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1.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1): 239-245, Mar. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886915

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study evaluated the in vitro toxicity and motor activity changes in African-derived adult honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) exposed to lethal or sublethal doses of the insecticides fipronil and imidacloprid. Mortality of bees was assessed to determine the ingestion and contact lethal dose for 24 h using probit analysis. Motor activities in bees exposed to lethal (LD50) and sublethal doses (1/500th of the lethal dose) of both insecticides were evaluated in a behavioral observation box at 1 and 4 h. Ingestion and contact lethal doses of fipronil were 0.2316 ? 0.0626 and 0.0080 ? 0.0021 μg/bee, respectively. Ingestion and contact lethal doses of imidacloprid were 0.1079 ? 0.0375 and 0.0308 ? 0.0218 μg/bee, respectively. Motor function of bees exposed to lethal doses of fipronil and imidacloprid was impaired; exposure to sublethal doses of fipronil but not imidacloprid impaired motor function. The insecticides evaluated in this study were highly toxic to African-derived A. mellifera and caused impaired motor function in these pollinators.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pyrazoles/toxicity , Bees/drug effects , Neonicotinoids/toxicity , Insecticides/toxicity , Motor Activity/drug effects , Nitro Compounds/toxicity , Bees/physiology , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Lethal Dose 50
2.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1): 219-229, Mar. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886877

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study was done to discover any beneficial effect of a medicinal mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis extract on the honey bee. Firstly, a laboratory experiment was conducted on 640 bees reared in 32 single-use plastic rearing cups. A. brasiliensis extract proved safe in all doses tested (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg/day) irrespective of feeding mode (sugar syrup or candy). Secondly, a three-year field experiment was conducted on 26 colonies treated with a single dose of A. brasiliensis extract (100 mg/kg/day) added to syrup. Each year the colonies were treated once in autumn and twice in spring. The treatments significantly increased colony strength parameters: brood rearing improvement and adult population growth were noticed more often than the increase in honey production and pollen reserves. These positive effects were mainly observed in April. In conclusion, A. brasiliensis extract is safe for the bees and helps maintaining strong colonies, especially in spring.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bees/drug effects , Agaricus/chemistry , Honey , Pollen/physiology , Seasons , Time Factors , Bees/physiology , Reproducibility of Results , Population Growth , Statistics, Nonparametric , Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena/drug effects
3.
Rev. biol. trop ; 64(4): 1737-1745, oct.-dic. 2016. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-958247

ABSTRACT

Resumen:Los efectos de los insecticidas sobre las abejas han cobrado gran atención a nivel mundial, sin embargo, son pocos los estudios sobre el efecto de estos agroquímicos en abejas Neotropicales. Bombus atratus es una especie neotropical, distribuida ampliamente en los Andes y es considerado un polinizador importante de ecosistemas y agroecosistemas altoandinos. Sin embargo, al igual que muchas especies silvestres, se desconoce el efecto de los insecticidas en B. atratus. Teniendo en cuenta lo anterior, el presente trabajo determinó la dosis letal media aguda (DL50) por exposición tópica y oral de las formulaciones comerciales de los insecticidas con los ingredientes activos Imidacloprid, Spinosad y Thiocyclam hidrogenoxalato, ampliamente utilizados para el control de plagas de cultivos importantes en Colombia. Las pruebas DL50 se realizaron a partir de modificaciones de los lineamientos establecidos por la EPPO y OEDE para estas pruebas en Apis mellifera. Se evaluaron 5 dosis para cada insecticida y exposición. Se evaluaron 25 obreras de tamaño medio en cada dosis por duplicado. La mortalidad se registró a las 24, 48 y 72 horas después del experimento. Los datos fueron analizados con el modelo de regresión Probit. Para el Imidacloprid la DL50 tópica y oral fue de 0.048 µg/abeja y 0.010 µg/abeja respectivamente. Para el Thiocyclam hidrogenoxalato la DL50 tópica y oral fue de 0.244 µg/abeja y de 0.056 µg/abeja respectivamente. Para el Spinosad, la DL50 por exposición oral correspondió a 0.28 µg/abeja. No fue posible establecer la DL50 por exposición tópica. A partir del cálculo del Cociente de Riesgo (HQ) e Índice de Toxicidad Relativa, los tres ingredientes activos son altamente tóxicos. Se analiza y discute el riesgo debido al uso de los productos evaluados a partir de la naturaleza química de los insecticidas.


