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1.
repert. med. cir ; 31(1): 42-51, 2022. tab.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1366970

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el benceno es un hidrocarburo aromático obtenido por destilación del alquitrán utilizado en gasolineras y como solvente industrial, clasificado como cancerígeno por exposición ocupacional o ambiental. Está relacionado con el desarrollo de leucemia mieloide aguda (LMA) por su absorción principal por vía inhalatoria, y su metabolismo hepático con producción de benzoquinona de alta liposolubilidad que le permite depositarse en la médula ósea y tejido graso. Objetivo: analizar la asociación de las formas de exposición por actividades económicas, oficios, cargos, exposición ambiental y aditiva con el desarrollo de LMA. Materiales y métodos: revisión sistemática de la literatura en las bases de datos Medline, Embase, Lilacs, Cochrane Library, Toxnet y OpenGrey, en inglés y español con los términos benzene, cancer, leukemia, occupational and enviromental exposition. Resultados: la mayoría de los estudios muestran una relación causal entre la exposición a benceno y el desarrollo de LMA, con predominio en ambientes laborales, seguidos de factores ambientales y aditivos como el humo del cigarrillo. Conclusiones: se encontró evidencia de asociación entre la exposición a benceno ocupacional y/o ambiental con el desarrollo de leucemia mieloide aguda, debido a que altera el estrés oxidativo y la desregulación del aryl hidrocarburo generando efectos citogenéticos, mutación genética y alteraciones epigenéticas que se expresan en hematotoxicidad y desarrollo de leucemia.


Introduction: Benzene is an aromatic hydrocarbon obtained by distillation of tar used in gas stations and as an industrial solvent, classified as a carcinogen by occupational and environmental exposure. It is related with the development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) mainly due to its absorption by inhalation and hepatic metabolism producing highly-lipid soluble benzoquinone allowing it to deposit in bone marrow and fatty tissue. Objective: to analyze the association of forms of exposure including economic activities, type of workplace, environmental and additive exposure with the development of AML. Material and Methods: systematic review of the literature in Medline, Embase, Lilacs, Cochrane Library, Toxnet and OpenGrey databases in English and Spanish, using the terms benzene, cancer, leukemia, occupational and environmental exposure. Results: most studies show a causal relationship between benzene exposure and AML development, predominantly in work settings, followed by environmental factors including additive sources such as cigarette smoke. Conclusions: we found evidence of an association between occupational and/or environmental exposure to benzene and the development of AML, for it alters oxidative stress and aryl hydrocarbon deregulation inducing cytogenetic aberrations, genetic mutations and epigenetic changes expressed as hematotoxicity and leukemia development.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Benzene , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Neoplasms , Leukemia , Occupational Exposure , Environmental Exposure
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935795

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the incidence characteristics of occupational diseases in Guangzhou from 2010 to 2020, provide scientific basis for formulating occupational disease prevention and control policies. Methods: In January 2021, based on the data of occupational diseases in Guangzhou reported in the Information Monitoring System of Occupational Diseases and Occupational Health, descriptive epidemiological method was used to analyze the types and characteristics of occupational diseases in Guangzhou from 2010 to 2020. Results: A total of 1341 cases of 38 kinds of occupational diseases in 9 categories were reported in the past 11 years. The incidence of occupational pneumoconiosis, occupational otolaryngology and oral diseases and occupational chemical poisoning ranked the top three, accounting for 38.1% (511/1341) , 30.5% (409/1341) and 16.2% (217/1341) of the total cases respectively. The cases of pneumoconiosis in welders and silicosis accounted for 47.7% (244/511) and 34.4% (176/511) of the cases of occupational pneumoconiosis respectively. The cases of noise deafness accounted for 99.8% (408/409) of occupational otorhinolaryngology oral diseases. Acute occupational chemical poisoning cases accounted for 26.7% (58/217) of the occupational chemical poisoning cases, in which dichloroethane poisoning cases ranked the first, accounting for 79.3% (46/58) . Chronic occupational chemical poisoning cases accounted for 73.3% (159/217) of the occupational poisoning cases, in which benzene and lead poisoning cases ranked the top two, accounting for 79.2% (126/159) and 17.6% (28/159) respectively. Conclusion: Pneumoconiosis, silicosis, noise deafness, benzene poisoning, lead poisoning, dichloroethane poisoning should be supervised and managed as key occupational diseases in Guangzhou.


Subject(s)
Benzene , China/epidemiology , Deafness , Ethylene Dichlorides , Humans , Incidence , Lead Poisoning , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Pneumoconiosis/epidemiology , Silicosis
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935793

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the detection of suspected occupational diseases and occupational contraindications for benzene workers in Tianjin. Methods: In June 2020, the occupational health inspection data of 16113 benzene workers in 514 enterprises with benzene hazards in 16 municipal districts in Tianjin from January to December 2019 were included in the analysis. Enterprise information included the employer's region, economic type, industry classification and enterprise scale. Occupational health inspection data for benzene workers during their on-the-job period included routine inspection indicators and benzene special inspection indicators. Multivariate unconditional logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between personal general information, occupational history, enterprise information and suspected benzene poisoning and occupational contraindications of benzene workers. Results: There were 16073 benzene workers in the normal group and 24 in the suspected benzene poisoning group. The detection rate of suspected benzene poisoning in females was higher than that in males (χ(2)=8.26, P=0.004) . There was no significant difference in the detection rates of suspected benzene poisoning among different dimensions such as age, length of service, occupational health inspection institution location, employer location, industry classification, economic type, and enterprise scale (P>0.05) . There were 16073 benzene workers in the normal group and 16 in the benzene contraindication group. The detection rate of benzene contraindications for workers in suburban areas where occupational health inspection institutions were located was higher than that in urban areas (χ(2)=9.71, P=0.002) , and there was no significant difference in the detection rates of contraindications for benzene in other dimensions (P>0.05) . Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that female benzene workers were more likely to detect suspected benzene poisoning (OR=3.53, 95%CI: 1.57-7.94, P=0.002) ; benzene workers who received physical examination in suburban occupational health inspection institutions (OR=5.81, 95%CI: 1.94-17.42, P=0.002) , the employer's area was in the suburbs (OR=9.68, 95%CI: 1.23-76.07, P=0.031) , and female workers (OR=3.07, 95%CI: 1.13-8.37, P=0.028) , it was easier to detect occupational contraindications. Conclusion: Female benzene workers with employers located in the suburbs have a higher risk of detecting occupational contraindications, and women are more likely to detect suspected benzene poisoning. The management of benzene operations in the production environment of enterprises in the suburbs of Tianjin and the occupational health monitoring of female workers should be strengthened.


