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2.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2017. 180 p. graf, tab, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-878490

ABSTRACT

A contaminação de corpos d'água por fármacos é um tema de extrema relevância, tendo em vista problemas como a escassez de água, florações de cianobactérias tóxicas e lançamentos clandestinos de efluentes domésticos. Sendo assim, este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a presença de cafeína (CAF), fluoxetina (FLX), levotiroxina (LVX) e bezafibrato (BZF) em mananciais do estado de São Paulo, bem como avaliar a toxicidade desses compostos à cianobactéria Microcystis aeruginosa LTPNA 08. Um método por LC-MS/MS foi desenvolvido e validado, de acordo com a RDC nº 166 da ANVISA, para a detecção de CAF, FLX, LVX e BZF em amostras ambientais. As represas Guarapiranga e Billings, bem como os rios Taiçupeba, Sorocaba, Baixo Cotia, Grande e Paraíba foram monitorados de abril a setembro de 2017. A toxicidade dos fármacos foi avaliada por meio do monitoramento do crescimento, produção de microcistinas e viabilidade celular da cianobactéria M. aeruginosa LTPNA 08. CAF foi detectada em todas as amostras analisadas, com concentrações que variaram de 6,6 ng.L-1 a 16,47 µg.L-1. No Rio Cotia foram verificadas as maiores concentrações de CAF, FLX e BZF (16,47 µg.L-1; 3,5 ng.L-1 e 322 ng.L-1, respectivamente). A LVX, cujos produtos de biotransformação não foram monitorados, não foi detectada em nenhuma amostra analisada. A concentração de 50 µg.L-1 de FLX inibiu o crescimento da cianobactéria em 82,3% (CE50: 31,4 µg.L-1). Em relação à produção de microcistinas totais, os fármacos inibiram a liberação da fração extracelular para a maior concentração testada ao longo do tempo de monitoramento, embora não tenham demonstrado efeito sobre a viabilidade celular. Sendo assim, considerando-se que fármacos estão presentes nos mananciais monitorados no estado de São Paulo e que a FLX pode causar efeito sobre a M. aeruginosa, os efeitos decorrentes da exposição a concentrações ambientais contínuas e cumulativas de fármacos em corpos d'água devem ser estudados. Além disso, uma vez que a ocorrência destas substâncias e outros contaminantes antropogênicos no ambiente aquático natural é uma questão emergente devido aos efeitos adversos potenciais que estes compostos representam para a vida aquática e os seres humanos, os tipos e níveis destes compostos, que têm um impacto maior na qualidade da água, deve ser constantemente monitorada. Práticas de gestão que investem em saneamento e na redução da descarga de efluentes não tratados, e um plano de proteção de recursos hídricos com o objetivo de garantir a segurança da água seriam medidas essenciais para reduzir o aporte de contaminantes nos corpos d'água do estado de São Paulo


Contamination of water bodies by drugs is a subject of extreme relevance considering related problems such as water scarcity, harmful cyanobacterial blooms and discharge of untreated domestic effluents. Therefore, the aim of this work was to determine the presence of caffeine (CAF), fluoxetine (FLX), levothyroxine (LVX) and bezafibrate (BZF) in springs in the State of São Paulo, and to evaluate the toxicity of these compounds in cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa LTPNA 08. A LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated according to RDC nº 166 of ANVISA to assess the concentration of CAF, FLX, LVX and BZF in environmental samples. Guarapiranga and Billings reservoirs, as well as the Taiçupeba, Sorocaba, Baixo Cotia, Grande and Paraíba rivers were monitored from April to September 2017.The drugs toxicity in M. aeruginosa LTPNA 08 was assessed by monitoring their effects on cyanobacterial growth, microcystins production and cell viabilityby flow cytometry. CAF was detected in all analyzed samples at concentrations ranging from 6.6 ng to 16.47 µg.L-1.Among studied sites, Cotia river showed the highest concentrations of CAF, FLX and BZF (16.47 µg.L-1, 3.5 ng.L-1 and 322 ng.L-1, respectively). LVX, which biotransformation products were not monitored, was not detected in any of the analyzed samples. Regarding the drugs toxicity, 50 µg.L-1 of FLX inhibited the cyanobacterial grow thin 82.3% (EC50 of 31.4 µg.L-1). Although no effect on cell viability was seen by flow cytometry, the highest concentrations of all compounds tested were able to inhibit the release of microcystins. Therefore, considering that some of the drugs monitored showed to be present in water sources in São Paulo State and that FLX affects cyanobacteria M. aeruginosa growth, the effects of continuous and cumulative exposure at environmental drug concentrations of in water bodies should be evaluated. Also, since the occurrence of these substances and other anthropogenic contaminants in the natural aquatic environment is an emerging issue due to the potential adverse effects these compounds pose to aquatic life and humans, thet ypes and levels of these compounds, which have a greater impact on water quality, should be constantly monitored. Management practices investing in sanitation and in reducing discharge of untreated effluents, as well as a plan for water resources protection with the goal of ensuring water security would be essential measures in reducing drugs loading into water bodies situated in São Paulo State


Subject(s)
Pharmaceutical Preparations/metabolism , /classification , Bezafibrate/toxicity , Caffeine/toxicity , Flow Cytometry , Fluoxetine/toxicity , Microcystis/growth & development , Spectrophotometry , Thyroxine/toxicity
3.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 52(3): 545-553, July-Sept. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828268

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Fibrates are drugs used for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia and for the prevention of atherosclerosis. Three drugs in the fibrate class, ciprofibrate, fenofibrate and bezafibrate, were chosen for this study because their raw materials are readily available and because scientific publications on these compounds is limited. To evaluate their intrinsic stability, the drugs were exposed to a test condition (temperature, oxidation, UV light exposure, hydrolysis at different pH values and metal ions in solution) and then were subjected to analysis by HPLC. The samples were run on a C18 column, with a flow rate of 1.0 mL min-1 in a mobile phase consisting of methanol: 0.01 % phosphoric acid v/v (80:20), with variable detection wavelengths in the UV spectra. The analysis methodology showed satisfactory performance parameters. The three drugs were very unstable, degrading in each of the conditions evaluated. The test conditions of acid and basic hydrolysis showed the most significant degradation. The results demonstrated that the drugs in this class are unstable. Based on these experimentally determined degradation kinetics, it is easy to understand and emphasize the importance of the lack of liquid dosage forms on the market for fibrates because of their instability.


Subject(s)
Bezafibrate/analysis , Fenofibrate/analysis , Fibric Acids/analysis , Kinetics , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Fibric Acids/classification , Hypertriglyceridemia
4.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 21(12): 3899-3906, 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-828529

ABSTRACT

Resumo A utilização de medicamentos para tratamento das dislipidemias é relevante no controle das doenças cardiovasculares. O objetivo deste artigo é analisar a prevalência, a utilização e a participação do setor público no fornecimento de medicamentos para as pessoas a partir de 40 anos em farmacoterapia de controle das dislipidemias, residentes em um município da região Sul do Brasil. Estudo transversal de base populacional. Foram entrevistados no domicilio 1180 indivíduos a partir de 40 anos residentes em Cambé/PR, dos quais 967 realizaram exames laboratoriais. A prevalência de dislipidemias foi de 69,2%, dos quais 16,1% utilizavam medicamentos. Entre os indivíduos em tratamento para as dislipidemias, 22,2% apresentaram resultados de exames adequados. Os fármacos hipolipemiantes mais utilizados foram sinvastatina (81,5%) e bezafibrato (6,5%), obtidos principalmente por pagamento direto em farmácias e drogarias privadas (52,2%) e serviços próprios do SUS (33,6%). Em nível populacional a prevalência das dislipidemias foi elevada, o seu controle baixo, com menor participação do setor público no fornecimento dos medicamentos do que a aquisição mediante pagamento direto em farmácias e drogarias privadas, sugerindo alcance limitado das políticas públicas de controle das dislipidemias.


Abstract The use of medications for the treatment of dyslipidemia is relevant in the control of cardiovascular disease. This article aims to analyze the prevalence, the use and the participation of the public sector in the supply of medication for adults aged 40 years and above using pharmacotherapy for dyslipidemia control living in a city in the southern region of Brazil. A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted. Household interviews were staged with 1180 individuals aged over 40 living in Cambé, State of Paraná, of which 967 took laboratory examinations. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was 69.2%, of which 16.1% were taking medication. Among individuals undergoing treatment for dyslipidemia, 22.2% had adequate test results. Lipid-lowering medication used were simvastatin (81.5%) and bezafibrate (6.5%), mainly obtained by direct payment to private pharmacies and drug stores (52.2%) and NHS services (33.6%). A high prevalence of dyslipidemias was observed in population terms, together with a low level of dyslipidemia control and low participation of the public sector regarding the supply of medication compared to acquisition through direct payment for medication in private pharmacies. These results suggest a limited range of public policy for control of dyslipidemia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Dyslipidemias/drug therapy , Hypolipidemic Agents/therapeutic use , Public Sector , Bezafibrate/supply & distribution , Bezafibrate/therapeutic use , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dyslipidemias/complications , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , Hypolipidemic Agents/supply & distribution , Interviews as Topic , Prevalence , Simvastatin/supply & distribution , Simvastatin/therapeutic use
5.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 698-701, 2014.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-53782