Abstract:The effect of insecticides on bees has gained great attention, however, there are few studies that explore this issue on Neotropical bees. Bombus atratus is a neotropical species broadly distributed in Colombia and is considered an important pollinator of both Andean ecosystems and agroecosystems. However, as for many wild bees species, the effect of insecticides on B. atratus is unknow. In this study we determined the acute median lethal dose (LD50) of commercial formulations of insecticides Imidacloprid, Spinosad and Thiocyclam hydrogen oxalate, widely used in Colombia to control several pests of important crops. The LD50 was carried out by oral and contact routes, following and modifying the EPPO and OECD guidelines to perform LD50 on A. mellifera. We evaluated five doses for each route and insecticide, in a total of 25 medium-size workers for each dose by duplicate. Mortality was registered at 24, 48 and 72 hours after the experiment; and data were analyzed with the Probit regression model. For Imidacloprid, contacts and oral LD50 were 0.048 µg/bee and 0.010 µg/bee, respectively. For Thiocyclam hydrogen oxalate, topical and oral LD50 were 0.244 µg/bee and 0.056 µg/bee, respectively. For Spinosad, the oral LD50 corresponded to 0.28 µg/bee; it was not possible to establish the LD50 for the contact route. The Hazard Quotient (HQ) and Index of Relative Toxicity indicated that all three active ingredients are highly toxic. We discussed the risk of the insecticides use on B. atratus, considering their chemical nature. Rev. Biol. Trop. 64 (4): 1737-1745. Epub 2016 December 01.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bees/drug effects , Macrolides/toxicity , Neonicotinoids/toxicity , Heterocyclic Compounds, 1-Ring/toxicity , Insecticides/toxicity , Nitro Compounds/toxicity , Reference Values , Time Factors , Risk Assessment , Drug Combinations , Lethal Dose 50
4.
Neotrop. entomol ; 36(6): 828-835, Nov.-Dec. 2007. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-473532

ABSTRACT

It was recently discovered that exposure to small concentrations of the essential oils of sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) or pignut [Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit] can be used to control aphids. What is not known is whether these oils also influence honeybee behavior. Experiments using both harnessed and free-flying foragers at concentrations used to control aphids showed that bees readily associated the odors with a reward, discriminated between them, and were not repelled. Honeybees, however, would not consume the oils when mixed with sucrose to create an unconditioned stimulus. An experiment in which harnessed bees consumed various concentrations showed that concentrations greater than 50 percent were detrimental. The experiments reported here provide further evidence supporting the use of conditioning techniques to evaluate the use of essential oils on honey bee behavior.


Recentemente foi descoberto que pequenas concentrações de óleos essenciais de erva-doce (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) ou alfazema [Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit] podem ser usadas para controlar pulgões. O que não se sabe é se esses óleos também podem influenciar o comportamento de abelhas melíferas. Experimentos utilizando abelhas encapsuladas ou livres, em diferentes concentrações usadas para controlar pulgões, mostraram que as abelhas rapidamente associaram o odor a um estímulo aprendendo a discriminá-lo, e não foram repelidas pelo mesmo. No entanto, as abelhas melíferas não consumiriam os óleos quando misturados à sacarose para criar um estímulo incondicional. Em um experimento, em que abelhas encapsuladas foram submetidas a várias concentrações dos óleos essenciais, concentrações maiores que 50 por cento foram prejudiciais às abelhas. Os experimentos relatados aqui reforçam a validade do uso de técnicas de condicionamento para avaliar a ação de óleos essenciais no comportamento das abelhas melíferas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bees/drug effects , Foeniculum , Hyptis , Learning/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Insect Repellents/pharmacology , Insect Repellents/toxicity , Oils, Volatile/toxicity
5.
Neotrop. entomol ; 35(4): 469-476, July-Aug. 2006. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-451244

ABSTRACT

The present study analyzed, the influence of the treatment with juvenile hormone on the ultrastructure of Apis mellifera L. workers' venom glands. Newly emerged workers received topical application of 1 æl of juvenile hormone diluted in hexane, in the concentration of 2 æg/æl. Two controls were used; one control received no treatment (group C1) and other received topical application of 1 æl of hexane (group C2). The aspect of the glandular cells, in not treated newly emerged workers, showed that they are not yet secreting actively. Cellular modifications happened according to the worker age and to the glandular area considered. The most active phase of the gland happened from the emergence to the 14th day. At the 25th day the cells had already lost their secretory characteristic, being the distal area the first to suffer degeneration. The treatment with juvenile hormone and hexane altered the temporal sequence of the glandular cycle, forwarding the secretory cycle and degeneration of the venom gland.