Subject(s)
Benzene/analysis , Female , Humans , Industry , Male , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Occupational Exposure/analysis , Occupational Health
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935781

ABSTRACT

Objective: To establish a method for rapid detection of DB-WAX capillary column and determination of the workplace air in 30 kinds of volatile organic pollutants. Methods: In August 2020, N-pentane, n-hexane, methylcyclohexane, octane, Acetone, ethyl acetate, butanone, benzene, 3-pentanone, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, toluene, butyl acetate, 2-hexanone, Isoamyl acetate, ethylbenzene, p-xylene, m-xylene, amyl acetate, o-xylene, chlorobenzene, styrene, cyclohexanone, P-chlorotoluene, bromobenzene, M-dichlorobenzene, p-dichlorobenzene, O-dichlorobenzene, o-Chlorotoluene, 1, 2 , 4-trichlorobenzene of 30 kinds of substances in air were collected by activated carbon tube. After analysis by carbon disulfide, the analytical solution was analyzed by DB-WAX column and determined by FID detector. Results: The above 30 kinds of volatile organic pollutants had good separation effect, the correlation coefficient of the standard curve was above 0.999, the relative standard deviation was 0.1%-3.2%, the desorption efficiency was 77.0%-117.1% , the lower limit of quantitation was 0.33-5.33 μg/ml, and the lowest quantitation concentration was 0.22-3.55 mg/m(3), the recoveries ranged was 95.4%-104.9%. Conclusion: The method can effectively separate and accurately determine 30 volatile organic compounds in these workplaces, and the method is simple and quick.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants, Occupational/analysis , Benzene/analysis , Chromatography, Gas , Volatile Organic Compounds/analysis , Workplace
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935762

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of blood purification on changes in serum toxicant concentration and prognosis of acute benzene-based thinner poisoning. Methods: A total of 44 patients with acute benzene-based thinner poisoning admitted to the emergency department of Characteristic Medical Center of Armed Police from August 2013 to August 2020 were collected and divided into a blood purification group (24 cases) and a conventional treatment group (20 cases) , the general data, toxicant concentrations and prognosis of the two groups of patients were analyzed, and logistic regression analysis was performed on the influencing factors of the prognosis to explore the clinical effect of blood purification. Results: The concentration of poisons in the blood purification group at 24 hours after treatment was significantly lower than that in the conventional treatment group (t=6.76, P<0.001) , and the reduction in the concentration of poisons was significantly higher than that in the conventional treatment group (t=3.33, P=0.002) . The overall improvement rate in the blood purification group was 91.7% (22/24) , which was higher than that in the conventional treatment group (60.0%, 12/20) . Logisitic regression analysis showed that blood purification treatment method was the main factor affecting the prognosis of patients (OR=7.605×10(-5), 95%CI: 6.604×10(-8)-0.087, P=0.008) , and the toxic dose was a synergistic effect on the prognosis of patients factor (OR=1.038, 95%CI: 1.008-1.068, P=0.011) . Conclusion: Early blood purification treatment in patients with acute benzene-based thinner poisoning can rapidly reduce blood toxin concentration, avoid disease progression, and ultimately improve patient prognosis.


Subject(s)
Benzene , Hazardous Substances , Humans , Poisoning/therapy , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935747

ABSTRACT

This article investigated an occupational chronic benzene poisoning incident that occurred in a sealing material factory in Hebei Province in September 2019, analyzed the clinical data of workers, to explore the causes of occupational chronic benzene poisoning, and summarize the diagnosis and treatment characteristics and treatment outcome. According to GBZ 68-2013 "Diagnosis of Occupational Benzene Poisoning", a total of 12 cases of occupational chronic benzene poisoning were diagnosed among the 20 workers, including 2 cases of occupational chronic mild benzene poisoning, 7 cases of moderate benzene poisoning, and 3 cases of severe benzene poisoning. Both mild and moderate poisoning patients had recovered after treatment. Severely poisoned patients had recovered more slowly, and the white blood cell count was still 2.0×10(9)-3.0×10(9)/L during the 1-year follow-up. This benzene poisoning incident was caused by illegal operations. The responsibility of the employer, the supervision of the administrative agency, and the awareness of personal protection of employees should be strengthened to avoid or reduce the occurrence of poisoning incidents and ensure the health of workers.


Subject(s)
Accidents, Occupational , Benzene/analysis , Chronic Disease , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Occupational Exposure/analysis , Poisoning
7.
Mediterr J Pharm Pharm Sci ; 2(1): 100-108, 2022. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1366192

ABSTRACT

Petroleum refineries are largest chemical industries that are responsible for emission of several pollutants into the atmosphere. Benzene and its metabolites are regarded as the most hazardous compounds that are emitted by petroleum refineries. These contribute to toxic oxidants, which cause many serious health risks to petroleum refineries workers. This study was aimed to analyze the effects of chemical exposure on hematological and biochemical parameters among workers at Zawia oil refinery and Mellituh oil and gas refinery companies. A total of 200 workers participated in this study which consisting of two equal groups (each group: n = 100). The first group consists of petroleum refineries workers and the second group consists of non-oil work civil servants serving were recruited as exposed and control subjects, respectively. The results of blood picture, liver enzymes and kidney functions were compared between the groups. Mean white blood cells counts, platelet counts, and hematocrit count were significantly higher, while the mean red blood cells count was insignificantly changed in petroleum refineries workers. While the mean hemoglobin and corpuscular hemoglobin concentration levels were significantly lower, whereas the mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin levels were insignificantly changed in petrol refineries workers. Liver enzymes and renal functions were significantly higher in petrol refineries workers. The present findings indicate that occupational exposure to benzene causes significant alterations in hematological and biochemical parameters and workers are at high risk of developing blood, hepatic or renal related disorders. Protection and frequent medical attention should be given to petroleum refineries workers.


