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Int. j. morphol ; 39(6): 1758-1762, dic. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385539


SUMMARY: Formaldehyde (FA), which is an indispensable chemical substance in anatomy and pathology, is a very harmful substance for living things. In our study, the purpose was to investigate the changes in behavior of rats exposed to subchronic formaldehyde with open field test. We divided 24 Wistar-Albino rats into 3 groups. The first group (n=8) was identified as the control group, and normal air breathing was ensured. Low-dose FA (mean 1 ppm) was inhaled in the second group, and high-dose FA (mean 10 ppm) was inhaled in the third group. FA exposure was done for 4 hours, 12 weeks, and 5 days a week. The rats were subjected to open field test during the first week and the last week of FA exposure. We observed significant decreases in the number of vertical movements and grooming in rats in the experimental group compared to the control group in the open field test (p 0.05). As a conclusion, we can argue that FA causes changes in the behaviors of rats regardless of dose and duration.

RESUMEN: El formaldehído (FA), una sustancia química indispensable en la anatomía y patología, pero es un elemento sumamente nocivo para todos los seres vivos., El objetivo de nuestro estudio fue investigar los cambios en el comportamiento de ratas expuestas a formaldehído subcrónico con prueba de campo abierto. Utilizamos 24 ratas Wistar-Albino divididas en 3 grupos. El primer grupo (n = 8) se identificó como el grupo de control y se aseguró una respiración normal de aire. En el segundo grupo se inhalaron dosis bajas de FA (media de 1 ppm) y en el tercer grupo se inhalaron dosis altas de FA (media de 10 ppm). La exposición a FA se realizó durante 4 horas, 12 semanas y 5 días a la semana. Las ratas fueron sometidas a una prueba de campo abierto durante la primera semana y la última semana de exposición a FA. Observamos disminuciones significativas en el número de movimientos verticales y acicalamiento en ratas en el grupo experimental en comparación con el grupo control en la prueba de campo abierto (p 0,05). Como conclusión, podemos argumentar que la AF provoca cambios en el comportamiento de las ratas independientemente de la dosis y la duración.

Animals , Female , Rats , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Formaldehyde/toxicity , Rats, Wistar , Formaldehyde/administration & dosage , Open Field Test
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 34-34, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880352


BACKGROUND@#Arsenic is a developmental neurotoxicant. It means that its neurotoxic effect could occur in offspring by maternal arsenic exposure. Our previous study showed that developmental arsenic exposure impaired social behavior and serotonergic system in C3H adult male mice. These effects might affect the next generation with no direct exposure to arsenic. This study aimed to detect the social behavior and related gene expression changes in F2 male mice born to gestationally arsenite-exposed F1 mice.@*METHODS@#Pregnant C3H/HeN mice (F0) were given free access to tap water (control mice) or tap water containing 85 ppm sodium arsenite from days 8 to 18 of gestation. Arsenite was not given to F1 or F2 mice. The F2 mice were generated by mating among control F1 males and females, and arsenite-F1 males and females at the age of 10 weeks. At 41 weeks and 74 weeks of age respectively, F2 males were used for the assessment of social behavior by a three-chamber social behavior apparatus. Histological features of the prefrontal cortex were studied by ordinary light microscope. Social behavior-related gene expressions were determined in the prefrontal cortex by real time RT-PCR method.@*RESULTS@#The arsenite-F2 male mice showed significantly poor sociability and social novelty preference in both 41-week-old group and 74-week-old group. There was no significant histological difference between the control mice and the arsenite-F2 mice. Regarding gene expression, serotonin receptor 5B (5-HT 5B) mRNA expression was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in the arsenite-F2 male mice compared to the control F2 male mice in both groups. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and dopamine receptor D1a (Drd1a) gene expressions were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) only in the arsenite-F2 male mice of the 74-week-old group. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene expression was significantly increased (p < 0.001) in the arsenite-F2 male mice of both groups, but plasma 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene expression were not significantly different. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) mRNA expression was significantly increased only in 41-week-old arsenite-F2 mice.@*CONCLUSIONS@#These findings suggest that maternal arsenic exposure affects social behavior in F2 male mice via serotonergic system in the prefrontal cortex. In this study, COX-2 were not increased although oxidative stress marker (HO-1) was increased significantly in arsnite-F2 male mice.

Animals , Female , Male , Mice , Pregnancy , Arsenic/toxicity , Arsenites/toxicity , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Gene Expression/drug effects , Genetic Markers , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Mice, Inbred C3H , Oxidative Stress/genetics , Prefrontal Cortex/drug effects , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/psychology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Serotonin/metabolism , Social Behavior , Sodium Compounds/toxicity
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(5): 459-479, sept. 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008268


Neuronal cell damage is often caused by prolonged misuse of Methylphenidate (MPH). Topiramate (TPM) carries neuroprotective properties but its assumed mechanism remains unclear. The present study evaluates in vivo role of various doses of TPM and its mechanism against MPH-induced motor activity and related behavior disorder. Thus, we used domoic acid (DOM), bicuculline (BIC), Ketamine (KET), Yohimibine (YOH) and Haloperidole (HAL) as AMPA/kainite, GABAA, NMDA, ɑ2 adrenergic and D2 of dopamine receptor antagonists respectively. Open Field Test (OFT), Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) and Forced Swim Test (FST) were used to study motor activity, anxiety and depression level. TPM (100 and 120 mg/kg) reduced MPH-induced rise and inhibited MPH-induced promotion in motor activity disturbance, anxiety and depression. Pretreatment of animals with KET, HAL, YOH and BIC inhibited TPM- improves anxiety and depression through the interacting with Dopaminergic, GABAA, NMDA and ɑ2-adrenergic receptors.

