Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 1.238
Filter
1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e233930, 2022. graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278481
2.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(3): e20210143, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACSEXPRESS, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339666

ABSTRACT

Temperament often depends on the animals' reaction to people, social and environmental conditions. However, little is known about the influence of changes in the pasture environment on cattle temperament. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate if an animals' temperament changes in response to being kept in a silvopastoral system. This study evaluated the effect of the tree components in a pasture environment on the temperament of any grazing cattle in integrated crop-livestock systems. A total of thirty-two Angus steers were allocated to either a livestock (L) or livestock-forest (LF) system and observed from December 2019 to February 2020. Each animal was evaluated for their reactivity score, flight speed, and number of vocalizations. The statistical model established that the animals were random effects and that the treatments and periods were fixed effects using the MIXED procedure, and the means were compared using LSMeans. The flight speed and number of vocalizations were similar in both production systems, while the reactivity score was lower for animals kept in the LF system when compared to those in the L system. This suggested that the LF system interferes positively with the animal's temperament in relation to the L production system. However, additional research is needed to understand the influence of the production system on animal temperament.


As divergências no temperamento dependem da reação dos animais às pessoas e à diferentes situações sociais e ambientais. Contudo, pouco se sabe acerca da influência de alterações no ambiente pastoril sobre o temperamento dos bovinos. Com isso, a hipótese de trabalho é de que o temperamento dos animais pode ser alterado se mantidos em sistemas pastoris arborizados. Para tanto, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito do componente arbóreo em ambiente pastoril sobre o temperamento de bovinos em pastejo em sistemas integrados de produção agropecuária. Foram avaliados 32 novilhos da raça Angus alocados em dois sistemas pecuária (PEC) e pecuária-floresta (PF) durante o período de dezembro de 2019 a fevereiro de 2020, no qual foi mensurado: o escore de reatividade dos animais; a velocidade de fuga e o número de vocalizações. O modelo estatístico utilizado considerou como efeito fixo de tratamentos e períodos e efeitos aleatórios dos animais, utilizando o procedimento MIXED, as médias foram comparadas pelo recurso lsmeans. A velocidade de saída e número de vocalizações foram similares entre os sistemas de produção. O escore de reatividade foi menor para os animais mantidos no sistema PF quando comparados aos do tratamento PEC. O sistema PF interfere positivamente no temperamento animal em relação ao sistema de produção PEC, observado pelo menor escore de reatividade nos animais mantidos neste sistema. Contudo, o estudo sobre a influência da integração de sistemas sobre o temperamento animal exige mais pesquisas para revelar o potencial deste modelo de produção sobre o comportamento animal.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Behavior, Animal , Cattle , Pasture , Forests , Animal Husbandry/economics
3.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 28(3): 126-131, jul./set. 2021. il.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363897

ABSTRACT

Este estudo objetivou avaliar o comportamento de cães de responsáveis brasileiros, através do Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ) e estabelecer se estes comportamentos apresentam relação significativa com a idade, sexo e castração do animal. O questionário foi respondido pelos participantes entre novembro de 2018 a abril de 2020. As amostras foram divididas de acordo com o sexo (fêmeas ou machos), a idade (um ano ou menos, de um a três anos, de três a sete anos, de sete a dez anos ou mais de dez anos) e o status reprodutivo do animal (castrados ou inteiros). Para cada questionário respondido, foram calculados os escores das 14 categorias de comportamento investigados pelo C-BARQ e, através do programa Biostat 5.3, utilizou-se o coeficiente de correlação de Spearman com nível de significância de 5% para avaliar a correlação entre estes escores com os fatores idade, sexo e status reprodutivo dos animais. Os resultados sugerem maiores escores de comportamentos agressivos em cães mais velhos e em cães castrados. A castração também obteve associação com maiores escores de medo de outros cães. Os achados evidenciam necessidade de estudos que busquem investigar de que modo a castração se vincula com estes comportamentos que podem comprometer a convivência entre o responsável e seu cão.


This study investigated Brazilian's dogs behavior through the Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ) and establish if these behaviors have a significant relationship with the age, sex and neutering status of the animal. The questionnaire was answered by owners between November 2018 and April 2020. The sample was divided according to sex (female or male), age (one year or less, from one to three years, from three to seven years, from seven to ten years or more than ten years) and the reproductive status of the animal (neutered or not). For each questionnaire answered, the scores of the 14 behavior categories investigated by C-BARQ were calculated and Spearman's correlation coefficient with a significance level of 5% was used to assess the correlation between these scores with the factors age, sex and reproductive status of the animals (Biostat 5.3 program). The results suggest higher scores for aggressive behavior in older dogs and in neutered dogs. Neutering was also associated with higher scores of fear from other dogs. The findings suggest the need for studies that seek to investigate how castration is linked to these behaviors that can deteriorate the owner-dog relationship.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Behavior, Animal , Dogs/psychology , Castration/veterinary , Aggression , Human-Animal Interaction
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921811