Subject(s)
Petroleum , Occupational Exposure , Biological Control Agents , Hematologic Agents , Benzene , Hazardous Substances
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 1081-1094, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153437

ABSTRACT

Abstract Contamination of Lekki lagoon by petrogenic chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) has been widely reported. The study was aimed at investigating the bioaccumulation of PAH and BTEX in Malapterurus electricus collected from Lekki lagoon in Lagos, Nigeria. BTEX was analyzed in the intestine, water, and sediment samples using 8260B Agilent 7890B gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). While PAHs were tested in the same media using a gas chromatograph coupled to a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Histopathological analysis of the fish intestine was conducted using haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stains. Parasite intensity, antioxidant enzymes, and lipid peroxidation activities were investigated in the fish. The parasitic infection detected in Malapterurus electricus was Electrotaenia malopteruri. The parasite showed weak and no depurative capacities for BTEX and PAH respectively. The decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and reduced glutathione (GSH) in conjunction with an increase in Malondialdehyde (MDA) characterized relatively higher susceptibility among the male fish. Varieties of tissue injuries increased with the standard length of the fish groups. Results suggest that lengthier and uninfected M. electricus were more susceptible to PAH in Lekki lagoon than the shorter and infected ones. The study demonstrated a promising tendency of the enteric parasite, E. malopteruri to depurate chlorobenzene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, m+p-xylene, and 1,4-dichlorobenzene from the intestine of its host fish, M. electricus, while PAHs were poorly mediated by the parasite.


Resumo A contaminação da lagoa Lekki por produtos químicos petrogênicos, como hidrocarbonetos aromáticos policíclicos (HAP) e benzeno, tolueno, etilbenzeno e xileno (BTEX), foi amplamente relatada. O estudo teve como objetivo investigar a bioacumulação de HAP e BTEX em Malapterurus electricus, coletados na lagoa Lekki, em Lagos, Nigéria. O BTEX foi analisado no intestino, na água e nas amostras de sedimento usando o cromatógrafo de gás Agilent 7890B 8260B acoplado a um espectrômetro de massa (GC-MS). Já os HAP foram testados no mesmo meio utilizando cromatógrafo gasoso acoplado a detector de ionização de chama (GC-FID). A análise histopatológica do intestino do peixe foi conduzida usando colorações de hematoxilina e eosina (H&E). Intensidade de parasitas, enzimas antioxidantes e atividades de peroxidação lipídica foram investigadas nos peixes. A infecção parasitária detectada em Malapterurus electricus foi Electrotaenia malopteruri. O parasita mostrou fraca e nenhuma capacidade depurativa para BTEX e HAP, respectivamente. A diminuição da superóxido dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) e glutationa reduzida (GSH), em conjunto com o aumento do Malondialdeído (MDA), caracterizou a suscetibilidade relativamente maior entre os peixes machos. Variedades de lesões nos tecidos aumentaram com o comprimento padrão dos grupos de peixes. Os resultados sugerem que os M. electricus maiores e não infectados foram mais suscetíveis aos HAP na lagoa Lekki do que os menores e infectados. O estudo demonstrou uma tendência promissora do parasita entérico E. malopteruri de depurar clorobenzeno, etilbenzeno, o-xileno, m + p-xileno e 1,4-diclorobenzeno do intestino de seu peixe hospedeiro, M. electricus, enquanto os HAP foram mal mediados pelo parasita.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Parasites , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons , Catfishes , Toluene , Xylenes , Benzene/analysis , Benzene Derivatives , Bioaccumulation , Nigeria
9.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(11): e00351520, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350407

ABSTRACT

A gasolina é uma mistura complexa de substâncias, dentre elas estão hidrocarbonetos como o benzeno, tolueno, etilbenzeno e xilenos (BTEX), sendo esses compostos emitidos para a atmosfera, com destaque ao benzeno, por ser comprovadamente carcinogênico. Objetivamos avaliar as concentrações de BTEX no ar de postos de revenda de combustíveis no Município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, e calcular o risco de câncer associado a estas exposições. Foram realizados dois tipos de amostragem (fixa e móvel) adaptadas da metodologia nº 1.501 do Instituto Nacional de Segurança e Saúde Ocupacional (Estados Unidos), em seis postos de revenda de combustíveis na Zona Oeste da cidade. A amostragem fixa foi feita próxima às bombas de combustível, enquanto a móvel foi realizada através da coleta do ar na zona respiratória dos trabalhadores (frentistas), conforme estes se deslocavam pelo posto. As amostras foram analisadas por cromatografia gasosa com detecção por ionização em chama. Com os resultados das amostragens foram feitos os cálculos de risco à saúde, usando os indicadores Quociente de perigo (HQ) e Risco de câncer (CR), para avaliar os possíveis efeitos não-carcinogênicos e carcinogênicos, respectivamente, nos trabalhadores dos postos de revenda de combustíveis. As concentrações ambientais para a maioria dos compostos BTEX foram abaixo dos limites preconizados, menos para o benzeno, um composto carcinogênico, que apresentou concentrações muito acima dos limites, levando a altos valores de risco de câncer. Os resultados demonstraram que há riscos à saúde dos trabalhadores de postos de revenda de combustíveis, principalmente o risco de desenvolver câncer, devido à exposição excessiva ao benzeno.


Gasoline is a complex mixture of substances, including aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). These compounds are emitted into the air, with the special relevance of benzene since it is provenly carcinogenic. The study aimed to assess BTEX concentrations in filling stations in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and to calculate the cancer risk associated with such exposures. Two types of sampling were performed (stationary and mobile), adapted from methodology n. 1,501 (U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) for aromatic hydrocarbons, in six filling stations in the West Zone of Rio de Janeiro. Stationary sampling was done near the fuel pumps, while mobile sampling was done in the breathing zone of the workers (station attendants) as they moved around the station. The samples were analyzed with gas chromatography flame ionization detector. The sampling results were used to calculate the health risk, using the indicators Hazard quotient (HQ) and Cancer risk (CR) to assess the possible non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic effects, respectively, in filling station workers. Environmental concentrations for the most of the BTEX compounds were below the recommended limits, except for benzene, a carcinogenic compound, which displayed concentrations far above the limits, leading to high cancer risk values. The results showed that there are health risks for filling station attendants, especially the risk of developing cancer from excessive exposure to benzene.


