin drying processes did not affect the specific surface area concerning fresh bee pollen. Additionally, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) showed that endothermic phase transitions for dried bee pollen by cabin or solar dryer were at 145 °C and 160 °C, respectively. This can be mostly associated with free water loss due to the morphological structure preservation of the material compared to fresh bee pollen. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that solar drying is a reliable alternative to bee pollen dehydration as there were no effects that compromised its structural integrity


Antecedentes: El polen apícola es un producto natural recolectado y transformado por las abejas. La operación fundamental de adecuación del polen es el secado, lo que permite su conservación, evitando su degradación química o microbiológica, típicamente se utilizan secadores de bandejas con aire caliente que emplean electricidad o combustibles para la generación de calor. El secado solar es una alternativa que utiliza la radiación solar como fuente de energía. Sin embargo, se debe garantizar que este tipo de proceso asegure la calidad del producto a la vez que no degrade sus propiedades, manteniendo su integridad morfológica. Objetivo: Establecer el efecto del secado solar sobre la estructura del polen apícola en comparación al proceso convencional de deshidratación en cabina. Métodos: El polen de abeja se deshidrató utilizando dos tipos de secadores: secador solar y horno de convención forzada. Las condiciones de operación del secador solar fueron una temperatura promedio de 19-45 °C con un máximo de 38 °C y una humedad relativa (HR) promedio de 55 %. Las condiciones de operación del secador de cabina fueron una temperatura de referencia de 55 ± 2 °C y una humedad promedio de 10 % HR. Se midieron las propiedades morfológicas y termodinámicas del polen de abeja desecado, como la entalpía de transición de fase mediante calorimetría diferencial de barrido (DSC), la porosidad y el área superficial mediante análisis de área superficial y el aspecto microscópico de la superficie mediante microscopía electrónica de barrido (SEM). Resultados: Los resultados mostraron que el polen seco tanto en el secador de cabina como en el secador solar muestra que no sufrió cambios morfológicos vistos a través de Microscopía Electrónica de Barrido y en comparación con el polen fresco de abeja, además un análisis de sortometría indicó la ausencia de porosidad en la estructura microscópica y macroscópica, lo que indica que los procesos de secado solar o en cabina no tuvieron efectos sobre el área superficial específica con respecto al polen fresco de las abejas. En adición, los resultados de calorimetría diferencial de barrido (DSC) y análisis termogravimétrico (TGA) muestran que las transiciones de fase endotérmicas para el polen seco tanto en secado de cabina como solar fueron a 145 °C y 160 °C, que puede asociarse mayormente a la pérdida de agua libre, debido a la conservación de la estructura morfológica del material y en comparación al polen fresco. Conclusión: Estos resultados demuestran que el secado solar es una alternativa viable para la deshidratación del polen al no existir efectos que comprometan su integridad estructural


Subject(s)
Humans , Beekeeping , Pollen , Bees , Total Quality Management , Dehydration
2.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 26: e20200004, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135153

ABSTRACT

The nutritional requirements of honeybees (Apis mellifera) for their complete development need to be supplied through food sources available in the environment, since honeybees are insects that depend directly on blossoming food sources. However, at certain times a food-supply reduction can promote nutritional stress, thus necessitating food supplementation for maintenance or production stimulus of the colonies. Thus, the determination of optimal energy supplementation can assist in the maintenance and production of colonies. Methods: Twenty Apis mellifera beehives were used (with five beehives per treatment): CTL, control (without feeding); SJ, sugarcane juice; SS, sugar syrup; and IS, inverted sucrose. We evaluated the food consumption, population development, and physiological state (expression of vitellogenin and hexamerin 70a genes) of each colony. Results: The results showed that the supplementation of colonies with sugar syrup resulted in an intermediate consumption level (894.6 ± 291 mL) and better development (384.9 ± 237.3 and 158.3 ± 171.6 cm2, sealed and open brood, respectively). Furthermore, this diet ensured that the colonies were in a good physiological state, as bees fed this diet presented the highest relative expression levels of vitellogenin and hexamerin 70a among all the diets tested. Conclusions: Therefore, sugar syrup is concluded to be the best artificial energetic food for use in the supplementation of honeybee colonies.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Bees/growth & development , Gene Expression , Dietary Supplements , Beekeeping
4.
Con-ciencia (La Paz) ; 8(2): 101-111, 2020. tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIBOCS | ID: biblio-1148015

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: la miel, consumida por el hombre desde hace miles de años debido a sus propiedades organolépticas y terapéuticas, es el producto de la unión entre el mundo animal, la abeja (apis melífera), y el vegetal, el néctar de las flores y/o secreciones azucaradas de las plantas o insectos. En general existen diferencias significativas entre las características físico-químicas de las mieles florales y la miel de mielada. OBJETIVO: determinar del porcentaje de miel de flores y miel de mielada comercializadas en supermercados de la ciudad de La Paz. MÉTODOS: Para la diferenciación entre miel de flores y miel de mielada se utilizó el método estandarizado por el Centro de Investigaciones Apícolas ­ CEDIA) y para la determinación de los parámetros fisicoquímicos, los métodos establecidos en la Norma Boliviana (NB 38023). RESULTADOS: Se analizaron 25 muestras de miel comercializadas en supermercados de la ciudad de La Paz, y a través del parámetro cualitativo de diferenciación de miel de flores y miel de mielada, se logró evidenciar que el 88,46% corresponde a mieles de origen floral, el 7,69 % a mieles de mielada y el 0,96 a mieles adulteradas. CONCLUSIONES: los datos obtenidos reflejan la importancia de considerar en el etiquetado el origen del que procede la miel, así mismo recomendar que este parámetro forme parte de los requisitos de la Norma Boliviana de Miel y de esta manera otorgar un mayor valor comercial a la miel de procedencia nacional.