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated the effects and mechanisms of Jiaotai Pills on depressed mice induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress(CUMS). The CUMS-induced depression model mice were established and the depression behaviors of mice were evaluated by sucrose preference test, open field test, tail suspension test, and forced swimming test. Molecular docking was employed to simulate the interaction of six main active ingredients in Jiaotai Pills with SIRT1. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the level of SIRT1 in the hippocampus of mice. Western blot was used to detect the protein expression levels of SIRT1, p-NF-κB p65, NF-κB p65, and FoxO1 in the hippocampus of mice. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) kits were used to detect the levels of interleukin(IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor(BDNF) in the hippocampus and serum of mice. Biochemical kits were used to detect superoxide dismutase(SOD) activity and malondialdehyde(MDA) and glutathione(GSH) levels in the hippocampus and serum of mice. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(LC-MS/MS) was used to detect the levels of dopamine(DA), 5-hydroxytryptamine(5-HT), and norepinephrine(NE) in the hippocampus and serum of mice. The results showed that the sucrose preference rate, movement distance, and the number of crossing centers were reduced in the model group(P<0.01), and the tail suspension time and swimming immobility time were increased(P<0.01). Molecular docking results indicated good binding of six main active ingredients in Jiaotai Pills to SIRT1. In the hippocampus, the expression level of SIRT1 was reduced(P<0.01), and the levels of p-NF-κB p65/NF-κB p65 and FoxO1 were increased(P<0.01). In the hippocampus and serum, the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and MDA were increased(P<0.01), and the activity of SOD and the levels of GSH, DA, 5-HT, NE, and BDNF were reduced(P<0.01). The treatment with high-dose Jiaotai Pills increased the sucrose preference rate, movement distance, and the number of crossing centers(P<0.05), reduced tail suspension time and swimming immobility time(P<0.01), elevated hippocampal SIRT1 expression level(P<0.01), decreased hippocampal and serum IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and MDA levels(P<0.01), potentiated SOD activity, and up-regulated GSH, DA, 5-HT, NE, and BDNF levels in the hippocampus and serum(P<0.05, P<0.01) in model mice. In conclusion, the results showed that Jiaotai Pills could improve the depression behaviors of model mice with CUMS-induced depression, and the underlying mechanism was related to the up-regulation of SIRT1 in the hippocampus of mice to exert anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative stress effects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antidepressive Agents , Behavior, Animal , Chromatography, Liquid , Depression/etiology , Disease Models, Animal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Hippocampus , Mice , Molecular Docking Simulation , Sirtuin 1/genetics , Stress, Psychological , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880352

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Arsenic is a developmental neurotoxicant. It means that its neurotoxic effect could occur in offspring by maternal arsenic exposure. Our previous study showed that developmental arsenic exposure impaired social behavior and serotonergic system in C3H adult male mice. These effects might affect the next generation with no direct exposure to arsenic. This study aimed to detect the social behavior and related gene expression changes in F2 male mice born to gestationally arsenite-exposed F1 mice.@*METHODS@#Pregnant C3H/HeN mice (F0) were given free access to tap water (control mice) or tap water containing 85 ppm sodium arsenite from days 8 to 18 of gestation. Arsenite was not given to F1 or F2 mice. The F2 mice were generated by mating among control F1 males and females, and arsenite-F1 males and females at the age of 10 weeks. At 41 weeks and 74 weeks of age respectively, F2 males were used for the assessment of social behavior by a three-chamber social behavior apparatus. Histological features of the prefrontal cortex were studied by ordinary light microscope. Social behavior-related gene expressions were determined in the prefrontal cortex by real time RT-PCR method.@*RESULTS@#The arsenite-F2 male mice showed significantly poor sociability and social novelty preference in both 41-week-old group and 74-week-old group. There was no significant histological difference between the control mice and the arsenite-F2 mice. Regarding gene expression, serotonin receptor 5B (5-HT 5B) mRNA expression was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in the arsenite-F2 male mice compared to the control F2 male mice in both groups. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and dopamine receptor D1a (Drd1a) gene expressions were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) only in the arsenite-F2 male mice of the 74-week-old group. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene expression was significantly increased (p < 0.001) in the arsenite-F2 male mice of both groups, but plasma 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene expression were not significantly different. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) mRNA expression was significantly increased only in 41-week-old arsenite-F2 mice.@*CONCLUSIONS@#These findings suggest that maternal arsenic exposure affects social behavior in F2 male mice via serotonergic system in the prefrontal cortex. In this study, COX-2 were not increased although oxidative stress marker (HO-1) was increased significantly in arsnite-F2 male mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arsenic/toxicity , Arsenites/toxicity , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Female , Gene Expression/drug effects , Genetic Markers , Male , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Mice , Mice, Inbred C3H , Oxidative Stress/genetics , Prefrontal Cortex/drug effects , Pregnancy , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/psychology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Serotonin/metabolism , Social Behavior , Sodium Compounds/toxicity
6.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(12): 985-991, Dec. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1155036

ABSTRACT

Inadequate pre-slaughter handling conditions can compromise animal welfare and productivity. This study aimed to evaluate the animal welfare (AW) indexes during pre-slaughter handling and quantify the carcass lesions of beef cattle submitted to different loading densities. A total of 270 Nellore cattle, at 30 months of age, from three farms were used in the study. Each farm presented a different loading density: higher density (500kg/m2), intermediate density (450kg/m2), and lower density (420kg/m2). Three shipments of cattle from each farm with 30 animals each were used in the AW analysis. Ten animals from each shipment were considered for quantification of carcass bruises. The AW indexes were classified according to the five-freedom criterion (physiological, environmental, sanitary, behavioral, and psychological). After slaughter, the carcasses were inspected in the routine line and evaluated for the presence of lesions. Statistically significant differences (p<0.001) were found for all variables studied as a function of AW and bruises. The best AW index and the lowest mean weight of lesions were found at the loading density of 450kg/m2. The highest carcass weight was observed at the loading density of 500kg/m2. Lesions were found in 100% of the animals at the loading densities of 500 and 420kg/m2. In conclusion, the best AW indexes and the smallest occurrence of bruises were verified at the loading density of 450kg/m2. This study confirmed the importance of adequate pre-slaughter handling to ensure cattle welfare and, consequently, greater profitability for producers and slaughterhouses.(AU)