La gasolina es una mezcla compleja de sustancias, entre ellas existen hidrocarburos como el benceno, tolueno, etilbenceno y xilenos (BTEX), emitiéndose estos compuestos a la atmósfera, donde se destaca el benceno, al tratarse de un carcinogénico comprobado. Los objetivos fueron evaluar las concentraciones de BTEX en el aire de puestos de reventa de combustibles, en el municipio de Río de Janeiro, Brasil, así como calcular el riesgo de cáncer asociado a estas exposiciones. Se realizaron dos tipos de muestra (fija y movible), adaptadas de la metodología nº 1.501 del Instituto Nacional de Seguridad y Salud Laboral (EE.UU.), en seis puestos de reventa de combustibles de la zona oeste de la ciudad. La muestra fija se realizó cerca de las bombas de combustible, mientras que la móvil se hizo mediante tomas de aire en la zona respiratoria de los trabajadores (de la gasolinera), a medida que estos se desplazaban por el lugar de trabajo. Las muestras se analizaron por cromatografía gaseosa con detección por ionización en llama. Junto a los resultados de las muestras, se realizaron cálculos de riesgo para la salud, usando los indicadores Cociente de peligro (HQ) y Riesgo de cáncer (CR), con el fin de evaluar los posibles efectos no-carcinogénicos y carcinogénicos, respectivamente, en los trabajadores de los puestos de reventa de combustibles. Las concentraciones ambientales para la mayoría de los compuestos BTEX estuvieron por debajo de los limites preconizados, menos en el caso del benceno, un compuesto carcinogénico, que presentó concentraciones muy por encima de los límites, llevando a altos valores de riesgo de cáncer. Los resultados demostraron que existen riesgos para la salud de los trabajadores de puestos de reventa de combustibles, principalmente, riesgo de desarrollar cáncer, debido a la exposición excesiva al benceno.


Subject(s)
Humans , Xylenes/analysis , Xylenes/toxicity , Benzene/analysis , Benzene/toxicity , Toluene/analysis , Toluene/toxicity , United States , Benzene Derivatives , Brazil
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878361

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study was designed to conduct a retrospective and systematic occupational health risk assessment (OHRA) of enterprises that used benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) in Shanghai, China.@*Methods@#All data for the study were obtained from 1,705 occupational health examination and evaluation reports from 2013 to 2017, and a semiquantitative model following Chinese OHRA guidelines (GBZ/T 298-2017) was applied for the assessment.@*Results@#The selected enterprises using BTX were mainly involved in manufacturing of products. Using the exposure level method, health risk levels associated with exposure to BTX were classified as medium, negligible, or low. However, the risk levels associated with benzene and toluene were significantly different according to job types, with gluers and inkers exhibiting greater health risks. For the same job type, the health risk levels assessed using the comprehensive index method were higher than those using the exposure level method.@*Conclusion@#Our OHRA reveals that workers who are exposed to BTX still face excessive health risk. Additionally, the risk level varied depending on job categories and exposure to specific chemicals. Therefore, additional control measures recommended by OHRA guidelines are essential to reduce worker exposure levels.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants, Occupational/analysis , Benzene/analysis , China , Humans , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Toluene/analysis , Xylenes/analysis
11.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 52(4): 310-317, 20201230. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223472

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O benzeno é um composto proveniente do petróleo, adicionado à gasolina em pequena quantidade para aumentar a octanagem desse combustível. Esse composto está presente nos veículos, por isso a população está exposta à emissão de vapores de gasolina. Contudo, deve-se ter uma atenção especial aos trabalhadores de postos de gasolina, pois esses são submetidos a níveis altos de benzeno, que pode causar desde sintomas por exposição aguda até o desenvolvimento de leucemia pela cronicidade da exposição. Objetivo: Estudar as alterações biológicas pela exposição ao benzeno em operadores de postos de serviços e bombas de abastecimento inflamáveis, analisar os riscos do hidrocarboneto benzeno ao organismo destes trabalhadores e propor a inserção de análise de um novo perfil hematológico, bioquímico e imunológico no exame médico ocupacional destes trabalhadores. Material e Método: Este trabalho consiste em uma revisão sistemática qualitativa da literatura, fundamentada nas recomendações do PRISMA statement, utilizando-se como frase de busca: ("Hidrocarbon*" OR "Benzen") AND ("hematology*") AND ("filling station"). Resultado: Os achados de seis artigos originais foram apresentados em tabela. Conclusões: Estudos complementares devem ser realizados com a finalidade de detectar marcadores que permitam o diagnóstico precoce dos danos hematológicos, bioquímicos e imunológicos provocados pela exposição ao benzeno.


Introduction: Benzene is a petroleum compound, that is added to gasoline in small quantities to increase the octane of this fuel. This compound is present in vehicles, so the population as a whole is exposed to the emission of gasoline vapors. However, special attention should be paid to gas station workers, because they are subjected to high levels of benzene, which can cause from acute exposure symptoms to the development of leukemia due to chronic exposure. Objective: To study the biological changes due to benzene exposure in service station and flammable supply pumps operators, to analyze the risks of benzene to the organism of these workers and to propose the insertion of a new hematological, biochemical and immunological profile in the medical examination occupational of workers. Material and Method: This work consists of a qualitative systematic literature review, based on the recommendations of the PRISMA statement, using as search phrase: ("Hydrocarbon *" OR "Benzen") AND ("hematology *") AND ("filling station"). Results: The findings of six original articles were presented in a table. Conclusions: Complementary studies should be performed to detect markers, that allow the early diagnosis of hematological, biochemical and immunological damage, caused by exposure to benzene.


Subject(s)
Benzene , Occupational Exposure , Filling Station , Hematology
12.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 137(6): 486-490, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094524

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Exposure to air pollutants has several effects on human health, including during pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: To identify whether exposure to benzene and toluene among pregnant women contributes to preterm delivery. DESIGN AND SETTING: Longitudinal study using data on newborns from mothers living in São José dos Campos (SP) in 2016, who had been exposed to benzene and toluene. METHODS: A logistic regression model with three hierarchical levels was constructed using maternal variables relating to newborns, and using benzene and toluene concentrations in quartiles. Occurrences of cesarean births, twins or malformations were excluded. Maternal exposure windows of 5, 10, 15, 30, 60 and 90 days prior to delivery were considered. RESULTS: Out of the 9,562 live births, 3,671 newborns were included and 343 newborns were born at less than 37 weeks of gestation (9.3%). The average birth weight was 3,167.2 g. Exposure to benzene and toluene was significantly associated (P = 0.04) with preterm delivery in the five-day window. There was no association in any of the other exposure windows. CONCLUSIONS: It was possible to identify that maternal exposure to benzene and toluene has an acute effect on preterm delivery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Adult , Young Adult , Toluene/adverse effects , Benzene/adverse effects , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Premature Birth/chemically induced , Pregnancy Trimester, Third , Prenatal Care/statistics & numerical data , Odds Ratio , Risk , Longitudinal Studies , Air Pollutants/analysis
13.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 35(7): e00198618, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011709

ABSTRACT

Benzene is one of the most important substances for assessment, due to its significant use, the environmental contamination resulting from its emission and the effects on human health. It is classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a known carcinogen to humans (group 1) and associated with the development of leukemia. In general, the population is exposed to this substance by inhaling contaminated air, which varies according to the location and intensity of its potential sources. The petrochemical industry is one of the most important sources of this compound. The municipality of Duque de Caxias, specifically the Campos Elíseos district, in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, houses the Industrial Complex of Campos Elíseos (PICE), a grouping of over 25 industries, which includes the second largest oil refinery in Brazil. Environmental contamination from the PICE has been recognized, but there is a lack of studies concerning its impact on the health of the surrounding population. S-phenylmercapturic acid (S-PMA) concentrations ranging from 0.80 to 8.01μg.g-1 creatinine were observed in the local population, apparently related to hematological changes also observed in exposed population. The quantifiable presence of urinary S-PMA from the benzene metabolism is associated with the fact that 60% of the participants present specific hematological changes, which may be due to the environmental benzene exposure. The allele and genotype frequencies of the CYP2E1 and NQO1 enzymes observed in the study population were similar to those reported in other studies. The presence of the variant allele in the NQO1 genotype may be a risk factor for the observed hematological changes.


