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1.
ABCS health sci ; 48: e023224, 14 fev. 2023. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1518549

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In Brazil, envenomation by bee sting is a public health problem due to its incidence in all regions of the country, as well as the severity of cases. Despite the medical and sanitary importance, the literature on this topic in Brazil is scarce, in the Northeast region. OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiological characteristics of bee stings in Paraíba, in the Northeast region of Brazil, from 2015 to 2019. METHODS: The current study is a descriptive and retrospective epidemiological investigation conducted through the recovery of secondary data made available by the database from the Ministry of Health Notification Information System. RESULTS: A total of 1,151 cases were analyzed, and they were reported during all the months of the period of the study and were more frequent in the regions Agreste and Sertão of the Paraíba. The victims were men aged 20 to 59 years. Most individuals received medical assistance within 3 hours of the incident. The cases were classified as mild and progressed to cure. CONCLUSION: In Paraíba, bee stings have increased in recent years, especially in regions with a semi-arid climate. In addition, this study provides data that may be used in the development of educational health actions to promote the prevention and control of bee stings in this region.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Bee Venoms , Bees , Insect Bites and Stings/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Health Information Systems
2.
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 26(1cont): 295-312, jan.-jun. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1510523

ABSTRACT

As abelhas africanas (Apis mellifera scutellata) foram introduzidas no Brasil na década de 1950 e, por acidente, cruzaram com outras subespécies de abelhas melíferas europeias. Isso proporcionou o surgimento de híbridos conhecidos atualmente como abelhas africanizadas, que possuem características de rusticidade e maior capacidade de enxamear. A Amazônia mostra potencial para o desenvolvimento da apicultura devido suas características e diversidade floral. Neste sentido, este estudo busca reunir produções científicas sobre apicultura na Amazônia brasileira nos últimos 22 anos, por meio da metodologia de revisão sistemática de literatura, o objetivo é mostrar como tal tema tem sido abordado nas pesquisas. Neste cenário as publicações têm se mostrado crescentes, o que demonstra a tentativa de alinhamento com a Iniciativa Internacional para a Conservação e Uso Sustentável dos polinizadores. Entretanto, os resultados apontam muitas lacunas na produção apícola como, por exemplo, a área de pesquisas higiênico- sanitárias sobre combate de parasitas nas colmeias. No âmbito socioeconômico, as deficiências são ainda mais evidentes pela falta de pesquisas sobre políticas de financiamento da atividade, análises da cadeia de valor entre outros temas. Diante da importância econômica, social e ambiental das abelhas é de suma importância o aprofundamento dos estudos acadêmicos sobre apicultura na Amazônia.(AU)


African bees (Apis mellifera scutellata) were introduced in Brazil in the 1950s and, by accident, crossed with other subspecies of European honey bees. This led to the emergence of hybrids today known as Africanized bees, which have characteristics of rusticity and greater swarming capacity. The Amazonia shows potential for the development beekeeping due to its characteristics and floral diversity. Thus, this study brings together scientific productions on beekeeping in the Brazilian Amazonia in the last 22 years, using the methodology of systematic literature review, the objective is to illustrate how this theme has been addressed in research. In this context, publications have been growing, which demonstrates the attempt to align with the International Initiative for the Conservation and Sustainable Use of pollinators. However, the results point to many gaps in bee production, such as the area of hygienic-sanitary research in combating parasites in hives. In the scope of socioeconomics, the deficiencies are even more evident by the lack of research on policies for financing the activity, analysis of the value chain, among other topics. Given the economic, social and environmental importance of bees, it is extremely important to deepen academic studies on beekeeping in Amazonia.(AU)


Las abejas africanas (Apis mellifera scutellata) se introdujeron en Brasil en la década de 1950 y, por accidente, se cruzaron con otras subespecies de abejas europeas. Esto propició el surgimiento de híbridos hoy conocidos como abejas africanizadas, que tienen características de rusticidad y mayor capacidad de enjambrar. La Amazonía muestra potencial para el desarrollo apícola por sus características y diversidad floral. Así, este estudio reúne las producciones científicas sobre la apicultura en la Amazonía brasileña en los últimos 22 años, utilizando la metodología de revisión sistemática de la literatura, el objetivo es ilustrar cómo este tema ha sido abordado en la investigación. En este contexto, las publicaciones han ido en aumento, lo que demuestra el intento de alinearse con la Iniciativa Internacional para la Conservación y Uso Sostenible de polinizadores. Sin embargo, los resultados apuntan a muchas lagunas en la producción apícola, como el área de investigación higiénico-sanitaria en el combate a los parásitos en las colmenas. En el ámbito de la socioeconomía, las deficiencias son aún más evidentes por la falta de investigación sobre políticas de financiamiento de la actividad, análisis de la cadena de valor, entre otros temas. Dada la importancia económica, social y ambiental de las abejas, es de suma importancia profundizar los estudios académicos sobre la apicultura en la Amazonía.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Amazonian Ecosystem , Beekeeping/methods , Bees
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e250373, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339376

ABSTRACT

Abstract Honey is a suitable matrix for the evaluation of environmental contaminants including organochlorine insecticides. The present study was conducted to evaluate residues of fifteen organochlorine insecticides in honey samples of unifloral and multifloral origins from Dir, Pakistan. Honey samples (5 g each) were extracted with GC grade organic solvents and then subjected to Rotary Evaporator till dryness. The extracts were then mixed with n-Hexane (5 ml) and purified through Column Chromatography. Purified extracts (1μl each) were processed through Gas Chromatograph coupled with Electron Capture Detector (GC-ECD) for identification and quantification of the insecticides. Of the 15 insecticides tested, 46.7% were detected while 53.3% were not detected in the honey samples. Heptachlor was the most prevalent insecticide with a mean level of 0.0018 mg/kg detected in 80% of the samples followed by β-HCH with a mean level of 0.0016 mg/kg detected in 71.4% of the honey samples. Honey samples from Acacia modesta Wall. were 100% positive for Heptachlor with a mean level of 0.0048 mg/kg followed by β-HCH with a mean level of 0.003 mg/kg and frequency of 83.3%. Minimum levels of the tested insecticides were detected in the unifloral honey from Ziziphus jujuba Mill. Methoxychlor, Endosulfan, Endrin and metabolites of DDT were not detected in the studied honey samples. Some of the tested insecticides are banned in Pakistan but are still detected in honey samples indicating their use in the study area. The detected levels of all insecticides were below the Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) and safe for consumers. However, the levels detected can cause mortality in insect fauna. The use of banned insecticides is one of the main factors responsible for the declining populations of important insect pollinators including honeybees.