Condições de manejo pré-abate inadequadas podem comprometer o bem-estar e a produtividade animal. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os índices de bem-estar animal (BEA) durante o manejo pré-abate e quantificar as lesões em carcaça de bovinos submetidos às diferentes densidades de carregamento. Para isto, foram utilizados 270 bovinos Nelore, aos 30 meses de idade, provenientes de três fazendas. Cada fazenda apresentou diferente densidade de carregamento: maior densidade (500kg/m2), densidade intermediária (450kg/m2) e menor densidade (420kg/m2). Foram realizados três carregamentos de cada fazenda, compostos por 30 animais cada. Para análise do BEA e quantificação de lesões nas carcaças bovinas foram considerados 10 animais de cada carregamento. Os índices de BEA foram classificados segundo o critério das cinco liberdades (fisiológica, ambiental, sanitária, comportamental e psicológica). Após o abate, as carcaças foram inspecionadas na linha de rotina e avaliadas quanto à presença de lesões. Foram encontradas diferenças significativas (P<0,001) para todas as variáveis estudadas em função do BEA e das lesões. O melhor índice de bem-estar e o menor peso médio de lesão foi encontrado na densidade de carregamento de 450kg/m2. O maior peso da carcaça foi encontrado na densidade de carregamento de 500kg/m2. Em 100% dos animais nas densidades de carregamento de 500 e 420kg/m2 foram encontradas lesões. Pode-se concluir que a densidade de carregamento de bovino de 450kg/m2 obteve os melhores índices de bem-estar e menor ocorrência de lesões. Este estudo confirma a importância do manejo pré-abate adequado na garantia do bem-estar aos bovinos e, consequentemente, na maior rentabilidade ao produtor e ao frigorífico.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Wounds and Injuries/veterinary , Behavior, Animal , Animal Welfare/trends , Cattle/injuries , Abattoirs , Red Meat
7.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(6): 2308-2320, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1142326

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to apply a modified AWIN Goat protocol to evaluate and compare the welfare of adult lactating and non-lactating dairy goats at pen and individual levels on small farms located in Ceará, Northeast, Brazil, and to take into consideration the application of this protocol on Brazilian Northeast goat farms. Five farms with Lactating goats (L) and five farms with non-lactating goats (NL) were evaluated. At the first level of welfare assessment, animals were evaluated in the pen and during the second level of welfare assessment, animals were evaluated in the pen and individually. Indicators assessed were animal and resource-based indicators. Significant difference between L and NL on farms was set at P<0.05. Only queuing at feeding indicator showed significant difference (P=0.027) between groups in pens at the first level welfare assessment. On individual assessments, there was significant difference between L and NL regarding body condition score (P=0.003), overgrown claws (P=0.001) and udder asymmetry (P=0.001). The application of a modified AWIN Goat protocol on farms in Ceará was considered positive. In general, these results demonstrated that both groups are submitted to welfare problems in Ceará, although lactating goats present more challenges to cope.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi aplicar o protocolo AWIN de Cabras modificado para avaliar e comparar o bem-estar de cabras adultas lactantes e não lactantes em termos de baia e individualmente, em pequenas propriedades localizadas no Ceará, nordeste, Brasil, e levar em consideração a aplicação desse protocolo em fazendas caprinas do nordeste brasileiro. Cinco fazendas com cabras lactantes (L) e cinco fazendas com cabras não lactantes (NL) foram avaliadas. No primeiro nível de bem-estar, os animais foram avaliados nas baias e, durante o segundo nível de bem-estar, os animais foram avaliados na baia e individualmente. Os indicadores avaliados foram baseados em animais e recursos. Diferença significativa entre L e NL nas fazendas foi estabelecida em P<0,05. Apenas o indicador na fila na alimentação mostrou diferença significativa (P=0,027) entre os grupos na baia no primeiro nível de bem-estar. Nas avaliações individuais, houve diferença significativa entre L e NL com relação ao escore de condição corporal (P=0,003), sobrecrescimento das unhas (P=0,001) e assimetria do úbere (P=0,001). A aplicação do protocolo AWIN de cabras modificado em fazendas no Ceará foi considerada positiva. De modo geral, esses resultados demonstraram que ambos os grupos estão submetidos a problemas de bem-estar no Ceará, embora cabras em lactação apresentem mais desafios para enfrentar.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Behavior, Animal , Animal Welfare , Goats/psychology
8.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1217-1222, oct. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134428

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Repeated stress is a risk factor for memory impairment and neurological abnormalities in both humans and animals. We sought to investigate the extent of (i) brain tissue injury; (ii) nitrosative and oxidative stress in brain tissue homogenates; (iii) apoptotic and survival biomarkers in brain tissue homogenates; and (iv) immobility and climbing abilities, induced over a period of three weeks by chronic unpredictable stress (CUS). Wistar rats were either left untreated (Control group) or exposed to a variety of unpredictable stressors daily before being sacrificed after 3 weeks (model group). Assessment of depression-like behavior was performed and animals were then culled and harvested brain tissues were stained with basic histological staining and examined under light microscopy. In addition, brain tissue homogenates were prepared and assayed for these parameters; inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), caspase-3, and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2). Histology images showed CUS induced profound damage to the cerebral cortex as demonstrated by severe neuronal damage with shrunken cells, disrupted atrophic nuclei, perineuronal vacuolation and swollen glial cells. CUS also significantly (p<0.05) induced iNOS, MDA, and caspase-3, whereas SOD and Bcl-2 brain tissue levels were inhibited by CUS. In addition, data from the depression-like behavior, forced swimming test showed significant (p<0.05) increase in animal immobility and decrease in climbing ability in the model group of rats. Thus, here we demonstrated a reliable rat model of chronic stress-induced brain injury, which can further be used to investigate beneficial drugs or agents used for a period of three weeks to protect against CUS-induced brain damage.


