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1.
RFO UPF ; 27(1): 41-57, 08 ago. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1509383

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: o presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar, in vitro, o potencial erosivo para o esmalte dentário de bebidas ácidas, comumente ingeridas pela população e encontradas com frequência no comércio da grande Florianópolis, SC, Brasil. Método: a mensuração do potencial erosivo das bebidas foi realizada através da detecção do potencial hidrogeniônico (pH) e acidez titulável (AT). A amostra foi composta por refrigerantes à base de cola, Coca-Cola® e Pepsi®; isotônicos Gatorade®-morango e maracujá e Powerade®-mix de frutas; Chás industrializados Natural Tea®-limão e Chá Matte Leão®-natural; energéticos Red Bull® e Monster Energy®; sucos naturais de Laranja Pera e de Limão Taiti; água saborizada H2OH!®-sabor limão; e água mineral, para o grupo controle. O pH foi aferido com pHmetro digital (Sensoglass SP1800) e para a AT foi utilizado o método padronizado pelo Instituto Adolfo Lutz, todos os ensaios foram realizados em triplicata. Para a análise estatística descritiva, foram empregados teste t e a ANOVA. Resultados: os menores valores de pH foram encontrados para a bebida Coca-Cola® e suco de limão com 2,3. Para AT, as amostras que apresentaram os maiores valores foram os sucos naturais, com 35,1 para o suco de limão e 13,5 para o suco de laranja. Todas as bebidas analisadas possuem potencial erosivo ao esmalte dental, por apresentarem valores de pH menores que 5,5. Quanto as mensurações de AT, os sucos naturais apresentaram os maiores valores. Conclusão: todas as bebidas do estudo foram consideradas iminentemente erosivas à estrutura dental.(AU)


Objetivo: o presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar, in vitro, o potencial erosivo para o esmalte dentário de bebidas ácidas, comumente ingeridas pela população e encontradas com frequência no comércio da grande Florianópolis, SC, Brasil. Método: a mensuração do potencial erosivo das bebidas foi realizada através da detecção do potencial hidrogeniônico (pH) e acidez titulável (AT). A amostra foi composta por refrigerantes à base de cola, Coca-Cola® e Pepsi®; isotônicos Gatorade®-morango e maracujá e Powerade®-mix de frutas; Chás industrializados Natural Tea®-limão e Chá Matte Leão®-natural; energéticos Red Bull® e Monster Energy®; sucos naturais de Laranja Pera e de Limão Taiti; água saborizada H2OH!®-sabor limão; e água mineral, para o grupo controle. O pH foi aferido com pHmetro digital (Sensoglass SP1800) e para a AT foi utilizado o método padronizado pelo Instituto Adolfo Lutz, todos os ensaios foram realizados em triplicata. Para a análise estatística descritiva, foram empregados teste t e a ANOVA. Resultados: os menores valores de pH foram encontrados para a bebida Coca-Cola® e suco de limão com 2,3. Para AT, as amostras que apresentaram os maiores valores foram os sucos naturais, com 35,1 para o suco de limão e 13,5 para o suco de laranja. Todas as bebidas analisadas possuem potencial erosivo ao esmalte dental, por apresentarem valores de pH menores que 5,5. Quanto as mensurações de AT, os sucos naturais apresentaram os maiores valores. Conclusão: todas as bebidas do estudo foram consideradas iminentemente erosivas à estrutura dental.(AU)


Subject(s)
Sodium Hydroxide/analysis , Tooth Erosion/chemically induced , Beverages , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dental Enamel , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
2.
Actual. nutr ; 24(1): 47-56, ener. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1426243

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El calcio es el mineral más abundante e importante en el organismo. Los factores dietéticos que aumentan la absorción del calcio son: vitamina D, lactosa, lípidos, aminoácidos y citratos. Dado los escasos estudios en relación con los componentes facilitadores de la absorción del calcio en bebidas vegetales procesadas elaboradas a partir de leguminosas, cereales, coco, y frutos secos se pretendió conocer la cantidad, el tipo de calcio y los componentes facilitadores de su absorción en estas bebidas. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio cuantitativo y descriptivo a partir de una muestra de 49 bebidas vegetales presentes en las 3 cadenas de supermercados en la ciudad de Montevideo. Se estudiaron las variables cantidad y tipo de calcio adicionado, cantidad y tipo de facilitadores (proteínas, lípidos, vitamina C y D), declarados en el rotulado nutricional y en la lista de ingredientes respectivamente. Se calculó media, desvío estándar, coeficiente de variación para analizar los datos, test de Student, ANOVA, ANOVA Post Hoc, y correlación de Pearson. Resultados: El 31% de las bebidas vegetales procesadas en estudio se adicionaron con calcio (valor promedio: 120 mg). Predomina en la muestra el carbonato de calcio adicionado. Los componentes facilitadores están presentes en todas las bebidas muestra, siendo las de soja las que presentaron los cuatro facilitadores. Se observó diferencia significativa en el contenido de vitamina D en bebidas vegetales con adición y sin adición de calcio. Existe correlación positiva para el contenido de lípidos y vitamina D. El aporte de calcio y vitamina D de las BV adicionadas con calcio en una porción (200ml) representa el 26 % y 20% de la ingesta diaria recomendada respectivamente. Conclusiones: Conocer la composición nutricional de las bebidas vegetales procesadas según el contenido mineral y facilitadores de la absorción es relevante para la recomendación de este tipo de alimentos


Introduction: Calcium is the most abundant and important mineral in the body. Dietary factors that increase calcium absorption are: vitamin D, lactose, lipids, amino acids, and citrates. In view of the scant studies on the components that facilitate calcium absorption in processed vegetable beverages made from legumes, cereals, coconut, and nuts, our intention was to determine the amount and type of calcium and of the components that facilitate its absorption in these beverages. Materials and methods: A quantitative and descriptive study was conducted from a sample of 49 vegetable drinks present in the three supermarket chains in Montevideo. The variables studied: amount and type of calcium added, and amount and type of facilitators (proteins, lipids, vitamin C and D), as declared in the nutritional labels and lists of ingredients, respectively. Mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation were calculated to analyze the data, Student test, ANOVA, ANOVA Post Hoc, and Pearson correlation. Results: 31% of the processed vegetable beverages studied had calcium added (average value: 120 mg). Added calcium carbonate predominates in the sample. Facilitating components are present in all the vegetable beverages in the sample, with soy drinks presenting all four facilitators. A significant difference in vitamin D content was observed in vegetable beverages with and without calcium addition. There is a positive correlation for lipid content and vitamin D. The contribution of calcium and vitamin D of the BV with added calcium in one portion (200ml) represents 26% and 20% of the recommended daily intake respectively. Conclusions: Knowing the mineral content and the absorption facilitators in the nutritional composition of processed vegetable drinks is relevant when recommending this type of food


Subject(s)
Calcium , Fruit and Vegetable Juices , Beverages , Fruit and Vegetable Juices , Food Labeling
3.
Rev. Flum. Odontol. (Online) ; 1(60): 112-126, jan.-abr. 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1411346