Resumo O mel é uma matriz adequada para a avaliação de contaminantes ambientais, incluindo inseticidas organoclorados. O presente estudo foi conduzido para avaliar resíduos de 15 inseticidas organoclorados em amostras de mel de origem unifloral e multifloral de Dir, Paquistão. Amostras de mel (5 g cada) foram extraídas com solventes orgânicos de grau GC e, em seguida, submetidas ao evaporador rotativo até a secura. Os extratos foram então misturados com n-hexano (5 ml) e purificados por cromatografia em coluna. Os extratos purificados (1μl cada) foram processados através de cromatógrafo gasoso acoplado a detector de captura de elétrons (GC-ECD) para identificação e quantificação dos inseticidas. Dos 15 inseticidas testados, 46,7% foram detectados enquanto 53,3% não foram detectados nas amostras de mel. O heptacloro foi o inseticida mais prevalente com um nível médio de 0,0018 mg / kg detectado em 80% das amostras, seguido por β-HCH com um nível médio de 0,0016 mg / kg detectado em 71,4% das amostras de mel. Amostras de mel da parede de Acacia modesta foram 100% positivos para heptacloro com um nível médio de 0,0048 mg / kg seguido por β-HCH com um nível médio de 0,003 mg / kg e frequência de 83,3%. Níveis mínimos dos inseticidas testados foram detectados no mel unifloral de Ziziphus jujuba da usina. Metoxicloro, Endosulfan, Endrin e metabólitos do DDT não foram detectados nas amostras de mel estudadas. Alguns dos inseticidas testados são proibidos no Paquistão, mas ainda são detectados em amostras de mel, indicando seu uso na área de estudo. Os níveis detectados de todos os inseticidas estavam abaixo dos Níveis Máximos de Resíduos (MRLs) e seguros para os consumidores. No entanto, os níveis detectados podem causar mortalidade na fauna de insetos. O uso de inseticidas proibidos é um dos principais fatores responsáveis pelo declínio das populações de importantes insetos polinizadores, incluindo as abelhas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pesticide Residues/analysis , Pesticide Residues/toxicity , Honey/analysis , Insecticides/toxicity , Bees , Environmental Biomarkers , Endosulfan/analysis
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245536, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339403

ABSTRACT

Abstract Acacia mangium (Willd., 1806) (Fabales: Fabaceae) is a fast growing, rustic, pioneer species, with potential to fix nitrogen, and for programs to recover degraded areas. The objective was to evaluate the distribution and the functional diversity of interactions and the K-dominance of arthropod groups on A. mangium saplings. The number of individuals of eleven species of phytophagous insects, three bee species, and fourteen natural enemy species were highest on the adaxial leaf surface of this plant. Abundance, diversity and species richness of phytophagous insects and natural enemies, and abundance and species richness of pollinators were highest on the adaxial A. mangium leaf surface. The distribution of five species of sap-sucking hemipterans and six of protocooperating ants (Hymenoptera), with positive interaction between these groups, and three bee species (Hymenoptera) were aggregated on leaves of A. mangium saplings. Aethalion reticulatum (L.) (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae) and Bemisia sp. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae); Brachymyrmex sp. and Camponotus sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae); and Trigona spinipes Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Apidae) were the most dominant phytophagous insects, natural enemies, and pollinators, respectively, on A. mangium leaves. Knowledge of preferred leaf surfaces could help integrated pest management programs.


Resumo Acacia mangium (Willd., 1806) (Fabales: Fabaceae) é uma planta pioneira com rápido crescimento, rusticidade, potencial nitrificador e importante em programas de recuperação de áreas degradadas. O objetivo foi avaliar a distribuição e a diversidade funcional das interações e a dominância-K de grupos de artrópodes em árvores jovens de A. mangium. Os números de indivíduos de onze espécies de insetos fitófagos, três de abelhas e quatorze de inimigos naturais foram maiores na superfície adaxial de folhas dessa planta. A abundância, diversidade e riqueza de espécies de insetos fitófagos e inimigos naturais, e a abundância e riqueza de espécies de polinizadores foram maiores na face adaxial de folhas de A. mangium. A distribuição de cinco espécies de hemípteros sugadores de seiva e seis de formigas protocooperantes (Hymenoptera), com interação positiva entre esses grupos, e três de abelhas (Hymenoptera) foi agregada em folhas de plantas jovens de A. mangium. Aethalion reticulatum (L.) (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae) e Bemisia sp. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae); Brachymyrmex sp. e Camponotus sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae); e Trigona spinipes Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Apidae) foram os insetos fitófagos, inimigos naturais e polinizadores mais dominantes, respectivamente, em folhas de A. mangium. A definição da superfície foliar preferida pode auxiliar programas de manejo integrado de pragas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ants , Arthropods , Acacia , Fabaceae , Bees , Plant Leaves
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-6, 2023. map, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468855

ABSTRACT

The medicinal attributes of honey appears to overshadow its importance as a functional food. Consequently, several literatures are rife with ancient uses of honey as complementary and alternative medicine, with relevance to modern day health care, supported by evidence-based clinical data, with little attention given to honey’s nutritional functions. The moisture contents of honey extracted from University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore honey bee farm was 12.19% while that of natural source was 9.03 ± 1.63%. Similarly, ash and protein contents of farmed honey recorded were 0.37% and 5.22%, respectively. Whereas ash and protein contents of natural honey were 1.70 ± 1.98% and 6.10 ± 0.79%. Likewise fat, dietary fiber and carbohydrates contents of farmed source documented were 0.14%, 1.99% and 62.26% respectively. Although fat, dietary fiber and carbohydrates contents of honey taken from natural resource were 0.54 ± 0.28%, 2.76 ± 1.07% and 55.32 ± 2.91% respectively. Glucose and fructose contents of honey taken out from honeybee farm were 27% and 34% but natural source were 22.50 ± 2.12% and 28.50 ± 3.54%. Glucose and fructose contents of honey taken out from honeybee farm were 27% and 34% but natural source were 22.50 ± 2.12% and 28.50 ± 3.54%. Similarly, sucrose and maltose contents of farmed honey were 2.5% and 12% while in natural honey were 1.35 ± 0.49% and 8.00 ± 1.41% respectively. The present study indicates that such as moisture, carbohydrates, sucrose and maltose contents were higher farmed honey as compared to the natural honey. In our recommendation natural honey is better than farmed honey.


Os atributos medicinais do mel parecem ofuscar sua importância como alimento funcional. Consequentemente, várias literaturas estão repletas de usos antigos do mel como medicina complementar e alternativa, com relevância para os cuidados de saúde modernos, apoiados por dados clínicos baseados em evidências, com pouca atenção dada às funções nutricionais do mel. O teor de umidade do mel extraído da Universidade de Veterinária e Ciências Animais, fazenda de abelhas de Lahore, foi de 12,19%, enquanto o de fonte natural foi de 9,03 ± 1,63%. Da mesma forma, os teores de cinzas e proteínas do mel cultivado foram de 0,37% e 5,22%, respectivamente. Já os teores de cinzas e proteínas do mel natural foram de 1,70 ± 1,98% e 6,10 ± 0,79%. Da mesma forma, os teores de gordura, fibra dietética e carboidratos de origem cultivada documentados foram de 0,14%, 1,99% e 62,26%, respectivamente. Embora os teores de gordura, fibra alimentar e carboidratos do mel retirado dos recursos naturais fossem de 0,54 ± 0,28%, 2,76 ± 1,07% e 55,32 ± 2,91%, respectivamente. Os conteúdos de glicose e frutose do mel retirado da fazenda de abelhas foram de 27% e 34%, mas a fonte natural foi de 22,50 ± 2,12% e 28,50 ± 3,54%. Os conteúdos de glicose e frutose do mel retirado da fazenda de abelhas foram de 27% e 34%, mas a fonte natural foi de 22,50 ± 2,12% e 28,50 ± 3,54%. Da mesma forma, os teores de sacarose e maltose no mel cultivado foram de 2,5% e 12%, enquanto no mel natural foram de 1,35 ± 0,49% e 8,00 ± 1,41%, respectivamente. O presente estudo indica que os teores de umidade, carboidratos, sacarose e maltose foram maiores no mel cultivado em comparação ao mel natural. Em nossa recomendação, o mel natural é melhor que o mel de cultivo.