RESUMEN: El estrés crónico es un factor de riesgo para el deterioro de la memoria y las anomalías neurológicas tanto en humanos como en animales. Intentamos investigar el alcance de lesión del tejido cerebral; (ii) estrés nitrosativo y oxidativo en homogeneizados de tejido cerebral; (iii) biomarcadores apoptóticos y de supervivencia en homogeneizados de tejido cerebral; y (iv) inmovilidad y habilidades de escalada, inducidas durante un período de tres semanas por estrés crónico impredecible (ECI). Se dejaron sin tratamiento (grupo control) ratas Wistar, o se expusieron a una variedad de factores estresantes impredecibles diariamente antes de ser sacrificadas después de 3 semanas (grupo modelo). Se realizó una evaluación del comportamiento similar a la depresión y luego se sacrificaron los animales y se tiñeron los tejidos cerebrales con tinción histológica básica y se examinaron con microscopía óptica. Además, se prepararon homogeneizados de tejido cerebral y se analizaron los siguientes parámetros; óxido nítrico sintasa inducible (iNOS), malondialdehído (MDA), superóxido dismutasa (SOD), caspasa- 3 y linfoma de células B 2 (Bcl-2). Las imágenes histológicas mostraron que el CUS indujo un daño profundo en la corteza cerebral como lo demuestra el daño neuronal severo con células encogidas, núcleos atróficos alterados, vacuolación perineuronal y células gliales inflamadas. ECI también indujo significativamente (p <0,05) iNOS, MDA y caspase-3, mientras que los niveles de tejido cerebral SOD y Bcl-2 fueron inhibidos por ECI. Además, los datos del comportamiento similar a la de- presión, la prueba de natación forzada mostró un aumento significativo (p <0,05) en la inmovilidad animal y una disminución en la capacidad de escalada en el grupo modelo de ratas. Por lo tanto, aquí demostramos un modelo confiable de daño cerebral crónico en rata inducido por el estrés, que se puede utilizar para investigar medicamentos o agentes beneficiosos usados durante un período de tres semanas para proteger el daño cerebral inducido por ECI.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Stress, Psychological/complications , Brain Damage, Chronic/pathology , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis , Behavior, Animal , Brain Injuries/metabolism , Biomarkers , Cerebral Cortex , Chronic Disease , Analysis of Variance , Rats, Wistar , Apoptosis , Oxidative Stress , Nitric Oxide Synthase/analysis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 , Depression , Disease Models, Animal , Caspase 3/analysis , Nitrosative Stress , Malondialdehyde/analysis
9.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(5): 1965-1970, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131550

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to describe the main behaviors of white-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari) expressed in a semi-intensive production system in Brazil. The behavioral activities of two groups of peccaries allocated in two paddocks were assessed, totaling 17 adult animals and eventual pups in different developmental stages. The animals were visually observed using the ad libitum sampling and scan sample methods during the adaptation and experimental phases, respectively. The animals were evaluated in the morning, afternoon, and at night. The behavioral activities observed by ad libitum sampling comprised feeding, pool contact, moving, staying inside the handling area, resting, mud bathing, mutual rubbing, rubbing, aggression, sexual behavior, copulation, foraging, breastfeeding, sleeping, territorial marking, interactions, birthing, gnawing, and other behaviors. All behaviors observed by the ad libitum sampling method were confirmed in the experimental period by scan sample, except for territorial marking and birthing. The effects of time of day were statistically significant (p <0.05) for eating, pool contact, movement, staying inside the handling area, resting, mud bathing and sleeping. These results contribute to the understanding of instinctive animal habits and to the development of nutritional, environmental and health management protocols that meet the requirements of peccaries.(AU)


Objetivou-se descrever os principais comportamentos que os queixadas (Tayassu pecari) expressam em sistema de produção semi-intensivo no Brasil, bem como suas diferenças de frequências comportamentais em função do período do dia. Foram avaliadas as atividades comportamentais de dois grupos de queixadas alocados em dois piquetes, totalizando 17 animais adultos e eventuais filhotes em diferentes estágios comportamentais. Na fase adaptativa e experimental os animais foram observados visualmente pelos métodos ad libitum e scan sample, respectivamente. Os animais foram avaliados nos períodos da manhã, tarde e noite. As atividades comportamentais observadas pelo método ad libitum foram alimentação, contato com a piscina, movimentação, interior do brete de manejo, descanso, lameando, esfregação mútua, esfregar-se, agressão, comportamento sexual, cópula, fuçando, amamentação, dormindo, marcando território, interações, manilha, parição, roendo e outros comportamentos. Todos os comportamentos observados pelo método ad libitum foram confirmados no período experimental scan sample, exceto para as variáveis marcando território e parição. O efeito do período do dia foi estatisticamente significativo (P<0,05) sobre as frequências dos comportamentos alimentação, contato com a piscina, movimentação, interior do brete de manejo, descanso, lameando e dormindo. Os resultados contribuem para a compreensão dos hábitos instintivos dos animais e, com isso, colaborar com a elaboração de protocolos de manejo nutricional, ambiental e sanitário, buscando-se suprir as necessidades dos queixadas. Futuras pesquisas envolvendo queixadas em cativeiro fomentarão os estudos voltados aos aspectos biológicos, conservacionistas e produtivos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Artiodactyla , Behavior, Animal , Animal Welfare , Brazil , Temporal Distribution , Animals, Wild
10.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(2): 224-230, abr. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115492

ABSTRACT

Las alteraciones durante la vida prenatal tienen diversos efectos en los organismos. La restricción alimentaria materna ocasiona modificaciones en la conducta alimentaria como hiperfagia y su exacerbación ante la exposición a una dieta hiperlipídica. La evidencia experimental indica que aun cuando existe una preferencia por los alimentos altos en grasa, cuando las ratas realizan actividad física, esta preferencia disminuye o se elimina. Objetivo: evaluar el efecto de la restricción alimentaria materna sobre el consumo de una dieta suplementada con nuez pecana y cómo influye la actividad física. El experimento incluyó 22 ratas, 11 del grupo experimental y 11 del grupo control. De los cuales 6 realizaron actividad y 5 permanecieron sedentarias en cada grupo (machos y hembras). El experimento duró 114 días, de los cuales 42 días tuvieron disponible la rueda de actividad. Los resultados mostraron que la restricción alimentaria materna no modificó el comportamiento alimentario, sin embargo, cuando incrementaron la actividad por la disponibilidad de la rueda de actividad, los sujetos experimentales aumentaron su consumo de nuez pecana. Los resultados se consideran contradictorios con respecto a la literatura, ya que muestran ausencia de hiperfagia e incremento en el consumo a la par del incremento en actividad física.