INTRODUCTION: honey, consumed by man for thousands of years due to its organoleptic and therapeutic properties, is the product of the union between the animal world, the bee (Apis melífera), and the plant, the nectar of flowers and / or sugary secretions from plants or insects. In general, there are significant differences between the physicochemical characteristics of floral honeys and honeydew honey. OBJECTIVE: to determine the percentage of flower honey and honeydew honey sold in supermarkets in the City of La Paz. METHODS: for the differentiation between flower honey and honeydew honey, the standardized method by the Beekeeping Research Center - CEDIA) was used and for the determination of the physicochemical parameters, the methods established in the Bolivian Standard (NB 38023). RESULTS: 25 samples of honey sold in supermarkets in the city of La Paz were analyzed, and through the qualitative parameter of differentiation of flower honey and honeydew honey, it was possible to show that 88.46% corresponds to honeys of origin floral, 7.69% to honeydew honeys and 0.96 to adulterated honeys. CONCLUSIONS: the data obtained reflect the importance of considering the origin of the honey in the labeling, as well as recommending that this parameter be part of the requirements of the Bolivian Honey Standard and thus granting a greater commercial value to the honey of national origin.


Subject(s)
Research , Flowers , Beekeeping , Honey , Plants , Bees , Plant Nectar
5.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764202

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the ergonomic risk factors in beekeeping, and to evaluate the effectiveness of assistive device hive lift. METHODS: This study included 30 subjects of beekeeper in Pocheon, Korea. We assessed the ergonomic risk of main task in beekeeping with NLE, OWAS and evaluate the effectiveness of hive lift. We also surveyed prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms among the subjects based on the Korea Working Condition Survey. RESULTS: Moving to different floral origin, internal inspection of beehives, feeding syrup is the most burdensome to musculoskeletal system (NLE LI value=2~3. OWAS action category=4). The prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms (lower and upper extremities) among the subjects was over 80 %. The introduction of assistive devices in the three hazardous tasks has dramatically reduced the risk by removing manual lifting hives (OWAS action category<1). CONCLUSIONS: Beekeeping is a heavy workload on the musculoskeletal system because it has a lot of manual lifting task. As a result of applying the hive lift, the burden could be reduced.


Subject(s)
Beekeeping , Korea , Lifting , Musculoskeletal System , Prevalence , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Self-Help Devices , Urticaria
6.
Rev. biol. trop ; 66(4): 1597-1605, oct.-dic. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003349

ABSTRACT

Abstract For accurate determination of polleniferous taxa vis-a-vis floral fidelity of Apis mellifera L. in North 24 Pargana, West Bengal, we carried out pollen analyses of individual corbicular pollen loads collected from four apiaries during 2015-2016. Among the 2 434 analyzed loads, 72.97 % were unifloral type, 19.0 % bifloral and 8.10 % were multifloral in pollen composition. We identified 43 different types of palynomorphs belonged to 28 botanical families. Major polleniferous plant species include: Alangium salviifolium, Borassus flabellifer, Brassica nigra, Coriandrum sativum, Croton bonplandianum, Cyanotis axillaris, Luffa cylindrica, Neolamarckia cadamba, Phoenix sylvestris, Poa gangetica, Sesamum indicum and Trema orientalis. Among them, T. orientalis is newly reported from West Bengal especially during June to August (monsoon season). The plant family provided maximum number of loads was Arecaceae (20.91 %), followed by Brassicaceae (16.2 %), Poaceae (6.70 %), Pedaliaceae (6.38 %), Apiaceae (6.16 %) and Fabaceae (5.38 %). Month wise highest number of pollen diversity were obtained during March (13 pollen types) and a minimum of 6 types in November. The present investigation will help the beekeepers to maintain their hives in the region for sustainable apicultural practices.(AU)


Resumen Para una determinación precisa de taxa polinífero y fidelidad floral de Apis mellifera en Pargana Norte 24, Bengala Occidental, realizamos análisis de cargas individuales de polen corbicular, recolectados en cuatro apiarios durante 2015-2016. De las 2 434 cargas analizadas, 72.97 % fueron de tipo unifloral, 19.0 % bifloral y 8.10 % multifloral, en la composición del polen. Identificamos 43 tipos diferentes de palinomorfos pertenecientes a 28 familias botánicas. Las especies principales de plantas poliníferas incluyen: Alangium salviifolium, Borassus flabellifer, Brassica nigra, Coriandrum sativum, Croton bonplandianum, Cyanotis axillaris, Luffa cylindrica, Neolamarckia cadamba, Phoenix sylvestris, Poa gangetica, Sesamum indicum y Trema orientalis. Entre estas, T. orientalis ha sido reportada recientemente en Bengala Occidental, especialmente de junio a agosto (temporada de monsones). La familia de plantas que presentó máxima cantidad de cargas fue: Arecaceae (20.91 %), seguida por Brassicaceae (16.2 %), Poaceae (6.70 %), Pedaliaceae (6.38 %), Apiaceae (6.16 %) y Fabaceae (5.38 %). De acuerdo al mes, el número mayor de diversidad de polen se obtuvo durante marzo (13 tipos de polen) y un mínimo de seis tipos en noviembre. La presente investigación ayudará a los apicultores a mantener sus colmenas en la región para prácticas apícolas sostenibles.(AU)