El daño a las células neuronales a menudo es causado por el uso prolongado de metilfenidato (MPH). El topiramato (TPM) tiene propiedades neuroprotectoras, pero su mecanismo de acción no es claro. El presente estudio evalúa el papel in vivo de varias dosis de TPM y su mecanismo contra la actividad motora inducida por MPH y el trastorno de comportamiento relacionado. Utilizamos ácido domoico (DOM), bicuculina (BIC), ketamina (KET), yohimbina (YOH) y haloperidol (HAL), así como antagonistas AMPA/kainato, GABAA, NMDA, ɑ2-adrenérgico y D2 dopaminérgicos, respectivamente. Se utilizaron las pruebas de campo abierto (OFT), elevación de laberinto (EPM) y natación forzada (FST) para estudiar la actividad motora, la ansiedad y el nivel de depresión. El TPM (100 y 120 mg/kg) redujo el aumento inducido por MPH e inhibió la promoción inducida por MPH en la alteración de la actividad motora, la ansiedad y la depresión. El tratamiento previo de animales con KET, HAL, YOH y BIC inhibió el TPM, mejora la ansiedad y la depresión a través de la interacción con los receptores dopaminérgicos, GABAA, NMDA y ɑ2-adrenérgico.

Animals , Male , Rats , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Topiramate/pharmacology , Mental Disorders/prevention & control , Methylphenidate/adverse effects , Rats, Wistar , Neurotransmitter Agents/metabolism , Mental Disorders/chemically induced , Motor Activity/drug effects
Int. j. morphol ; 37(2): 576-583, June 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002261


Antidepressants use during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of autism spectrum disorders. Animal models based on early life alterations in serotonin availability replicate some of the anatomical and behavioral abnormalities observed in autistic individuals. In recent years there has been a growing interest in the possible role of the hippocampus in autism. The aim of study is to examine the effects of neonatal antidepressant (CTM) exposure during a sensitive period of brain development on pyramidal and granule cells density of hippocampal formation. We examined the pyramidal and granular cells density of dorsal hippocampus using Nissl stained sections obtained from neonatal citalopram (CTM) exposed rats (5 mg/kg, twice daily, s.c.), from postnatal day 8 to 21 (PN8-21), saline and non-exposed rats. The density of pyramidal cells was significantly increased by 10.2 % in CA1, 10.6 % in CA3 and 13.2 % in CA4 in CTM treated compared with non-treated or saline treated animals (p<0.0001). The density of granule cells in the dentate gyrus was significantly increased by 12.0 % in CTM treated compared with non-treated or saline treated animals (p<0.0001). These findings were obtained only from male rats, suggesting a sexual dimorphism in neural development after SSRI exposure. These data suggest that the neonatal exposure to CTM may induce long-lasting changes in the hippcampal formation in adults, and such effects appear to preferentially target males.

El uso de antidepresivos durante el embarazo se asoció con un mayor riesgo de trastornos del espectro autista. Los modelos animales basados en alteraciones tempranas de la vida en la disponibilidad de serotonina replican algunas de las anomalías anatómicas y de comportamiento observadas en individuos autistas. En los últimos años ha habido un interés creciente en el posible papel del hipocampo en el autismo. El objetivo del estudio fue examinar los efectos de la exposición al antidepresivo neonatal (CTM) durante un período sensible del desarrollo cerebral en la densidad de las células piramidales y granulares de la formación del hipocampo. Examinamos la densidad de las células piramidales y granulares del hipocampo dorsal utilizando secciones teñidas con Nissl obtenidas de ratas expuestas al citalopram neonatal (CTM) (5 mg / kg, dos veces al día, sc), desde el día postnatal 8 a 21 (PN8-21), solución salina y ratas no expuestas. La densidad de células piramidales se incrementó significativamente en un 10,2 % en CA1, 10,6 % en CA3 y 13,2 % en CA4 en CTM tratados en comparación con animales no tratados o tratados con solución salina (p <0,0001). La densidad de células granulares en el giro dentado aumentó significativamente en un 12,0 % en los animales tratados con CTM en comparación con los animales no tratados o tratados con solución salina (p <0,0001). Estos hallazgos se obtuvieron solo en ratas macho, lo que sugiere un dimorfismo sexual en el desarrollo neural después de la exposición a ISRS. Estos datos sugieren que la exposición neonatal a la CTM puede inducir cambios de larga duración en la formación del hipocampo en adultos, y estos efectos parecen dirigirse preferentemente a los machos.

