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Gac. méd. Méx ; 155(5): 496-499, Sep.-Oct. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286549


Sleep is defined as a state of unconsciousness, reduced locomotive activity and rapid awakening, and is well established in mammals, birds, reptiles and teleosts. Commonly, it is also defined with electrical records (electroencephalogram), which are only well established in mammals and to some extent in birds. However, sleep states similar to those of mammals, except for electrical criteria, appear to occur in some invertebrates. Currently, the most compelling evidence of sleep in invertebrates has been obtained in the crayfish. In mammals, sleep is characterized by a brain state that is different from that of wakefulness, which includes a change to slow waves that has not been observed in insects. Herein, we show that the crayfish enters a brain state with a high threshold to vibratory stimuli, accompanied by a form of slow wave activity in the brain, quite different from that of wakefulness. Therefore, the crayfish can enter a state of sleep that is comparable to that of mammals.

Animals , Sleep/physiology , Astacoidea/physiology , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Electroencephalography
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(8): 555-559, Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019464


ABSTRACT Objective: This study aimed to analyze whether exposure to environmental enrichment (EE) during the juvenile phase of life interferes with the electrical activity of the adult rat brain. In addition, the present research also investigated whether this putative effect on brain electrical activity could be affected by prior overnutrition during lactation. Electrophysiology was measured through cortical spreading depression (CSD), a phenomenon related to brain excitability. Methods: Wistar rats were suckled in litters of either nine or three pups, forming the nourished (N) or overnourished (ON) groups, respectively. At 36 days old, half of the animals from each nutritional condition were exposed to EE. The other half was kept in the standard environment (SE). At 90-120 days of life, each animal was anesthetized for CSD recordings. Results: Overnutrition during lactation caused increases (p < 0.05) in body and brain weights. The EE decelerated CSD propagation velocity regardless of nutritional state during lactation (p < 0.001). The CSD deceleration in the N-EE group was 23.8% and in the ON-EE group was 15% in comparison with the N-SE and ON-SE groups, respectively. Conclusion: Our data demonstrated that EE exposure in the juvenile phase of the rat's life reduced brain excitability, and this effect was observed even if animals were overnourished during lactation. An EE could be considered an adjuvant therapeutic resource to modulate brain excitability.

RESUMO Objetivo: Este estudo analisou se a exposição ao ambiente enriquecido durante a fase juvenil da vida interferiria na atividade elétrica do cérebro de ratos adultos. Além disso, a presente pesquisa também investigou se esse provável efeito na atividade elétrica cerebral poderia ser afetado pela hipernutrição durante a lactação. A eletrofisiologia foi medida através da depressão alastrante cortical, um fenômeno relacionado à excitabilidade cerebral. Métodos: Ratos Wistar foram amamentados em ninhadas de nove ou três filhotes, formando os grupos nutridos ou hipernutridos, respectivamente. Aos 36 dias, metade dos animais de cada condição nutricional foram expostos ao ambiente enriquecido. A outra metade foi mantida na condição de ambiente padrão. Aos 90-120 dias de vida, foram obtidos os registros da depressão alastrante cortical. Resultados: A hipernutrição durante a lactação causou incrementos (p < 0,05) nos pesos corporal e cerebral.O Ambiente Enriquecido desacelerou a velocidade de propagação da depressão alastrante cortical independentemente do estado nutricional durante a lactação (p < 0,001). A desaceleração da depressão alastrante cortical no grupo nutrido/ambiente enriquecido foi de 23,8% e no grupo hipernutrido/ambiente enriquecido foi de 15% em comparação com os grupos nutrido/ambiente padrão e hipernutrido/ambiente padrão, respectivamente. Conclusão: Nossos dados demonstram que a exposição ao ambiente enriquecido na fase juvenil da vida do rato reduz a excitabilidade cerebral, e esse efeito pode ser observado mesmo se os animais estiverem hipernutridos durante a lactação. O ambiente enriquecido pode ser considerado um recurso terapêutico adjuvante para modular a excitabilidade cerebral.

Animals , Cortical Spreading Depression/physiology , Lactation/physiology , Overnutrition/physiopathology , Environment , Cortical Excitability/physiology , Organ Size/physiology , Reference Values , Time Factors , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Body Weight/physiology , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(7): e8303, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011594


Reinforcement omission effects (ROEs) are characterized by higher response rates after reinforcement omission than after reinforcement delivery. This pattern of behavior is interpreted in terms of motivational and attentional processes. Recent studies from our laboratory have shown that the amygdala, nucleus accumbens, and medial prefrontal cortex are involved in ROE modulation. Also, the literature has demonstrated a role of other areas such as substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in processes related to surprising events, such as prediction error and presentation or omission of an event (exteroceptive stimulus and reinforcement). Since these structures send projections to areas related to ROE modulation such as the amygdala, nucleus accumbens, and prefrontal cortex, the objective of the present study was to determine whether the SNc and VTA also integrate the circuit involved in ROE modulation. Rats were trained on a fixed-interval 12 s with limited-hold 6 s signaled schedule of reinforcement (Pre-lesion training). After acquisition of stable performance, the rats received bilateral neurotoxic lesions of the SNc (Experiment 1) and VTA (Experiment 2). Following postoperative recovery, the rats were submitted to two refresher sessions (Post-lesion training). Subsequently, the training was changed from a 100 to a 50% schedule of reinforcement (Post-lesion testing). In both experiments, the results showed that there was no difference in performance between sham rats and rats with bilateral lesions of the SNc or the VTA.