Subject(s)
Pollen , Apis mellifica , Flora , Beekeeping , India
7.
Rev. biol. trop ; 66(3): 1182-1196, jul.-sep. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-977376

ABSTRACT

Resumen En el noroeste de Argentina, los bosques subtropicales de las Yungas son de gran importancia por la gran diversidad vegetal. Las abejas melíferas (A. mellifera) utilizan estos recursos para su alimentación y en consecuencia como un servicio ecosistémico a través de la apicultura. La caracterización de la flora polinífera de una región permite conocer la fuente de alimento y definir la importancia de las diferentes especies vegetales para el desarrollo y mantenimiento de las colonias. El objetivo del presente trabajo es identificar la flora polinífera utilizada por A. mellifera en el sector oeste de las Yungas en Jujuy (Argentina) a través de la caracterización de sus cargas corbiculares y analizar las variaciones a lo largo de la primavera y verano de dos periodos productivos consecutivos. Para ello, se analizaron 14 muestras tomadas mensualmente a la largo de los periodos setiembre 2011 a marzo 2012 y setiembre 2012 a marzo de 2013. Las muestras se obtuvieron a través de trampas caza polen en las entradas de las colmenas y tratadas en el laboratorio según las técnicas convencionales de melisopalinología con posterior acetólisis. Se identificaron un total de 46 tipos polínicos pertenecientes a 25 familias botánicas. Las más importantes de acuerdo a los valores de índice de importancia de familia son: Euphorbiaceae (35.54), Fabaceae (26.27), Asteraceae (20.77), Vitaceae (16.14) y Myrtaceae (9.13). Asimismo, los principales recursos poliníferos fueron Eucalyptus, Eupatorium, Mimosa, Parapiptadenia excelsa, Sebastiania, Viguiera, Zanthoxylum, tipo Cissus y representantes de las familias Cactaceae y Euphorbiaceae. Las variaciones del índice de amplitud de nicho trófico evidencian para la zona una selección de recursos florales, donde se destaca la utilización de especies nativas. La información generada en este estudio, aporta al conocimiento del recurso ofrecido por el bosque y las especies que son de importancia para la producción apícola. Además, de contribuir a potenciar la producción y comercialización de este producto a partir de su valor agregado, permitiendo a los apicultores un buen manejo de las colmenas.


Abstract In Northwest Argentina, Yungas subtropical forests are very important because of their huge vegetal diversity. Honeybees (A. mellifera) use these resources to feed and therefore as an ecosystemic service through beekeeping. The characterization of pollen flora of a region allows getting to know the food source and defining the importance of different plant species for colonies development and maintenance. The aim of the present study is to identify the pollen flora used by A. mellifera in the Yungas Western area in Jujuy (Argentina) by means of their pollen loads characterization and to analyze the variations of two consecutive productive periods throughout spring and summer. To do this, 14 samples taken monthly were analyzed over the periods from September 2011 to March 2012 and September 2012 to March 2013. The samples were obtained from pollen traps at the entrances of the hives and were treated in the laboratory under conventional melisopalinology techniques with subsequent acetolysis. A total of 46 pollen types belonging to 25 botanical families were identified. The most important ones according to the family importance index are Euphorbiaceae (35.54), Fabaceae (26.27), Asteraceae (20.77), Vitaceae (16.14), Myrtaceae (9.13). Zanthoxylum, Sebastiania, Mimosa, Euphorbiaceae, Cactaceae, Parapiptadenia excelsa, Eupatorium, Cissus, Eucalyptus y Viguiera were identified as dominant resources. The variations of the breadth Index trophic niche show a floral resources selection for the area, where the use of native species stands out. The information produced in this study contributes to the knowledge of the resource offered by the forest and the species that are important for beekeeping production. Besides, it contributes to enhance the production and marketing of this product from its added value, allowing beekeepers a good management of hives. Rev. Biol. Trop. 66(3): 1182-1196. Epub 2018 September 01.


Subject(s)
Animals , Argentina , Pollen , Bees , Diet , Pollination , Beekeeping , Forestry
8.
Hig. Alimentar ; 32(278/279): 68-73, 30/04/2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-909977

ABSTRACT

O mel é um produto alimentício natural, utilizado pela população desde o antigo Egito, como fonte de alimento e na medicina popular, devido as suas propriedades antioxidante, cicatrizante, expectorante, ação sedativa, analgésica e anti-inflamatória, além de possuir atividade antibacteriana. O aumento do consumo de mel pela população, associada à prática da apicultura, tem-se demonstrado uma atividade promissora e rentável para os produtores e para a economia do Brasil. Contudo, devido ao aumento da demanda de consumo, o mel pode ser alvo da adição de substâncias adulterantes, como açúcar comercial, ocasionando a diminuição da qualidade do produto. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar uma análise das propriedades físico-químicas de amostras de mel comercializadas em feiras livres do município de Assis Chateaubriand, PR. Foram analisadas cinco amostras de méis quanto aos parâmetros: umidade, presença de corante, determinação da densidade, Reações de Jagerschmidt, Lugol, Fiehe, acidez total, teor de cinzas e análise microscópica e organoléptica. Para execução dos experimentos, a metodologia adotada foi baseada nos métodos físico-químicos para Análise de Alimentos, do Instituto Adolf Lutz, sendo o mesmo, realizado em triplicata. Pode-se concluir que, das cinco amostras analisadas, duas se apresentaram positivas para a adição de açúcar. Os resultados apresentados obtiveram variações entre as amostras, uma vez que a composição do mel difere de acordo com a espécie floral e região da qual o mesmo é oriundo, além das condições de armazenamento e manejo do mesmo.(AU)