Subject(s)
Bees , Honey/analysis
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243651, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285608

ABSTRACT

Abstract Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. Ex Benth. (Fabaceae), a non-native pioneer species in Brazil with fast growth and rusticity, is used in restoration programs. Our goal was to assess during a 24-month survey the pattern of arthropods (phytophagous insects, bees, spiders, and predator insects) on the leaf surfaces of A. auriculiformis saplings. Fourteen species of phytophagous, two of bees and eleven of predators were most abundant on the adaxial surface. The values of the ecological indexes (abundance, diversity, and species richness) and the rarefaction, and k-dominance curves of phytophagous, bees and arthropod predators were highest on the adaxial leaf surface of A. auriculiformis. The k-dominance and abundance of Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera) (both leaf surfaces), the native stingless bee Tetragonisca angustula Latreille (Hymenoptera: Apidae) (both leaf surfaces) and the ant Brachymyrmex sp. (adaxial surface) and Pheidole sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) (abaxial surface) were the highest between the taxonomic groups of phytophagous, bees, and predators, respectively on A. auriculiformis saplings. The ecological indexes and rarefaction, abundance, and k-dominance curves of phytophagous insects, bees, and predators were highest on the adaxial leaf surface. The preference of phytophagous insects for the adaxial leaf surface is probably due to the lower effort required to move on this surface. Understanding the arthropod preferences between leaf surfaces may help to develop sampling and pest management plans for the most abundant phytophagous insects on A. auriculiformis saplings. Also, knowledge on the preference pattern of bees and predators may be used to favour their conservation.


Resumo Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. Ex Benth. (Fabaceae), espécie pioneira com rápido crescimento e rusticidade, é utilizada em programas de recuperação de áreas degradadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, durante 24 meses, o padrão de distribuição de artrópodes (insetos fitófagos, abelhas, aranhas e insetos predadores) nas superfícies foliares de A. auriculiformis. Quatorze espécies de fitófagos, duas de abelhas e onze de predadores foram mais abundantes na superfície adaxial. Índices ecológicos (abundância, diversidade e riqueza de espécies) e curvas de rarefação e dominância-k de fitófagos, abelhas e artrópodes predadores foram maiores na face adaxial de folhas de A. auriculiformis. A dominância-k e a abundância de Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera) (ambas as superfícies foliares), da abelha nativa sem ferrão Tetragonisca angustula Latreille (Hymenoptera: Apidae) (ambas as superfícies foliares) e das formigas Brachymyrmex sp. (superfície adaxial) e Pheidole sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) (superfície abaxial) foram as maiores entre os grupos taxonômicos de fitófagos polinizadores e predadores, respectivamente, em plantas jovens de A. auriculiformis. A abundância, diversidade e riqueza e as curvas de rarefação e dominância-k de artrópodes fitófagos, abelhas e predadores foram maiores nas superfícies adaxiais das folhas dessa árvore. A preferência pela superfície adaxial da folha se deve, provavelmente, ao menor esforço para se movimentarem na mesma. Compreender as preferências dos artrópodes pelas superfícies foliares pode auxiliar no desenvolvimento de planos de amostragem e manejo de pragas em A. auriculiformis. Além disso, o conhecimento da distribuição de abelhas e predadores pode favorecer a conservação desses insetos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ants , Arthropods , Acacia , Bees , Plant Leaves , Insecta
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246651, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285627

ABSTRACT

Abstract The medicinal attributes of honey appears to overshadow its importance as a functional food. Consequently, several literatures are rife with ancient uses of honey as complementary and alternative medicine, with relevance to modern day health care, supported by evidence-based clinical data, with little attention given to honey's nutritional functions. The moisture contents of honey extracted from University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore honey bee farm was 12.19% while that of natural source was 9.03 ± 1.63%. Similarly, ash and protein contents of farmed honey recorded were 0.37% and 5.22%, respectively. Whereas ash and protein contents of natural honey were 1.70 ± 1.98% and 6.10 ± 0.79%. Likewise fat, dietary fiber and carbohydrates contents of farmed source documented were 0.14%, 1.99% and 62.26% respectively. Although fat, dietary fiber and carbohydrates contents of honey taken from natural resource were 0.54 ± 0.28%, 2.76 ± 1.07% and 55.32 ± 2.91% respectively. Glucose and fructose contents of honey taken out from honeybee farm were 27% and 34% but natural source were 22.50 ± 2.12% and 28.50 ± 3.54%. Glucose and fructose contents of honey taken out from honeybee farm were 27% and 34% but natural source were 22.50 ± 2.12% and 28.50 ± 3.54%. Similarly, sucrose and maltose contents of farmed honey were 2.5% and 12% while in natural honey were 1.35 ± 0.49% and 8.00 ± 1.41% respectively. The present study indicates that such as moisture, carbohydrates, sucrose and maltose contents were higher farmed honey as compared to the natural honey. In our recommendation natural honey is better than farmed honey.


Resumo Os atributos medicinais do mel parecem ofuscar sua importância como alimento funcional. Consequentemente, várias literaturas estão repletas de usos antigos do mel como medicina complementar e alternativa, com relevância para os cuidados de saúde modernos, apoiados por dados clínicos baseados em evidências, com pouca atenção dada às funções nutricionais do mel. O teor de umidade do mel extraído da Universidade de Veterinária e Ciências Animais, fazenda de abelhas de Lahore, foi de 12,19%, enquanto o de fonte natural foi de 9,03 ± 1,63%. Da mesma forma, os teores de cinzas e proteínas do mel cultivado foram de 0,37% e 5,22%, respectivamente. Já os teores de cinzas e proteínas do mel natural foram de 1,70 ± 1,98% e 6,10 ± 0,79%. Da mesma forma, os teores de gordura, fibra dietética e carboidratos de origem cultivada documentados foram de 0,14%, 1,99% e 62,26%, respectivamente. Embora os teores de gordura, fibra alimentar e carboidratos do mel retirado dos recursos naturais fossem de 0,54 ± 0,28%, 2,76 ± 1,07% e 55,32 ± 2,91%, respectivamente. Os conteúdos de glicose e frutose do mel retirado da fazenda de abelhas foram de 27% e 34%, mas a fonte natural foi de 22,50 ± 2,12% e 28,50 ± 3,54%. Os conteúdos de glicose e frutose do mel retirado da fazenda de abelhas foram de 27% e 34%, mas a fonte natural foi de 22,50 ± 2,12% e 28,50 ± 3,54%. Da mesma forma, os teores de sacarose e maltose no mel cultivado foram de 2,5% e 12%, enquanto no mel natural foram de 1,35 ± 0,49% e 8,00 ± 1,41%, respectivamente. O presente estudo indica que os teores de umidade, carboidratos, sacarose e maltose foram maiores no mel cultivado em comparação ao mel natural. Em nossa recomendação, o mel natural é melhor que o mel de cultivo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Honey , Bees , Carbohydrates
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-10, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468972