Animals , Male , Rats , Reinforcement, Psychology , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Substantia Nigra/injuries , Ventral Tegmental Area/injuries , Conditioning, Operant/physiology , Pars Compacta/injuries , Substantia Nigra/physiopathology , Rats, Wistar , Ventral Tegmental Area/physiopathology , Pars Compacta/physiopathology , Learning/physiology
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(5): e8026, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001526


Carassius auratus is a teleost fish that has been largely used in behavioral studies. However, little is known about potential environmental influences on its performance of learning and memory tasks. Here, we investigated this question in C. auratus, and searched for potential correlation between exercise and visuospatial enrichment with the total number of telencephalic glia and neurons. To that end, males and females were housed for 183 days in either an enriched (EE) or impoverished environment (IE) aquarium. EE contained toys, natural plants, and a 12-hour/day water stream for voluntary exercise, whereas the IE had none of the above. A third plus-maze aquarium was used for spatial and object recognition tests. Different visual clues in 2 of its 4 arms were used to guide fish to reach the criteria to complete the task. The test consisted of 30 sessions and was concluded when each animal performed three consecutive correct choices or seven alternated, each ten trials. Learning rates revealed significant differences between EE and IE fish. The optical fractionator was used to estimate the total number of telencephalic cells that were stained with cresyl violet. On average, the total number of cells in the subjects from EE was higher than those from subjects maintained in IE (P=0.0202). We suggest that environmental enrichment significantly influenced goldfish spatial learning and memory abilities, and this may be associated with an increase in the total number of telencephalic cells.

Animals , Male , Female , Telencephalon/metabolism , Cell Proliferation/physiology , Fishes/physiology , Spatial Learning/physiology , Spatial Memory/physiology , Physical Conditioning, Animal , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Cell Count
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(11): e8441, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039261


The heptapeptide Bj-PRO-7a, isolated and identified from Bothrops jararaca (Bj) venom, produces antihypertensive and other cardiovascular effects that are independent on angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition, possibly relying on cholinergic muscarinic receptors subtype 1 (M1R). However, whether Bj-PRO-7a acts upon the central nervous system and modifies behavior is yet to be determined. Therefore, the aims of this study were: i) to assess the effects of acute administration of Bj-PRO-7a upon behavior; ii) to reveal mechanisms involved in the effects of Bj-PRO-7a upon locomotion/exploration, anxiety, and depression-like behaviors. For this purpose, adult male Wistar (WT, wild type) and spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR) received intraperitoneal injections of vehicle (0.9% NaCl), diazepam (2 mg/kg), imipramine (15 mg/kg), Bj-PRO-7a (71, 213 or 426 nmol/kg), pirenzepine (852 nmol/kg), α-methyl-DL-tyrosine (200 mg/kg), or chlorpromazine (2 mg/kg), and underwent elevated plus maze, open field, and forced swimming tests. The heptapeptide promoted anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects and increased locomotion/exploration. These effects of Bj-PRO-7a seem to be dependent on M1R activation and dopaminergic receptors and rely on catecholaminergic pathways.

Animals , Male , Rats , Oligopeptides/pharmacology , Anxiety , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Crotalid Venoms/chemistry , Depression , Exploratory Behavior/drug effects , Oligopeptides/isolation & purification , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Proline/isolation & purification , Proline/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(11): e8899, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039258


Few behavioral tests allow measuring several characteristics and most require training, complex analyses, and/or are time-consuming. We present an apparatus based on rat exploratory behavior. Composed of three different environments, it allows the assessment of more than one behavioral characteristic in a short 3-min session. Factorial analyses have defined three behavioral dimensions, which we named Exploration, Impulsivity, and Self-protection. Behaviors composing the Exploration factor were increased by chlordiazepoxide and apomorphine and decreased by pentylenetetrazole. Behaviors composing the Impulsivity factor were increased by chlordiazepoxide, apomorphine, and both acute and chronic imipramine treatments. Behaviors composing the Self-protection factor were decreased by apomorphine. We submitted Wistar rats to the open-field test, the elevated-plus maze, and to the apparatus we are proposing. Measures related to exploratory behavior in all three tests were correlated. Measures composing the factors Impulsivity and Self-protection did not correlate with any measures from the two standard tests. Also, compared with existing impulsivity tests, the one we proposed did not require previous learning, training, or sophisticated analysis. Exploration measures from our test are as easy to obtain as the ones from other standard tests. Thus, we have proposed an apparatus that measured three different behavioral characteristics, was simple and fast, did not require subjects to be submitted to previous learning or training, was sensitive to drug treatments, and did not require sophisticated data analyses.

Animals , Male , Anxiety/psychology , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Behavioral Research/instrumentation , Exploratory Behavior/physiology , Fear/physiology , Impulsive Behavior/physiology , Time Factors , Anti-Anxiety Agents/pharmacology , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Apomorphine/pharmacology , Chlordiazepoxide/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Maze Learning/drug effects , GABA Antagonists/pharmacology , Dopamine Agonists/pharmacology , Exploratory Behavior/drug effects , Fear/drug effects , Impulsive Behavior/drug effects , Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic/pharmacology
Braz. j. biol ; 78(3): 408-413, Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951580


Abstract Even though the Onychophora represent a whole phylum, observations of their activity pattern in nature are almost non-existent. Here we report on the relationship between humidity and light and activity pattern of a new species of velvet worm, genus Epiperipatus, from four years of field observations in the South Pacific of Costa Rica. We found that most activity occurs during the driest and darkest nights of the year, in contrast with theoretical predictions.