Honey is a natural food product, used by the population since ancient Egypt, as a food source and in popular medicine, due to its antioxidant, healing, expectorant, sedative, analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties, as well as antibacterial activity. The increase in honey consumption by the population, associated with the practice of beekeeping, has been shown to be a promising and profitable activity for producers and for the Brazilian economy. However, due to the increase in consumption demand, honey may be the target of the addition of adulterating substances, such as commercial sugar, causing a decrease in product quality. The objective of this work was to perform an analysis of the physicochemical properties of samples of honey marketed in open fairs of the municipality of Assis Chateaubriand-PR. The parameters evaluated were moisture, dye presence, density determination, Jagerschmidt reactions, Lugol, Fiehe, total acidity, ash content and analysis. The samples were analyzed commercially at free trade fairs in the municipality of Assis Chateaubriand. microscopic and organoleptic. For the execution of the experiments, the methodology adopted was based on the physical-chemical methods for Food Analysis, of the Adolf Lutz Institute, being the same, carried out in triplicate. It can be concluded that of the five samples analyzed, two were positive for sugar addition. The presented results obtained variations among the samples, since the composition of the honey differs according to the floral species and region from which it comes from, besides the conditions of storage and handling of the same.


Subject(s)
Animals , Food Composition , Honey/analysis , Brazil , Food Samples , Street Food , Food Storage/standards , Beekeeping
9.
Asia Pacific Allergy ; (4): e15-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-750140

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Allergic reactions developing after bee sting can be severe and life-threatening. According to epidemiological data, serious systemic reactions range between 1.2%–3%, and this is 2–3 times higher (6%) in beekeeping. In different beekeepers' populations, risk factors of systemic reactions have been investigated and diverse results have been found. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the level of knowledge of beekeepers about venom allergy, epidemiological data, systemic reaction rates, risk factors for systemic reactions, and the rate of emergency admissions after bee sting. METHODS: With the collaboration of Uludağ University Beekeeping Development Research Center and Beekeepers Association, a questionnaire consisting of 19 questions was applied to 242 beekeepers in Bursa and Yalova. Two hundred twenty-one beekeepers who completed the questionnaire were involved in the study. RESULTS: The mean age of the beekeepers was 49.9 years (range, 18–75 years). The systemic reaction to bee sting in beekeepers was 37.6%. Allergic rhinitis was found to be a risk factor for systemic reaction. Although 80% of the beekeepers recognized that bee venom could be lethal, only 60% of the beekeepers were aware of immunotherapy, and only 30% were aware of the adrenaline auto-injector drug. CONCLUSION: Similar to previous studies, we found that the systemic response to the bee sting in beekeepers was higher compared to normal population. Considering the occupational exposure to bee venom and thus higher risk, the awareness of venom allergy in this high risk population was low, and they were poorly informed about the treatment options.


Subject(s)
Bee Venoms , Beekeeping , Bees , Bites and Stings , Cooperative Behavior , Emergencies , Epinephrine , Hypersensitivity , Immunotherapy , Occupational Exposure , Rhinitis, Allergic , Risk Factors , Venoms
10.
Rev. biol. trop ; 65(1): 41-53, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-897524

ABSTRACT

ResumenEl bosque tropical seco (BTS) de la Península de Yucatán ha sido manejado por siglos, pero la relación del efecto del manejo sobre la diversidad de árboles no ha sido completamente entendida. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto del manejo forestal (aclareos, aprovechamiento y enriquecimiento de especies) en la estructura de la vegetación secundaria derivada de bosques tropicales secos, en dos comunidades en Calakmul, Campeche, Sureste de México. Se analizaron cambios en la composición, riqueza de especies, diversidad de especies y estructura en vegetación secundaria sujetas a los siguientes tipos de manejo: 1) vegetación secundaria con manejo apícola (MA), 2) vegetación secundaria con manejo forestal (MF), 3) vegetación secundaria sin manejo (SM) y bosque tropical seco (BTS). La composición de especies fue similar entre vegetación secundaria manejada y no manejada. Por otro lado, entre vegetación secundaria manejada y el BTS hubo diferencias en la composición de especies. La riqueza de especies no fue diferente entre todas las condiciones. La MA mostró la más baja diversidad de especies y presentó la mayor densidad promedio (5 413 ± 770.26 ind./ha). La MF tuvo la menor densidad promedio (3 289 ± 1 183.60 ind./ ha). El BTS mostró la mayor área basal promedio (24.89 ± 1.56 m2/ha) respecto a las demás condiciones. Se concluye que es necesario mantener el monitoreo de las áreas manejadas, para detectar efectos del manejo que pueden ser adversos o favorables para la conservación de la diversidad florística de los BTS.


Abstract:The tropical dry forest (BTS) of Yucatan Peninsula has been managed for centuries, but the relationship between these management efforts and their effects on trees diversity has not been fully understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of forest management (thinning, harvesting and enrichment of species), in the structure of secondary vegetation derived from dry tropical forests, in two communities in Calakmul, Campeche, Southeast Mexico. We analyzed changes in the composition, species richness, species diversity, and structure in secondary vegetation subject to following types of management: (1) secondary vegetation with beekeeping management (MA), secondary vegetation with forest management (MF), natural secondary vegetation (SM) and tropical dry forest (BTS). The species composition was similar between secondary vegetation managed and unmanaged. On the other hand, between managed secondary vegetation and BTS there were differences in species composition. Species richness was not different between all conditions. MA showed the lowest species diversity and presented higher average density (5 413±770.26 ind.ha-1).MF had lowest average density (3 289 ± 1 183.60 ind.ha-1). BTS showed the highest average basal area (24.89 ± 1.56 m2.ha-1) regarding the other conditions. We concluded that is necessary to keep monitoring the managed areas to detect effects of management that may be adverse or favorable to conservation of floristic diversity of BTS. Rev. Biol. Trop. 65 (1): 41-53. Epub 2017 March 01.