Alterations during prenatal life have various effects on organisms. Maternal food restriction causes changes in feeding behavior such as hyperphagia and its exacerbation when exposed to a hyperlipidic diet. Experimental evidence indicates that even when there is a preference for high-fat foods, when rats do physical activity, this preference decreases or is eliminated. Objective: to evaluate the effect of maternal dietary restriction on the consumption of a diet supplemented with pecan nuts and how physical activity influences this relationship. The experiment included 22 rats, 11 experimental and 11 controls. Of these, 6 performed physical activity and 5 remained sedentary in each group (males and females). The experiment lasted 114 days; the activity wheel was available on 42 days. The results showed that maternal food restriction did not modify eating behavior, however, when rats increased physical activity, experimental subjects increased their consumption of pecan nuts. The results are contradictory with respect to the literature, as they show an absence of hyperphagia and an increase in consumption along with an increase in physical activity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Exercise , Feeding Behavior , Animals, Newborn , Behavior, Animal , Body Weight , Rats, Wistar , Caloric Restriction , Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Fetal Development , Diet, High-Fat , Food Deprivation , Food Preferences , Nuts
11.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(1): 263-272, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1088943

ABSTRACT

O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento ingestivo de concentrado e de ordenha de vacas em lactação em sistema de ordenha robotizada (SOR) conforme a paridade. O experimento foi realizado de março a junho de 2014, em Castro, PR, com vacas da raça Holandesa, confinadas em free stall, ordenhadas automaticamente e classificadas de acordo com a ordem de parto (1, 2 e +3 partos). Os dados foram extraídos do software de gerenciamento, sendo consideradas as atividades de um dia por mês (24h), por quatro meses, no dia seguinte após a realização do controle leiteiro oficial. Os dados foram analisados por técnicas de análise multivariada (análise fatorial, canônica e de agrupamento), utilizando-se o pacote computacional SAS. O comportamento ingestivo de concentrado influenciou toda a atividade das vacas no SOR, sendo fundamental para o desempenho dos animais nesse sistema. A ordem de parto não influenciou o comportamento na ordenha, somente o comportamento ingestivo, devido à dominância social das vacas multíparas. As vacas mais produtivas apresentaram um comportamento ingestivo mais agressivo. Conclui-se que a ordem de parto influencia o comportamento ingestivo de concentrado, porém não interfere no comportamento de ordenha de vacas com maior paridade. No SOR, primíparas devem ser manejadas em grupo específico.(AU)


The aim of this study was to assess the ingestive behavior of concentrate and milking of dairy cows in automatic milking system (AMS) according to parity. The experiment was conducted from March to June 2014, in Castro, PR, with Holstein cows housed in a free stall, milked automatically, and classified according to the lactation order (1, 2 and +3 lactations). Data were extracted from the management software, considering the activities of one day a month (24 hours) for four months, the day after the official milk production control. The data were analyzed by multivariate analysis (factorial analysis, canonical and cluster), using the statistical package SAS. The ingestive behavior of concentrate influenced the entire activity of the cows in the AMS, being a fundamental factor in the performance of animals in this system. Parity did not influence the milking behavior, only the ingestive behavior, due to the social dominance of multiparous cows. High-yielding cows had a more aggressive ingestive behavior. It was concluded that parity influenced the ingestive behavior of concentrate, but does not interfere in milking behavior in cows with higher parity. In the AMS, primiparous should be managed in a specific group.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Automation/methods , Behavior, Animal , Milk , Milk Ejection
12.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 46(6): 735-745, dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058136

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional and behavioral effects of a cafeteria diet in dams during the breastfeeding period and in their offspring from weaning until early adulthood (70 days old). Pregnant Wistar rats were fed a chow diet until delivery. Postnatally (D0), litters were culled to 8 pups and lactating dams received control (CTRL n= 6) or cafeteria (CAF n= 6) diets and water ad libitum. At the end of the breastfeeding period, male offspring were placed in individual boxes receiving the same treatment from their respective dams (CTRL or CAF) until adulthood (70 days). All nutritional and behavioral evaluations were performed with the dams (n= 12) during the breastfeeding phase and with the male offspring (n= 24) after weaning to adulthood. CAF dams demonstrated a lower caloric and protein intake; higher intake of fats; loss of weight; greater accumulation of adipose tissue; and an anxiolytic effect. CAF male offspring showed lower caloric intake; higher intake of fats; and accumulation of adipose tissue. In addition, these animals continued to have decreased body weight, body length and tibia-femur length in relation to CTRL. In dams, a cafeteria diet promoted alterations in body composition and anxiety, and in offspring the diet resulted in adequate development.


El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar los efectos nutricionales y de comportamiento de la dieta de la cafetería en las madres durante el período de lactancia materna y en su descendencia desde el destete hasta la edad adulta temprana (70 días de edad). Ratas Wistar embarazadas fueron alimentadas con una dieta estándar hasta el parto. Postnatalmente (D0), las camadas se ajustaron en 8 crías y las madres lactantes recibieron las dietas control (CTRL n= 6) o cafetería (CAF n= 6) además de agua ad libitum. Al final del período de lactancia materna, las proles machos fueron colocados en cajas individuales recibiendo el mismo tratamiento de sus respectivas madres (CTRL o CAF) hasta la edad adulta (70 días). Todas las evaluaciones nutricionales y comportamentales se realizaron con las madres (n= 12) durante la fase de lactancia y con la prole masculina (n= 24) después del destete hasta la edad adulta. Las madres CAF demostraron una menor ingesta calórica y proteica; mayor ingestión de grasas; pérdida de peso; mayor acumulación de tejido adiposo; y un efecto ansiolítico. La prole masculina CAF presentó menor consumo calórico; mayor ingestión de grasas; y la acumulación de tejido adiposo. Además, estos animales presentaron menor peso corporal, longitud corporal, y longitud de la tibia-fémur, en relación a CTRL. En las madres, la dieta de cafetería promovió cambios en la composición corporal y ansiedad, y en la prole la dieta comprometió el desarrollo adecuado.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Diet/adverse effects , Feeding Behavior , Anxiety/etiology , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/etiology , Weaning , Behavior, Animal , Breast Feeding , Nutrition Assessment , Adipose Tissue , Analysis of Variance , Rats, Wistar
13.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(6): 2025-2033, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1055142