Resumo Onychophora constituem um filo de animais. Não obstante, as observações do comportamento sazonal das espécies de "peripatos" na natureza são praticamente inexistentes. Com base em quatro anos de observações em campo, nós demostramos a relação entre umidade e luz, e padrão de atividade diária de uma nova espécie no gênero Epiperipatus, do Pacífico Sul da Costa Rica. Descobrimos que a maioria das atividades ocorre durante as noites mais secas e mais escuras do ano, em total contraste com as previsões teóricas.

Animals , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Humidity , Invertebrates/radiation effects , Invertebrates/physiology , Light , Species Specificity , Temperature , Population Dynamics , Climate , Ecosystem , Costa Rica , Biodiversity
Braz. j. biol ; 78(2): 360-367, May-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888861


Abstract The physiological responses of juvenile tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) fed commercial feed supplemented with different concentrations of camu camu (Myrciaria dubia) were evaluated. The design was completely randomized, with treatments arranged in a factorial design with three proportions of camu camu (15%, 30% and 45%) and a control treatment (100% commercial diet), with four replicates per treatment. A total of 96 tambaqui specimens were used, with a mean initial weight of 11.69 ± 2.68 g and a mean length of 7.06 ± 0.44 cm. After 30 days, hematological parameters, metabolic variables, growth and fish swimming performance were evaluated. The different proportions of camu camu in the diet did not cause significant changes to the tambaqui's hematological parameters during the feeding period, except for hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) after the 30th day, and hematocrit (Ht) after the swimming stress test, which increased significantly (p < 0.05). The significant increases in metabolic variables, such as cortisol, glucose, proteins and triglycerides, and in hematologic variables after the Ucrit test reflect, respectively, biochemical adaptations for maintenance of the energy mobilization process and a regulatory necessity in tissue oxygen demand during intense exercise. Fish fed 15% and 30% camu camu gained the most weight and achieved the best swimming performance, respectively. The results for camu camu concentrations above 30% suggest a saturation of its intrinsic properties in the diet at this level and a loss of nutrients from the commercial feed replaced by the fruit, reducing productive performance and nutritional assimilation.

Resumo As respostas fisiológicas de juvenis de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) alimentados com ração comercial suplementada com diferentes concentrações de camu camu (Myrciaria dubia) foram avaliados. As amostras analisadas foram inteiramente casualizadas, com os tratamentos arranjados em esquema fatorial com três proporções de camu camu (15%, 30% e 45%) e um tratamento controle (ração comercial 100%), com quatro repetições por tratamento. Um total de 96 amostras de tambaqui foram utilizadas, com um peso médio inicial de 11,69 ± 2,68 g e um comprimento médio de 7,06 ± 0,44 cm. Após 30 dias, foram avaliados os parâmetros hematológicos, variáveis ​​metabólicas, crescimento e desempenho natatório de peixes. As diferentes proporções de camu camu na dieta não causou alterações significativas nos parâmetros hematológicos dos tambaquis durante o período de alimentação, com exceção de hemoglobina (Hb) e concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média (CHCM), após o 30º dia, e hematócrito (Ht), após o teste de natação de estresse, que aumentou de forma significativa (p <0,05). Os aumentos significativos nas variáveis ​​metabólicas, como o cortisol, glicose, proteínas e triglicerídeos, e nas variáveis ​​hematológicas após o teste Ucrit reflete, respectivamente, adaptações bioquímicas para a manutenção do processo de mobilização de energia e uma necessidade de regulamentação na demanda de oxigênio nos tecidos durante o exercício intenso. Os peixes alimentados com 15% e 30% de camu camu obtiveram mais peso e melhor desempenho natatório, respectivamente. Os resultados para as concentrações camu camu superiores a 30% indicam uma saturação das suas propriedades intrínsecas na dieta, a este nível e uma perda de nutrientes a partir da ração comercial substituído pelo fruto, reduzindo o desempenho produtivo e assimilação nutricional.

Animals , Myrtaceae , Diet/methods , Diet/veterinary , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Characiformes/physiology , Fruit , Behavior, Animal/physiology
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 16(1): e170081, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-895137


Changes in water temperature may affect the aggressive behavior of aquatic organisms, such as fish, either by changing some physiological mechanisms or by increasing the probability of encounters between individuals as a result of variation in their swimming activity. In our study, we evaluated the influence of increasing and decreasing temperature on the aggressive behavior of the Neotropical cichlid fish Cichlasoma paranaense. Firstly, we tested the critical thermal maximum (CTMax) tolerated by this species. Then, we tested the effect of decreasing or increasing the water temperature in 6o C (starting at 27° C) on the aggressive interactions of fish under isolation or housed in groups. We found a CTMax value of 39° C for C. paranaense. We also observe that a 6° C decrease in water temperature lowers swimming activity and aggressive interactions in both isolated and group-housed fish, as expected. On the other hand, the increase in temperature had no effect on the fish's aggressive behavior, neither for isolated nor for grouped fish. We concluded that C. paranaense shows high tolerance to elevated temperatures and, in turn, it does not affect aggressive behavior. Nevertheless, we cannot dismiss possible effects of elevated temperatures on aggressive interactions over longer periods.(AU)