Animals , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Citalopram/pharmacology , Hippocampus/drug effects , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Autistic Disorder/chemically induced , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Citalopram/adverse effects , Cell Count , Sex Factors , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Pyramidal Cells/drug effects , Hippocampus/cytology , Hippocampus/growth & development , Animals, Newborn , Antidepressive Agents/adverse effects
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(11): e8899, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039258


Few behavioral tests allow measuring several characteristics and most require training, complex analyses, and/or are time-consuming. We present an apparatus based on rat exploratory behavior. Composed of three different environments, it allows the assessment of more than one behavioral characteristic in a short 3-min session. Factorial analyses have defined three behavioral dimensions, which we named Exploration, Impulsivity, and Self-protection. Behaviors composing the Exploration factor were increased by chlordiazepoxide and apomorphine and decreased by pentylenetetrazole. Behaviors composing the Impulsivity factor were increased by chlordiazepoxide, apomorphine, and both acute and chronic imipramine treatments. Behaviors composing the Self-protection factor were decreased by apomorphine. We submitted Wistar rats to the open-field test, the elevated-plus maze, and to the apparatus we are proposing. Measures related to exploratory behavior in all three tests were correlated. Measures composing the factors Impulsivity and Self-protection did not correlate with any measures from the two standard tests. Also, compared with existing impulsivity tests, the one we proposed did not require previous learning, training, or sophisticated analysis. Exploration measures from our test are as easy to obtain as the ones from other standard tests. Thus, we have proposed an apparatus that measured three different behavioral characteristics, was simple and fast, did not require subjects to be submitted to previous learning or training, was sensitive to drug treatments, and did not require sophisticated data analyses.

Animals , Male , Anxiety/psychology , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Behavioral Research/instrumentation , Exploratory Behavior/physiology , Fear/physiology , Impulsive Behavior/physiology , Time Factors , Anti-Anxiety Agents/pharmacology , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Apomorphine/pharmacology , Chlordiazepoxide/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Maze Learning/drug effects , GABA Antagonists/pharmacology , Dopamine Agonists/pharmacology , Exploratory Behavior/drug effects , Fear/drug effects , Impulsive Behavior/drug effects , Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic/pharmacology
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(11): e8441, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039261


The heptapeptide Bj-PRO-7a, isolated and identified from Bothrops jararaca (Bj) venom, produces antihypertensive and other cardiovascular effects that are independent on angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition, possibly relying on cholinergic muscarinic receptors subtype 1 (M1R). However, whether Bj-PRO-7a acts upon the central nervous system and modifies behavior is yet to be determined. Therefore, the aims of this study were: i) to assess the effects of acute administration of Bj-PRO-7a upon behavior; ii) to reveal mechanisms involved in the effects of Bj-PRO-7a upon locomotion/exploration, anxiety, and depression-like behaviors. For this purpose, adult male Wistar (WT, wild type) and spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR) received intraperitoneal injections of vehicle (0.9% NaCl), diazepam (2 mg/kg), imipramine (15 mg/kg), Bj-PRO-7a (71, 213 or 426 nmol/kg), pirenzepine (852 nmol/kg), α-methyl-DL-tyrosine (200 mg/kg), or chlorpromazine (2 mg/kg), and underwent elevated plus maze, open field, and forced swimming tests. The heptapeptide promoted anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects and increased locomotion/exploration. These effects of Bj-PRO-7a seem to be dependent on M1R activation and dopaminergic receptors and rely on catecholaminergic pathways.

Animals , Male , Rats , Oligopeptides/pharmacology , Anxiety , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Crotalid Venoms/chemistry , Depression , Exploratory Behavior/drug effects , Oligopeptides/isolation & purification , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Proline/isolation & purification , Proline/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 40(2): 169-173, Apr.-June 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-959225


Objective: N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is beneficial in psychiatric conditions, including schizophrenia. Patients with schizophrenia exhibit mesolimbic dopamine hyperfunction consequent to an endogenous sensitization process. This sensitization can be modeled in rodents by repeated exposure to psychostimulants, provoking an enduring amplified response at subsequent exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of NAC on amphetamine sensitization in mice. Methods: D-amphetamine was administered to C57BL/6 mice three times a week for 3 weeks; the dose was increased weekly from 1 to 3 mg/kg. NAC (60 mg/kg) or saline was administered intraperitoneally before saline or amphetamine during the second and third weeks. After a 4-week washout period, latent inhibition (LI) and the locomotor response to amphetamine 2 mg/kg were assessed. Results: Sensitization disrupted LI and amplified the locomotor response; NAC disrupted LI in control mice. In sensitized animals, NAC attenuated the enhanced locomotion but failed to prevent LI disruption. Conclusion: NAC warrants consideration as a candidate for early intervention in ultra-high risk subjects due to its safety profile and the relevance of its mechanism of action. Supplementing this proposition, we report that NAC attenuates sensitization-induced locomotor enhancement in mice. The finding that NAC disrupted LI incites a cautionary note and requires clarification.