ABSTRACT

A descoloração ou perda de translucidez dos materiais cerâmicos usados em odontologia ainda hoje é um problema, especialmente pelo comprometimento estético. Com o objetivo de comparar a estabilidade de cor, blocos de dissilicato de lítio (IPS e.max CAD HT) e de silicato de lítio reforçado com zircônia (Vita Suprinity HT) fresados no desenho de um disco com dimensões de 1,5 × 7 × 12 mm3 (n = 120) foram preparados usando 3 procedimentos de acabamento de superfície: glaze, polimento mecânico e coloração externa e glaze. Em seguida, cada grupo foi dividido em 2 subgrupos de armazenamento, chá preto e café (n = 10/grupo). As mensurações de cor foram medidas com espectrofotômetro (VITA Easyshade) no estágio inicial e após 1 semana, 2 semanas, 1 mês, 2 meses de armazenamento. As alterações de cor (ΔE) foram calculadas e analisadas estatisticamente usando ANOVA (α < 0,05). Observamos que, para ambos os materiais cerâmicos, o procedimento de glaze apresentou valores de mudança de cor estatisticamente menores do que os outros grupos (p < 0,05) após o armazenamento em ambas as bebidas. Os grupos de dissilicato de lítio apresentaram valores de alteração de cor estatisticamente menores em relação aos grupos de silicato de lítio reforçados com zircônia. Conclui-se que, o glaze sozinho levou a uma maior estabilidade de cor em relação ao polimento mecânico e coloração externa o dissilicato de lítio apresentou maior estabilidade de cor em comparação com o silicato de lítio reforçada com zircônia.


The discoloration or loss of translucency of ceramic materials used in dentistry is still a problem today, especially due to aesthetic compromise. In order to compare color stability, lithium disilicate (IPS e.max CAD HT) and zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate (Vita Suprinity HT) blocks were milled into a disc design with dimensions of 1.5 × 7 × 12 mm3 (n = 120). The specimens were prepared using 3 surface finishing procedures: glaze, mechanical polishing and external staining and glaze. Then, each group was divided into 2 storage subgroups, black tea and coffee (n = 10/group). Color measurements were measured with a spectrophotometer (VITA Easyshade) at the initial stage and after 1 week, 2 weeks, 1 month, 2 months of storage. Color changes (ΔE) were calculated and statistically analyzed using ANOVA (α < 0.05). We observed that, for both ceramic materials, the glaze procedure presented statistically lower color change values ​​than the other groups (p < 0.05) after storage in both beverages. The lithium disilicate groups showed statistically lower color change values ​​than the zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate groups. It is concluded that, glaze alone led to greater color stability compared to mechanical polishing and external staining, lithium disilicate showed greater color stability compared to zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate.


Subject(s)
Beverages , Ceramics , Computer-Aided Design , Color , Dental Polishing/methods , Lithium , Silicates
4.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21762, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1429954

ABSTRACT

Abstract The hydroelectrolytic beverages segment has been expading its market and introducing new flavors in order to meet the demand for new products. However, experimental studies find concerns about the chemical compositions of these drinks. The aim of this study was to develop a drink without synthetic coloring or flavoring, with functional attributes based on the bacaba (Oenocarpus bacaba Mart.) peel extract. Two hydroelectrolytic drinks were developed, one hypotonic and the other isotonic, containing 0.5 and 1.0% of bacaba peel extract. Physicochemical characterization, determination of total phenolic compounds, anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity were perfomed, in addition to color evaluation, as well as sensory analysis by means of preference tests. The developed formulations showed potential antioxidant activity and natural red coloring due to the phenolic compounds and anthocyanins present in the beverages. The sensory evaluation indicated positive acceptance by the tasters regarding the addition of the bacaba peel extract to the beverage formulations. The developed formulations demonstrated that the use of the bacaba peel is a viable option for the production of sports drinks, acting as a natural dye and offering health benefits due to its bioactive compounds.


Subject(s)
Natural Resources Exploitation , Consumer Behavior , Arecaceae , Plant Bark/classification , Beverages/analysis , Antioxidants/administration & dosage
5.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e22106, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439518

ABSTRACT

Abstract Guarana (Paullinia cupana) is a native plant from the Amazon whose seeds contain a high concentration of caffeine. Aqueous extract of guarana is widely used in the world. In this study, the objective was to develop and validate a High-Performance Liquid Chromatography method for the determination of caffeine in extracts and commercial beverages based on guarana. A sensitive, simple, and viable high performance liquid chromatographic method without the need of an analyte extraction procedure was developed and validated according to Brazilian and international requirements. The method presented high performance, fulfilling Brazilian and international requirements, in addition to allowing product compliance tests. Results confirmed high selectivity and linearity (>0.999) between 5 to 135 ug/mL, with no significant matrix effect. Detection and quantification limits were 0.02 µg/mL and 2 µg/mL, respectively. Precision was less than 4 %, and accuracy varied from 99.9-120 %. Applicability of the method was demonstrated by conducting a limited evaluation in products containing caffeine. Commercial extracts showed quite different caffeine levels, while carbonated drinks follow Brazilian and American recommendations. Our results indicate that the developed method can be used to evaluate the quality of the guarana extract and of products containing caffeine


Subject(s)
Seeds/classification , Caffeine/agonists , Plant Extracts/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Paullinia/adverse effects , Plants/classification , Beverages/classification , Total Quality Management/standards
6.
Rev. Flum. Odontol. (Online) ; 3(59): 107-116, set.-dez. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1390758

ABSTRACT

Nowadays there is an increase in the consumption of acidic drinks, especially the fermented ones. Its ingestion is closely associated with the demineralization of superficial dental tissues, which characterizes dental erosion. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pH of industrialized and natural drinks. The sample consisted of soft drinks, natural and artificial juices, fermented drinks, isotonic drinks and energy from different commercial brands acquired in the city of Niterói (RJ). The products were kept at room temperature (25oC) for 1 hour and were aliquoted 3 mL of each drink to a Becker to measure pH in a specific electrode coupled to a potentiometer. The readings were performed in triplicate. The mean pH ranged from 2.34 to 4.31, the most acidic drink was the refrigerant and the less acidic, the curd. It was found that all drinks analyzed had an acidic pH. Thus, potentially erosive dental structures.


Atualmente, há um aumento no consumo de bebidas ácidas, especialmente as fermentadas. Sua ingestão está intimamente associada à desmineralização dos tecidos dentários superficiais, o que caracteriza a erosão dentária. O objetivo da presente pesquisa foi avaliar o potencial erosivo de bebidas industrializadas e naturais. A amostra de conveniência foi constituída de refrigerantes, sucos naturais e artificiais, bebidas fermentadas, isotônicos e energéticos de diferentes marcas comerciais adquiridas no município de Niterói (RJ). Os produtos foram mantidos em temperatura ambiente (25oC) durante 1 hora e foram aliquotados 3 mL de cada bebida para um Becker para a mensuração de pH em eletrodo específico acoplado a um potenciômetro. As leituras foram realizadas em triplicata. Os valores médios de pH variaram de 2,34 a 4,31, sendo a bebida mais ácida um refrigerante e a menos ácida, a coalhada. Constatou-se que todas as bebidas analisadas apresentaram um pH ácido e abaixo do crítico para a dissolução do esmalte, sendo estas potencialmente erosivas das estruturas dentárias.