Mudanças na temperatura da água podem afetar o comportamento agressivo de organismos aquáticos, como peixes, seja alterando alguns mecanismos fisiológicos ou aumentando a probabilidade de encontros entre os indivíduos como um resultado da variação na sua atividade natatória. Em nosso estudo, nós avaliamos a influência do aumento e da diminuição da temperatura sobre o comportamento agressivo do peixe ciclídeo neotropical Cichlasoma paranaense. Primeiramente, nós testamos a temperatura crítica máxima (CTMax) tolerada por essa espécie. Depois disso, nós testamos o efeito de reduzir ou aumentar a temperatura da água em 6° C (a partir de 27° C) sobre as interações agressivas de peixes sob isolamento ou alojados em grupos. Nós encontramos um valor de CTMax de 39° C para C. paranaense. Nós também observamos que uma redução de 6° C na temperatura da água diminui a atividade natatória e as interações agressivas tanto em peixes isolados quanto agrupados, como esperado. Por outro lado, o aumento na temperatura não teve efeito no comportamento agressivo dos peixes nem isolados, nem agrupados. Nós concluímos que C. paranaense apresenta alta tolerância a temperaturas elevadas, e que isso, por sua vez, não afeta o comportamento agressivo. No entanto, nós não podemos descartar possíveis efeitos de temperaturas elevadas sobre interações agressivas durante longos períodos.(AU)

Animals , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Cichlids/abnormalities , Cichlids/growth & development , Body Temperature , Social Isolation
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 6(10): 270-275, oct. 31, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118535


Orofacial neuropathic chronic pain (NCP) is frequently attributed to lesions caused by orofacial surgeries and dental treatments. there are many experimental models available to study orofacial NCP, however, many are extremely painful for the animal due to the amplitude of the innervated region. a previously proposed mental nerve constriction model, mNC, was used in this project. forty wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: one group included rats with mNC (n=20), and another rats with sham lesions (n=20). through the use of the fixed ratio program and the progressive program, a decrease of motivation for a sweet substance, caused by the lesion, was evaluated. the possibility of alterations in cognitive learning and adaptation abilities was also assessed using the go/no-go behavioral task. the mNC group showed low induced and spontaneously evoked pain responses, as well as a decrease in the motivation for sucrose, a sign of anhedonia. this decrease does not depend on taste processing. finally, although no alterations in the learning-memory process were observed, the mNC group did show alterations when adapting to a new rule.

Animals , Rats , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Facial Pain/etiology , Trigeminal Nerve Injuries/complications , Chronic Pain/etiology , Sucrose , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Exploratory Behavior/physiology , Neuralgia
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3): 1655-1669, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886724


ABSTRACT Immobility time in the forced swimming has been described as analogous to emotional blunting or apathy and has been used for characterizing schizophrenia animal models. Several clinical studies support the use of NMDA receptor antagonists to model schizophrenia in rodents. Some works describe the effects of ketamine on immobility behavior but there is variability in the experimental design used leading to controversial results. In this study, we evaluated the effects of repeated administration of ketamine sub-anesthetic doses in forced swimming, locomotion in response to novelty and novel object recognition, aiming a broader evaluation of the usefulness of this experimental approach for modeling schizophrenia in mice. Ketamine (30 mg/kg/day i.p. for 14 days) induced a not persistent decrease in immobility time, detected 24h but not 72h after treatment. This same administration protocol induced a deficit in novel object recognition. No change was observed in mice locomotion. Our results confirm that repeated administration of sub-anesthetic doses of ketamine is useful in modeling schizophrenia-related behavioral changes in mice. However, the immobility time during forced swimming does not seem to be a good endpoint to evaluate the modeling of negative symptoms in NMDAR antagonist animal models of schizophrenia.

Animals , Male , Rabbits , Schizophrenia/physiopathology , Swimming/physiology , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Ketamine/pharmacology , Anesthetics, Dissociative/pharmacology , Schizophrenia/chemically induced , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Immobilization/physiology , Motor Activity/drug effects , Motor Activity/physiology
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(3): 341-349, May-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-896979


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Enriched environments normally increase behavioral repertoires and diminish the expression of abnormal behaviors and stress-related physiological problems in animals. Although it has been shown that experimental animals infected with microorganisms can modify their behaviors and physiology, few studies have evaluated how environmental enrichment affects these parameters. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of environmental enrichment on the behavior and physiology of confined mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. METHODS: The behaviors of 20 T. cruzi-infected mice and 20 non-infected mice were recorded during three treatments: baseline, enrichment, and post-enrichment. Behavioral data were collected using scan sampling with instantaneous recording of behavior every 30s, totaling 360h. Plasma TNF, CCL2, and IL-10 levels and parasitemia were also evaluated in infected enriched/non-enriched mice. Behavioral data were evaluated by Friedman's test and physiological data by one-way ANOVA and area under the curve (AUC) analysis. RESULTS: Results showed that environmental enrichment significantly increased exploratory behaviors and diminished inactivity. The use of environmental enrichment did not diminish circulating levels of TNF and IL-10 but diminished circulating levels of CCL2 and parasitemia. CONCLUSIONS: Positive behavioral and physiological effects of environmental enrichment were observed in mice living in enriched cages. Thus, environmental enrichment improved the welfare of these animals.

Animals , Male , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Chagas Disease/physiopathology , Environment , Time Factors , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Interleukin-10/blood , Chagas Disease/blood , Parasitemia/physiopathology , Chemokine CCL2/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 39(2): 98-105, Apr.-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-904574


Abstract Introduction: Agonistic behaviors help to ensure survival, provide advantage in competition, and communicate social status. The resident-intruder paradigm, an animal model based on male intraspecific confrontations, can be an ethologically relevant tool to investigate the neurobiology of aggressive behavior. Objectives: To examine behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms of aggressive behavior in male Swiss mice exposed to repeated confrontations in the resident intruder paradigm. Methods: Behavioral analysis was performed in association with measurements of plasma corticosterone of mice repeatedly exposed to a potential rival nearby, but inaccessible (social instigation), or to 10 sessions of social instigation followed by direct aggressive encounters. Moreover, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF) were measured in the brain of these animals. Control mice were exposed to neither social instigation nor aggressive confrontations. Results: Mice exposed to aggressive confrontations exhibited a similar pattern of species-typical aggressive and non-aggressive behaviors on the first and the last session. Moreover, in contrast to social instigation only, repeated aggressive confrontations promoted an increase in plasma corticosterone. After 10 aggressive confrontation sessions, mice presented a non-significant trend toward reducing hippocampal levels of CRF, which inversely correlated with plasma corticosterone levels. Conversely, repeated sessions of social instigation or aggressive confrontation did not alter BDNF concentrations at the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Conclusion: Exposure to repeated episodes of aggressive encounters did not promote habituation over time. Additionally, CRF seems to be involved in physiological responses to social stressors.