O benzeno é uma das substâncias mais importantes para a biomonitorização, em função do uso disseminado, da contaminação ambiental que resulta da emissão e dos efeitos sobre a saúde humana. O benzeno é classificado pela Agência Internacional de Pesquisa em Câncer (IARC) como carcinógeno conhecido em seres humanos (grupo 1) e está associado ao desenvolvimento de leucemias. Em geral, a população fica exposta a essa substância através da inalação do ar contaminado, que varia de acordo com a localização e a intensidade das fontes potenciais. A indústria petroquímica é uma das fontes mais importantes desse composto. O Município de Duque de Caxias, especificamente o Distrito de Campos Elíseos, no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, é sede do Polo Industrial de Campos Elíseos (PICE), um conjunto de mais de 25 indústrias que inclui a segunda maior refinaria de petróleo no Brasil. A contaminação ambiental produzida pelo PICE já é conhecida, mas faltam estudos sobre o impacto na saúde da população local. Foram observadas concentrações de ácido S-fenilmercaptúrico (S-PMA) entre 0,80 e 8,01μg.g-1 creatinina na população local, aparentemente implicadas nas alterações hematológicas também observadas na população exposta. A presença quantificável do S-PMA urinário do metabolismo do benzeno está associada ao fato de 60% dos participantes apresentarem alterações hematológicas específicas, o que pode ser devido à exposição ambiental ao benzeno. As frequências alélicas e genotípicas das enzimas CYP2E1 e NQO1, observadas na população do estudo, foram semelhantes àquelas relatadas em outros estudos. A presença da variante alélica do genótipo NQO1 pode ser um fator de risco para as alterações hematológicas observadas.


El benceno es una de las sustancias más importantes susceptibles de estudio, debido a su uso significativo, la contaminación ambiental resultante de sus emisiones y sus efectos sobre la salud humana. Está clasificado por el Centro Internacional de Investigaciones sobre el Cáncer (IARC) como un conocido carcinógeno para los humanos (grupo 1) y está asociado con el desarrollo de leucemias. En general, la población está expuesta a esta sustancia por inhalación de aire contaminado, que varía según el lugar y la intensidad de las emisiones. La industria petroquímica es un de las fuentes emisoras más importantes de este compuesto. La municipalidad de Duque de Caxias, específicamente el distrito de Campos Elíseos, en Río de Janeiro, Brasil, alberga el Complejo Industrial de Campos Elíseos (PICE), un conglomerado de más de 25 industrias, que incluye la segunda mayor refinería de petróleo en Brasil. La contaminación ambiental procedente del PICE ya ha sido reconocida, pero es notable la falta de estudios respecto a su impacto en la salud de la población circundante. Se observaron en la población local concentraciones de ácido s-fenilmercaptúrico (SPMA por sus siglas en inglés) que oscilan entre los 0,80 a 8,01μg.g-1 creatinina, aparentemente relacionadas con cambios hematológicos también hallados en la población expuesta. La presencia cuantificable de SPMA en la orina, procedente del metabolismo del benceno, está asociada con el hecho de que un 60% de los participantes presenta cambios específicos hematológicos, los cuales tal vez se deben a la exposición ambiental al benceno. Las frecuencias alélicas y genotípicas del CYP2E1 y enzimas NQO1 observadas en el estudio fueron similares a las reportadas en otros estudios. La presencia de la variante alélica en el genotipo NQO1 podría ser un factor de riesgo para los cambios hematológicos observados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics , Acetylcysteine/analogs & derivatives , Benzene/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Acetylcysteine/urine , Brazil , Biomarkers/urine , Odds Ratio , Chemical Industry , Residence Characteristics/statistics & numerical data , Causality , Health Surveys/statistics & numerical data , NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase (Quinone)/analysis , NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase (Quinone)/genetics , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1/analysis , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1/genetics , Creatinine/urine , Gene Frequency/genetics , Hematologic Diseases/chemically induced
14.
Safety and Health at Work ; : 141-150, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761358

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence on associations between occupational diesel exhaust and gasoline exposure and colorectal cancer is limited. We aimed to assess the effect of workplace exposure to diesel exhaust and gasoline on the risk of colorectal cancer. METHODS: This caseecontrol study included 181,709 colon cancer and 109,227 rectal cancer cases diagnosed between 1961 and 2005 in Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Cases and controls were identified from the Nordic Occupational Cancer Study cohort and matched for country, birth year, and sex. Diesel exhaust and gasoline exposure values were assigned by country-specific job-exposure matrices. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by using conditional logistic regression models. The results were adjusted for physical strain at work and occupational exposure to benzene, formaldehyde, ionizing radiation, chlorinated hydrocarbons, chromium, and wood dust. RESULTS: Diesel exhaust exposure was associated with a small increase in the risk of rectal cancer (odds ratio 1/4 1.05, 95% confidence interval 1.02–1.08). Gasoline exposure was not associated with colorectal cancer risk. CONCLUSION: This study showed a small risk increase for rectal cancer after workplace diesel exhaust exposure. However, this finding could be due to chance, given the limitations of the study.