Animals , Male , Rats , Acetylcysteine/pharmacology , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Central Nervous System Stimulants/pharmacology , Motor Activity/drug effects , Acetylcysteine/administration & dosage , Disease Models, Animal , Amphetamine/administration & dosage , Central Nervous System Stimulants/administration & dosage , Mice, Inbred C57BL
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1): 239-245, Mar. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886915


ABSTRACT This study evaluated the in vitro toxicity and motor activity changes in African-derived adult honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) exposed to lethal or sublethal doses of the insecticides fipronil and imidacloprid. Mortality of bees was assessed to determine the ingestion and contact lethal dose for 24 h using probit analysis. Motor activities in bees exposed to lethal (LD50) and sublethal doses (1/500th of the lethal dose) of both insecticides were evaluated in a behavioral observation box at 1 and 4 h. Ingestion and contact lethal doses of fipronil were 0.2316 ? 0.0626 and 0.0080 ? 0.0021 μg/bee, respectively. Ingestion and contact lethal doses of imidacloprid were 0.1079 ? 0.0375 and 0.0308 ? 0.0218 μg/bee, respectively. Motor function of bees exposed to lethal doses of fipronil and imidacloprid was impaired; exposure to sublethal doses of fipronil but not imidacloprid impaired motor function. The insecticides evaluated in this study were highly toxic to African-derived A. mellifera and caused impaired motor function in these pollinators.

Animals , Pyrazoles/toxicity , Bees/drug effects , Neonicotinoids/toxicity , Insecticides/toxicity , Motor Activity/drug effects , Nitro Compounds/toxicity , Bees/physiology , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Lethal Dose 50
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(1): e6388, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889014


The abuse of psychoactive drugs is considered a global health problem. During the last years, a relevant number of studies have investigated the relationship between anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) and other psychoactive drugs. AAS, such as testosterone, can cause a dependence syndrome that shares many features with the classical dependence to psychoactive substances. Pre-clinical evidence shows that there are interactions between testosterone and psychoactive drugs, such as cocaine. However, few studies have been performed to investigate the effect of repeated testosterone treatment on behavioral effects of amphetamine derivatives, such as fenproporex. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of repeated testosterone administration on fenproporex-induced locomotor activity in adolescent and adult rats. Adolescent male Wistar rats were injected with testosterone (10 mg/kg sc for 10 days). After 3 days, animals received an acute injection of fenproporex (3.0 mg/kg ip) and the locomotor activity was recorded during 40 min. Thirty days later, the same animals received the same treatment with testosterone followed by a fenproporex challenge injection as described above. Our results demonstrated that repeated testosterone induced behavioral sensitization to fenproporex in adolescent but not in adult rats. These findings suggest that repeated AAS treatment might increase the dependence vulnerability to amphetamine and its derivatives in adolescent rats.

Animals , Male , Amphetamines/pharmacology , Anabolic Agents/pharmacology , Androgens/pharmacology , Locomotion/drug effects , Testosterone/adverse effects , Time Factors , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Age Factors , Rats, Wistar , Drug Interactions , Amphetamines/adverse effects , Anabolic Agents/adverse effects , Androgens/adverse effects , Injections, Subcutaneous
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3): 1655-1669, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886724


ABSTRACT Immobility time in the forced swimming has been described as analogous to emotional blunting or apathy and has been used for characterizing schizophrenia animal models. Several clinical studies support the use of NMDA receptor antagonists to model schizophrenia in rodents. Some works describe the effects of ketamine on immobility behavior but there is variability in the experimental design used leading to controversial results. In this study, we evaluated the effects of repeated administration of ketamine sub-anesthetic doses in forced swimming, locomotion in response to novelty and novel object recognition, aiming a broader evaluation of the usefulness of this experimental approach for modeling schizophrenia in mice. Ketamine (30 mg/kg/day i.p. for 14 days) induced a not persistent decrease in immobility time, detected 24h but not 72h after treatment. This same administration protocol induced a deficit in novel object recognition. No change was observed in mice locomotion. Our results confirm that repeated administration of sub-anesthetic doses of ketamine is useful in modeling schizophrenia-related behavioral changes in mice. However, the immobility time during forced swimming does not seem to be a good endpoint to evaluate the modeling of negative symptoms in NMDAR antagonist animal models of schizophrenia.

Animals , Male , Rabbits , Schizophrenia/physiopathology , Swimming/physiology , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Ketamine/pharmacology , Anesthetics, Dissociative/pharmacology , Schizophrenia/chemically induced , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Immobilization/physiology , Motor Activity/drug effects , Motor Activity/physiology
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(7): e6036, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839321


Ayahuasca is a beverage obtained from decoctions of the Banisteriopsis caapi plus Psychotria viridis. In religious contexts, ayahuasca is used by different age groups. However, little is known of the effects of ayahuasca during ontogenic development, particularly with regard to the functional characteristics of the central nervous system. Animal models are useful for studying the ontogenic effects of ayahuasca because they allow exclusion of the behavioral influence associated with the ritualistic use. We investigated the effects of exposure to ayahuasca (1.5 mL/kg, orally, twice a week) on memory and anxiety in C57BL/6 mice, with the post-natal day (PND) being used as the ontogenic criterion for classification: childhood (PND21 to PND35), adolescence (PND35 to PND63), adulthood (PND90-PND118), childhood-adolescence (PND21 to PND63), childhood-adulthood (PND21 to PND118) and adolescence-adulthood (PND35 to PND118). One day after the last ayahuasca exposure, the mice were subjected to the Morris water maze (MWM), open field and elevated plus maze tasks (EPM). Ayahuasca did not affect locomotion in the open field or open arms exploration in the EPM, but increased the risk assessment behavior in the childhood group. Ayahuasca did not cause any change in acquisition of spatial reference memory in the MWM task, but decreased the time spent on the platform quadrant during the test session in the adolescence group. These results suggest that, in mice, exposure to ayahuasca in childhood and adolescence promoted anxiety and memory impairment, respectively. However, these behavioral changes were not long-lasting since they were not observed in the childhood-adulthood and adolescence-adulthood groups.