Subject(s)
Trees/physiology , Tropical Climate , Forests , Forestry/methods , Conservation of Energy Resources/methods , Biodiversity , Species Specificity , Cluster Analysis , Analysis of Variance , Beekeeping/methods , Ecological Parameter Monitoring/methods , Mexico
11.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 68(5): 1369-1373, set.-out. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-827906

ABSTRACT

The use of bee-pollen as a nutritional supplement or as a production-enhancing agent in livestock has increased the demand for this product worldwide. Despite the current importance of this niche within the apiculture industry, few studies have addressed the pollen production. We tested the performance of free-mated (FM) and instrumentally inseminated queens (IQ) in order to establish the effect of different breeding systems on pollen production. The F1 generation of IQ queens produced 153.95±42.83g/day, showing a significant improvement on the pollen production (2.74 times) when compared to the parental generation (51.83±7.84g/day). The F1 generation of free-mated queens produced 100.07±8.23 g/day, which increased by 1.78 times when compared to the parental generation. Furthermore, we observed a statistically significant difference between the pollen production between colonies from the IQ and FM treatments. This study suggests that inseminated queens should be considered by beekeepers that aim to increase pollen production.(AU)


O uso do pólen apícola como suplemento nutricional humano e animal tem aumentado significativamente a demanda por este produto em todo o mundo. Apesar da importância atual desse nicho dentro da apicultura, poucos estudos têm abordado melhorias no sistema produtivo de pólen. Testamos o desempenho de rainhas fecundadas através de acasalamento livre (FM) e inseminação instrumental (QI), a fim de analisar o efeito de diferentes técnicas de melhoramento genético no ganho produtivo de pólen apícola. A geração F1 de rainhas QI produziu 153,95±42,83g de pólen por dia, mostrando uma melhora significativa na produção (2,74 vezes) quando comparado à geração parental (51,83±7,84g/dia). A geração F1 de rainhas de livre acasalamento produziu 100,07±8,23g/dia, o que significou um aumento de 1,78 vezes. Além disso, observou-se uma diferença estatisticamente significativa entre a produção de pólen entre as colônias dos tratamentos QI e FM. Este estudo sugere que a técnica de inseminação instrumental deve ser incorporada nos sistemas produtivos de pólen apícola brasileiro.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Bees/growth & development , Insemination, Artificial , Pollen , Beekeeping
12.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2091-2095, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-307462

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Venom allergy is significantly underestimated in China. Venom-specific IgE may not provide accurate clinical reactions. Our conducted retrospective analysis observes alternative diagnostic considerations in assessing confirmation and severity of honeybee venom allergy.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Retrospective review of honeybee venom allergy versus nonallergy patients presented with positive honeybee venom (i1) sIgE results. According to clinically observed reactions caused by a honeybee sting, patients were divided into three groups. Patient residence and exposure types were analyzed. The sIgE/T-IgE among allergy and control groups was compared.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Gender ratio male:female was 32:22; median age was 39 years (31, 50). 48% (26/54) of patients live in urban areas, 52% (28/54) in rural areas. Based on bee sting reactions, patients were divided into common localized reactions (32/54), large localized reactions (7/54), and systemic reactions (15/54). In the systemic reaction group, patients presented as Type II (6/15), Type III (6/15). There is significant difference (P < 0.001) between the three groups in regards to exposure types. In the systemic reaction group, 8.7% (13/15) of patients are beekeepers. A significant difference (P < 0.001) was observed between allergic and control groups based on sIgE/T-IgE results. As well as significant difference observed between the systemic reaction group to the other two reaction groups in regards to sIgE/T-IgE results. Six systemic reaction patients presented with large localized reactions before onset of system symptoms 1 month to 1 year of being stung.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Occupational exposure is the most common cause in honeybee venom allergy induced systemic reactions. The use of sIgE/T-IgE results is a useful diagnostic parameter in determining honeybee venom allergy.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Bee Venoms , Allergy and Immunology , Beekeeping , China , Female , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Blood , Allergy and Immunology , Immunoglobulin E , Blood , Allergy and Immunology , Insect Bites and Stings , Allergy and Immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Diseases , Occupational Exposure , Retrospective Studies
13.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 67(2): 631-635, Mar-Apr/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1100008

ABSTRACT

Nos últimos anos, grandes perdas de colônias de abelhas melíferas vêm sendo registradas em várias regiões do mundo. Contudo, os motivos desse acontecimento permanecem obscuros. O ácaro ectoparasita Varroa destructor Anderson e Trueman (Acari: Varroidae) pode ser um dos responsáveis por esse fato, principalmente como vetor de vírus. Neste estudo, avaliaram-se as taxas de infestação (TIs) do ácaro V. destructor em abelhas africanizadas Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) e correlacionaram-se os dados com as médias de temperatura de 16 municípios das regiões do Vale do Paraíba e da Serra da Mantiqueira (São Paulo, Brasil), onde a apicultura comercial atua de maneira significativa. Em cada município, um apiário comercial foi selecionado para coleta de amostras de três colônias populosas (padrão Langstroth), totalizando 48 colônias amostradas. Aproximadamente 300 abelhas adultas localizadas na área de cria foram coletadas em cada colônia. As TIs variaram de 0.0 a 5.5%, níveis considerados baixos para causar danos significativos às colônias. As TIs mais baixas foram encontradas em municípios com clima mais ameno durante a estação avaliada (verão). Adicionalmente, cofatores como variações na disponibilidade de alimento entre os municípios e a variabilidade genética das abelhas podem interagir na interação entre parasita e hospedeiro. A variação nas TIs entre os municípios indica que, mesmo presente, a tolerância das abelhas africanizadas ao varroa pode variar drasticamente em uma pequena região, devido à dinâmica multifatorial de infestação do ácaro.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Bees/parasitology , Varroidae , Beekeeping , Mite Infestations/veterinary , Brazil , Abiotic Factors
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-66457