Subject(s)
Tooth Erosion , Beverages , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Dental Enamel
7.
Actual. nutr ; 23(3): 146-156, jul 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1418121

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el sodio (Na) es un elemento abundante en la naturaleza y presente en el agua y en los alimentos que consumimos. El consumo excesivo de Na que, mayormente, proviene de alimentos procesados, es un factor de riesgo para el desarrollo de hipertensión arterial y de enfermedad cardiovascular. En Argentina, el consumo de Na duplica el consumo máximo recomendado de 2000 mg/día. Objetivo: evaluar el contenido de Na de alimentos del mercado argentino y comparar dichos valores con los declarados en los rótulos nutricionales. Materiales y métodos: se seleccionaron 97 productos de diversas categorías (fiambres, quesos, bebidas analcohólicas, galletitas). La concentración de Na se midió por espectroscopía de emisión y se expresó en mg Na/100 g/mL. Resultados: el contenido declarado de Na para los alimentos analizados fue de 630 [10-1833] (mediana [rango]), mientras que el Na medido fue de 645 [6.9-3278]; para las bebidas analcohólicas el Na declarado fue 14 [0-46] y el Na medido 3.7 [0.8-36]. Se halló diferencia significativa entre los valores de Na declarados y medidos en fiambres y bebidas analcohólicas (test de Wilcoxon, p<0.05). Un 41% del valor medido de Na en los alimentos analizados está dentro de la tolerancia ± 20% que exige el Código Alimentario Argentino y un 92% de las bebidas analcohólicas tienen un valor medido menor a dicho intervalo. Conclusiones: los valores declarados y medidos son diferentes para las categorías de fiambres y bebidas analcohólicas, lo que impediría una correcta estimación de la ingesta de Na a partir de estos alimentos


Introduction: sodium (Na) is an element abundant in nature and present in the water and food. The excessive consumption of Na, which mainly comes from processed foods, is a risk factor for the development of high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. In Argentina, Na consumption doubles the maximum recommended consumption of 2000 mg/day. Objective: to evaluate the Na content of foods in the Argentine market and to compare the values of these with those declared in the nutritional labels. Materials and Methods: 97 products were selected from various categories (cold cuts, cheeses, sweetened beverages, cookies). The Na concentration was measured by emission spectroscopy and was expressed in mg Na/100 g/mL. Results: The median and range of the declared Na was for the foods analyzed was 630 [10-1833] (median [range]), while the measured Na was 645 [6.9-3278]; for non-alcoholic beverages, declared Na was 14 [0-46] and measured Na was 3.7 [0.8-36]. A significant difference was found between the Na values declared and measured in cold cuts and sweetened beverages (Wilcoxon test, p<0.05). Forty one percent of the measured value of Na in the foods analyzed are within the tolerance ± 20% required by The Argentine Food Code and 92% of the non-alcoholic beverages have a measured value lower than said interval. Conclusions: the declared and measured values are different for the categories of cold cuts and non-alcoholic beverages, which would prevent a correct estimation of the Na intake from these foods


Subject(s)
Humans , Food Composition , Food Labeling , Argentina , Salts , Beverages
8.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4731-4743, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970344

ABSTRACT

The tea beverages will be endowed with distinct aroma and taste, as well as various biologically active compounds including probiotic factors, when fermented with lactic acid bacteria (LAB). However, at present, few studies on the dynamics of flavors in tea soup at different fermentation stages were conducted. In this study, the composition of monosaccharides, aromatic components, free amino acids, and organic acids were measured, when the black tea beverages were fermented with Lactobacillus coryniformis FZU63 which was isolated from Chinese traditional kimchi. The results indicated that monosaccharides including glucose, fructose, mannose and xylose in black tea beverages are the main carbon sources for fermentation. In addition, the abundance of aromatic compounds in black tea soup are increased significantly at different fermentation stages, which endow the fermented black tea soup with fruit aroma on the basis of flowery and nutty aroma. Moreover, some bitter amino acids are reduced, whereas the content of sweet and tasty amino acids is elevated. Furthermore, the levels of lactic acid, malic acid, citric acid and other organic acids are accumulated during the fermentation. Additionally, sensory evaluation displays that black tea beverage is acquired with comprehensive high-quality after being fermented for 48 h. This study provides a theoretical basis to steer and control the flavor formation and quality of the fermented tea beverages during LAB fermentation.


Subject(s)
Tea/chemistry , Beverages/microbiology , Camellia sinensis , Fermentation , Acids , Amino Acids , Glucose
9.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 129 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1392257

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver uma formulação de bebida láctea bubalina probiótica adicionada de polpa de morango, comparando os efeitos do uso do leite de búfala e de vaca na elaboração dos produtos e verificando a possibilidade de suplementação com triptofano nos produtos lácteos probióticos. Como primeira etapa do trabalho, bebidas lácteas probióticas foram elaboradas a partir de leite bubalino e bovino, fermentadas com Streptococcus thermophilus TA040, Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB340 e Lactobacillus acidophilus La5, e formuladas com 0, 25 e 50% de soro em sua formulação. As bebidas foram avaliadas quanto à cinética de fermentação das culturas láticas utilizadas, ao teor de proteína, gordura e sólidos totais não gordurosos, pós-acidificação, viabilidade das culturas fermentadoras e sua capacidade de sobrevivência ao estresse gastrointestinal in vitro. As bebidas lácteas bubalinas apresentaram resultados superiores as bebidas bovinas. O uso do leite de búfala na elaboração das bebidas lácteas promoveu benefícios quanto as culturas láticas presentes nos produtos, exercendo efeito protetivo e influindo na preservação da viabilidade das bactérias ao longo do armazenamento refrigerado e durante a simulação do estresse gastrointestinal in vitro. As bebidas lácteas elaboradas com 25% apresentaram os resultados mais próximos aos obtidos pelos produtos controle, sem adição de soro, sendo selecionadas para a segunda parte do estudo. Nesta etapa, as formulações de bebida láctea com 25% de soro, foram acrescidas de um preparado com polpa de morango e bebidas sem adição da fruta, utilizadas como controle. As bebidas lácteas bubalinas frutadas, apresentaram menor teor de gordura e melhores características reológicas, com maior viscosidade e consistência do que os produtos controle, sem afetar a pós-acidificação, o perfil de ácido graxo, assim como, a viabilidade e a resistência às condições de estresse gastrointestinal in vitro das culturas fermentadoras. A avaliação da possibilidade de suplementar lácteos probióticos com triptofano foi realizada em conjunto com a Universidade de Milão. Para isso, iogurtes probióticos receberam adição de triptofano antes ou após a fermentação, sendo avaliados com relação ao perfil de pós-acidificação, quantidade de triptofano nos produtos, número de células viáveis por plaqueamento e citometria de fluxo ao longo do armazenamento a 25° e 4°C. Complementarmente, a influência da presença do triptofano no crescimento e produção de compostos antimicrobianos pelas culturas láticas, também foi avaliada. A adição de triptofano após a fermentação dos iogurtes, que foram armazenados sob refrigeração (4°C), além de não afetar a pós-acidificação dos produtos, apresentou benefícios quanto a viabilidade L. acidophilus, redução do dano e aumento do número de células vivas, promovendo teor maior do aminoácido nos iogurtes. A presença do triptofano nos meios de cultivo, também influenciou de forma positiva o crescimento de S. thermophilus e L. acidophilus, melhorando o desenvolvimento das bactérias durante a fermentação e influindo em uma maior atividade antilistérica por parte do S. thermophilus. Diante da influência positiva da aplicação do leite de búfala na elaboração das bebidas lácteas, assim como, a adição do triptofano em iogurtes probióticos, a suplementação do aminoácido em bebidas lácteas bubalinas frutadas permitiria a obtenção de um produto funcional, onde seus benefícios estariam relacionados tanto ao consumo do probiótico presente no produto quanto a complementação de triptofano na dieta do consumidor