Animals , Male , Mice , Banisteriopsis/chemistry , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Locomotion/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Maze Learning , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Models, Animal
Braz. j. biol ; 76(2): 506-510, Apr.-June 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-781390


Abstract Captive animals exhibit stereotypic pacing in response to multiple causes, including the inability to escape from human contact. Environmental enrichment techniques can minimize pacing expression. By using an individual-based approach, we addressed whether the amount of time two males and a female jaguar (Panthera onca) devote to pacing varied with the number of visitors and tested the effectiveness of cinnamon and black pepper in reducing pacing. The amount of time that all jaguars engaged in pacing increased significantly with the number of visitors. Despite the difference between the males regarding age and housing conditions, both devoted significantly less time to pacing following the addition of both spices, which indicates their suitability as enrichment techniques. Mean time devoted to pacing among the treatments did not differ for the female. Our findings pointed out to the validity of individual-based approaches, as they can reveal how suitable olfactory stimuli are to minimizing stereotypies irrespective of particular traits.

Resumo Animais cativos exibem a estereotipia pacing em resposta a múltiplos fatores, os quais incluem a incapacidade de escapar da exposição ao público. As técnicas de enriquecimento ambiental podem minimizar a expressão do pacing. Usando uma abordagem individual, nós investigamos se a extensão de tempo que dois machos e uma fêmea de onça-pintada (Panthera onca) dispendem com pacing variou em função do número de visitantes e testamos a eficácia da canela e da pimenta-do-reino na redução do pacing. A extensão de tempo em pacing aumentou significativamente com o número de visitantes para todos os indivíduos. Apesar da diferença entre os machos com relação à idade e às condições no cativeiro, ambos devotaram ao pacing menos tempo após a administração das duas especiarias, o que indica a adequabilidade dessas como técnicas de enriquecimento. Para a fêmea, o tempo médio dispendido com pacing não variou entre os tratamentos. Nossos resultados respaldam a validade da realização de abordagens individuais, uma vez que essas podem revelar o grau de eficácia dos estímulos olfativos na minimização de estereotipias independentemente de características particulares.

Animals , Male , Female , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Panthera/physiology , Panthera/psychology , Animals, Zoo/physiology , Animals, Zoo/psychology , Physical Stimulation/methods , Smell/physiology , Stereotyped Behavior/drug effects , Stereotyped Behavior/physiology , Sex Factors , Reproducibility of Results , Spices , Environment
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(5): e5135, 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-778343


The heme oxygenase-carbon monoxide pathway has been shown to play an important role in many physiological processes and is capable of altering nociception modulation in the nervous system by stimulating soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC). In the central nervous system, the locus coeruleus (LC) is known to be a region that expresses the heme oxygenase enzyme (HO), which catalyzes the metabolism of heme to carbon monoxide (CO). Additionally, several lines of evidence have suggested that the LC can be involved in the modulation of emotional states such as fear and anxiety. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the activation of the heme oxygenase-carbon monoxide pathway in the LC in the modulation of anxiety by using the elevated plus maze test (EPM) and light-dark box test (LDB) in rats. Experiments were performed on adult male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g (n=182). The results showed that the intra-LC microinjection of heme-lysinate (600 nmol), a substrate for the enzyme HO, increased the number of entries into the open arms and the percentage of time spent in open arms in the elevated plus maze test, indicating a decrease in anxiety. Additionally, in the LDB test, intra-LC administration of heme-lysinate promoted an increase on time spent in the light compartment of the box. The intracerebroventricular microinjection of guanylate cyclase, an sGC inhibitor followed by the intra-LC microinjection of the heme-lysinate blocked the anxiolytic-like reaction on the EPM test and LDB test. It can therefore be concluded that CO in the LC produced by the HO pathway and acting via cGMP plays an anxiolytic-like role in the LC of rats.

Animals , Male , Rats , Anti-Anxiety Agents/pharmacology , Anxiety/metabolism , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Carbon Monoxide/metabolism , Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing)/metabolism , Locus Coeruleus/metabolism , Signal Transduction/physiology , Carbon Monoxide/physiology , Guanylate Cyclase/metabolism , Locus Coeruleus/drug effects , Locus Coeruleus/physiology , Maze Learning , Rats, Wistar
Int. j. morphol ; 33(4): 1518-1524, Dec. 2015. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-772347