ABSTRACT

O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar os efeitos da implantação de pastagem de sorgo forrageiro com diferentes arranjos populacionais no comportamento animal e na estrutura do pasto e de suas relações. Os tratamentos foram a combinação de dois espaçamentos entrelinhas e duas densidades de sementes ha-1, sendo 22 ou 44cm entrelinhas e 12 ou 24kg de sementes ha-1. Foram utilizadas 36 novilhas, com idade e peso corporal inicial de 15 meses e 262kg, respectivamente. Os tratamentos E44D24 e E22D12 apresentaram maior tempo de pastejo (469,33 e 467,78 minutos, respectivamente). Os animais do tratamento E44D24 apresentaram menor taxa de bocado (23,99 bocados minuto-1) em relação ao tratamento E22D24 (32,45 bocados minuto-1). Os animais do tratamento E44D12 apresentaram maior número de estações alimentares minuto-1 (9,21) e maior taxa de deslocamento (11,76 passos minuto-1). O espaçamento entrelinhas de plantio de 22cm aumenta o número de bocados estação-1. O aumento na densidade de sementes (24kg ha-1) e a utilização de maiores espaçamentos entrelinhas de plantio aumentam a densidade de folhas nos estratos inferior (0-30cm) e superior (acima de 60cm) do pasto. Os tratamentos E44D12 e E22D24 apresentaram maiores quantidades de colmos no estrato superior do pasto.(AU)


The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of sorghum pasture implantation with different population arrangements in animal behavior and pasture structure and their relationships. The treatments were the combination of two row lines and two seeds per hectare densities, 22 or 44cm between rows and 12 or 24kg ha -1 of seed. 36 heifers at 15 months of age and 262kg body weight were used. The E44D24 and E22D12 treatments showed higher time of grazing (469.33 and 467.78 minutes, respectively). The animals in E44D24 treatment had lower bit rate (23.99 bites minute -1 ) compared to treatment with E22D24, a higher bit rate (32.45 bits min -1 ). The animals in E44D12 treatment presented the largest number of stations minute -1 (9.21) and higher displacement rate (11.76 steps min -1 ). The row spacing of 22cm increases the number of bits station -1 . The increase in seed density and the use of larger planting row spacing's increase the leaf density of the lower (0-30cm) and higher stratum (above 60cm) of pasture. The E44D12 and E22D24 treatment have higher amounts of stems in the upper stratum of the pasture.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Behavior, Animal , Pasture , Sorghum , Eating
14.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 155(5): 496-499, Sep.-Oct. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286549

ABSTRACT

Sleep is defined as a state of unconsciousness, reduced locomotive activity and rapid awakening, and is well established in mammals, birds, reptiles and teleosts. Commonly, it is also defined with electrical records (electroencephalogram), which are only well established in mammals and to some extent in birds. However, sleep states similar to those of mammals, except for electrical criteria, appear to occur in some invertebrates. Currently, the most compelling evidence of sleep in invertebrates has been obtained in the crayfish. In mammals, sleep is characterized by a brain state that is different from that of wakefulness, which includes a change to slow waves that has not been observed in insects. Herein, we show that the crayfish enters a brain state with a high threshold to vibratory stimuli, accompanied by a form of slow wave activity in the brain, quite different from that of wakefulness. Therefore, the crayfish can enter a state of sleep that is comparable to that of mammals.


Subject(s)
Animals , Sleep/physiology , Astacoidea/physiology , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Electroencephalography
15.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(5): 459-479, sept. 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008268

ABSTRACT

Neuronal cell damage is often caused by prolonged misuse of Methylphenidate (MPH). Topiramate (TPM) carries neuroprotective properties but its assumed mechanism remains unclear. The present study evaluates in vivo role of various doses of TPM and its mechanism against MPH-induced motor activity and related behavior disorder. Thus, we used domoic acid (DOM), bicuculline (BIC), Ketamine (KET), Yohimibine (YOH) and Haloperidole (HAL) as AMPA/kainite, GABAA, NMDA, ɑ2 adrenergic and D2 of dopamine receptor antagonists respectively. Open Field Test (OFT), Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) and Forced Swim Test (FST) were used to study motor activity, anxiety and depression level. TPM (100 and 120 mg/kg) reduced MPH-induced rise and inhibited MPH-induced promotion in motor activity disturbance, anxiety and depression. Pretreatment of animals with KET, HAL, YOH and BIC inhibited TPM- improves anxiety and depression through the interacting with Dopaminergic, GABAA, NMDA and ɑ2-adrenergic receptors.