The aim of this study was to develop a formulation of probiotic buffalo dairy beverage added with strawberry pulp, comparing the effects of using buffalo and cow's milk in the preparation of products and verifying the possibility of tryptophan supplementation in probiotic dairy products. As a first stage of the work, probiotic dairy beverages were made from buffalo and bovine milk, fermented with Streptococcus thermophiles TA040, Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB340 and Lactobacillus acidophilus La5, and formulated with 0, 25 and 50% whey in their formulation. The beverages were evaluated for the fermentation kinetics of the used lactic cultures, the levels of protein, fat and total no fat solids, post-acidification, fermenting cultures viability and their ability to survive gastrointestinal stress in vitro. Buffalo milk use in dairy beverages production promoted benefits regarding the lactic cultures present in the products, exerting a protective effect and influencing the viability preservation of bacteria during the cold storage and simulation of gastrointestinal stress in vitro. Dairy beverages made with 25% whey addition showed results similar to those obtained by the control products, without whey addition, being selected for the second part of the study. In this part, the dairy beverages formulations with 25% whey, were added with a preparation were added with a strawberry pulp preparation and dairy beverages without added fruit, used as a control. Fruity bubaline dairy beverages had lower fat content and better rheological characteristics, with higher viscosity and consistency than control products, without affecting post-acidification, fatty acid profile, as well as viability and resistance to in vitro gastrointestinal condition of fermented cultures. The possibility of supplementing probiotic dairy products with tryptophan was evaluated in partnership with the University of Milan. For this, probiotic yogurts received the addition of tryptophan before or after fermentation, being evaluated in relation to the post-acidification profile, tryptophan amount in the products, viable cell number per plating and flow cytometry during storage at 25°C and 4°C. In addition, the influence of the tryptophan presence on the growth and production of antimicrobial compounds by lactic cultures was also evaluated. The addition of tryptophan after the yogurt fermentation, which were stored under refrigeration (4°C), in addition to not affecting the post-acidification of the products, showed benefits to the viability of L. acidophilus, reduced the damage and increased the number of cells promoting higher amino acid content in yogurts. Tryptophan presence in the culture media also positively influenced the growth of S. thermophiles and L. acidophilus, improving the development of bacteria during fermentation and influencing better antilisteric activity in the part of S. thermophiles. In view of the buffalo milk positive influence observed after the application in dairy beverage preparation, as well as the addition of tryptophan in probiotic yoghurts, amino acid supplementation in fruity buffalo dairy beverages would allow to obtain a functional product, where its benefits would be related both to the consumption of the probiotic present in the product as to the supplementation of tryptophan in the consumer's diet


Subject(s)
Beverages/adverse effects , Milk/adverse effects , Tryptophan/classification , Yogurt , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Buffaloes , Cell Count/instrumentation , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Probiotics/classification , Streptococcus thermophilus/metabolism , Lactobacillus delbrueckii/metabolism , Growth and Development , Flow Cytometry/methods , Whey/adverse effects , Fruit , Amino Acids/antagonists & inhibitors , Lactobacillus acidophilus/metabolism
10.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 129 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1415356

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver uma formulação de bebida láctea bubalina probiótica adicionada de polpa de morango, comparando os efeitos do uso do leite de búfala e de vaca na elaboração dos produtos e verificando a possibilidade de suplementação com triptofano nos produtos lácteos probióticos. Como primeira etapa do trabalho, bebidas lácteas probióticas foram elaboradas a partir de leite bubalino e bovino, fermentadas com Streptococcus thermophilus TA040, Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB340 e Lactobacillus acidophilus La5, e formuladas com 0, 25 e 50% de soro em sua formulação. As bebidas foram avaliadas quanto à cinética de fermentação das culturas láticas utilizadas, ao teor de proteína, gordura e sólidos totais não gordurosos, pós-acidificação, viabilidade das culturas fermentadoras e sua capacidade de sobrevivência ao estresse gastrointestinal in vitro. As bebidas lácteas bubalinas apresentaram resultados superiores as bebidas bovinas. O uso do leite de búfala na elaboração das bebidas lácteas promoveu benefícios quanto as culturas láticas presentes nos produtos, exercendo efeito protetivo e influindo na preservação da viabilidade das bactérias ao longo do armazenamento refrigerado e durante a simulação do estresse gastrointestinal in vitro. As bebidas lácteas elaboradas com 25% apresentaram os resultados mais próximos aos obtidos pelos produtos controle, sem adição de soro, sendo selecionadas para a segunda parte do estudo. Nesta etapa, as formulações de bebida láctea com 25% de soro, foram acrescidas de um preparado com polpa de morango e bebidas sem adição da fruta, utilizadas como controle. As bebidas lácteas bubalinas frutadas, apresentaram menor teor de gordura e melhores características reológicas, com maior viscosidade e consistência do que os produtos controle, sem afetar a pós-acidificação, o perfil de ácido graxo, assim como, a viabilidade e a resistência às condições de estresse gastrointestinal in vitro das culturas fermentadoras. A avaliação da possibilidade de suplementar lácteos probióticos com triptofano foi realizada em conjunto com a Universidade de Milão. Para isso, iogurtes probióticos receberam adição de triptofano antes ou após a fermentação, sendo avaliados com relação ao perfil de pós-acidificação, quantidade de triptofano nos produtos, número de células viáveis por plaqueamento e citometria de fluxo ao longo do armazenamento a 25° e 4°C. Complementarmente, a influência da presença do triptofano no crescimento e produção de compostos antimicrobianos pelas culturas láticas, também foi avaliada. A adição de triptofano após a fermentação dos iogurtes, que foram armazenados sob refrigeração (4°C), além de não afetar a pós-acidificação dos produtos, apresentou benefícios quanto a viabilidade L. acidophilus, redução do dano e aumento do número de células vivas, promovendo teor maior do aminoácido nos iogurtes. A presença do triptofano nos meios de cultivo, também influenciou de forma positiva o crescimento de S. thermophilus e L. acidophilus, melhorando o desenvolvimento das bactérias durante a fermentação e influindo em uma maior atividade antilistérica por parte do S. thermophilus. Diante da influência positiva da aplicação do leite de búfala na elaboração das bebidas lácteas, assim como, a adição do triptofano em iogurtes probióticos, a suplementação do aminoácido em bebidas lácteas bubalinas frutadas permitiria a obtenção de um produto funcional, onde seus benefícios estariam relacionados tanto ao consumo do probiótico presente no produto quanto a complementação de triptofano na dieta do consumidor