El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar el efecto del compuesto fenólico polifuncional DM1 sobre el comportamiento motor, exploratório y ansiedad en ratas Wistar, analizadas en campo abierto (CA) y laberinto en cruz elevada (LCE). Se utilizaron 40 ratas Wistar adultas, divididas en 5 grupos (n= 8): Control (vehículo), DZP (Diazepam-2 mg/kg), DM1-150 mg/kg, DM1-300 mg/kg y DM1-450 mg/kg. Los animales fueron evaluados por un período de cinco minutos en CA y en el LCE, 30 min después de las administraciones (vía intraperitoneal). La evaluación en CA demostró reducción de la locomoción en los grupos DZP, DM1-300 y DM1-450 en relación al grupo control. Aumentó la locomoción en el grupo DM1-150 en relación al grupo DZP y disminuyó la locomoción en el grupo DM1-300 en relación al grupo DM1-150. Hubo disminución del levantar del grupo DZP en relación al grupo control. El grupo DM1-150 presentó aumento del levantar en relación al grupo DZP. Aumentó el tiempo estático (TE) en el grupo DZP y se redujo en el grupo DM1-300, ambos en relación al grupo control. El grupo DM1-150 presentó disminución del TE en relación al grupo DZP. La evaluación LCE presentó reducción del número de entradas en los brazos abiertos en el grupo DZP en relación al grupo control. Hubo reducción del número de entradas en los brazos cerrados en el grupo DZP en relación al grupo control y aumento de este parámetro en el grupo DM1-150 mg en relación al grupo DZP. Se redujó el número de cruzamientos entre los brazos cerrados en el grupo DZP en relación al grupo control. Los resultados en conjunto, sugieren que las dosis del compuesto fenólico polifuncional DM1 por sobre 150mg, tienen influencia en el estado emocional de los animales, indicando posible acción sedativa con probable inducción de relajamiento muscular.

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of polyfunctional phenolic compound DM1 on the motor behavior, exploratory and anxiety in Wistar rats tested in open field (OF) and in elevated plus-maze (EPM). We used 40 adult Wistar rats divided in 5 groups (n= 8): Control (vehicle), DZP (diazepam-2 mg/kg), DM1-150 mg/kg, DM1-300 mg/kg and DM1-450 mg/kg. The animals were evaluated for a period of five minutes in the OF and EPM, 30 min after administrations (intraperitoneally). The evaluation in OF showed reduction in the locomotion in the DZP, DM1-300 and DM1-450 groups relative to the control group. It increased locomotion in DM1-150 group relative to the DZP group and decreased locomotion in DM1-300 group relative to the group DM1-150. There was decrease of the lifting action in the DZP group relative to the control group. The DM1-150 group presented increase of the lifting action compared to DZP group. It increased the static time (ST) in the DZP group and decreased in the DM1-300 group, both in relation to the control group. The DM1-150 group presented decrease of the ST compared to DZP group. The EPM evaluation presented reducing the number of entries into the open arms in the DZP group relative to the control group. There was reduction in the number of entries into the closed arms in the DZP group relative to the control and increase of this parameter in the DM1-150 group in relation to DZP group. The number of crossings between the closed arms in the DZP group relative to the control group decreased. The overall results suggest that the dose of polyfunctional phenolic compound DM1 above 150 mg have influence on the emotional state of the animals, indicating possible sedative action likely induction of muscle relaxation.

Animals , Rats , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Motor Activity/drug effects , Polyphenols/administration & dosage , Anxiety , Maze Learning , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 20(4): 68-75, July-Aug. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-757428


OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the cephalometric pattern of children with and without adenoid obstruction.METHODS: The sample comprised 100 children aged between four and 14 years old, both males and females, subjected to cephalometric examination for sagittal and vertical skeletal analysis. The sample also underwent nasofiberendoscopic examination intended to objectively assess the degree of adenoid obstruction.RESULTS: The individuals presented tendencies towards vertical craniofacial growth, convex profile and mandibular retrusion. However, there were no differences between obstructive and non-obstructive patients concerning all cephalometric variables. Correlations between skeletal parameters and the percentage of adenoid obstruction were either low or not significant.CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that specific craniofacial patterns, such as Class II and hyperdivergency, might not be associated with adenoid hypertrophy.

OBJETIVO: a presente pesquisa teve como objetivo comparar o padrão cefalométrico de crianças com e sem obstrução adenoidiana.MÉTODOS: a amostra consistiu de 100 crianças, com idades entre 4 e 14 anos, de ambos os sexos, submetidas a exames cefalométricos para a avaliação de variáveis cefalométricas horizontais e verticais. A amostra também foi submetida à nasofibroendoscopia, por meio da qual o grau de obstrução adenoidiana foi objetivamente aferido.RESULTADOS: os pacientes avaliados demonstraram tendência ao crescimento vertical acentuado, ao perfil convexo e à retrusão mandibular. No entanto, não houve diferenças entre pacientes portadores e não portadores de obstrução, em relação a todas as variáveis cefalométricas. As correlações estabelecidas entre os parâmetros esqueléticos e os percentuais de hipertrofia foram baixas ou não significativas.CONCLUSÕES: os resultados sugerem que padrões faciais específicos, tais como Classe II e hiperdivergência, parecem não estar associados à hipertrofia adenoideana.