ABSTRACT

Although silver is known to be a broad-spectrum biocidal agent, the effects of this metal against Sacbrood virus have not yet been investigated. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of silver ions against natural Korean sacbrood virus (KSBV) infection of Apis (A.) cerana. Ten KSBV-infected colonies containing A. cerana with similar strength and activity were selected from an apiary located in Bosung-gun (Korea). Among these, five colonies were randomly assigned to the treatment group that was fed sugar syrup containing 0.2 mg/L silver ions. The other colonies were assigned to the untreated control group in which bees were given syrup without the silver ions. To assess the efficacy of the silver ions, colony strength, colony activity, and the number of dead larvae per hive were measured. During the experimental period, the test group maintained its strength and activity until day 32 while those of bees in the control group decreased sharply after day 8 to 16. Survival duration of the test group was significantly longer (40 days) than that of the control group (21 days). These results strongly indicated that silver ions are effective against KSBV infection in A. cerana.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Beekeeping , Bees/virology , Ions/pharmacology , RNA Viruses/drug effects , Republic of Korea , Silver/pharmacology
15.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 66(5): 1471-1478, Sep-Oct/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-729745

ABSTRACT

The Brazilian Sac Brood is a disease that affects apiaries of Africanized bee hives in Brazil, thereby making them susceptible to high losses. This study investigated the pathogenicity of Africanized bee hives by the entomopathogenic fungi in a Brazilian Sac Brood endemic region. The degree of fungal contamination, presence of mycotoxins in beehive elements, and vulnerability of healthy beehives in environments subjected and not subjected to the disease were investigated. From the contaminating fungal load, species that are mycotoxin producers and pathogenic causing mortality in the bees have been isolated. The analysis of bee pollen and bee bread samples did not show the presence of the toxic pollen of Stryphnodendron (Fabaceae), which has been indicated as the causative agent of mortality in pre-pupal stage larvae. However, bee bread showed the highest correlation between substrate and fungal contamination...


A cria ensacada brasileira é uma doença que afeta apiários de colmeias de abelhas africanizadas no Brasil, tornando-os suscetíveis a perdas elevadas. Este estudo investigou a patogenicidade de fungos entomopatogênicos em colmeias de abelhas africanizadas de uma região endêmica de cria ensacada brasileira. O grau de contaminação fúngica, a presença de micotoxinas em elementos colmeia e a vulnerabilidade das colmeias saudáveis em ambientes sujeitos e não sujeitos à doença foram investigados. A partir da carga fúngica contaminante, espécies produtoras de micotoxinas e patogênicas, que provocam a mortalidade de abelhas, foram isoladas. A análise do pólen e do pão de abelha não demonstrou a presença do pólen tóxico de Stryphnodendron (Fabaceae), que tem sido apontado como agente causador da mortalidade de larvas em fase de pré-pupa. No entanto, o pão de abelha foi o substrato mais correlacionado com a contaminação fúngica...


Subject(s)
Animals , Beekeeping , Bees , Fungi , Mycotoxins , Endemic Diseases , Fabaceae/toxicity , Mortality , Vulnerability Analysis
16.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 66(4): 1269-1275, 08/2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-722558

ABSTRACT

O presente estudo teve como objetivo a caracterização físico-química de amostras de mel de Apis mellifera coletadas nos municípios de Santa Helena e Terra Roxa, localizados na região oeste do Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Foram coletadas 40 amostras de mel, sendo 20 do município de Santa Helena e 20 de Terra Roxa (PR), coletadas diretamente com os apicultores, as quais foram submetidas a análises físico-químicas de umidade, acidez, pH, cinzas, condutividade elétrica e cor, a fim de verificar se as mesmas apresentavam-se em conformidade com a legislação nacional vigente (Instrução Normativa nº 11), além de conhecer o perfil físico-químico do mel das diferentes localidades, na safra 2008/2009. Os dados encontrados foram submetidos à análise de variância e teste F a 5% de significância. Os resultados apresentaram diferença significativa (P<0,05) apenas entre os valores de acidez, tendo o mel oriundo de Terra Roxa apresentado valor mais alto (33,45±7,7meq.kg-1) que o de Santa Helena (24,53±6,3meq.kg-1). Em sua maioria, as amostras analisadas encontraram-se dentro das especificações determinadas pela legislação para as características físico-químicas, com exceção do parâmetro de umidade, que, apesar de não ter apresentado diferença significativa entre os valores encontrados para os dois municípios, estavam acima do limite estabelecido pela legislação (20 por cento) em 8 amostras do município de Santa Helena e em 7 de Terra Roxa, totalizando 37,5 por cento) das amostras. Essa característica pode ter deixado o produto mais susceptível à fermentação e pode ter sido ocasionada pela colheita imatura do mel...