O presente estudo analisou, através de estudos ultra-estruturais a influência do tratamento com hormônio juvenil sobre as glândulas de veneno de operárias de Apis mellifera L. Para tanto, operárias recém-emergidas receberam aplicação tópica de 1æl de hormônio juvenil, na concentração de 2 æg/æl, sendo usado o hexano como veículo. Foram feitos dois controles, um que não recebeu nenhum tipo de tratamento (grupo C1) e o outro que recebeu aplicação tópica de 1 æl de hexano (grupo C2). O aspecto das células glandulares, em operárias recém-emergidas, mostra que estas não estão ainda secretando ativamente. Observa-se que alterações celulares ocorrem de acordo com a idade da operária e da região glandular considerada no controle C1. Assim, a fase de secreção mais ativa da glândula ocorre entre a emergência e os 14 dias de idade; aos 25 dias as células já perderam sua característica secretora, sendo a região distal a primeira a sofrer degeneração. Os tratamentos com hormônio juvenil e com hexano alteram a cronologia do ciclo glandular, antecipando o início da secreção e da degeneração da glândula.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bees/ultrastructure , Exocrine Glands/ultrastructure , Juvenile Hormones/administration & dosage , Administration, Topical , Bee Venoms , Bees/drug effects , Exocrine Glands/drug effects
7.
Genet. mol. res. (Online) ; 1(3): 227-232, Sept. 2002. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-357424

ABSTRACT

We developed a bioassay to measure the flying power of drone, in order to determine which drones could reach a drone congregation area. A wind tunnel was used to test unparasitized drones and drones slightly parasitized by one or two mites during pupal development, and counts were made of the number of spermatozoa that they produced. Drones parasitized with one mite flew as long as control drones ( = 6Æ55ö and 6Æ48ö, respectively, P = 0.512); however, those that had been infested by two mites flew significantly less ( = 2Æ16ö, P<0.001). There was a significant positive correlation (P<0.01) between flight duration and the number of spermatozoa per drone in control group (r = 0.53), and in both the one mite (r = 0.43) and two mite (r = 0.54) groups. Drones infested during development with one or two mites produced 24 and 45% fewer sperm, respectively.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Bees/parasitology , Flight, Animal/physiology , Mite Infestations/veterinary , Mites/growth & development , Spermatozoa/physiology , Biological Assay , Bees/drug effects , Bees/physiology , Insect Control , Insecticides/pharmacology , Metamorphosis, Biological/drug effects , Pupa/parasitology , Sexual Behavior, Animal , Sperm Count
8.
Hamdard Medicus. 1996; 39 (2): 69-71
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-41074

Subject(s)
Bees/drug effects
9.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 1989 Feb; 27(2): 138-40
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-58798

ABSTRACT

Five newly synthesised biphenyl derivatives were evaluated for their acute contact toxicity (LC50) against rice weevil and honey bee and anti acetylcholinesterase potential (I50) against honey bee, fish, pigeon and rat. Amongst, O,O-dimethyl-O, p-Nitro-biphenyl phosphate was most potent against rice weevil, whereas p-(4-Nitrophenyl) phenyl-N-methyl carbamate against honey bee. Based on I50 values the biphenyl derivatives of phosphoric acid esters were more potent anti acetylcholinesterase (AChE) agents against rat and fish brain AChE while derivative of carbamic esters towards pigeon brain AChE. The anti AChE potency of both groups appear to be of the same order towards bee head AChE.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bees/drug effects , Coleoptera , Biphenyl Compounds/toxicity , Carbamates , Cholinesterase Inhibitors , Columbidae/metabolism , Fishes/metabolism , Insecticides/toxicity , Organophosphorus Compounds , Rats
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