Animals , Male , Anxiety, Separation/therapy , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Clomipramine/therapeutic use , Clorazepate Dipotassium/therapeutic use , Dogs , Anti-Anxiety Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Anxiety Agents/therapeutic use , Clorazepate Dipotassium/administration & dosage , Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors/therapeutic use
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 73(7): 601-606, 07/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-752388


Objective This study evaluated the provision of two configuration of the Elevated Pluz-Maze (EPM) by analizing the exploratory behaviour of female Wistar rats in different phases of the estrous cycle in EPMs with different gradients of luminosity between the open and enclosed arms (O/E∆Lux).Methods Female Wistar rats were treated with Midazolam (MDZ, 1.0 and were tested for their exploratory behaviour in either the EPM 10 O/E∆Lux or EPM 96 O/E∆Lux.Results A multiple regression analysis indicated that the O/E∆Lux is negatively associated with the %Open arm entries and %Open arm time, suggesting that as O/E∆Lux increases, the open arm exploration decreases. The estrous cycle phase did not influence the open-arm exploration in either EPM. MDZ- induced anxiolysis was detected in 96 O/E∆Lux EPM in all phases of the EC.Discussion Results of this study suggest the importance of the O/E∆Lux to establish the arm preference in the EPM, and to preserve the predictive validity of the EPM.

Objetivo Avaliar a provisão de duas configuracōes do Labirinto Elevado em Cruz (LEC) através do comportamento exploratório de ratas Wistar em diferentes fases do ciclo estral (CE) em LEC com diferentes gradientes de luminosidade entre os braços aberto e fechado (A/F∆Lux).Método Ratas Wistar foram tratadas com Midazolam (MDZ, 1.0 e foram testadas no LEC 10 A/F∆Lux ou LEC 96 A/F∆Lux.Resultados A análise de regressão múltipla indicou que o A/F∆Lux está negativamente associado com a % de entrada no braço aberto e % de tempo no braço aberto, sugerindo que no aumento do A/F∆Lux, a exploração do braço aberto diminui. A fase do CE não influenciou a exploração do braço aberto no LEC. A ansiólise induzida pelo MDZ foi demonstrada no 96 LEC A/F∆Lux em todas as fases do CE.Discussão Estes resultados sugerem a importância do A/F∆Lux para estabelecer a preferência da exploração do LEC e preservar a validade do LEC.

Animals , Female , Anxiety/physiopathology , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Exploratory Behavior/physiology , Lighting , Maze Learning/physiology , Anti-Anxiety Agents/therapeutic use , Anxiety/drug therapy , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Estrous Cycle/drug effects , Estrous Cycle/physiology , Exploratory Behavior/drug effects , Models, Animal , Maze Learning/drug effects , Midazolam/therapeutic use , Rats, Wistar , Time Factors
Invest. clín ; 56(2): 137-154, jun. 2015. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-841074


En las últimas décadas son muchos los compuestos con actividad dopaminérgica central que se han diseñado, sintetizado y evaluado farmacológicamente. A pesar de ello, no se ha logrado obtener un fármaco capaz de mejorar o curar las patologías que involucran la regulación dopaminérgica en el sistema nervioso central tales como la Enfermedad de Parkinson y la esquizofrenia, entre otras. Tomando en consideración el término de “farmacóforo atípico” y a partir del compuesto 5, se incorporó el fragmento aralquil y se sintetizaron los compuestos 10, 11, 13a-h y 14a-h. Tanto los compuestos 10 y 13a-h bajo su forma metoxilada como los compuestos 11 y 14a-h bajo su forma fenólica, fueron evaluados farmacológicamente para determinar su actividad agonística y antagonística sobre el sistema dopaminérgico central. Para ello se determinó el efecto de la inyección intracerebroventricular de dichos compuestos sobre el balance hidromineral y la conducta estereotipada en ratas. Los resultados de la evaluación farmacológica preliminar muestran una acción central a través de mecanismos dopaminérgicos, siendo que los compuestos 10, 11, 13d-h y 14a mostraron respuestas como agonistas, mientras que los compuestos 14b-h, tuvieron respuestas como antagonistas.

In recent decades, many compounds with central dopaminergic activity have been designed, synthesized and evaluated pharmacologically. However, it has not been possible to obtain a drug able to improve or cure diseases involving dopaminergic regulation in the central nervous system, such as Parkinson’s disease and schizophrenia, among others. Taking into consideration the term “atypical pharmacophore” and from the compound 5, the aralkyl fragment was incorporated, and the compounds 10, 11, 13a-h and 14a-h were synthesized. Both the compounds 10 and 13a-h under its methoxylated form and the compounds 11 and 14a-h under the phenolic form, were evaluated to determine their pharmacologically agonistic and antagonistic effects on central dopaminergic activity. For this, the effect of intracerebroventricular injection of said compounds on the hydromineral balance and stereotyped behavior in rats, was determined. The results of the preliminary pharmacological evaluation show a centrally acting action through dopamine mechanisms, in which the compounds 10, 11, 13d-h and 14a showed responses as agonists, whereas compounds 14b-h, had responses as antagonists.