Subject(s)
Benzene , Case-Control Studies , Chromium , Cohort Studies , Colonic Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms , Dust , Finland , Formaldehyde , Gasoline , Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated , Iceland , Logistic Models , Norway , Occupational Exposure , Odds Ratio , Parturition , Radiation, Ionizing , Rectal Neoplasms , Scandinavian and Nordic Countries , Sweden , Vehicle Emissions , Wood
15.
Safety and Health at Work ; : 229-236, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761347

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emerging reports suggest the potential for adverse health effects from exposure to emissions from some additive manufacturing (AM) processes. There is a paucity of real-world data on emissions from AM machines in industrial workplaces and personal exposures among AM operators. METHODS: Airborne particle and organic chemical emissions and personal exposures were characterized using real-time and time-integrated sampling techniques in four manufacturing facilities using industrial-scale material extrusion and material jetting AM processes. RESULTS: Using a condensation nuclei counter, number-based particle emission rates (ERs) (number/min) from material extrusion AM machines ranged from 4.1×1010 (Ultem filament) to 2.2×1011 [acrylonitrile butadiene styrene and polycarbonate filaments). For these same machines, total volatile organic compound ERs (mg/min) ranged from 1.9×104 (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene and polycarbonate) to 9.4×104 (Ultem). For the material jetting machines, the number-based particle ER was higher when the lid was open (2.3×1010 number/min) than when the lid was closed (1.5–5.5×109 number/min); total volatile organic compound ERs were similar regardless of the lid position. Low levels of acetone, benzene, toluene, and m,p-xylene were common to both AM processes. Carbonyl compounds were detected; however, none were specifically attributed to the AM processes. Personal exposures to metals (aluminum and iron) and eight volatile organic compounds were all below National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-recommended exposure levels. CONCLUSION: Industrial-scale AM machines using thermoplastics and resins released particles and organic vapors into workplace air. More research is needed to understand factors influencing real-world industrial-scale AM process emissions and exposures.


Subject(s)
Acetone , Benzene , Humans , Metals , Styrene , Toluene , Volatile Organic Compounds
16.
Safety and Health at Work ; : 114-121, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761328

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The photolithography process in the semiconductor industry uses various chemicals with little information on their constitution. This study aimed to identify the chemical constituents of photoresist (PR) products and their by-products and to compare these constituents with material safety data sheets (MSDSs) and analytical results. METHODS: A total of 51 PRs with 48 MSDSs were collected. Analysis consisted of two parts: First, the constituents of the chemical products were identified and analyzed using MSDS data; second, for verification of the by-products of PR, volatile organic compounds were analyzed. The chemical constituents were categorized according to hazards. RESULTS: Forty-five of 48 products contained trade secrets in amounts ranging from 1 to 65%. A total of 238 ingredients with multiple counting (35 ingredients without multiple counting) were identified in the MSDS data, and 48.7% of ingredients were labeled as trade secrets under the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Act. The concordance rate between the MSDS data and the analytical result was 41.7%. The by-product analysis identified 129 chemicals classified according to Chemical Abstracts Service No., with 17 chemicals that are carcinogenic, mutagenic, and reprotoxic substances. Formaldehyde was found to be released from 12 of 21 products that use novolak resin. CONCLUSION: We confirmed that several PRs contain carcinogens, and some were not specified in the toxicological information in the MSDS. Hazardous chemicals, including benzene and formaldehyde, are released from PRs products as by-products. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a systematic management system for chemical compounds and the working environment.


Subject(s)
Benzene , Carcinogens , Constitution and Bylaws , Formaldehyde , Hazardous Substances , Korea , Material Safety Data Sheets , Occupational Health , Semiconductors , Volatile Organic Compounds
17.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2019. 364 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048381

ABSTRACT

Esta dissertação trata de uma campanha de saúde no mundo do trabalho: a Operação Caça Benzeno. Desenvolvida entre os anos de 1991 e 1994, a campanha fez parte de um projeto de formação em saúde no trabalho, coordenado pela Central Única dos Trabalhadores (CUT) em parceria com algumas organizações nacionais e com a Confederazione Generale Italiana del Lavoro (CGIL), maior entidade sindical da Itália naquela época. Tinha por finalidade instruir os trabalhadores quanto aos cuidados de si considerados prudentes e saudáveis e a exercerem a vigilância em saúde no trabalho. O problema é que os discursos e práticas de saúde podem reforçar os processos de culpabilização destes sujeitos, caso não sejam observados os múltiplos fatores que objetivamente caracterizam os processos de trabalho e subjetivamente são administrados por estes indivíduos nas escolhas para adotar comportamentos e cobrar responsabilidades patronais. A hipótese é que as responsabilidades individuais de risco são dialeticamente construídas entre os discursos e práticas desenvolvidas por sindicatos e órgãos públicos para representar os trabalhadores que atuam na cadeia de produção, processamento, distribuição e comercialização de benzeno e seus derivados no Brasil.


O objetivo desta pesquisa foi compreender como as responsabilidades individuais de risco são construídas através dos discursos de prescrição comportamental das campanhas de promoção da saúde e prevenção de doenças. Observamos como uma cartilha, um jornal e uma revista integraram um conjunto de práticas comunicativas desenvolvidas pela CUT e órgãos públicos para ensinar os trabalhadores a lidar com a epidemia de benzenismo. Verificamos que os gêneros educativos se constituíram entre textos, práticas discursivas e os eventos realizados por estas instituições para abordar o benzenismo como tema de campanha. A convocação feita por sindicatos e órgãos públicos aos trabalhadores na Operação Caça Benzeno nos apontou a proposição de um protagonismo a ser exercido por esses sujeitos para cuidar da própria saúde, mas desconsiderando os recursos e contextos específicos que constituem os processos trabalho e determinam as condições para a tomada de decisões e à adoção de comportamentos no cotidiano laboral. (AU)


Subject(s)
Benzene , Occupational Health , Communication , Health Risk
18.
Acta toxicol. argent ; 26(2): 57-64, set. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-989212

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la exposición crónica al benceno y tolueno produce alteraciones sobre la médula ósea y el sistema nervioso central, entre otros. En orina, el ácido trans, trans mucónico (t, t-MA) es uno de los biomarcadores de exposición al benceno y el o-cresol (oCre) al tolueno. Objetivo: analizar los resultados de los niveles de t, t-MA y oCre urinarios en una población infanto-juvenil residente en Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires y Conurbano Bonaerense potencialmente expuesta a benceno y tolueno ambiental. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio retrospectivo de los resultados de t, t-MA y oCre urinarios. Las muestras de orina ingresaron al laboratorio con solicitud de t, t-MA (n=1519) y oCre (n=1447) durante el período 2011-2017 (rango etario entre 0 a 19 años). El t, t-MA se cuantificó por UFLC con detector de arreglo de diodos y el oCre por CG con detector de ionización por llama. Resultados: la edad promedio de los pacientes fue de 4,8 años y la mediana 4,6 años.Las concentraciones de t, t-MA urinario fueron: menor de 50 μg/l (44,8%); entre 50-500 μg/l (52,1%) y mayores de 500 μg/l (3,1%). Expresadas por gramo de creatinina: entre 15-163 μg/g creatinina (60,4%) y mayores de 163 μg/g creatinina (39,6%). El límite de cuantificación de t, t-MA fue de 50 μg/l. Las concentraciones de oCre urinario fueron: menor de 0,20 mg/l (97,7%) y entre 0,20-0,50 mg/l (2,3%) y mayor de 0,50 mg/l (0%). Expresadas por gramo de creatinina: menor de 0,30 mg/g creatinina en el 0,8% y mayores de 0,30 mg/g creatinina en el 1,5%. El límite de cuantificación de oCre fue de 0,20 mg/l. Conclusiones: los resultados del trabajo podrían indicar una contaminación ambiental persistente, en especial en el Conurbano Bonaerense, donde debería continuarse el monitoreo de algunas zonas. Pero, por otro lado, es de vital importancia tener en cuenta los factores de confusión, tales como la dieta, la exposición al humo de tabaco ambiental (fumador pasivo) y la tasa de excreción renal que llevarían a una sobre-estimación de los resultados y a una incorrecta toma de decisiones.