ABSTRACT

Acacia mangium (Willd., 1806) (Fabales: Fabaceae) is a fast growing, rustic, pioneer species, with potential to fix nitrogen, and for programs to recover degraded areas. The objective was to evaluate the distribution and the functional diversity of interactions and the K-dominance of arthropod groups on A. mangium saplings. The number of individuals of eleven species of phytophagous insects, three bee species, and fourteen natural enemy species were highest on the adaxial leaf surface of this plant. Abundance, diversity and species richness of phytophagous insects and natural enemies, and abundance and species richness of pollinators were highest on the adaxial A. mangium leaf surface. The distribution of five species of sap-sucking hemipterans and six of protocooperating ants (Hymenoptera), with positive interaction between these groups, and three bee species (Hymenoptera) were aggregated on leaves of A. mangium saplings. Aethalion reticulatum (L.) (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae) and Bemisia sp. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae); Brachymyrmex sp. and Camponotus sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae); and Trigona spinipes Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Apidae) were the most dominant phytophagous insects, natural enemies, and pollinators, respectively, on A. mangium leaves. Knowledge of preferred leaf surfaces could help integrated pest management programs.


Acacia mangium (Willd., 1806) (Fabales: Fabaceae) é uma planta pioneira com rápido crescimento, rusticidade, potencial nitrificador e importante em programas de recuperação de áreas degradadas. O objetivo foi avaliar a distribuição e a diversidade funcional das interações e a dominância-K de grupos de artrópodes em árvores jovens de A. mangium. Os números de indivíduos de onze espécies de insetos fitófagos, três de abelhas e quatorze de inimigos naturais foram maiores na superfície adaxial de folhas dessa planta. A abundância, diversidade e riqueza de espécies de insetos fitófagos e inimigos naturais, e a abundância e riqueza de espécies de polinizadores foram maiores na face adaxial de folhas de A. mangium. A distribuição de cinco espécies de hemípteros sugadores de seiva e seis de formigas protocooperantes (Hymenoptera), com interação positiva entre esses grupos, e três de abelhas (Hymenoptera) foi agregada em folhas de plantas jovens de A. mangium. Aethalion reticulatum (L.) (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae) e Bemisia sp. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae); Brachymyrmex sp. e Camponotus sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae); e Trigona spinipes Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Apidae) foram os insetos fitófagos, inimigos naturais e polinizadores mais dominantes, respectivamente, em folhas de A. mangium. A definição da superfície foliar preferida pode auxiliar programas de manejo integrado de pragas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bees , Acacia/parasitology , Hemiptera , Hymenoptera
9.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 217-230, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970370

ABSTRACT

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a new class of non-coding RNAs, which have been confirmed to regulate insect gene expression and immune response through multiple manners such as competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) regulatory network. Currently, function of circRNA in honey bee immune response remains unclear. In this study, PCR and Sanger sequencing were performed to validate the back splicing (BS) site of ame_circ_000115 (in short ac115). RT-qPCR was used to detect the expression profile of ac115 in larval guts of Apis mellifera ligustica stressed by Ascosphaera apis. Dual-luciferase reporter gene assay was conducted to verify the binding relationship between ac115 and ame-miR-13b. Interference of ac115 in larval guts was carried out by feeding specific siRNA, followed by determination of the effect of ac115 interference on expression of six genes relevant to host immune response. The results confirmed the existence of BS site within ac115. Compared with the un-inoculated group, the expression of ac115 in 4-day-old larval gut of the A. apis-inoculated group was up-regulated with extreme significance (P < 0.000 1), while that in 5- and 6-day-old larval guts were significantly up-regulated (P < 0.05). The brightness of specific band for ac115 in 4-, 5- and 6-day-old larval guts of the siRNA-circ_000115-fed group gradually became weak, whereas that of the siRNA-scrambl-fed group was pretty high without obvious variation. Compared with that of the siRNA-scramble-fed group, the expression of ac115 in 4-day-old larval gut of the siRNA-circ_000115-fed group was significantly down-regulated (P < 0.05), whereas that of the 5- and 6-day-old larval guts were down-regulated with extreme significance (P < 0.001). Ame-miR-13b was truly existed and expressed in A. m. ligustica larval guts, and there was true binding relationship between ac115 and ame-miR-13b. Compared with that of the siRNA-scramble-fed group, the expression of antimicrobial peptide genes hymenoptaecin and abaecin in 6-day-old larval gut of the siRNA-circ_000115-fed group was significantly up-regulated (P < 0.05), while that of ecdysone receptor (Ecr) was down-regulated with extreme significance (P < 0.01). These results indicate that ac115 is truly expressed in A. m. ligustica larval guts, BS site truly exists within ac115, and effective interference of ac115 in A. m. ligustica larval guts can be achieved via feeding siRNA. Moreover, ac115 potentially regulates Ecr expression through adsorption of ame-miR-13b and expression of hymenoptaecin and abaecin using a non-ceRNA manner, further participating in host stress-response.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bees/genetics , Larva/metabolism , RNA, Circular/genetics , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics
10.
Rev. biol. trop ; 70(1)dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1407244

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: El conocimiento de la riqueza vegetal y la estacionalidad alrededor de los apiarios de Apis mellifera es una herramienta de planificación indispensable para los apicultores. Debe incluir la disponibilidad de recursos, las preferencias alimenticias y el comportamiento de búsqueda de alimento. Dicha información no está disponible para las Yungas argentinas, uno de los ecosistemas forestales más estacionales de América del Sur. Objetivo: Evaluar la disponibilidad de recursos tróficos a través de un calendario de floración y su relación con las cargas de polen de A. mellifera en las Yungas. Métodos: En El Fuerte, Jujuy, recolectamos muestras mensuales de septiembre a marzo (2014-2015 y 2015-2016) utilizando trampas de polen. Utilizamos técnicas estandarizadas para los análisis palinológicos e índices de asociación para el uso de recursos. Las fenofases fueron Inicio de floración, Plena floración y Fin de floración. Resultados: Se identificaron 47 especímenes botánicos a nivel de especie y 9 a nivel de género. En ambos períodos hubo una oferta moderada de flores al inicio de la primavera, representada igualmente por plantas arbustivas y herbáceas, con un pico de floración en noviembre. Posteriormente, hubo una caída en la disponibilidad, con un pico de floración nuevamente al final de la temporada. En cinco especies de plantas hubo una asociación de media a alta entre la especie vegetal disponible y la presencia de ésta en el espectro polínico de la muestra de polen corbicular recolectada (Vachellia aroma, Blepharocalyx salicifolius, Cantinoa sp., Vernonanthura sp. y Zanthoxylum coco). Conclusión: En esta región hay una oferta moderada de flores de plantas arbustivas y herbáceas a principios de la primavera, con un pico de floración en noviembre y al final de la temporada. Solo cinco, de casi 50 especies de plantas, muestran una asociación de disponibilidad y uso por parte de las abejas.