Resumo Introdução: Comportamentos agonísticos ajudam a garantir a sobrevivência, oferecem vantagem na competição e comunicam status social. O paradigma residente-intruso, modelo animal baseado em confrontos intraespecíficos entre machos, pode ser uma ferramenta etológica relevante para investigar a neurobiologia do comportamento agressivo. Objetivos: Analisar os mecanismos comportamentais e neurobiológicos do comportamento agressivo em camundongos Swiss machos expostos a confrontos repetidos no paradigma residente-intruso. Métodos: A análise comportamental foi realizada em associação com medidas de corticosterona plasmática em camundongos expostos repetidamente a um rival em potencial próximo, porém inacessível (instigação social), ou a 10 sessões de instigação social seguidas de encontros agressivos diretos. Além disso, o fator de liberação de corticotrofina (CRF) e o fator neurotrófico derivado do cérebro (BNDF) foram medidos no encéfalo desses animais. Camundongos controles não foram expostos à instigação social ou confrontos agressivos. Resultados: Os camundongos expostos a confrontos agressivos exibiram um padrão semelhante de comportamentos agressivos e não agressivos típicos da espécie na primeira e na última sessão. Em contraste com instigação social apenas, confrontos agressivos repetidos promoveram aumento na corticosterona plasmática. Após 10 sessões de confrontos agressivos, os camundongos apresentaram uma tendência não significativa de redução dos níveis de CRF no hipocampo, que se correlacionaram inversamente com os níveis plasmáticos de corticosterona. Por outro lado, sessões repetidas de instigação social ou confronto agressivo não alteraram as concentrações de BDNF no córtex pré-frontal e hipocampo. Conclusão: A exposição a episódios repetidos de encontros agressivos não promoveu habituação ao longo do tempo. Adicionalmente, o CRF parece estar envolvido nas respostas fisiológicas aos estressores sociais.

Animals , Male , Corticosterone/blood , Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone/metabolism , Prefrontal Cortex/metabolism , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/metabolism , Aggression/physiology , Limbic System/metabolism , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Analysis of Variance , Habituation, Psychophysiologic/physiology , Housing, Animal , Mice
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 39(1): 72-83, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-844170


Objective: To compare prey and snake paradigms performed in complex environments to the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and T-maze (ETM) tests for the study of panic attack- and anticipatory anxiety-like behaviors in rodents. Methods: PubMed was reviewed in search of articles focusing on the plus maze test, EPM, and ETM, as well as on defensive behaviors displayed by threatened rodents. In addition, the authors’ research with polygonal arenas and complex labyrinth (designed by the first author for confrontation between snakes and small rodents) was examined. Results: The EPM and ETM tests evoke anxiety/fear-related defensive responses that are pharmacologically validated, whereas the confrontation between rodents and snakes in polygonal arenas with or without shelters or in the complex labyrinth offers ethological conditions for studying more complex defensive behaviors and the effects of anxiolytic and panicolytic drugs. Prey vs. predator paradigms also allow discrimination between non-oriented and oriented escape behavior. Conclusions: Both EPM and ETM simple labyrinths are excellent apparatuses for the study of anxiety- and instinctive fear-related responses, respectively. The confrontation between rodents and snakes in polygonal arenas, however, offers a more ethological environment for addressing both unconditioned and conditioned fear-induced behaviors and the effects of anxiolytic and panicolytic drugs.

Animals , Rats , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Snakes , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Panic Disorder/psychology , Instinct , Predatory Behavior , Rats, Wistar , Maze Learning , Fear/physiology , Fear/psychology
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 59: e4, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-842774


ABSTRACT Paederus fuscipes, a vector of Paederus dermatitis in most tropical and subtropical countries of the world have a high prevalence in human dwellings due to their positively phototaxic behaviour which has caused a tremendous impact on human health. In this paper, P. fuscipes dispersal flights were studied for two seasons of the rice cultivation phases in residential premises built close to rice field areas (≈32-60 m and 164 m) in mainland Penang, Malaysia. We examined the effects of different light illuminance, building floor level and their association with rice stages as a focal cause of P. fuscipes dispersion from the rice fields towards human dwellings. The present study showed a significant interaction between different light illuminances and rice cultivation phases in attracting P. fuscipes to disperse and invade human dwellings. The highest number of P. fuscipes was captured near the bright light. P. fuscipes flights increased in line with each floor level, and the highest captures took place at higher building floor levels (levels 2 and 3) compared to lower building floor levels (ground floor and level 1) of a three storey apartment in both rice seasons. This finding not only conveys a better understanding on P. fuscipes dispersal pattern, but also draws public attention on the occurrence of dermatitis linearis caused by the Paederus beetles.