Introduction: Chronic exposure to benzene and toluene produces alterations in the bone marrow and the central nervous system, among other effects. In urine, trans, trans muconic acid (t, t-MA) is one of the biomarkers of exposure to benzene and o-cresol (oCre), to toluene. Objective: To analyze the results of urinary t, t-MA and oCre levels in an infant-juvenile population resident in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires and the Conurbano Bonaerense, potentially exposed to environmental benzene and toluene. Materials and methods: A retrospective study of urinary t, t-MA and oCre results was performed. The urine samples entered the laboratory with the request of t, t-MA (n = 1519) and oCre (n = 1447) during the period 2011- 2017. The age range of the population was between 0 and 19 years. The t, t-MA was quantified by UFLC with diode array detector and the oCre by GC with flame ionization detector. Results: The average age of the patients was 4.8 years and the median age was 4.6 years. The urinary concentrations of t, t-MA were: below 50 μg/l (44.8%); between 50-500 μg/l (52.1%) and above 500 μg/l (3.1%). Expressed per gram of creatinine: between 15-163 μg/g creatinine (60.4%) and greater 163 μg/g creatinine (39.6%). The limit of quantification of t, t-MA was 50 μg/l. The urinary oCre concentrations were: less than 0.20 mg/l (97.7%) and between 0.20-0.50 mg/l (2.3%). Expressed per gram of creatinine: less than 0.30 mg/g creatinine in 0.8% and greater than 0.30 mg/g creatinine in 1.5%. The limit of quantification of oCre was 0.20mg/l. Conclusions: The results of the study could indicate persistent environmental contamination, especially in the Conurbano Bonaerense, where monitoring of some areas should be continued. However, it is of vital importance to take into account the confounding factors, such as diet, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (passive smoking) and the rate of renal excretion, which would lead to an over-estimation of the results and to incorrect decision-making.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Toluene/poisoning , Toluene/urine , Benzene/poisoning , Biomarkers/analysis , Biomarkers/urine , Argentina/epidemiology , Urban Area , Chemical Compound Exposure , Inhalation Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Pollution/adverse effects
19.
Rev. cub. inf. cienc. salud ; 29(3): 0-0, jul.-set. 2018. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-978366

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: o presente artigo tem como objetivo relatar a experiência do Centro de Referência em Saúde do Trabalhador (Cerest), regional da cidade de Marília, no estado de São Paulo, como mediador informacional no âmbito da saúde do trabalhador, mais especificamente na campanha Não passe do limite! Abasteça só até o automático!, proposta do Governo do Estado de São Paulo. Métodos: durante a realização da campanha, foi efetuada a mediação de informações laborais voltadas para a saúde dos trabalhadores dos postos de combustível e por meio desta ação levantaram-se os hábitos ocupacionais que fundamentassem a orientação aos profissionais em futuras ações preventivas no contexto da saúde dos trabalhadores. Resultados: com o processo de mediação da informação alinhado à observação do processo laboral dos sujeitos que atuam nos postos de combustíveis foi possível caracterizar os riscos causados pelo benzeno à saúde desses trabalhadores diante das atividades desenvolvidas. Os resultados obtidos até o momento foram analisados à luz da literatura disponível que versa sobre saúde do trabalhador, mediação da informação e os riscos do benzeno. O processo de mediação informacional realizada por meio da execução da campanha, possibilitou além da orientação adequada sobre hábitos ocupacionais dos trabalhadores de postos de combustíveis, um maior conhecimento sobre a realidade apresentada pelas organizações e os sujeitos que as compõem. Como resultado de todo esse processo, o município de Marília, São Paulo, criou uma lei municipal com vistas à prevenção e controle da exposição dos trabalhadores dos postos de combustível ao risco químico do benzeno. Conclusão: esse resultado demonstra que por meio da mediação da informação é possível desenvolver estratégias para a captura de novas informações e com isso, desenvolver ações que extrapolam as atividades de trabalho; afinal, graças ao processo de mediação informacional foi possível a construção de mecanismos legais capazes de proporcionar uma maior segurança aos trabalhadores dos postos de combustível, clientes e meio ambiente(AU)


Objetivo: el presente artículo tiene como objetivo relatar la experiencia del Centro de Referencia en Salud del Trabajador, regional de la ciudad de Marília, en el estado de São Paulo, como mediador informativo en el ámbito de la salud del trabajador, más específicamente en la campaña ¡No pase del límite! ¡Abastezca solo hasta el automático!, propuesta por el Gobierno del estado de São Paulo. Métodos: durante la realización de la campaña se efectuó la mediación de informaciones laborales dirigidas a la salud de los trabajadores de los puestos de combustible y por medio de esta acción se levantaron los hábitos ocupacionales que fundamentaran la orientación a los profesionales en futuras acciones preventivas en el contexto de la salud de los trabajadores. Con el proceso de mediación de la información, junto a la observación del proceso laboral de los sujetos que actuaban en los puestos de combustibles, fue posible caracterizar los riesgos causados por el benceno a la salud de esos trabajadores ante las actividades desarrolladas. Los resultados obtenidos hasta el momento fueron analizados a la luz de la literatura disponible que versa sobre la salud del trabajador, la mediación de la información y los riesgos del benceno. Resultados: el proceso de mediación informacional realizado por medio de la ejecución de la campaña posibilitó, además de la orientación adecuada sobre hábitos ocupacionales de los trabajadores de puestos de combustibles, un mayor conocimiento sobre la realidad presentada por las organizaciones y los sujetos que las componen. Como resultado de todo ese proceso, el município de Marília, São Paulo, creó una ley municipal con vistas a la prevención y control de la exposición de los trabajadores de los puestos de combustible al riesgo químico del benzeno. Conclusión: este resultado demuestra que a través de la mediación informacional se pueden poner en práctica estrategias para el mejor desarrollo de las actividades laborales. Gracias al proceso de mediación informacional fue posible la construcción de mecanismos legales capaces de proporcionar una mayor seguridad a los trabajadores de los puestos de combustile, clientes y medio ambiente(AU)