El daño a las células neuronales a menudo es causado por el uso prolongado de metilfenidato (MPH). El topiramato (TPM) tiene propiedades neuroprotectoras, pero su mecanismo de acción no es claro. El presente estudio evalúa el papel in vivo de varias dosis de TPM y su mecanismo contra la actividad motora inducida por MPH y el trastorno de comportamiento relacionado. Utilizamos ácido domoico (DOM), bicuculina (BIC), ketamina (KET), yohimbina (YOH) y haloperidol (HAL), así como antagonistas AMPA/kainato, GABAA, NMDA, ɑ2-adrenérgico y D2 dopaminérgicos, respectivamente. Se utilizaron las pruebas de campo abierto (OFT), elevación de laberinto (EPM) y natación forzada (FST) para estudiar la actividad motora, la ansiedad y el nivel de depresión. El TPM (100 y 120 mg/kg) redujo el aumento inducido por MPH e inhibió la promoción inducida por MPH en la alteración de la actividad motora, la ansiedad y la depresión. El tratamiento previo de animales con KET, HAL, YOH y BIC inhibió el TPM, mejora la ansiedad y la depresión a través de la interacción con los receptores dopaminérgicos, GABAA, NMDA y ɑ2-adrenérgico.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Topiramate/pharmacology , Mental Disorders/prevention & control , Methylphenidate/adverse effects , Rats, Wistar , Neurotransmitter Agents/metabolism , Mental Disorders/chemically induced , Motor Activity/drug effects
16.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 41(4): 289-296, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011508

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate whether exposing rats to individual or combined environmental stressors triggers endophenotypes related to mood and anxiety disorders, and whether this effect depends on the nature of the behavior (i.e., innate or learned). Methods: We conducted a three-phase experimental protocol. In phase I (baseline), animals subjected to mixed schedule of reinforcement were trained to press a lever with a fixed interval of 1 minute and a limited hold of 3 seconds. On the last day of phase I, an open-field test was performed and the animals were divided into four experimental groups (n=8/group). In phase II (repeated stress), each group was exposed to either hot air blast (HAB), paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) or both (HAB+PSD group) on alternate days over a 10-day period. Control group animals were not exposed to stressors. In phase III (post-stress evaluation), behavior was analyzed on the first (short-term effects), third (mid-term effects), and fifth (long-term effects) days after repeated stress. Results: The PSD group presented operant hyperactivity, the HAB group presented spontaneous hypoactivity and anxiety, and the HAB+PSD group presented spontaneous hyperactivity, operant hypoactivity, impulsivity, loss of interest, and cognitive impairment. Conclusion: A combination of environmental stressors (HAB and PSD) may induce endophenotypes related to bipolar disorder.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Stress, Psychological/physiopathology , Behavior, Animal , Bipolar Disorder/physiopathology , Cognition Disorders/physiopathology , Anxiety , Sleep Deprivation , Rats, Wistar , Cognition , Disease Models, Animal
17.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(8): 555-559, Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019464

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: This study aimed to analyze whether exposure to environmental enrichment (EE) during the juvenile phase of life interferes with the electrical activity of the adult rat brain. In addition, the present research also investigated whether this putative effect on brain electrical activity could be affected by prior overnutrition during lactation. Electrophysiology was measured through cortical spreading depression (CSD), a phenomenon related to brain excitability. Methods: Wistar rats were suckled in litters of either nine or three pups, forming the nourished (N) or overnourished (ON) groups, respectively. At 36 days old, half of the animals from each nutritional condition were exposed to EE. The other half was kept in the standard environment (SE). At 90-120 days of life, each animal was anesthetized for CSD recordings. Results: Overnutrition during lactation caused increases (p < 0.05) in body and brain weights. The EE decelerated CSD propagation velocity regardless of nutritional state during lactation (p < 0.001). The CSD deceleration in the N-EE group was 23.8% and in the ON-EE group was 15% in comparison with the N-SE and ON-SE groups, respectively. Conclusion: Our data demonstrated that EE exposure in the juvenile phase of the rat's life reduced brain excitability, and this effect was observed even if animals were overnourished during lactation. An EE could be considered an adjuvant therapeutic resource to modulate brain excitability.


RESUMO Objetivo: Este estudo analisou se a exposição ao ambiente enriquecido durante a fase juvenil da vida interferiria na atividade elétrica do cérebro de ratos adultos. Além disso, a presente pesquisa também investigou se esse provável efeito na atividade elétrica cerebral poderia ser afetado pela hipernutrição durante a lactação. A eletrofisiologia foi medida através da depressão alastrante cortical, um fenômeno relacionado à excitabilidade cerebral. Métodos: Ratos Wistar foram amamentados em ninhadas de nove ou três filhotes, formando os grupos nutridos ou hipernutridos, respectivamente. Aos 36 dias, metade dos animais de cada condição nutricional foram expostos ao ambiente enriquecido. A outra metade foi mantida na condição de ambiente padrão. Aos 90-120 dias de vida, foram obtidos os registros da depressão alastrante cortical. Resultados: A hipernutrição durante a lactação causou incrementos (p < 0,05) nos pesos corporal e cerebral.O Ambiente Enriquecido desacelerou a velocidade de propagação da depressão alastrante cortical independentemente do estado nutricional durante a lactação (p < 0,001). A desaceleração da depressão alastrante cortical no grupo nutrido/ambiente enriquecido foi de 23,8% e no grupo hipernutrido/ambiente enriquecido foi de 15% em comparação com os grupos nutrido/ambiente padrão e hipernutrido/ambiente padrão, respectivamente. Conclusão: Nossos dados demonstram que a exposição ao ambiente enriquecido na fase juvenil da vida do rato reduz a excitabilidade cerebral, e esse efeito pode ser observado mesmo se os animais estiverem hipernutridos durante a lactação. O ambiente enriquecido pode ser considerado um recurso terapêutico adjuvante para modular a excitabilidade cerebral.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cortical Spreading Depression/physiology , Lactation/physiology , Overnutrition/physiopathology , Environment , Cortical Excitability/physiology , Organ Size/physiology , Reference Values , Time Factors , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Body Weight/physiology , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar
18.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(4): 1116-1120, jul.-ago. 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038633

ABSTRACT

Neuropathic pain occurs when there is a lesion or a dysfunction of the nervous system. Humans and veterinary patients may develop neuropathic pain, but in veterinary it is not often reported probably because of its mistaken diagnosis. A canine patient was admitted to the Veterinary Hospital of UNESP-Jaboticabal-SP, Brazil with a nodule on the left thoracic limb. The nodule was surgically removed, and histopathological analysis demonstrated the tumor was a soft tissue sarcoma (STS) and the margins were not clean. Based on the patient's health condition and the lack of suitable equipment, the next procedure was limb amputation. The patient received analgesic medication in the post-surgery period; nevertheless, clinical signs of neuropathic pain were present, such as compulsive licking and other behavioral disorders. Medications were administered for forty days, but clinical signs ceased only when replaced with a tryciclic antidepressant drug, Amitriptyline. Therapeutic management of the patient in this report can be considered effective, since five years after the end of the treatment there was no recurrence or presence of metastasis.(AU)