Abstract Introduction: Knowledge of vegetation richness and seasonality around Apis mellifera apiaries is an indispensable planning tool for beekeepers. It must include resource availability, food preferences and foraging behaviour. Such information is unavailable for the Argentinian Yungas, one of the most seasonal forest ecosystems in South America. Objective: To assess the availability of trophic resources through a flowering calendar and its relationship with A. mellifera pollen loads in the Yungas. Methods: In El Fuerte, Jujuy, we collected monthly samples from September to March (2014-2015 and 2015-2016) using pollen traps. We used standardized techniques for palynological analyses, and association indices for resource use. The phenophases were Beginning of flowering, Full flowering, and End of flowering. Results: We identified 47 botanical specimens to species level and 9 only to genus. In both periods there was a moderate supply of flowers at the beginning of spring, represented equally by shrub and herbaceous plants, with peak flowering in November. Subsequently, there was a drop in availability, with peak flowering again at the end of the season. In five plant species, there was a medium to high association between the plant species available and their presence in the pollen spectrum of the corbicular pollen samples collected (Vachellia aroma, Blepharocalyx salicifolius, Cantinoa sp., Vernonanthura sp. And Zanthoxylum coco). Conclusion: In this region, there is a moderate supply of shrub and herbaceous plant flowers at the beginning of spring, with peak flowering in November and at the end of the season. Only five, out of nearly 50 plant species, show an association of availability and use by bees.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bees/classification , Pollination/physiology , Argentina
11.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 29(3): 1-12, 2022-08-18. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1399357

ABSTRACT

Background: Bee pollen is a natural product collected and transformed by bees, intended for human consumption, given its nutritional and bioactive richness. The fundamental operation of adequacy is drying, which allows its preservation, avoiding chemical or microbiological degradation, typically using tray dryers with hot air that use electricity or fuel for heat generation. Solar drying is an alternative that uses radiation as an energy source. However, it should be ensured that this type of process guarantees the quality of the product while not degrading its properties and, therefore, maintaining its morphological integrity. Objective: to establish the effect of solar drying on bee pollen structure compared to the conventional cabin dehydration process. Methods: Bee pollen was dehydrated using two types of dryers: a solar dryer and a forced convection oven. The solar dryer operating conditions were an average temperature of 19-35 °C with a maximum of 38 °C and average relative humidity (RH) of 55 %. Cabin dryer operating conditions were a set point temperature of 55 ± 2 °C and 10 % RH average humidity. The morphologic and thermodynamic properties of dried bee pollen, such as phase transition enthalpy through Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), porosity and surface area through surface area analysis, and microscopic surface appearance by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), were measured. Results: The results showed dry bee pollen, both in the cabin dryer and solar dryer, did not suffer morphological changes seen through SEM compared to fresh bee pollen. Moreover, surface area analysis indicated the absence of porosity in the microscopic or macroscopic structure, demonstrating that solar or cabin drying processes did not affect the specific surface area concerning fresh bee pollen. Additionally, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) showed that endothermic phase transitions for dried bee pollen by cabin or solar dryer were at 145 °C and 160 °C, respectively. This can be mostly associated with free water loss due to the morphological structure preservation of the material compared to fresh bee pollen. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that solar drying is a reliable alternative to bee pollen dehydration as there were no effects that compromised its structural integrity


Antecedentes: El polen apícola es un producto natural recolectado y transformado por las abejas. La operación fundamental de adecuación del polen es el secado, lo que permite su conservación, evitando su degradación química o microbiológica, típicamente se utilizan secadores de bandejas con aire caliente que emplean electricidad o combustibles para la generación de calor. El secado solar es una alternativa que utiliza la radiación solar como fuente de energía. Sin embargo, se debe garantizar que este tipo de proceso asegure la calidad del producto a la vez que no degrade sus propiedades, manteniendo su integridad morfológica. Objetivo: Establecer el efecto del secado solar sobre la estructura del polen apícola en comparación al proceso convencional de deshidratación en cabina. Métodos: El polen de abeja se deshidrató utilizando dos tipos de secadores: secador solar y horno de convención forzada. Las condiciones de operación del secador solar fueron una temperatura promedio de 19-45 °C con un máximo de 38 °C y una humedad relativa (HR) promedio de 55 %. Las condiciones de operación del secador de cabina fueron una temperatura de referencia de 55 ± 2 °C y una humedad promedio de 10 % HR. Se midieron las propiedades morfológicas y termodinámicas del polen de abeja desecado, como la entalpía de transición de fase mediante calorimetría diferencial de barrido (DSC), la porosidad y el área superficial mediante análisis de área superficial y el aspecto microscópico de la superficie mediante microscopía electrónica de barrido (SEM). Resultados: Los resultados mostraron que el polen seco tanto en el secador de cabina como en el secador solar muestra que no sufrió cambios morfológicos vistos a través de Microscopía Electrónica de Barrido y en comparación con el polen fresco de abeja, además un análisis de sortometría indicó la ausencia de porosidad en la estructura microscópica y macroscópica, lo que indica que los procesos de secado solar o en cabina no tuvieron efectos sobre el área superficial específica con respecto al polen fresco de las abejas. En adición, los resultados de calorimetría diferencial de barrido (DSC) y análisis termogravimétrico (TGA) muestran que las transiciones de fase endotérmicas para el polen seco tanto en secado de cabina como solar fueron a 145 °C y 160 °C, que puede asociarse mayormente a la pérdida de agua libre, debido a la conservación de la estructura morfológica del material y en comparación al polen fresco. Conclusión: Estos resultados demuestran que el secado solar es una alternativa viable para la deshidratación del polen al no existir efectos que comprometan su integridad estructural


Subject(s)
Humans , Beekeeping , Pollen , Bees , Total Quality Management , Dehydration
12.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 21(1): 73-78, maio 05,2022. fig, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1370699

ABSTRACT

Introduction: envenomation and deaths by bee stings have increased in all regions of Brazil. However, there are few epidemiological studies on them, especially in the states of northeastern Brazil. Objective: to determine the epidemiological characteristics of bee stings in the state of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil, from 2010 to 2019. Methodology: this is a descriptive and analytical epidemiological study conducted through a retrospective survey of secondary data provided by the database of the Notifiable Diseases Information System of the Ministry of Health. Results: between 2010 and 2019, a total of 7,979 cases were analyzed. Incidents were distributed in 356 municipalities, with the highest frequency in the regions of Agreste and Sertão da Bahia. Cases occurred in all months of the investigated years, with a greater occurrence in urban areas, affecting mainly adult men. The anatomical region of the body most affected by the sting was the head and most cases received medical care within 3 hours after the incident. Local manifestations were more frequent than systemic ones. The injuries were predominantly classified as mild and progressed to cure. Conclusions: the high number of cases and their extensive spatial distribution reveal that bee stings may be considered an emerging and neglected public health problem in the state of Bahia.


Introdução: os acidentes e os óbitos causados por picada de abelha têm aumentado em todas as regiões do Brasil. Contudo, existem poucos estudos epidemiológicos sobre acidentes com abelha, principalmente nos estados do Nordeste do Brasil. Objetivo:determinar as características epidemiológicas do acidente por picada de abelha no estado da Bahia, Nordeste do Brasil, de 2010 a 2019. Metodologia: trata-se de um estudo epidemiológico descritivo e analítico realizado por meio de uma pesquisa retrospectiva de dados secundários disponibilizados pelo banco de dados do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação do Ministério da Saúde. Resultados: entre 2010 e 2019, um total de 7.979 casos foi analisado. Os acidentes foram distribuídos em 356 municípios, com a maior frequência nas regiões do Agreste e do Sertão da Bahia. Os casos ocorreram em todos os meses dos anos investigados, com maior ocorrência em áreas urbanas, afetando principalmente homens adultos. A região anatômica do corpo mais atingida pela picada foi a cabeça e a maioria dos casos recebeu assistência médica até 3 horas após o incidente. As manifestações locais foram mais frequentes do que as sistêmicas. Os agravos foram predominantemente classificados como leve e progrediram para a cura. Conclusões: o elevado número de casos e a sua extensa distribuição espacial revelam que o acidente causado por picada de abelha pode ser considerado um emergente negligenciado problema de saúde pública no estado da Bahia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Bees , Insect Bites and Stings/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Factors , Retrospective Studies
13.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 29(2): 1-9, 2022-05-19. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1393060

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Propolis has been considered a highly valuable material due to its therapeutic properties. However, in Colombia, the commercialization of propolis is limited not only by low production but also by the little knowledge about its efficient extraction. Therefore, finding an optimal and economical extraction method to obtain propolis is a necessity for beekeepers that would open new possibilities for industrial use and, therefore, for the market. OBJECTIVES:The objective of this study was to evaluate a conventional and ultrasound-assisted extraction method, seeking to obtain the highest yield and a high amount of content of bioactive compounds in propolis extracts. METHODS: The extraction was carried out for three crude propolis from different types of bees: Tetragoniscaangustula or Angelita (ANG), Meliponaeburnea or Melipona(MEL), and Scaptotrigonaspp (SCT). The extracts were characterized by color, pH, visual appearance, solid content, antioxidant capacity, total polyphenol content, and bacterial inhibition capacity. RESULTS: The highest extraction performance was obtained when the ultrasound-assisted method was used, especially for the ANG extract, which in addition to presenting inhibition for gram-negative (E. coli) and gram-positive (S. Aureus) bacteria, had the best antioxidant activity with a value of 545 mg GAE / 100 g of sample and total polyphenol content of 1,884 mg GAE / 100 g of sample. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound-assisted extraction can be considered a low-cost alternative to increase the extraction performance of crude propolis, together with its total polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity, without altering its physical properties


ANTECEDENTES: El propóleos ha sido considerado un material de alto valor por sus propiedades terapéuticas. Sin embargo, en Colombia la comercialización de propóleos está limitada no solo por la baja producción sino también por el incipiente conocimiento sobre la extracción eficiente de este. Por ello, encontrar un método de extracción óptimo y económico para la obtención de propóleos es una necesidad para los apicultores que abriría nuevas posibilidades para el uso industrial y por tanto para el mercado. OBJETIVOS: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar un método de extracción convencional y asistido por ultrasonido (US) buscando el mayor rendimiento y alto contenido de compuestos bioactivos en extractos de propóleos. MÉTODOS: La extracción se realizó para tres propóleos crudos de diferentes tipos de abejas Tetragonisca angustula o Angelita(ANG), Melipona eburnea o Melipona (MEL) y Scaptotrigona spp (SCT). Todos los extractos se caracterizaron por su color, pH, apariencia visual, contenido de sólidos, capacidad antioxidante, contenido total de polifenoles y capacidad de inhibición bacteriana. RESULTADOS: El mayor rendimiento de extracción se obtuvo cuando se usó el método asistido por ultrasonido y específicamente para el extracto ANG, que además de presentar inhibición para bacterias gram negativas (E. coli) y gram positivas (S. Aureus), tuvo la mejor actividad antioxidante con un valor de 545 mg GAE / 100 g de muestra y contenido total de polifenoles de 1884 mg GAE / 100 g de muestra. CONCLUSIONES: La extracción asistida por ultrasonido puede considerarse una alternativa de bajo costo para aumentar el rendimiento de extracción del propóleos crudo, así como su contenido total de polifenoles y capacidad antioxidante sin alterar sus propiedades físicas


Subject(s)
Humans , Propolis/chemistry , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Ultrasonics , Bees , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
14.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19652, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384005

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and aim: Stingless bee propolis, a resinous compound processed by mandibular secretion of stingless bees, is used for maintenance of hygiene and stability of beehives. Research on stingless bee propolis shows therapeutic properties attributed to polyphenols exhibiting antioxidative, antihyperglycemic and antiischemic effect. However, the cardioprotective effect of stingless bee propolis on diabetic cardiomyopathy is unknown. Methods: Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were randomised to five groups: normal group, diabetic group, diabetic given metformin (DM+M), diabetic given propolis (DM+P) and diabetic given combination therapy (DM+M+P) and treated for four weeks. Body weight, fasting blood glucose, food and water intake were taken weekly. At the end of experiment, biomarkers of oxidative damage were measured in serum and heart tissue. Antioxidants in heart tissue were quantified. Part of left ventricle of heart was processed for histological staining including Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stain for myocyte size and Masson's Trichrome (MT) stain for heart fibrosis and perivascular fibrosis. Results: Propolis alleviated features of diabetic cardiomyopathy such as myocyte hypertrophy, heart fibrosis and perivascular fibrosis associated with improvement in antioxidative status. Conclusion: This study reports beneficial effect of propolis and combination with metformin in alleviating histopathological feature of diabetic cardiomyopathy by modulating antioxidants, making propolis an emerging complementary therapy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Propolis/adverse effects , Bees/classification , Diabetic Cardiomyopathies/pathology , Staining and Labeling/instrumentation , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley/classification , Cardiomegaly/pathology , Eosine Yellowish-(YS) , Drinking , Heart Ventricles/abnormalities , Hypoglycemic Agents , Metformin/agonists , Antioxidants/adverse effects
15.
Rev. Asoc. Colomb. Cien. Biol. (En línea) ; 1(34): 105-121, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1412117

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Para la comercialización y mercadeo es importante determinar el origen botánico y geográfico mediante estudios polínico de mieles colectados por Apis mellifera (A. mellifera). Objetivo: efectuar un análisis polínico en muestras de mieles del departamento del Cauca, Colombia colectada por A. mellifera. Materiales y métodos. Las muestras de mieles fueron tomas en 11 apiarios durante 12 meses (2014-2015) en los municipios de Timbio, Totoró y Piendamó, se tomaron ejemplares de herbario de las plantas melíferas a 2Km a la redonda de los apiarios. Resultados. Se identificaron 110 tipos polínicos inmersos en las mieles, de los cuales la guayaba (Psidium guajava - Mirtaceae) con un 64% fue el tipo más frecuente para el municipio de Totoró, limpia dientes (Gouania polígama - Ramnaceae) con un 18,2% y 46% en Piendamó y Timbio, respectivamente. El resto de tipos polínicos se encuentran en menores proporciones. Conclusiones. Los análisis polínicos demuestran que las mieles colectadas durante la investigación se clasifican como poliflorales por la alta variedad de plantas cultivadas y silvestres que conservan y cultivan los apicultores del Cauca.


Introduction: For the commercialization and marketing of honeys it is important to determine the botanical and geographical origin through pollen studies of honeys collected by Apis mellifera (A. mellifera). Objective: to carry out a pollen analysis on honey samples from the department of Cauca, Colombia collected by A. mellifera. Materials and methods The honeys samples were taken in 11 apiaries during 12 months (2014-2015) to the municipalities of Timbio, Totoró and Piendamó. Moreover, specimens of herbarium were taken from melliferous plants at 2Km from the apiaries. Results: There were identified 86 pollen types immersed in honeys, of which in guava (Psidium guajava - Mirtaceae) with 64% was the most frequent type for the municipality of Totoró. Limpiadientes (Gouania polygama - Ramnaceae) with 18.2% and 46% in Piendamó and Timbio respectively. The rest of the pollen types were found in smaller proportions. Conclusion. The pollen analyses indicated that the honeys collected during the investigation are classified as polyfloral by the high variety of plants cultivated and wild that conserve and cultivate the beekeepers of Cauca.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bees , Honey
16.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 28: e20210047, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1375811

ABSTRACT

Accidents with venomous animals are a public health issue worldwide. Among the species involved in these accidents are scorpions, spiders, bees, wasps, and other members of the phylum Arthropoda. The knowledge of the function of proteins present in these venoms is important to guide diagnosis, therapeutics, besides being a source of a large variety of biotechnological active molecules. Although our understanding about the characteristics and function of arthropod venoms has been evolving in the last decades, a major aspect crucial for the function of these proteins remains poorly studied, the posttranslational modifications (PTMs). Comprehension of such modifications can contribute to better understanding the basis of envenomation, leading to improvements in the specificities of potential therapeutic toxins. Therefore, in this review, we bring to light protein/toxin PTMs in arthropod venoms by accessing the information present in the UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot database, including experimental and putative inferences. Then, we concentrate our discussion on the current knowledge on protein phosphorylation and glycosylation, highlighting the potential functionality of these modifications in arthropod venom. We also briefly describe general approaches to study "PTM-functional-venomics", herein referred to the integration of PTM-venomics with a functional investigation of PTM impact on venom biology. Furthermore, we discuss the bottlenecks in toxinology studies covering PTM investigation. In conclusion, through the mining of PTMs in arthropod venoms, we observed a large gap in this field that limits our understanding on the biology of these venoms, affecting the diagnosis and therapeutics development. Hence, we encourage community efforts to draw attention to a better understanding of PTM in arthropod venom toxins.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Arthropod Venoms/toxicity , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Phosphorylation , Scorpions , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Spiders , Wasps , Bees , Glycosylation
17.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e239219, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153471

ABSTRACT

Salmo trutta fario is the most important fish species of family Salmonidae inhibited in cool waters all over the world including the nortern parts of Pakistan. This study was aimed to find out the prey selection and feeding habits of the species. One hundred and eighty five Salmo trutta fario were captured from March 2016 to April 2017. Feeding intensity as represented by a fullness index (FI), changing with various length groups and season. Out of 185 Brown trout 24 fish stomaches were found empty. The most important and common food items of brown trout were Brachycentridae, Blepharocera, Hydropsychidae, ephemerella spp. Kruskal Wallis H-test were applied on feeding intensity groups consisting of three month group. The test statistic for K.W-H-test were (H=8.13 with df =3) had a p-value of 0.043 < (alpha=0.05 indicates favor of the alternative hypothesis of at least one difference among the feeding intensity groups. The linear relationship of N with index of relative importance and %IRI denoted by least square regression line (N = 35.2 + 22.1%IRI), shows that for 22 prey there is 1% change in IRI. The relationship between total length (mm) and fish body weight (gm) is expressed by Pearson correlation coefficient (r = 0.976), showed that total length (mm) and fish body weight (gm.) is highly correlated. Descriptive statistics are used for the stomach fullness, which shows that feeding intensity was recorded higher from March to May. A total of 2289 preys was recorded including the most common were; Trichoptera, Hydropsychidae, Brachycentridae, diptera, blepharocera, ephemerala, chironomida, honey bees, grass hopper, locust, trout egg, trochanter, plant tissue, stones were retrieved from the gut contents of brown trout. According to index of relative importance IRI% four preys represents major components of the diet. The highest IRI% was recorded in Brachycentridae (39.38%), followed by blepharocera (13.23%), Hydropsychidae (10.76%) and ephemerella spp (8.28%). The relationship between IRI and FO is (r =0.556) is moderately correlated with coefficient of determination (r2=0.31). This study will help in the development of an artificial diet for the species for better growth performance in captivity.


Salmo trutta fario é a espécie de peixe mais importante da família dos salmonídeos, inibida em águas frias em todo o mundo, incluindo as partes do noroeste do Paquistão. Este estudo teve como objetivo conhecer a seleção de presas e os hábitos alimentares da espécie. Cento e oitenta e cinco Salmo trutta fario foram capturados de março de 2016 a abril de 2017. Intensidade de alimentação representada por um índice de plenitude (FI), mudando com vários grupos de comprimento e estação. De 185 trutas, 24 estômagos de peixes foram encontrados vazios. Os itens alimentares mais importantes e comuns da truta marrom foram brachycentridae, blepharocera, hydropsychidae, ephemerellaspp. O teste H de Kruskal Wallis foi aplicado em grupos de intensidade de alimentação consistindo de um grupo de três meses. A estatística de teste para o teste KW-H foi (H = 8,13 com df = 3) teve um valor de p de 0,043 <(alfa = 0,05 indica favor da hipótese alternativa de pelo menos uma diferença entre os grupos de intensidade de alimentação. relação de N com o índice de importância relativa e% IRI denotado pela linha de regressão do mínimo quadrado (N = 35,2 + 22,1% IRI), mostra que para 22 presas há 1% de mudança no IRI. A relação entre comprimento total (mm) e peixes o peso corporal (gm) é expresso pelo coeficiente de correlação de Pearson (r = 0,976), mostrou que o comprimento total (mm) e o peso corporal dos peixes (gm.) são altamente correlacionados. Estatísticas descritivas são usadas para a plenitude do estômago, o que mostra que a intensidade da alimentação foi registrado mais alto de março a maio. Um total de 2.289 presas foi registrado, incluindo os mais comuns foram; trichoptera, hydropsychidae, brachycentridae, diptera, blepharocera, efemérala, chironomida, abelhas, funil de grama, gafanhoto, ovo de truta, trocânter, tecido vegetal, pedras foram retiradas do intestino conteúdo de truta marrom. De acordo com o índice de importância relativa IRI%, quatro presas representam os principais componentes da dieta. O maior IRI% foi registrado em brachycentridae (39,38%), seguido por blepharocera (13,23%), hydropsychidae (10,76%) e ephemerellaspp (8,28%). A relação entre IRI e FO é (r = 0,556) está moderadamente correlacionada com o coeficiente de determinação (r2 = 0,31). Este estudo auxiliará no desenvolvimento de uma dieta artificial para a espécie para melhor desempenho de crescimento em cativeiro.