Humans , Animals , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Coleoptera/physiology , Dermatitis, Contact/parasitology , Animal Distribution , Light , Malaysia , Oryza , Population Density , Seasons
Rev. biol. trop ; 64(4): 1495-1504, oct.-dic. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-958229


Resumen:La disponibilidad de información sobre abundancia de especies en el Neotrópico es insuficiente. Esto impide la realización de análisis precisos y definición de estrategias de conservación adecuadas para especies endémicas y amenazadas. A través de un censo simultáneo durante dos días consecutivos en 24 estaciones de conteo en Isla de la Juventud (IJ) y 32 estaciones en Ciego de Ávila (CA), Cuba, se obtuvo el tamaño poblacional de la subespecie endémica y amenazada Grus canadensis nesiotes durante 2008-2010. Se analizó la abundancia y patrón conductual (método instantáneo) por hábitat, para ayudar a entender cómo las grullas modifican su patrón conductual cuando el hábitat natural se modifica. Los bandos de grullas tuvieron tres individuos en IJ y entre 1.9 ± 1.5 y 2.8 ± 1.5 en CA.El tamaño poblacional en IJ fue de 164 individuos y en CA fueron 137, 141 y 168 individuos para 2008-2010. La eficacia del conteo fue alta (IJ: 91 %; CA: 81-87 %) y la concordancia numérica fue intermedia (IJ: 45.4 %; CA: 72 %). La abundancia fue mayor en sabanas naturales (83), seguido de marismas (59), pinares (23) y pastizales (7) en IJ. En CA los herbazales de ciénaga albergaron la mayor abundancia en los tres años (130; 120; 112), seguido del herbazal con palmas (2; 17; 51) y los pastizales (5; 4; 5). Las grullas se alimentaron más en los pastizales y estuvieron más alerta en la sabana natural y el herbazal de ciénaga. La frecuencia de las conductas alimentación y alerta fueron diferentes entre las combinaciones sabana natural/marisma y sabana natural/pastizal en IJ. Para CA las diferencias fueron entre herbazal/herbazal con palmas. El tamaño poblacional aumentó en CA por estrategias de manejo adoptadas, pero en IJ puede afectarse por la pérdida de hábitat asociado a la invasión de plantas exóticas. Se propone como estrategia de manejo a largo plazo el mantenimiento de las quemas controladas en herbazales de ciénaga bajo régimen de protección para contribuir al aumento poblacional.

Abstract:The availability of information on species abundance in the Neotropic is insufficient, and this prevents the execution of precise analysis and the definition of adequate conservation strategies for endemic and threatened species. This study aimed to analyze the population size of the endemic and threatened subspecies Grus canadensis nesiotes. For this, a simultaneous census was undertaken in 24 count stations in Isla de la Juventud (IJ) and 32 stations in Ciego de Ávila (CA), Cuba, during two consecutive days between 2008 and 2010. Abundance and behavior pattern (instantaneous method) were analyzed by habitat type, to help understand how cranes modify their behavioral pattern when the natural habitat is changed. Flocks in IJ had three individuals, and between 1.9 ± 1.5 and 2.8 ± 1.5 in CA. Population size in IJ was 164 individuals, and in CA of 137, 141 and 168 individuals for the 2008-2010 period, respectively. The counting efficacy was high (IJ: 91 %; CA: 81-87 %) and the numerical concordance was intermediate (IJ: 45.4 %; CA: 72 %). When comparing the habitat type, the abundance was higher in natural savannahs (83), followed by coastal flats (59), pines (23) and cattle pastures (7) in IJ; while in CA, marsh grasslands hosted the greatest abundance for the three years period (130; 120; 112), followed by grassland with palms (2; 17; 51) and cattle pastures (5; 4; 5). The cranes were fed more in cattle pastures and were more alert in natural savannas and marsh grasslands. The frequency of feeding and alert behaviors was different from the natural savannah/coastal flats and natural savannah/cattle pastures combinations in IJ. For CA, differences were found between marsh grasslands and marsh grasslands with palms. The population size increased by management strategies adopted in CA; nevertheless, might be affected by habitat loss associated with invasive alien plants in IJ. We propose the maintenance of prescribed fire in marsh grasslands under protection regime, as a strategy for long-term management to contribute with population growth. Rev. Biol. Trop. 64 (4): 1495-1504. Epub 2016 December 01.

Animals , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Birds/physiology , Ecosystem , Time Factors , Population Density , Statistics, Nonparametric , Cuba , Animal Distribution
Rev. biol. trop ; 64(3): 1209-1222, jul.-sep. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-958207


AbstractTreehoppers are known for their substrate-borne communication and some of them also for their subsocial behavior. Following a more general study of the natural history and substrate-borne signal repertoire of the treehopper Ennya chrysura, the objective of this paper was to explore in greater depth the signals and other behaviors associated specifically to egg-guarding. Theese were studied both in natural and laboratory conditions between July, 2000 and March, 2004. The spatial distribution of egg guarding females was studied in the natural population; recording equipment and playback experiments were used in the laboratory and then analyzed digitally. Under natural conditions (San Antonio de Escazú, Costa Rica), female E. chrysura guard their egg masses and egg-guarding was associated with lower parasitism of the eggs from the wasps Gonatocerus anomocerus and Schizophragma sp. (Mymaridae). Females tended to place their eggs close to other egg-guarding females and they produced substrate-borne vibrations when disturbed. An aggregated pattern under natural conditions was confirmed by calculating dispersion indices from egg-clutch data obtained from 66 leaves in the field. The disturbance signal was characterized from laboratory recordings of substrate-borne vibrations of 10 egg-guarding females. Experiments conducted in the laboratory with 18 egg-guarding females showed that those which were previously exposed to the disturbance signal of another female moved slightly or vibrated more during playbacks and that they reacted more quickly and exhibited more deffensive behaviors in response to a tactile stimulus. The signals produced while defending against egg parasites may therefore function as an alarm and favor aggregating behavior of egg-guarding females. Rev. Biol. Trop. 64 (3): 1209-1222. Epub 2016 September 01.

ResumenDespués de un estudio más general sobre la historia natural y la comunicación por vibraciones de sustrato del membrácido Ennya chrysura, este artículo explora con mayor profundidad los comportamientos específicamente relacionados con el cuido de los huevos. En condiciones naturales (San Antonio de Escazú, Costa Rica), las hembras de E. chrysura con frecuencia protegen sus masas de huevos, y el cuido está asociado con un menor porcentaje de parasitismo causado por las avispas parasitoides de huevos Gonatocerus anomocerus and Schizophragma sp. (Mymaridae). Las hembras tendían a poner sus huevos en la cercanía de otras hembras con huevos, y producían vibraciones de sustrato en respuesta a disturbios. Se confirmó un patrón agregado bajo condiciones naturales, calculando índices de dispersión a partir del número de masas de huevos en 66 hojas. La señal fue descrita a partir de grabaciones hechas en el laboratorio con 10 hembras que protegían sus huevos. Los experimentos conducidos con 18 hembras mostraron que aquellas que fueron expuestas a la señal de disturbio de otra hembra, se movieron ligaramente o vibraron más durante el experimento, y reaccionaron a un estímulo táctil más rápidamente y con un mayor número de comportamientos defensivos. Las señales producidas durante la defensa de huevos podrían entonces funcionar como alarma, y favorecer la agrupación con otras hembras que también protegen sus huevos.

Animals , Male , Female , Ovum/parasitology , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Hemiptera/physiology , Appetitive Behavior , Reference Values , Social Behavior , Time Factors , Vibration , Sex Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Plant Leaves/parasitology , Clutch Size , Animal Distribution/physiology
Braz. j. biol ; 76(3): 568-576, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-785053


Abstract Results obtained in studies can contribute to the advancement of science and innovative methods and techniques for developing practical activities. Reporting conditions that may restrict the implementation of research is critical to ensure the optimal development of further technical studies. The objective of this study was to assess the walking stability of R. dominica on a flat and smooth surface. The study was based on the determination of mortality, morphology and walking stability of the insect outside the grain mass, on a flat and smooth surface. Mortality of adults of this Coleoptera in conditions with and without food was similar, which explains the difficulty that this insect had for accessing the food source on the flat and smooth surface. The measurements of body length (BOL), width (BOW) and height (BOH) of R. dominica were compared with those of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), which showed good ability to walk in these conditions. This study indicated that the former presents lower BOL and BOW, and greater BOH than the second, and all these variables showed differences when analyzed simultaneously by means of the construction of multivariate morphometric indices (Width × Height, Length × Height and Height × Length × Width). These morphometric variables, together with the definition of the geometry most similar to the body shape, resulted in determination of the center of gravity (CG) and static rollover threshold (SRTgeom) for both species. Rhyzopertha dominica and T. castaneum presented CGs considered high and low, respectively, and together with the values obtained for SRTgeom, may justify that R. dominica can be considered a less stable species during movement, and presents greater risk of rollover on flat and smooth surfaces.

Resumo Resultados obtidos em pesquisas podem contribuir com o avanço da ciência e inovar métodos e técnicas para o desenvolvimento de atividades práticas. Relatar condições que podem restringir à execução de pesquisas é fundamental para garantir que seja observada a técnica ideal para o desenvolvimento de estudos posteriores. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a estabilidade de caminhamento de R. dominica em superfície plana e polida. O estudo se baseou na determinação da mortalidade, morfologia e estabilidade de caminhamento do inseto fora da massa de grãos, em superfície plana e polida. A mortalidade dos adultos desse Coleoptera nas condições com e sem alimento foram semelhantes, o que justifica a dificuldade que esse inseto tem em acessar a fonte alimentar andando em superfície plana e polida. As medidas obtidas do comprimento (BOL), largura (BOW) e altura (BOH) do corpo de R. dominica foram comparadas com as de Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), que pode ser considerado um bom caminhador nessas condições. Esse estudo mostrou que o primeiro é menor no BOL e BOW, e maior BOH que o segundo, e que, todas essas variáveis apresentaram diferenças quando analisadas simultaneamente por meio da construção de índices morfométricos multivariados (Largura × Altura; Comprimento × Altura e Altura × Comprimento × Largura). Essas variáveis morfométricas, juntamente com a definição da forma geométrica que mais se aproxima do formato corporal, proporcionaram a determinação do centro de gravidade (CG) e do limite lateral de tombamento (SRTgeom) para ambas as espécie. Rhyzopertha dominica e T. castaneum apresentaram CGs considerados alto e baixo, respectivamente, e juntamente com os valores obtidos para os SRTgeom, podem justificar que R. dominica pode ser considerada uma espécie menos estável durante o caminhamento, e que, apresenta maiores riscos de tombamento em superfícies plana e polida.

Animals , Coleoptera/physiology , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Walking/physiology , Body Weights and Measures , Brazil
Braz. j. biol ; 76(2): 506-510, Apr.-June 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-781390


Abstract Captive animals exhibit stereotypic pacing in response to multiple causes, including the inability to escape from human contact. Environmental enrichment techniques can minimize pacing expression. By using an individual-based approach, we addressed whether the amount of time two males and a female jaguar (Panthera onca) devote to pacing varied with the number of visitors and tested the effectiveness of cinnamon and black pepper in reducing pacing. The amount of time that all jaguars engaged in pacing increased significantly with the number of visitors. Despite the difference between the males regarding age and housing conditions, both devoted significantly less time to pacing following the addition of both spices, which indicates their suitability as enrichment techniques. Mean time devoted to pacing among the treatments did not differ for the female. Our findings pointed out to the validity of individual-based approaches, as they can reveal how suitable olfactory stimuli are to minimizing stereotypies irrespective of particular traits.

Resumo Animais cativos exibem a estereotipia pacing em resposta a múltiplos fatores, os quais incluem a incapacidade de escapar da exposição ao público. As técnicas de enriquecimento ambiental podem minimizar a expressão do pacing. Usando uma abordagem individual, nós investigamos se a extensão de tempo que dois machos e uma fêmea de onça-pintada (Panthera onca) dispendem com pacing variou em função do número de visitantes e testamos a eficácia da canela e da pimenta-do-reino na redução do pacing. A extensão de tempo em pacing aumentou significativamente com o número de visitantes para todos os indivíduos. Apesar da diferença entre os machos com relação à idade e às condições no cativeiro, ambos devotaram ao pacing menos tempo após a administração das duas especiarias, o que indica a adequabilidade dessas como técnicas de enriquecimento. Para a fêmea, o tempo médio dispendido com pacing não variou entre os tratamentos. Nossos resultados respaldam a validade da realização de abordagens individuais, uma vez que essas podem revelar o grau de eficácia dos estímulos olfativos na minimização de estereotipias independentemente de características particulares.

Animals , Male , Female , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Panthera/physiology , Panthera/psychology , Animals, Zoo/physiology , Animals, Zoo/psychology , Physical Stimulation/methods , Smell/physiology , Stereotyped Behavior/drug effects , Stereotyped Behavior/physiology , Sex Factors , Reproducibility of Results , Spices , Environment
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 68(2): 387-396, mar.-abr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-779781


Os hormônios esteroides presentes em várias gerações de contraceptivos orais combinados (COC) podem se apresentar como disruptores endócrinos, produzindo alterações no comportamento e na fisiologia de peixes. Diante disso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de hormônios esteroides presentes em COC sobre os parâmetros comportamentais de Betta splendens, um peixe ornamental usado na aquariofilia e bastante agressivo. Machos adultos foram observados pelo método ad libitum para confecção do etograma e divididos em cinco grupos, controle e expostos aos hormônios: 17β-estradiol (E2); levonorgestrel e etinilestradiol (LEA - segunda geração de COC); gestodeno e etinilestradiol (GEA - terceira geração de COC); e drospirenona e etinilestradiol (DEA - quarta geração de COC). Os peixes foram expostos por 30 dias à concentração final de 10ng/L. Foram avaliados os comportamentos pelos métodos de varredura instantânea e animal-focal, bem como o consumo de ração. No método varredura, o comportamento descansar apresentou o maior valor (54,4±10,1%) no grupo E2 (P<0,05). Os comportamentos agressivos de carga (16,1±3,6%) e recuar e carga (16,4±5,1%) apresentaram os maiores valores no grupo controle em relação aos demais grupos (P<0,05). Os animais do grupo E2 apresentaram maior frequência de comportamentos inativos (76,1%) comparados aos de outros grupos. O comportamento atípico natação errática não foi observado no grupo controle, mas foi observado nos grupos experimentais. Os grupos E2, LEA, GEA e DEA apresentaram redução nos comportamentos agressivos (10%) quando comparados ao grupo controle pelo método animal-focal. Não foram observadas diferenças na exibição desses comportamentos ao se compararem os animais expostos às diferentes gerações de contraceptivos e no consumo de ração. Pode-se concluir que 17β-estradiol causou mais efeitos aos peixes e que diferentes gerações de COC apresentaram efeitos tóxicos semelhantes em relação aos comportamentos observados.

The steroid hormones present in many generations of combined oral contraceptives (COC) can act as endocrine disruptors inducing changes in the behavior and physiology of fish. In this context, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of steroid hormones present in COC on behavioral parameters of Betta splendes, an aggressive ornamental fish used in the aquariophily. Adult males were observed with the ad libitum method to develop an ethogram and were divided into five groups, Control and exposed to hormones: 17β-estradiol (E2), levonorgestrel and ethinylestradiol (LEA - 2nd COC generation), gestodene and ethinylestradiol (GEA - 3rd COC generation) and drospirenone and ethinylestradiol (DEA - 4th COC Generation). Fish were exposed for 30 days to a final concentration of 10ng/L. The behavior was evaluated by scan sampling and animal-focal methods, and feed intake. In the scan sampling method, the Resting behavior showed the highest value (54.4±10.1%) in E2 group (P<0.05). The aggressive behavior Rush (16.1±3.6%) and Back and Rush (16.4±5.1%) showed the highest values in the control group, compared to the other groups (P<0.05). Animals in the E2 group showed higher frequency of inactive behaviors (76.1%) compared to other groups. Furthermore, the atypical behavior Erratic swimming was not observed in the control group, but it was observed in the experimental groups. The E2, LEA, GEA and DEA groups showed reduction in aggressive behavior (10%) compared to the control group by the animal-focal method. Moreover, no difference was observed in the exhibition of these behaviors and feed intake comparing animals exposed to the different generations of contraceptives. It can be concluded that 17β-estradiol has caused more effects on fish and different generations of COC showed similar toxic effects in the observed behaviors.

Animals , Contraceptives, Oral, Combined/adverse effects , Gonadal Steroid Hormones/administration & dosage , Fishes/physiology , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Estradiol/adverse effects , Estradiol/toxicity , Ethinyl Estradiol/adverse effects , Ethinyl Estradiol/toxicity