Animals , Male , Rats , Stereotyped Behavior/drug effects , Dopamine Antagonists/pharmacology , Dopamine Agonists/pharmacology , Indans/pharmacology , Structure-Activity Relationship , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Dopamine Antagonists/chemical synthesis , Dopamine Antagonists/chemistry , Dopamine Agonists/chemical synthesis , Dopamine Agonists/chemistry , Indans/chemical synthesis , Indans/chemistry , Injections, Intraventricular
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 22(1): 179-200, Jan-Mar/2015.
Article in English | LILACS, BDS | ID: lil-741513


This article examines the politics of midwifery and the persecution of untitled female assistants in childbirth in early republican Peru. A close reading of late colonial publications and the works of Benita Paulina Cadeau Fessel, a French obstetriz director of a midwifery school in Lima, demonstrates both trans-Atlantic and local influences in the campaign against untitled midwives. Cadeau Fessel's efforts to promote midwifery built upon debates among writers in Peru's enlightened press, who vilified untrained midwives' and wet nurses' vernacular medical knowledge and associated them with Lima's underclass. One cannot understand the transfer of French knowledge about professional midwifery to Peru without reference to the social, political, and cultural context.

Este artigo analisa as políticas de práticas de parteiras profissionais e a condenação de parteiras leigas nos primórdios do Peru republicano. A leitura atenta de publicações de fins do período colonial e dos trabalhos de Benita Paulina Cadeau Fessel, obstetriz francesa diretora de uma escola de parteiras em Lima, revela influência tanto transatlântica como local na campanha contra as parteiras sem titulação. Cadeau Fessel promovia seu ofício com base em debates veiculados na imprensa peruana ilustrada, que aviltavam o conhecimento tradicional de amas de leite e parteiras leigas e as associavam às classes desfavorecidas. Só é possível compreender a transferência do conhecimento francês sobre trabalho de parteiras profissionais para o Peru relacionando-a ao contexto social, político e cultural.

Animals , Male , Antiparkinson Agents/pharmacology , Curcumin/pharmacology , Hippocampus/drug effects , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Oxidopamine , Parkinsonian Disorders/drug therapy , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/metabolism , Cytoprotection , Disease Models, Animal , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Dopamine/metabolism , Hippocampus/metabolism , Hippocampus/pathology , Nerve Regeneration/drug effects , Norepinephrine/metabolism , Parkinsonian Disorders/chemically induced , Parkinsonian Disorders/metabolism , Parkinsonian Disorders/pathology , Parkinsonian Disorders/psychology , /metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptor, trkB/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects
Int. j. morphol ; 33(1): 77-84, Mar. 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-743767


Rauwolfia vomitoria (RV) has potent sedative effect, which may result in severe unpleasant consequences if not controlled. This necessitated this study on the effect of Gongronema latifolium (GL) on RV-induced behaviour, biochemical activities, and histomorphology of the cerebral cortex. Eighteen male Wistar rats of average weight 266 g were grouped into three (1­3). Group 1 was the control administered 0.5 mL of Tween®20, while groups 2 and 3 were administered 150 mg/kg of RV, and a combination of 150 mg/kg of RV and 200 mg/kg of GL (RV+GL), respectively for seven days. Twelve hours after treatments, open field neurobehavioral test was carried-out and the animals euthanized. Their sera were analyzed, and their cerebral cortices routinely processed by H&E method. There was lower (p<0.05) ambulatory, rearing and freezing activities in the RV group, while there was no difference in aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities, as well as serum cholesterol and triglycerides levels in all the groups. Cerebral cortical neurohistology of RV and RV+GL groups showed most neurons appearing hypertrophied with pyknotic nuclei in some, and less cellular population compared with the control group. RV produces sedative behaviour, and cerebral cortical neurohistological changes, which GL combination may help modulate.

Rauwolfia vomitoria (RV) tiene un efecto sedante potente, el que puede provocar graves consecuencias si no es controlado. Se estudió el efecto de Gongronema latifolium (GL) sobre el comportamiento inducido por RV, como también en las actividades bioquímicas, e histomorfología de la corteza cerebral. Dieciocho ratas macho Wistar con un peso promedio de 266 g, fueron separadas en tres Grupos (1­3). El Grupo 1 (control) recibió 0,5 mL de Tween® 20, mientras que a los Grupos 2 y 3 se les administró, durante siete días, 150 mg/kg de RV y una combinación de 150 mg/kg de RV y 200 mg/kg de GL (RV + GL), respectivamente. Doce horas después de los tratamientos y pruebas neuroconductuales de campo abierto, los animales fueron sacrificados. Se analizaron los sueros y cortezas cerebrales, los cuales fueron procesados y teñidos on HE. Se observó menor actividad ambulatoria y de congelación (p<0,05) en el grupo RV, mientras que no hubo diferencia en la actividad aspartato aminotransferasa sérica y de fosfatasa alcalina, así como tampoco en los niveles de colesterol y triglicéridos séricos en todos los grupos. La neurohistología cortical cerebral de los grupos RV y RV + GL mostró que la mayoría de las neuronas aparecen hipertrofiadas con núcleos picnóticos, y una menor cantidad celular en comparación con el grupo control. La RV produce un comportamiento sedante, y cambios neurohistológicos a nivel de la corteza cerebral lo que podría ser modulado al combinarse con GL.

Animals , Male , Rats , Apocynaceae , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Cerebral Cortex/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Rauwolfia