Subject(s)
Animals , Trout , Rivers , Pakistan , Bees , Diet , Habits
18.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 899-908, Oct.-Dec. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153431

ABSTRACT

Abstract Experiments were performed investigating citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt) as a repellent to honeybee Apis mellifera (L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Egypt, it was conducted in laboratory in the Department of Entomology and Pesticides Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, to check long-term survival of honeybee when exposed to different nano insecticides alone or combined with citronella at the same examination box for each. In this study, we used a modeling approach regarding survival data of caged worker bees under chronic exposure to four insecticides (Chloropyrophos, Nano-chloropyrophos Imidacloprid, Nano-Imidacloprid) each of them was supplemented in a box alone and in combination with citronella. Having three replicates and five concentrations (100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 ppm). Laboratory bioassay of these insecticides showed that chloropyrophos and nano chloropyrophos were the most toxic at their high dose (500 ppm) with LT50 of 120.98 and 122.02 followed by 132.14 and 136.5 minutes for Imidacloprid and Nano-Imidacloprid, respectively. No consumption occurred by bees to mixed sugar syrup with insecticides in all treatments when citronella was added. These data highly recommended that adding citronella is very effective when nicotinoid pesticides are used to longevity honeybee life and keep bee safe.


Resumo Foram realizados experimentos para investigar a citronela (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt) como repelente de abelhas Apis mellifera (L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) no Egito, conduzidos no laboratório do Departamento de Entomologia e Ciência de Pesticidas, da Faculdade de Agricultura, da Universidade do Cairo, e verificar a sobrevivência a longo prazo das abelhas quando expostas a diferentes nanoinseticidas isoladamente ou combinados com citronela na mesma caixa de exame para cada um. Neste estudo, usamos uma abordagem de modelagem em relação aos dados de sobrevivência de abelhas operárias enjauladas sob exposição crônica a quatro inseticidas (clorpirifós, nanoclorpirifós, imidacloprida e nanoimidacloprida), e cada um deles foi suplementado em uma caixa e em combinação com citronela, tendo três repetições e cinco concentrações (100, 200, 300, 400 e 500 ppm). O bioensaio em laboratório desses inseticidas mostrou que clorpirifós e nanoclorpirifós foram os mais tóxicos em altas doses (500 ppm) com LT50 de 120,98 e 122,02, seguidos por 132,14 e 136,5 minutos para imidacloprida e nanoimidacloprida, respectivamente. Não houve consumo pelas abelhas do xarope de açúcar misto com inseticidas em todos os tratamentos quando a citronela foi adicionada. Esses dados recomendam a adição de citronela, sendo muito eficaz quando pesticidas nicotinoides são utilizados para longevidade das abelhas e para mantê-las seguras.


Subject(s)
Animals , Magnoliopsida , Lamiaceae , Cymbopogon , Insecticides/toxicity , Bees , Longevity
19.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(6): 1346-1350, Nov.-Dec. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355683

ABSTRACT

A case of a donkey attacked by Africanized honeybee is reported here with clinical signs of agitation, dehydration, congestion of the ocular mucous membranes, tongue edema, tachycardia and inspiratory dyspnea, and progression to death. At necropsy, diffuse, severe subcutaneous edema at face and cervical regions and severe diffuse pulmonary hyperemia with abundant edema without parenchymal collapse were observed. Microscopically, marked, diffuse deep dermis and panniculus carnosus edema and marked diffuse alveolar edema, with moderate population of eosinophils predominantly around larger caliber vessels were noted. The final diagnosis of anaphylactic shock was supported by history, clinical signs, and anatomic pathology findings. This is the first report of a honeybee attack with pulmonary eosinophilic infiltration in a mammal.(AU)


Descreve-se um caso de ataque de abelha africanizada em um burro, com sinais clínicos de agitação, desidratação, mucosas oculares congestas, edema de língua, taquicardia e dispneia inspiratória, com progressão e morte. Na necropsia, foram verificados edema subcutâneo difuso grave nas regiões de face e cervical, hiperemia pulmonar difusa grave com edema abundante e sem colapso do parênquima. Microscopicamente, foram observados edema marcado difuso na derme profunda e panículo carnoso e edema alveolar difuso acentuado, com população moderada de eosinófilos predominantemente em torno de vasos de maior calibre. O diagnóstico de choque anafilático foi baseado no histórico, em sinais clínicos e em achados anatomopatológicos. Este é o primeiro relato de ataque de abelhas com infiltração eosinofílica pulmonar em um mamífero.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Bee Venoms/toxicity , Equidae , Anaphylaxis/veterinary , Melitten/adverse effects , Bees , Eosinophils
20.
Acta amaz ; 51(3): 214-223, set 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353497

ABSTRACT

As florestas ripárias no Brasil são importantes ecossistemas que sustentam uma enorme biodiversidade. Apesar de protegidas pela legislação brasileira, elas têm sofrido grandes impactos decorrentes da fragmentação florestal. As abelhas das orquídeas constituem um grupo chave de polinizadores na região Neotropical, porém, pouco se sabe sobre suas assembleias em florestas ripárias. Nós avaliamos o papel de fragmentos de floresta ripária e de terra-firme na conservação e manutenção da fauna de abelhas das orquídeas em uma paisagem urbana no sudoeste da Amazônia. Especificamente, avaliamos se assembleias de abelhas de fragmentos ripários e de terra-firme diferem significativamente em abundância, riqueza e composição de espécies. Também avaliamos se a abundância e a riqueza de espécies variam em função do tamanho do fragmento. Machos de abelhas foram atraídos por iscas odoríferas e coletados com redes entomológicas em 10 fragmentos florestais. Não houve diferença significativa entre fragmentos ripários e de terra-firme quanto à abundância, riqueza e composição de espécies, mas houve uma correlação positiva entre o tamanho do fragmento e a riqueza e abundância de espécies. Nossos resultados sugerem que, em uma paisagem urbana, os fragmentos de floresta ripária e de terra firme ainda podem manter 62,7% do número de espécies de abelhas das orquídeas conhecido para a região, reforçando o valor da conservação desses remanescentes florestais. Nossos dados indicam que esses fragmentos fornecem um habitat potencialmente importante para a manutenção das populações locais de abelhas na paisagem. (AU)


Subject(s)
Bees , Forests , Orchidaceae , Pollination
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