A dor neuropática ocorre quando há uma lesão ou disfunção do sistema nervoso. Tanto pacientes humanos quanto veterinários podem desenvolver a dor neuropática, mas na medicina veterinária ela é pouco relatada provavelmente por não ser corretamente diagnosticada. Um paciente canino foi atendido no Hospital Veterinário da Unesp-Jaboticabal, SP, Brasil, com um nódulo em membro torácico esquerdo. O nódulo foi removido cirurgicamente, e o exame histopatológico evidenciou a presença de sarcoma de tecidos moles (STM) e de margens comprometidas. Baseando-se nas condições de saúde do paciente e na ausência de equipamentos adequados, o próximo procedimento foi a amputação do membro. No pós-cirúrgico, o animal recebeu medicações analgésicas, todavia, mesmo assim, apresentava sinais de dor neuropática, como lambedura compulsiva e outros distúrbios comportamentais. O tratamento para dor aguda se estendeu por 40 dias; no entanto, os sinais clínicos cessaram apenas quando os analgésicos comuns foram substituídos por um medicamento antidepressivo tricíclico, a amitriptilina. O manejo terapêutico do paciente do presente relato pode ser considerado satisfatório, uma vez que, após cinco anos do término do tratamento, não houve recidiva nem presença de metástase.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Phantom Limb/drug therapy , Sarcoma/veterinary , Amitriptyline/therapeutic use , Amputation/veterinary , Analgesia/veterinary , Behavior, Animal , Upper Extremity/pathology
19.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(2): 576-583, June 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002261

ABSTRACT

Antidepressants use during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of autism spectrum disorders. Animal models based on early life alterations in serotonin availability replicate some of the anatomical and behavioral abnormalities observed in autistic individuals. In recent years there has been a growing interest in the possible role of the hippocampus in autism. The aim of study is to examine the effects of neonatal antidepressant (CTM) exposure during a sensitive period of brain development on pyramidal and granule cells density of hippocampal formation. We examined the pyramidal and granular cells density of dorsal hippocampus using Nissl stained sections obtained from neonatal citalopram (CTM) exposed rats (5 mg/kg, twice daily, s.c.), from postnatal day 8 to 21 (PN8-21), saline and non-exposed rats. The density of pyramidal cells was significantly increased by 10.2 % in CA1, 10.6 % in CA3 and 13.2 % in CA4 in CTM treated compared with non-treated or saline treated animals (p<0.0001). The density of granule cells in the dentate gyrus was significantly increased by 12.0 % in CTM treated compared with non-treated or saline treated animals (p<0.0001). These findings were obtained only from male rats, suggesting a sexual dimorphism in neural development after SSRI exposure. These data suggest that the neonatal exposure to CTM may induce long-lasting changes in the hippcampal formation in adults, and such effects appear to preferentially target males.


El uso de antidepresivos durante el embarazo se asoció con un mayor riesgo de trastornos del espectro autista. Los modelos animales basados en alteraciones tempranas de la vida en la disponibilidad de serotonina replican algunas de las anomalías anatómicas y de comportamiento observadas en individuos autistas. En los últimos años ha habido un interés creciente en el posible papel del hipocampo en el autismo. El objetivo del estudio fue examinar los efectos de la exposición al antidepresivo neonatal (CTM) durante un período sensible del desarrollo cerebral en la densidad de las células piramidales y granulares de la formación del hipocampo. Examinamos la densidad de las células piramidales y granulares del hipocampo dorsal utilizando secciones teñidas con Nissl obtenidas de ratas expuestas al citalopram neonatal (CTM) (5 mg / kg, dos veces al día, sc), desde el día postnatal 8 a 21 (PN8-21), solución salina y ratas no expuestas. La densidad de células piramidales se incrementó significativamente en un 10,2 % en CA1, 10,6 % en CA3 y 13,2 % en CA4 en CTM tratados en comparación con animales no tratados o tratados con solución salina (p <0,0001). La densidad de células granulares en el giro dentado aumentó significativamente en un 12,0 % en los animales tratados con CTM en comparación con los animales no tratados o tratados con solución salina (p <0,0001). Estos hallazgos se obtuvieron solo en ratas macho, lo que sugiere un dimorfismo sexual en el desarrollo neural después de la exposición a ISRS. Estos datos sugieren que la exposición neonatal a la CTM puede inducir cambios de larga duración en la formación del hipocampo en adultos, y estos efectos parecen dirigirse preferentemente a los machos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Citalopram/pharmacology , Hippocampus/drug effects , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Autistic Disorder/chemically induced , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Citalopram/adverse effects , Cell Count , Sex Factors , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Pyramidal Cells/drug effects , Hippocampus/cytology , Hippocampus/growth & development , Animals, Newborn , Antidepressive Agents/adverse effects
20.
Acta amaz ; 49(1): 24-27, jan. - mar. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1119182

ABSTRACT

We report an observation of predation by an Amazon tree boa, Corallus hortulanus, on an American fruit-eating bat, Artibeus sp., in an area of seasonal forest close to a small stream in the northern Brazilian Amazon. While bats appear to be one of the main food items of C. hortulanus, our observation is only the fourth such event to be recorded in the Brazilian Amazon. The Artibeus sp. individual was observed making distress (agony) calls continuously over a period of three hours, much longer than recorded on previous observations. Records of this type are important to further our knowledge on bat predators, and the defensive behavior of bats. (AU)


Subject(s)
Snakes , Behavior, Animal , Chiroptera , Amazonian Ecosystem
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL