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Braz. j. biol ; 83: e250550, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345536


Abstract Vanillin is the major component which is responsible for flavor and aroma of vanilla extract and is produced by 3 ways: natural extraction from vanilla plant, chemical synthesis and from microbial transformation. Current research was aimed to study bacterial production of vanillin from native natural sources including sewage and soil from industrial areas. The main objective was vanillin bio-production by isolating bacteria from these native sources. Also to adapt methodologies to improve vanillin production by optimized fermentation media and growth conditions. 47 soil and 13 sewage samples were collected from different industrial regions of Lahore, Gujranwala, Faisalabad and Kasur. 67.7% bacterial isolates produced vanillin and 32.3% were non-producers. From these 279 producers, 4 bacterial isolates selected as significant producers were; A3, A4, A7 and A10. These isolates were identified by ribotyping as A3 Pseudomonas fluorescence (KF408302), A4 Enterococcus faecium (KT356807), A7 Alcaligenes faecalis (MW422815) and A10 Bacillus subtilis (KT962919). Vanillin producers were further tested for improved production of vanillin and were grown in different fermentation media under optimized growth conditions for enhanced production of vanillin. The fermentation media (FM) were; clove oil based, rice bran waste (residues oil) based, wheat bran based and modified isoeugenol based. In FM5, FM21, FM22, FM23, FM24, FM30, FM31, FM32, FM34, FM35, FM36, and FM37, the selected 4 bacterial strains produced significant amounts of vanillin. A10 B. subtilis produced maximum amount of vanillin. This strain produced 17.3 g/L vanillin in FM36. Cost of this fermentation medium 36 was 131.5 rupees/L. This fermentation medium was modified isoeugenol based medium with 1% of isoeugenol and 2.5 g/L soybean meal. ech gene was amplified in A3 P. fluorescence using ech specific primers. As vanillin use as flavor has increased tremendously, the bioproduction of vanillin must be focused.

Resumo A vanilina é o principal componente responsável pelo sabor e aroma do extrato de baunilha e é produzida de três formas: extração natural da planta da baunilha, síntese química e transformação microbiana. A pesquisa atual teve como objetivo estudar a produção bacteriana de vanilina a partir de fontes naturais nativas, incluindo esgoto e solo de áreas industriais. O objetivo principal era a bioprodução de vanilina por meio do isolamento de bactérias dessas fontes nativas. Também para adaptar metodologias para melhorar a produção de vanilina por meio de fermentação otimizada e condições de crescimento. Foram coletadas 47 amostras de solo e 13 de esgoto de diferentes regiões industriais de Lahore, Gujranwala, Faisalabad e Kasur; 67,7% dos isolados bacterianos produziram vanilina e 32,3% eram não produtores. Desses 279 produtores, 4 isolados bacterianos selecionados como produtores significativos foram: A3, A4, A7 e A10. Esses isolados foram identificados por ribotipagem como fluorescência A3 Pseudomonas (KF408302), A4 Enterococcus faecium (KT356807), A7 Alcaligenes faecalis (MW422815) e A10 Bacillus subtilis (KT962919). Os produtores de vanilina foram posteriormente testados para produção aprimorada de vanilina e foram cultivados em diferentes meios de fermentação sob condições de crescimento otimizadas para produção aprimorada de vanilina. Os meios de fermentação (FM) foram: à base de óleo de cravo, à base de resíduos de farelo de arroz (resíduos de óleo), à base de farelo de trigo e à base de isoeugenol modificado. Em FM5, FM21, FM22, FM23, FM24, FM30, FM31, FM32, FM34, FM35, FM36 e FM37, as 4 cepas bacterianas selecionadas produziram quantidades significativas de vanilina. A10 B. subtilis produziu quantidade máxima de vanilina. Essa cepa produziu 17,3 g / L de vanilina em FM36. O custo desse meio de fermentação 36 foi de 131,5 rúpias / L. Esse meio de fermentação foi um meio à base de isoeugenol modificado com 1% de isoeugenol e 2,5 g / L de farelo de soja. O gene ech foi amplificado em A3 P. fluorescence usando primers específicos para ech. Como o uso da vanilina como sabor aumentou tremendamente, a bioprodução da vanilina deve ser focada.

Benzaldehydes/metabolism , Flavoring Agents/metabolism , Bacillus subtilis/metabolism , Industrial Microbiology , Pseudomonas fluorescens/metabolism , Enterococcus faecium/metabolism , Culture Media , Alcaligenes faecalis/metabolism , Fermentation
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2015 Feb; 53(2): 67-74
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158377


The catabolism of fungal 4-aminobutyrate (GABA) occurs via succinic semialdehyde (SSA). Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) from the acidogenic fungus Aspergillus niger was purified from GABA grown mycelia to the highest specific activity of 277 nmol min-1 mg-1, using phenyl Sepharose and DEAE Sephacel chromatography. The purified enzyme was specific for its substrates SSA and NAD+. The substrate inhibition observed with SSA was uncompetitive with respect to NAD+. While product inhibition by succinate was not observed, NADH inhibited the enzyme competitively with respect to NAD+ and noncompetitively with respect to SSA. Dead-end inhibition by AMP and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (pHB) was analyzed. The pHB inhibition was competitive with SSA and uncompetitive with NAD+; AMP competed with NAD+. Consistent with the kinetic data, a sequential, ordered Bi Bi mechanism is proposed for this enzyme.