This study aimed to physicochemically characterize the honey samples of Apis mellifera collected in Santa Helena and Terra Roxa counties, located in the western region of Paraná State, Brazil. Forty honey samples were collected, 20 in Santa Helena and 20 in Terra Roxa (PR) counties, directly from beekeepers, and were subjected to physico-chemical analyzes of moisture, acidity, pH, ashes, electrical conductivity and color, to verify whether they were in accordance with the existing national legislation (Instruction No. 11), in addition to knowing the physicochemical profile of different sites during the 2008/2009 season. The data were submitted to analysis of variance and F test at 5 percent significance level. The results showed significant differences (P<0.05) between values of acidity, and the honey samples from Terra Roxa presented a higher value (33.45±7.7 meq.kg-1) than Santa Helena (24 = 53±6.3 meq.kg-1). Most of the analyzed samples were within the specifications prescribed in the legislation for the physico-chemical parameters except for moisture, which despite having presented a significant difference between values obtained from two counties, were above the limits established by the legislation (20 percent) in eight samples in Santa Helena and seven in Terra Roxa counties, totaling 37.5 percent. This characteristic may have made the product more susceptible to fermentation, and may have been caused by harvesting immature honey...


Subject(s)
Animals , Beekeeping , Honey/analysis , Chemical Phenomena , Humidity
17.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 30(1): 288-296, jan./feb. 2014. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-947004

ABSTRACT

Pollen is the major protein source for honey bees, Apis mellifera. It is essential for the adults to produce royal jelly to feed the larvae. Young larvae receive the brood food, whereas the older (over 3 days old) larvae receive pollen in addition to brood food. The nutritional value of pollen has been investigated only in adults or at the colony level. Protocols for rearing Africanized honey bee larvae in vitro using diets with mixtures of pollen had not been established. We examined different concentrations (2.5, 5 and 10%) of two mixtures of pollen in the larval diet. The effects of pollen diets on larval development were assessed. The survival and development of larvae fed with 10% pollen was impaired; this concentration should be avoided. Concentrations of 2.5 and 5% pollen did not show significant changes in survival, weight, development or the hemolymph protein profile when compared to the controls (without pollen). However, differences in larval survival were observed between the two pollen mixtures (pollen blends 1 and 2), suggesting that a diet with a superior digestibility and greater familial diversity of pollen (blend 2) is more nutritionally adequate.


O pólen é a principal fonte de proteína para as abelhas melíferas, Apis mellifera. Ele é essencial para que os adultos produzam geleia real para nutrir as larvas. As larvas jovens recebem geleia real, enquanto que as larvas mais velhas (mais que 3 dias de idade) recebem pólen juntamente com a geleia real. O valor nutricional do pólen tem sido investigado apenas em adultos ou ao nível de colônia. Protocolos de criação de larvas de abelhas africanizadas in vitro utilizando dietas com misturas de pólen não foram estabelecidas. Nós examinamos diferentes concentrações (2,5, 5 e 10%) de duas misturas de pólen na dieta de larvas. O efeito das dietas de pólen no desenvolvimento larval foi avaliado. A sobrevivência e o desenvolvimento das larvas alimentadas com 10% de pólen foram prejudicados; esta concentração deve ser evitada. Concentrações de 2,5 e 5% de pólen não mostraram uma mudança significativa na sobrevivência, no peso, no desenvolvimento ou no perfil proteico da hemolinfa, quando comparado com os controles (sem pólen). No entanto, diferenças na sobrevivência das larvas foram observadas entre duas misturas de pólen (mistura 1 e 2), sugerindo que uma dieta com uma digestibilidade superior e maior diversidade de famílias de pólens (mistura 2) é nutricionalmente mais adequada.


Subject(s)
Pollen , Bees , Beekeeping , Hymenoptera , Larva
18.
Temas psicol. (Online) ; 21(2): 297-315, dez. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-699350

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a relação entre rede de apoio social e papeis desenvolvidos por mulheres que exercem a atividade da meliponicultura tendo em vista sua participação na manutenção das redes de apoio que garantem o exercício da atividade, e, consequentemente, a ocupação e renda para a sobrevivência de famílias em comunidades rurais do Maranhão. Participaram sete mulheres de duas comunidades integradas ao Projeto Abelhas Nativas (PAN), que visa o desenvolvimento da meliponicultura como atividade sustentável. Foram utilizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas, DC e o M5C, que permitiu avaliar a estrutura e função das redes de apoio social. Constatou-se uma intensa rede de apoio social mantida pelas mulheres presentes em todos os campos estudados. Verifica-se que a existência desta rede permite às mulheres a circulação em vários contextos, bem como a interação entre as pessoas de outros microssistemas de modo adaptado e com equilíbrio nas relações de poder, proporcionando a possibilidade de terem sucesso na execução da atividade da meliponicultura.


The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between social support and papers developed by women who pursue beekeeping activity in order to maintain its share of the support networks that guarantee the exercise of the activity, and consequently the occupation and income to the survival of families in rural communities of Maranhão. Participants were seven women in two communities inte-grated with Project Native Bees (PAN), which aims at the development of beekeeping as a sustainable activity. Semi-structured interviews were used, DC and M5C, which allowed to evaluate the structure and function of social support networks. There was a strong social support network for women maintained a presence in all fields studied. It appears that the existence of this network allows women to the movement in various contexts, as well as the interaction between people of other microsystems so adapted and balance in power relations, providing the ability to succeed in performing the activity of beekeeping.