The aim of this study was to develop a formulation of probiotic buffalo dairy beverage added with strawberry pulp, comparing the effects of using buffalo and cow's milk in the preparation of products and verifying the possibility of tryptophan supplementation in probiotic dairy products. As a first stage of the work, probiotic dairy beverages were made from buffalo and bovine milk, fermented with Streptococcus thermophiles TA040, Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB340 and Lactobacillus acidophilus La5, and formulated with 0, 25 and 50% whey in their formulation. The beverages were evaluated for the fermentation kinetics of the used lactic cultures, the levels of protein, fat and total no fat solids, post-acidification, fermenting cultures viability and their ability to survive gastrointestinal stress in vitro. Buffalo milk use in dairy beverages production promoted benefits regarding the lactic cultures present in the products, exerting a protective effect and influencing the viability preservation of bacteria during the cold storage and simulation of gastrointestinal stress in vitro. Dairy beverages made with 25% whey addition showed results similar to those obtained by the control products, without whey addition, being selected for the second part of the study. In this part, the dairy beverages formulations with 25% whey, were added with a preparation were added with a strawberry pulp preparation and dairy beverages without added fruit, used as a control. Fruity bubaline dairy beverages had lower fat content and better rheological characteristics, with higher viscosity and consistency than control products, without affecting post-acidification, fatty acid profile, as well as viability and resistance to in vitro gastrointestinal condition of fermented cultures. The possibility of supplementing probiotic dairy products with tryptophan was evaluated in partnership with the University of Milan. For this, probiotic yogurts received the addition of tryptophan before or after fermentation, being evaluated in relation to the post-acidification profile, tryptophan amount in the products, viable cell number per plating and flow cytometry during storage at 25°C and 4°C. In addition, the influence of the tryptophan presence on the growth and production of antimicrobial compounds by lactic cultures was also evaluated. The addition of tryptophan after the yogurt fermentation, which were stored under refrigeration (4°C), in addition to not affecting the post-acidification of the products, showed benefits to the viability of L. acidophilus, reduced the damage and increased the number of cells promoting higher amino acid content in yogurts. Tryptophan presence in the culture media also positively influenced the growth of S. thermophiles and L. acidophilus, improving the development of bacteria during fermentation and influencing better antilisteric activity in the part of S. thermophiles. In view of the buffalo milk positive influence observed after the application in dairy beverage preparation, as well as the addition of tryptophan in probiotic yoghurts, amino acid supplementation in fruity buffalo dairy beverages would allow to obtain a functional product, where its benefits would be related both to the consumption of the probiotic present in the product as to the supplementation of tryptophan in the consumer's diet


Subject(s)
Tryptophan/analogs & derivatives , Yogurt/analysis , Beverages/analysis , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/instrumentation , Milk/classification , Fruit/classification , Buffaloes/classification , Flow Cytometry/methods
11.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 56: 1-10, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1377237

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify the sponsorship by food and beverage companies of the teams participating in the 2019 Copa América Soccer Cup and associate this sponsorship with characteristics of the teams and their respective countries. METHODS The sponsors of the 10 teams participating in the 46th edition of the Copa América were identified. These entities were classified into (i) food companies, (ii) alcoholic beverage companies, and (iii) other segments. The food companies were classified according to their products, according to the NOVA classification. In addition, data on the number of titles previously won by the teams in the Copa America and the World Cup were obtained, as well as data on the countries' Human Development Index, annual per capita sales of ultra-processed foods, and annual per capita consumption of alcoholic beverages. RESULTS A total of 89 sponsorships were identified for the 10 teams studied, some of these supporting two or more teams. Eighteen percent of the sponsors were food companies, with 12.4% being ultra-processed foods. The alcoholic beverage category represented 7.9% of the sponsors. Ultra-processed beverage and alcoholic beverage companies sponsored seven of the 10 teams studied. We noted higher participation of ultra-processed foods company sponsors in teams from countries with higher Human Development Index, sales of ultra-processed foods, and number of Copa América and World Cup titles. The sponsorship by alcoholic beverage companies was higher for teams from countries with lower Human Development Index, alcohol consumption, and number of Copa América and World Cup titles. CONCLUSION A significant presence of ultra-processed food and alcoholic beverage companies as sponsors of South American soccer teams was noted, along with the fact that sport performance characteristics of the teams and socioeconomic and market issues of the countries are associated with the occurrence of sponsorship.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Identificar o patrocínio por empresas do setor de alimentos e bebidas das seleções participantes da Copa América de Futebol 2019 e associar esse patrocínio a características das seleções e de seus respectivos países. MÉTODOS Foram identificados os patrocinadores das 10 seleções participantes da 46ª edição da Copa América de Futebol. Essas entidades foram classificadas em empresas i) de alimentos, ii) de bebidas alcoólicas e iii) de outros segmentos. As empresas de alimentos foram classificadas de acordo com seus produtos, segundo a classificação NOVA. Além disso, dados sobre o número de títulos anteriormente conquistados pelas seleções na Copa América e na Copa do Mundo foram obtidos, assim como dados do índice de desenvolvimento humano, de venda anual per capita de alimentos ultraprocessados e de consumo anual per capita de bebidas alcoólicas dos países. RESULTADOS Um total de 89 patrocínios foram identificados para as 10 seleções estudadas, alguns desses apoiando duas ou mais equipes. Dezoito por cento dos patrocinadores eram empresas de alimentos, sendo 12,4% de alimentos ultraprocessados. A categoria de bebidas alcoólicas representou 7,9% dos patrocinadores. As empresas de bebidas ultraprocessadas e as de bebidas alcoólicas patrocinaram sete das 10 seleções estudadas. Notou-se maior participação de patrocinadores de empresas de alimentos ultraprocessados em seleções de países com maior índice de desenvolvimento humano, venda de alimentos ultraprocessados e número de títulos de Copa América e Copa do Mundo. Já o patrocínio por empresas de bebidas alcoólicas foi maior em seleções de países com menor índice de desenvolvimento humano, consumo de álcool e número de títulos em Copa América e Copa do Mundo. CONCLUSÃO Evidenciou-se uma presença significativa de empresas de alimentos ultraprocessados e de bebidas alcoólicas como patrocinadores das seleções sul-americanas de futebol e que as características de desempenho esportivo das seleções e questões socioeconômicas e de mercado dos países se associam à ocorrência do patrocínio.


Subject(s)
Humans , Soccer , Sports , Beverages , Brazil , Fast Foods
12.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 22: e210044, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1365224

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To assess the effects of coloring beverages on the color stability of two types of hybrid ceramics with different surface treatments. Material and Methods 180 specimens of two hybrid ceramics (Vita Enamic and Mazic Duro) and a feldspathic ceramic (Vita Mark II) were prepared (n=60 in each group). Half of the discs in each group were glazed while the other was polished. The specimens were then divided into three subgroups and immersed in distilled water, carrot juice, and coffee. The overall color difference (∆E) was calculated based on CIE L*a*b* color space. Data were analyzed using three-way and one-way ANOVA; Tukey's honest significant difference was also done for pairwise comparisons (α=0.05). Results Vita Mark II specimens revealed less overall color changes compared to other groups. The ∆E of the glazed Vita Enamic specimens was greater than polished specimens following immersion in distilled water (p=0.03) and coffee (p=0.001), but it was not significant for carrot juice. The same results were obtained for polished Mazic Duro specimens. Relatively similar amounts of ∆E were recorded in polished and glazed subgroups of Vita Mark II. Conclusion The ∆E of hybrid ceramics was higher than Vita Mark II. Polishing could be recommended for surface treatment of hybrid ceramics instead of glazing, saving time and facilitating the process.