Adenosine Monophosphate/metabolism , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Aspergillus niger/enzymology , Aspergillus niger/metabolism , Benzaldehydes/metabolism , Benzaldehydes/pharmacology , Binding, Competitive , Biocatalysis/drug effects , Fungal Proteins/isolation & purification , Fungal Proteins/metabolism , Kinetics , Mycelium/enzymology , Mycelium/metabolism , NAD/metabolism , NAD/pharmacology , Protein Binding , Substrate Specificity , Succinate-Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase/isolation & purification , Succinate-Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase/metabolism , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid/analogs & derivatives , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid/metabolism , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid/pharmacology
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(4): 1303-1308, Oct.-Dec. 2014. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741280


A previously reported o-nitrobenzaldehyde (ONBA) degrading bacterium Pseudomonas sp. ONBA-17 was further identified and characterized. Based on results of DNA base composition and DNA-DNA hybridization, the strain was identified as P. putida. Its degradation effect enhanced with increase of inoculum amount and no lag phase was observed. Higher removal rate was achieved under shaking conditions. All tested ONBA with different initial concentrations could be completely degraded within 5 d. In addition, degradative enzyme(s) involved was confirmed as intra-cellular distributed and constitutively expressed. Effects of different compounds on relative activity of degradative enzyme(s) within cell-free extract were also evaluated. Finally, 2-nitrobenzoic acid and 2, 3-dihydroxybenzoic acid were detected as metabolites of ONBA degradation by P. putida ONBA-17, and relevant metabolic pathway was preliminary proposed. This study might help with future research in better understanding of nitroaromatics biodegradation.

Benzaldehydes/metabolism , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Pseudomonas putida/metabolism , Biotransformation , Hydroxybenzoates/metabolism , Nitrobenzoates/metabolism , Pseudomonas putida/classification , Pseudomonas putida/genetics
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2013 Apr; 51(4): 288-291
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-147594


To evaluate the effect of vanillin on the lipid profile of high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia in rats, the hyperlipidemia was induced by feeding cholesterol-rich high fat diet for 45 days in wistar rats of either sex. The reduction in the triglycerides and VLDL-C was significant at 200 & 400 mg/kg dose of vanillin compared to atorvastatin group. Reduction in total cholesterol was significant at 200 and 400 mg/kg doses compared to hyperlipidemic control. The results demonstrate that vanillin at a dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight lowers the serum triglyceride, VLDL-C and total cholesterol level significantly in high fat diet induced hyperlipidemic rats. However there was no significant effect on the lipid profile at 100 mg/kg dose. There were no statistically significant changes in the HDL-C and LDL-C levels at any of the given doses.

Animal Feed , Animals , Benzaldehydes/metabolism , Benzaldehydes/pharmacology , Cholesterol/blood , Diet, High-Fat , Dietary Fats , Female , Free Radicals , Gene Expression Regulation , Heptanoic Acids/pharmacology , Hyperlipidemias/drug therapy , Hyperlipidemias/metabolism , Lipids/blood , Male , Oxygen/chemistry , Pyrroles/pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Triglycerides/blood
IJPR-Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2013; 12 (3): 411-421
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-138298


For all industrial processes, modelling, optimisation and control are the keys to enhance productivity and ensure product quality. In the current study, the optimization of process parameters for improving the conversion of isoeugenol to vanillin by Psychrobacter sp. CSW4 was investigated by means of Taguchi approach and Box-Behnken statistical design under resting cell conditions. Taguchi design was employed for screening the significant variables in the bioconversion medium. Sequentially, Box-Behnken design experiments under Response Surface Methodology [RSM] was used for further optimization. Four factors [isoeugenol, NaCl, biomass and tween 80 initial concentrations], which have significant effects on vanillin yield, were selected from ten variables by Taguchi experimental design. With the regression coefficient analysis in the Box-Behnken design, a relationship between vanillin production and four significant variables was obtained, and the optimum levels of the four variables were as follows: initial isoeugenol concentration 6.5 g/L, initial tween 80 concentration 0.89 g/L, initial NaCl concentration 113.2 g/L and initial biomass concentration 6.27 g/L. Under these optimized conditions, the maximum predicted concentration of vanillin was 2.25 g/L. These optimized values of the factors were validated in a triplicate shaking flask study and an average of 2.19 g/L for vanillin, which corresponded to a molar yield 36.3%, after a 24 h bioconversion was obtained. The present work is the first one reporting the application of Taguchi design and Response surface methodology for optimizing bioconversion of isoeugenol into vanillin under resting cell conditions

Eugenol/analogs & derivatives , Benzaldehydes/metabolism , Industrial Microbiology , Cells, Immobilized , Benzaldehydes/chemistry , Eugenol/chemistry , Eugenol/metabolism , Mass Spectrometry , Psychrobacter/genetics , Psychrobacter/isolation & purification