El objetivo de este estúdio fue investigar la relación entre el apoyo social y los documentos elaborados por las mujeres que ejercen la actividad apícola com el fin de mantener su cuota de las redes de apoyo que garanticen el ejercicio de la actividad y, en consecuencia, la ocupación y los ingresos para la supervivencia de las famílias en las comunidades rurales de Maranhão. Los participantes fueron siete mujeres de dos comunidades integradas com las abejas nativas de proyecto (PAN), cuyo objetivo es el desarrollo de la apicultura como una actividad sostenible. Semi-estructuradas se utilizan, DC y M5C, lo que permitió evaluar la estructura y función de las redes de apoyo social. Hubo una fuerte red de apoyo social para las mujeres mantienen una presencia en todos los âmbitos estudiados. Parece que la existencia de esta red permite a las mujeres del movimiento en diversos contextos, así como la interacción entre personas de microsistemas otros para adaptarse y equilíbrio en las relaciones de poder, que proporciona la capacidad de tener êxito en el desempeño de la actividad de la apicultura.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Beekeeping , Family , Income , Rural Workers , Social Support
19.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 29(4): 796-804, july/aug. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-914666

ABSTRACT

O presente trabalho tem o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos do pólen do milho transgênico, que expressa a proteína entomopatogênica Cry1Ab, sobre aspectos biológicos da traça da cera (Galleria mellonella) e com isso propor uma discussão sobre as possibilidades de afecção desse piralídeo à campo, debatendo possíveis efeitos ecológicos. Um ensaio biológico foi realizado, onde se ofertou às larvas pólen do milho transgênico, pólen do milho convencional e pólen comercial. A duração da fase larval foi afetada pela composição da dieta, sendo que as constituídas de pólen de milho convencional e transgênico apresentaram os resultados mais expressivos. A mortalidade foi superior nos indivíduos alimentados com a mistura de cera virgem e pólen transgênico, no entanto não diferiu dos demais alimentos, quando junto ao pólen transgênico, foi associado favo de Apis mellifera. A largura e comprimento das pupas provindas de lagartas alimentadas com cera virgem adicionada com pólen transgênico ou convencional foram significativamente inferiores quando comparados aos valores das mensurações realizadas nas pupas provindas de outras dietas. O pólen do milho, convencional ou transgênico, por si só é um alimento menos adequado ao desenvolvimento de G. mellonella, em relação a uma dieta composta por pólen de várias plantas.


This study aims to evaluate the effects of transgenic corn pollen, which expresses the Cry1Ab protein entomopathogenic on biological aspects the wax moth (Galleria mellonella) and thus propose a discussion on the possibilities for this condition pyralid the field, discussing possible ecological effects. For this we performed a bioassay, where it was offered to the larvae conventional and commercial Bt pollen, The duration of the larval stage of G. mellonella was affected by the supply of Mays pollen, conventional or transgenic, provided the biggest records. Mortality was higher in individuals fed with transgenic pollen and bee wax, but did not differ from other foods, when they were fed with transgenic pollen and honeycomb of Apis mellifera. The width and the length of larvae originated from larvae fed with beeswax added to conventional or transgenic pollen were lower than other treatments. The Mays pollen, conventional or transgenic alone is a less suitable food for the development of G. mellonella, in relation to a diet consisting of pollen from various plants.


Subject(s)
Pollen , Zea mays , Food, Genetically Modified , Beekeeping , Lepidoptera
20.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 65(2): 553-558, abr. 2013. mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-673134

ABSTRACT

Brazilian beekeeping has been developed from the africanization of the honeybees and its high performance launches Brazil as one of the world´s largest honey producer. The Southeastern region has an expressive position in this market (45%), but the state of Rio de Janeiro is the smallest producer, despite presenting large areas of wild vegetation for honey production. In order to analyze the honey productivity in the state of Rio de Janeiro, this research used classic and spatial regression approaches. The data used in this study comprised the responses regarding beekeeping from 1418 beekeepers distributed throughout 72 counties of this state. The best statistical fit was a semiparametric spatial model. The proposed model could be used to estimate the annual honey yield per hive in regions and to detect production factors more related to beekeeping. Honey productivity was associated with the number of hives, wild swarm collection and losses in the apiaries. This paper highlights that the beekeeping sector needs support and help to elucidate the problems plaguing beekeepers, and the inclusion of spatial effects in the regression models is a useful tool in geographical data.


A apicultura brasileira se desenvolveu a partir da africanização das abelhas melíferas, e seu bom desempenho permitiu lançar o Brasil como um dos maiores produtores mundiais de mel. A região Sudeste ocupa uma posição significativa no mercado, mas o estado do Rio de Janeiro é o menor produtor, apesar de apresentar áreas expressivas de vegetação silvestre para a produção de mel. Para analisar a produtividade de mel no estado do Rio de Janeiro, esta pesquisa estudou diversos métodos de regressão clássica e espacial. Os dados analisados compreenderam respostas sobre apicultura de 1418 apicultores distribuídos em 72 municípios do Rio de Janeiro. O melhor ajuste estatístico utilizado foi um modelo semiparamétrico espacial. A utilidade do modelo proposto é estimar a produção anual de mel por colmeia nas diversas regiões e identificar os fatores de produção mais relacionados à apicultura. A produtividade de mel mostrou-se mais associada com o número de colmeias, a coleta de enxame silvestre e as perdas em apiários. Este trabalho destacou que o segmento apícola necessita de apoio para auxiliar na identificação dos problemas que afetam os apicultores. A utilização de efeitos espaciais em modelos de regressão são ferramentas úteis quando são utilizados dados geograficamente referenciados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Efficiency , Food Production , Honey/analysis , Bees/classification , Beekeeping/methods
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