Subject(s)
Spectrophotometry/instrumentation , Surface Properties , Beverages , Color , Dental Cements , Distilled Water , Ceramics , Analysis of Variance , Dental Prosthesis , Computer-Aided Design/instrumentation , Coffee , Dental Porcelain , Coloring Agents , Fruit and Vegetable Juices , Iran/epidemiology
13.
Health SA Gesondheid (Print) ; 27(NA): 1-2, 2022. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1401125

ABSTRACT

Background: The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been of global concern as it has affected the health of many and the economies of nations. In order to strengthen the immune system against COVID-19, certain plant-source foods were consumed. Aim: This study was designed to identify and compare various special foods and drinks consumed to prevent COVID-19 during the lockdown in various sub-Saharan countries in comparison to South Africa (SA), as well as highlighting some current dietary recommendations. Setting: Online cross-sectional survey in six African countries, namely South Africa, Cameroon, Nigeria, Ghana, Ethiopia and Kenya. Methods: After sample size determination, an online questionnaire was designed and content validated. The survey link was pretested on 25 people and then circulated for 6 weeks during total lockdown. The proportion of responses for each question were reported using descriptive statistics. Results: Half of the 817 participants surveyed were not consuming anything special for COVID-19 prevention. South Africans mostly reported the consumption of supplements or conventional medicines (mainly vitamin C and zinc) while for other countries, a variety of natural foods and drinks were mentioned ­ some having already proved helpful in boosting immune systems. They included infusions of spices with or without honey, fruits and vegetables, medicinal drinks and local beverages. Conclusion: Programmes and campaigns designed to increase awareness of dietary measures for COVID-19 prevention have proved beneficial and should be promoted. Analytical evaluation of the nutritional and health benefits and antiviral potentials of the identified special foods would help in determining which foods to prioritise and promote in the fight against COVID-19. Contribution: This study shows the possibility of finding dietary solutions for managing the pandemic and 'preventive' potentials of certain plant substances.


Subject(s)
Immunization, Secondary , Whole Foods , Disease Prevention , COVID-19 , Beverages , Spices , Fruit , Honey
14.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 26(8): 3135-3145, ago. 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285960

ABSTRACT

Resumo O estudo analisou e comparou os tipos de alimentos comercializados no entorno de 30 escolas privadas e 26 públicas de Ensino Fundamental do município de Niterói, Rio de Janeiro. A coleta de dados foi realizada por auditoria utilizando um instrumento tipo checklist para caracterização dos estabelecimentos (formal ou informal) e identificação dos tipos de alimentos e bebidas comercializados. Estes foram classificados segundo o grau de processamento (in natura, processados e ultraprocessados). Para análise dos dados foram utilizados os testes estatísticos de Mann-Whitney para verificar diferença do tipo de comércio e das categorias de alimentos comercializados entre as escolas e o de Kruskal-Wallis para verificar diferença na quantidade de alimentos comercializada entre as categorias. A quantidade de ultraprocessados no entorno das escolas foi estatisticamente maior (p=0,0001) do que as outras categorias. Algumas preparações culinárias apresentaram alto percentual de contribuição energética de ultraprocessados. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa (p=0,478) nas categorias de alimentos comercializados entre escolas públicas e privadas. No entorno das escolas predomina a comercialização de ultraprocessados, favorecendo a exposição de crianças a um ambiente que estimula o consumo destes produtos.


Abstract The study analyzed and compared the types of food sold in the surroundings of 30 private and 26 public elementary schools in the city of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro. Data were collected by audit using a checklist instrument to characterize establishments (formal or informal) and identify the types of food and beverages sold, which were classified by processing level (fresh, processed, and ultraprocessed). Mann-Whitney statistical tests were used to verify the difference in the type of trade outlets d the categories of food sold between schools. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to verify the difference in the amount of food traded between the categories. The amount of ultraprocessed food in the surroundings of public and private schools was statistically higher (p=0.0001) than the other categories. Some culinary preparations had a high rate of energy contribution from ultraprocessed foods (above 15%). There was no statistically significant difference (p = 0.478) in the categories of food sold between public and private schools. The sale of ultraprocessed products predominates around public and private schools, favoring the exposure of children to an environment that encourages the consumption of these products.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Schools , Diet, Healthy , Beverages , Brazil , Food
15.
s.l; s.n; mar. 2021.
Non-conventional in Spanish | BRISA, LILACS, PIE, MINSALCHILE | ID: biblio-1281515