Objective: this article describes the experience of the Reference Center in Worker Health, regional of Marília city, in the state of São Paulo, as an informative mediator in the field of worker's health, more specifically in the campaign Do not pass of the limit! Supply only up to automatic!, a proposal from the Government of the State of São Paulo. Methods: during the campaign mediation a labor information was carried out, aimed at the health of the workers of the fuel stations, and through this action the occupational habits were lifted that will base the orientation to the professionals in future preventive actions in the context of workers' health. With the mediation process of the information aligned to the observation of the labor process of the subjects that act in the fuel stations, it was possible to characterize the risks caused by benzene to the health of these workers before the activities developed. The results obtained so far were analyzed in the light of the available literature that deals with worker health, mediation of information and risks of benzene. as a result of all this process, the municipality of Marília created a municipal law with a view to the prevention and control of the exposure of the workers of the fuel stations to the chemical risk of benzene. Results: the informational mediation process carried out through the execution of the campaign made possible, in addition to the adequate guidance on occupational habits of fuel station workers, a greater knowledge about the reality presented by the organizations and the subjects that compose them. Conclusions: this result shows that through the informational mediation some strategies were put into practice for the best development of work activities. With the informational mediation process the construction of legal mechanisms was possible, able to provide security to the workers of jobs combustile, customers and environment(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Benzene/standards , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Occupational Health/education , Information Services
20.
Investig. segur. soc. salud ; 20(1): 5-10, 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1050661

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la Agencia Internacional de Investigación del Cáncer (IARC) clasifica al benceno y al cadmio como agentes que se asocian al cáncer en seres humanos dentro del grupo 1, con mayor solidez y evidencia. Objetivo: comparar las concentraciones atmosféricas legisladas en siete países con la legislación colombiana para generar recomendaciones frente a esta. Método: se realizó una búsqueda en Internet con palabras clave en español, inglés, alemán y portugués, sobre la legislación en calidad del aire en países con mayor desarrollo económico e industrial en el mundo: Brasil, Estados Unidos, Alemania, Reino Unido, Nueva Zelanda y Japón. Resultados: se encontraron los siguientes valores parabenceno: Japón, 3 µg/m³; Nueva Zelanda, 3,6 µg/m³; Colombia, Reino Unido y Alemania, 5 µg/m³; ni Estados Unidos ni Brasil tienen legislación al respecto, y la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) no recomienda valor límite. Para cadmio se encontraron los siguientes valores: OMS, 0,001µg/m³; Reino Unido, Alemania y Colombia, 0,005 µg/m³; ni Estados Unidos, ni Brasil, ni Japón ni Nueva Zelanda tienen reglamentación al respecto. Conclusión: la regulación de los mencionados contaminantes es necesaria, por sus efectos en la salud; los procesos históricos, el grado de desarrollo socioeconómico y las diferencias culturales influyen en la legislación de cada país; Colombia debe propender por una legislación estricta para que las concentraciones sean cero, pues en la toxicología ambiental nunca se especifica que una dosis es inofensiva para sustancias cancerígenas


Introduction: The International Agency for Research on Cancer considers as Group 1 carcinogens to air pollutants to the benzene is a volatile organic compound and the cadmium is a heavy metal. Objective: To compare the atmospheric concentrations legislated in seven countries with the Colombian laws to generate recommendations on current regulations. Methods: A search conducted online with keywords in English, Spanish, German and Portuguese of legislation on air quality in countries with greater economic and industrial development: Brazil, USA, Germany, United Kingdom, New Zealand and Japan. Results: The values for benzene were: Japan 3 µg/m³, New Zealand 3.6 µg/m³, Colombia, United Kingdom and Germany 5 µ g/m³; United States and Brazil do not have legislation and World Health Organization not have recommendation over limit value, and for cadmium the World Health Organization say 0.001 µg/m³, United Kingdom, Germany and Colombia 0.005 µg/m³; United States, Brazil, Japan and New Zealand have no legislation. Conclusion: The rules this contaminants is necessary for yours effects for the human health; the historical, socio-economic and cultural development influence the legislation differences of each country; Colombia must tend to have strict legislation that commits governmental entities and work in terms of time so that the concentration to zero, as in environmental toxicology never specifies that a dose harmless to carcinogens


Introdução: A Agência Internacional de Pesquisa sobre o Câncer considera os carcinogênicos do grupo 1 como poluentes atmosféricos ao benzeno, que é um composto orgânico volátil e ao cádmio como metal pesado. Objetivo: Comparar as concentrações atmosféricas legisladas em 7 países com a legislação colombiana para gerar recomendações contra ela. Métodos: Foi realizada uma pesquisa na Internet com palavras-chave em espanhol, inglês, alemão e português da legislação sobre qualidade do ar em países com maior desenvolvimento econômico e industrial: Brasil, Estados Unidos, Alemanha, Reino Unido, Nova Zelândia e Japão. Resultados: Os seguintes valores foram encontrados para o benzeno: Japão µ g/, Nova Zelândia 3,6 µg/m³, Colômbia, Reino Unido e Alemanha 5 µg/m³; Os Estados Unidos e o Brasil não possuem legislação e a Organização Mundial da Saúde não recomenda um valor limite; para o cádmio foram encontrados os seguintes valores: Organização Mundial de Saúde 0,001 µg/m³, Reino Unido, Alemanha e Colômbia 0,005 µg/m³; Os Estados Unidos, o Brasil, o Japão e a Nova Zelândia apresentam ausência de regulamentação. Conclusão: A regulação destes poluentes é necessária devido aos seus efeitos na saúde; Processos históricos, desenvolvimento socioeconômico e diferenças culturais influenciam a legislação de cada país; A Colômbia deve se esforçar para ter uma legislação rígida para que as concentrações sejam zero, já que na toxicologia ambiental nunca especifica que uma dose é inofensiva para substâncias carcinogênicas


Subject(s)
Humans , Benzene , Cadmium , Air Pollutants , Jurisprudence , Carcinogens , Health , Impacts of Polution on Health , Metals, Heavy , Growth and Development , Ecotoxicology
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