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La malnutrición por exceso, junto con las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles, se han convertido en un importante problema de salud pública mundial, con un 39% de la población adulta con sobrepeso, y un 13% obesidad (1). Una dieta insuficiente, alta en calorías, grasas y azúcares, está estrechamente relacionada con enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles (cáncer, diabetes, hipertensión, enfermedades cardiovasculares, entre otras)(2,3). Así mismo, se ha descrito que una dieta saludable podría prevenir una de cada cinco muertes a nivel mundial, independiente del sexo, edad o nivel socioeconómico(2). Chile presenta una de las prevalencias más altas de sobrepeso y obesidad en adultos globalmente con un 75%, según los datos de la última Encuesta Nacional de Salud (ENS) (4). Un 82% de la carga de enfermedad en Chile está dada por las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles, como diabetes, cáncer, hipertensión y enfermedades cardiovasculares (5). Como ejemplo, la diabetes en Chile causó 3.426 muertes en el año 2014 y su prevalencia en personas mayores de 15 años alcanza al 10%, mientras que la prevalencia de hipertensión llega al 28% y al 27% las enfermedades cardiovasculares (5). El gasto público total relacionado con obesidad en Chile es de un 3%, lo que equivale al 0,5% del Producto Interno Bruto (PIB) chileno, equivalente a 455 mil millones de pesos anuales (6,7). RESUMEN DE LOS HALLAZGOS: A partir de la metodología descrita anteriormente, se identificaron inicialmente 466 revisiones sistemáticas. De estas, se excluyeron 450 por disenso o duplicados y se incluyeron finalmente 16 revisiones sistemáticas (RS) (17­32) publicadas entre 2010 y 2020. A los estudios primarios evaluados por estas RS se le aplicaron los mismos criterios de inclusión y exclusión presentados en el recuadro de metodología. Del total de estudios incluidos por las RS, 51 estudios primarios reportados en 54 referencias (33­86) evaluaron los efectos de los impuestos en el consumo de bebidas azucaradas. Una vez evaluado el diseño y la metodología de los estudios primarios identificados, 29 estudios fueron excluidos del análisis dado que no cumplían con los criterios EPOC para estimar el efecto de la intervención (87). Cuatro estudios eran transversales (43,48,53,56), 19 estudios eran de modelamiento (33­35,37­42,44­46,49,51,52,55,57,59,60,84,85) y 6 estudios no contaban con los suficientes puntos de datos (data points) o no identificaban claramente la fecha de la intervención como para poder incorporarlos en el análisis (36,50,54,58,61,82). Los estudios transversales se excluyeron dado que es difícil atribuir causalidad a los resultados provenientes de ellos (87) y en el caso de los estudios de modelación, se consideró que frente a la disponibilidad de evidencia directa, la inclusión de este tipo de estudios -que "predice" la evidencia- no aplicaría (88). Con estos criterios, se consideraron finalmente 22 estudios primarios (47,62­81,83,86), de los cuales 3 son ensayos controlados aleatorizados (ECAs)(68,70,72) y 19 corresponden a estudios observacionales (principalmente series de tiempo interrumpido y antes-después controlados)(47,62­67,69,71,73­81,83,86). El diseño original de dos de los estudios evaluados corresponde a un ensayo aleatorizado (83,86), sin embargo, los estudios evaluaron más de una intervención y su aleatorización no fue de acuerdo a la exposición o no a impuestos, por lo que para este informe se les ha considerado como estudios observacionales. Los hallazgos aquí presentados se han separado de acuerdo a tipo de outcome, diseño de estudio, y país, estado o ciudad donde se aplicó el impuesto. Cada hallazgo contiene además una tabla resumen con los resultados, mostrando la certeza en la evidencia de cada uno de los desenlaces encontrados. CONSIDERACIONES DE IMPLEMENTACIÓN: Para el análisis de las consideraciones de implementación, durante la selección de títulos, resúmenes y texto completo de esta síntesis, se realizó una selección de revisiones sistemáticas que pudieran entregar antecedentes para el análisis de la aplicabilidad de la evidencia al contexto local, consideraciones económicas, equidad y de monitoreo y evaluación. Además, se realizaron búsquedas complementarias de antecedentes nacionales. Consideraciones de Aplicabilidad: La evidencia analizada se basa en 3 ensayos controlados aleatorizados realizados en los Países Bajos y Estados Unidos y de 16 estudios observacionales (diseño de series de tiempo interrumpido o antes-después controlado) provenientes de 6 países donde efectivamente se aplicó un impuesto sobre las bebidas azucaradas (Chile, España, Francia, México, Reino Unido y Estados Unidos). En algunos casos el impuesto se aplicó a un estado o comunidad autónoma, mientras que en otros, se aplicó en todo el país. Esta síntesis de evidencia consideró como desenlace prioritario el consumo de bebidas azucaradas, lo que fue evaluado a través de la ingesta o de manera indirecta a través de las compras y ventas de este tipo de bebidas. No fue priorizado el impacto del impuesto sobre el estado de salud de las personas, entendido como sobrepeso, obesidad o enfermedades cardiovasculares, dado que el desarrollo de éstos es multifactorial y el efecto percibido de los impuestos podría estar sujeto a otros factores que aportan confusión, a juicio del solicitante. La unidad de análisis de los estudios seleccionados fueron adolescentes, personas adultas, hogares o población general, y ventas o compras en supermercados o tiendas. Consideraciones Económicas: Se ha descrito que los impuestos en alimentos y bebidas altos en nutrientes críticos podrían mostrar elasticidad-precio negativa en su consumo, lo que significa que la compra y consumo de estos disminuye en función al aumento de su precio (20,21). Al respecto, los estudios chilenos (67,69) no detectaron cambios importantes en el precio de las bebidas azucaradas tras la aplicación del impuesto. Una de las explicaciones de esto es que los fabricantes reaccionaron estratégicamente para absorber total o parcialmente la carga tributaria adicional, evitando que se transfiriera el impuesto al precio final de las bebidas azucaradas o que compensaron el aumento del precio con aquellas bebidas en las que se redujo dicho impuesto. Consideraciones de Equidad: Se debe tener en cuenta si la propuesta de gravamen tendrá un impacto en restricciones de libertad de selección de productos o si aumentará inequidades, afectando de forma desproporcionadas a algunos grupos. Se ha descrito que los impuestos a alimentos y bebidas podrían tener un efecto diferenciado por nivel socioeconómico (NSE), ya que frente a un aumento en el precio, es más probable que las personas de menores ingresos disminuyan el consumo de bienes no esenciales (17). Sin embargo, en el caso de Chile se reportó el efecto contrario. Nakamura et al., 2018 reportó que la magnitud de la reducción de bebidas compradas con impuestos altos fue mayor para el grupo de NSE alto que para el grupo de NSE medio y estadísticamente insignificante para el grupo de NSE bajo (69). Del mismo modo, Caro et al., 2018 encontró que los hogares con un NSE alto tuvieron una mayor disminución en el volumen de compras de bebidas altas en azúcar (−6,4%) que los hogares con un NSE bajo (−1,6%), en relación con sus respectivos contrafactuales (67). Consideraciones de Monitoreo y Evaluación: Chile ya tiene experiencia con la implementación innovadora de impuestos a bebidas azucaradas (67,69), por lo que es crucial identificar cuáles han sido y siguen siendo los facilitadores, barreras y contratiempos que se identificaron en este proceso. Así mismo, y como lo plantea Caro et al (67) junto con Nakamura et al. (69), se recomienda efectuar evaluaciones a corto, mediano y largo plazo, desde el comienzo de la ejecución de los impuestos, idealmente, incluyendo un grupo control para las comparaciones. Para poder evaluar de mejor forma los efectos de los impuestos de bebidas azucaradas, es importante diseñar un plan de monitoreo integral de la implementación de los impuestos, en todas sus etapas. La evaluación de los impuestos debe contemplar datos diagnósticos o línea base del consumo de los líquidos que serán gravados y mediciones de seguimiento post implementación (10,101).


Subject(s)
Humans , Beverages/economics , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Sugar-Sweetened Beverages/adverse effects , Obesity/epidemiology , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Health Evaluation
16.
Rev. ADM ; 78(2): 73-79, mar.-abr. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1247336

ABSTRACT

El color es un efecto visual de los rayos de luz reflejándose y su concepto es complejo por ser una sensación que se percibe y por las características electromagnéticas. Los dientes varían espacialmente porque son curvados, tienen prolongaciones relativamente pequeñas y vistas en contra de una variable de fondo no uniforme así como típicamente una iluminación no estandarizada, por lo cual difieren en relación con su colorimetría, por lo que el estudio del color es fundamental en la odontología. En la actualidad hay métodos para evaluar el color, desde una simple revisión visual hasta instrumentos como el colorímetro y los espectrofotómetros, los cuales son aparatos utilizados en la medida del color de un objeto a través de su longitud de onda reflejada. Una pigmentación dental se produce por varios factores, ya sean intrínsecos y extrínsecos, estas pigmentaciones son factores importantes tanto en la estética como en el aspecto físico, por lo que es importante poder evaluar la estabilidad de los dientes naturales ante diferentes sustancias que podrían modificar su color natural. En este estudio nos dimos a la tarea de evaluar el cambio de color de dientes naturales ante diferentes bebidas, se eligieron tres bebidas pigmentantes y de uso común: café, vino tinto y jugo de arándano; se utilizaron 10 dientes unirradiculares del mismo color previamente analizados con el espectrofotómetro. Un diente fue la muestra control y los nueve restantes se sumergieron en frascos separados con 10 mL de las tres bebidas elegidas. Realizando la evaluación de color a los 15, 30 y 90 días con ayuda del espectrofotómetro, pudimos observar que el diente sumergido en café no tuvo variación durante los primeros 15 días y el cambio más notable de color fue hasta los 90 días a diferencia de las muestras sumergidas en vino y jugo de arándano cuya variación máxima de color se presentó en 15 días respectivamente (AU)


Color is a visual effect of light rays reflecting and its concept is complex, for being a sensation that is perceived and for the electromagnetic characteristics. Teeth vary spatially because they are curved, have relatively small extensions, and are viewed against a non-uniform background variable as well as typically non-standardized illumination, which is why they differ in relation to their colorimetry. So the study of color is fundamental in dentistry. Currently, there are methods to evaluate color, from a simple visual check to instruments such as the colorimeter and spectrophotometers, which are devices used to measure the color of an object through its reflected wavelength. A dental pigmentation is produced by various factors, both intrinsic and extrinsic, these pigmentations are currently important factors in both aesthetics and physical appearance, so it is important to be able to evaluate the stability of natural teeth against different substances that could modify its natural color. In this study, we undertook the task of evaluating the change in the color of natural teeth when faced with different beverages. Three pigment and commonly used beverages were chosen: coffee, red wine and cranberry juice; 10 single-rooted teeth of the same color previously analyzed with the spectrophotometer were used. One tooth was the control sample and the remaining nine were immersed in separate bottles with 10 mL of the three chosen drinks. Carrying out the color evaluation at 15, 30 and 90 days with the help of the spectrophotometer, we could see that the tooth immersed in coffee did not change during the first 15 days and the most notable change in color was up to 90 days, unlike the samples immersed in wine and cranberry juice whose maximum color variation was presented in 15 days respectively (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Tooth Discoloration , Beverages , Color , Colorimetry , Esthetics, Dental , Spectrophotometry/methods , Wine , In Vitro Techniques , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Coffee , Juices , Light
17.
Rev. odontopediatr. latinoam ; 11(1): e-220178, 2021. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1379316

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: Determinar en una muestra de adolescentes españoles sus conocimientos sobre la erosión dental y los alimentos, bebidas y hábitos alimenticios que la producen. Material y métodos: Se llevó a cabo un estudio transversal. La muestra estuvo constituida por 348 adolescentes entre 12 y 17 años. Se valoró su conocimiento sobre la erosión dental y sus factores etiológicos mediante un cuestionario. Resultados: El 17,82% refirió conocer la erosión dental, el 26,44% solo había oído hablar de ella y el 62,35% pensaba erróneamente que los términos erosión y caries eran equivalentes. Al relacionar el conocimiento sobre los alimentos que producen erosión dental y la edad de los participantes se observó que el grupo de 16-17 años conocía en un porcentaje significativamente mayor la capacidad erosiva de la naranja (p<0,05), el limón (p<0,05), la fresa (p<0,01) y el kiwi (p<0,01). Esto se observó también con las bebidas gaseosas (p<0,01) y las isotónicas (p<0,01). Conclusiones: El nivel de conocimientos sobre la erosión dental es en general bajo, aumentando con la edad. La capacidad erosiva de los cítricos y de las bebidas gaseosas es más conocida entre los adolescentes que la de otros alimentos o bebidas.


Objetivos: Determinar em uma amostra de adolescentes espanhóis seu conhecimento sobre a erosão dentaria e os alimentos, as bebidas e os hábitos alimentares que a produzem. Material e métodos: Foi realizado um estudo transversal. A amostra foi composta por 348 adolescentes entre 12 e 17 anos. O conhecimento sobre erosão dentaria e seus fatores etiológicos foi avaliada por meio de um questionário. Resultados: 17,82% relataram conhecer erosão dentaria; 26,44% tinham ouvido falar dela e 62,35% pensavam erroneamente que os termos erosão e càrie eram equivalentes. Ao relacionar o conhecimento sobre os alimentos que produzem erosão dentaria y a idade dos participantes observou-se que o grupo de 16-17 anos conhecia em uma porcentagem significativamente maior a capacidade erosiva da laranja (p<0,05), do limão (p<0,05), do morango (p<0,01) e do kiwi (p<0,01). Isto também foi observado com refrigerantes (p<0,01) e bebidas isotônicas (p<0,01). Concluções: O conhecimento sobre erosão dentaria foi geralmente baixo, aumentando com a idade. Os adolescentes conhecem melhor a capacidade erosiva de frutas cítricas e refrigerantes do que outros alimentos ou bebidas.


Objectives: To determine in a sample of Spanish adolescents their knowledge of dental erosion and the food, drinks and eating habits that produce it. Material and methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out. The sample consisted of 348 adolescents between 12 and 17 years old. Their knowledge of dental erosion and its etiological factors was assessed through a questionnaire. Results: 17.82% reported knowing dental erosion, 26.44% had only heard of it and 62.35% mistakenly thought that the terms erosion and caries were equivalent. When relating knowledge about the foods that cause dental erosion and the age of the participants, it was observed that the group of 16-17 years knew in a significantly higher percentage the erosive capacity of the orange (p <0.05), the lemon ( p <0.05), strawberry (p <0.01) and kiwi (p <0.01). This was also observed with soft drinks (p <0.01) and isotonic drinks (p <0.01). Conclusions: The level of knowledge about dental erosion was generally low, increasing with age. The erosive capacity of citrus fruits and soft drinks is better known among adolescents than that of other foods or drinks.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Tooth Erosion/etiology , Beverages/adverse effects , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Feeding Behavior , Fruit/adverse effects , Carbonated Beverages/adverse effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Dental Caries , Energy Drinks/adverse effects , Food/adverse effects
18.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 928-935, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921561

ABSTRACT

A good hydration status is important to the exercise performance and cognitive function of exercisers.The effective restoration of fluid balance after exercise is helpful to prevent dehydration,maintain body fluid balance,accelerate fatigue recovery,and enhance exercise performance.As the most effective sports nutrition supplement,sports beverage has different ingredients and formulas,and also has various effects.To provide clues for the development of sports beverage,this article reviews the types,components,effects,and mechanisms of sports beverage currently used in post-exercise fluid restoration.


Subject(s)
Humans , Beverages , Dehydration , Exercise , Fluid Therapy , Sports , Water-Electrolyte Balance
19.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 716-726, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921530

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare the effects of carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage on post-exercise rehydration of healthy young men in different seasons,and to explore the influence of seasonal adaptability on fluid and electrolyte balance.Methods Fifteen healthy men,aged(24.4±0.5)years,completed 2 trails in a random crossover design both in summer and winter.During recovery,they consumed a drink volume equivalent to 100% of their sweat loss with plain boiled water(the water group)or carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage(the beverage group).Recovery was monitored for further 180 minutes by the collection of blood and urine samples.Results The dehydration time in summer was significantly shorter by about 20 minutes than that in winter(


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Beverages , Cross-Over Studies , Dietary Carbohydrates , Electrolytes , Fluid Therapy , Seasons
20.
Philippine Journal of Health Research and Development ; (4): 45-52, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-987761

ABSTRACT

Background@#Unhealthy diet, including high consumption of beverages with added sugars, has been attributed to the increasing trend of overweight and obesity. @*Objectives@#This study explored the trend in beverage consumption and estimated the percent energy contribution of beverages to the total energy intake of selected population groups in the Philippines from 2008 to 2019. @*Methodology@#The proportions, mean intakes, and percentile distributions of energy intake from beverages of selected population groups in 2008, 2013, and 2018-2019 used in this study were estimated using the National Nutrition Surveys by the Food and Nutrition Research Institute. Two analyses were done for the energy intake from beverages: (1) beverages excluding milk and dairy products, and (2) all beverages. The energy intake from sugars and syrups was also noted. @*Results@#Results showed that the mean energy intake for beverages increased from 2008 to 2018-2019 for all age groups. The mean contribution of beverages to total energy intake, excluding milk and dairy products, was generally low but increased from 2008 to 2018-2019 with ranges from 2.3-3.7% and 2.8%-5.2%, respectively. However, high beverage consumers or those consuming ≥120 kcal per day, even excluding milk and dairy products, were observed in 6.3% of children 6 months to 5 years, 10.3% of children 6-12 years old, 16.1% of adolescents, 23.5% of adults, and 13.0% of pregnant women in 2018-2019. @*Conclusion@#Behavior change communication strategies are needed to prevent obesity and other lifestyle-related diseases, particularly in the population groups with a high consumption of caloric beverages.


Subject(s)
Beverages , Energy Intake , Obesity
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