ABSTRACT

Fenofibrate is one of PPAR-alpha (peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha) agonists. Fenofibrate decreases effectively triglyceride and increases high density lipoprotein cholesterol level through the effect on lipoprotein lipase, hepatic production and degradation of lipoproteins. Fenofibrate was recommended as the drug for hypertriglyceridemia treatment in European guideline released in 2011. But American heart association guideline in 2013 did not recommend non-statin therapy including fibrate for the prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. But fenofibrate is still considered as the important drug for the management of atherogenic dyslipidemia especially in patients with metabolic syndrome and diabetes to reduce the residual risk after statin therapy from the evidence of many studies. Fibrates including bezafibrate, gemfibrozil, and fenofibrate increased serum creatinine level in several studies. But the mechanism of change in renal function is not clear till now. And the reversibility of renal function with drug discontinuation is dependent on the kinds of fibrate. Fenofibrate increased serum creatinine level, decreased albuminuria and renal function was reversible with the drug discontinuation in large clinical trials. In these days renal function change with fenofibrate therapy in Korean patients with hypertriglyceridemia was investigated. Fenofibrate treatment for 2 months increased serum creatinine level significantly and old age was associated with the change of renal function in multivariate analysis. Short-term therapy significantly increased serum creatinine level even within normal range, and this change may be important in some groups especially old age.


Subject(s)
Albuminuria , American Heart Association , Bezafibrate , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cholesterol, HDL , Creatinine , Dyslipidemias , Fenofibrate , Fibric Acids , Gemfibrozil , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Hypertriglyceridemia , Lipoprotein Lipase , Lipoproteins , Multivariate Analysis , Reference Values , Triglycerides
6.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 57(8): 653-658, Nov. 2013. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-696907

ABSTRACT

Lipodistrofia congênita generalizada (CGL) com hipertrigliceridemia extrema desde o primeiro ano de vida está associada a piores riscos metabólicos. Foram utilizados dados contidos no prontuário do paciente, bem como revisão bibliográfica para composição do texto. Relatamos o caso de um lactente com fenótipo típico e hipertrigliceridemia de 1.360 mg/dL, que foi tratado com bezafibrato na dose de 30 a 60 mg/dia dos 11 meses aos 5 anos e 6 meses de idade, aferindo um nadir de triglicérides de 55 mg/dL. Evolução clínico-laboratorial antes e após bezafibrato foi feita ao longo de cinco anos e seis meses. O fenótipo apresentado foi classificado clinicamente em CGL tipo 2. Apesar do controle eficiente da hipetrigliceridemia e da ausência de desenvolvimento de diabetes melito, o uso de bezafibrato não impediu o aparecimento de esteatose hepática durante a evolução. A terapia antilipemiante com fibrato se mostrou eficaz em manter níveis normais de triglicerídeos, colesterol e suas frações e não se associou a efeitos colaterais graves durante o período descrito.


Congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL) with severe hypertriglyceridemia in a children less than 1 year of age is associated with worse metabolic risk. We used data from patient records, as well as extensive literature research to write the manuscript. We report the case of an infant with typical phenotype of CGL and hypertriglyceridemia of 1,360 mg/dL who was treated with bezafibrate at a dose of 30 to 60 mg/day from age 11 months to 5.5 years old, with a measurement of nadir of triglycerides of 55 mg/dL. Clinical evolution and clinical laboratory tests before and after bezafibrate were carried out over 5 years and 6 months. Phenotype was classified as CGL type 2. Despite the efficient control of hypertriglyceridemia and absence of development of diabetes mellitus, the use of bezafibrate did not prevent the onset of hepatic steatosis during evolution. Hypolipidemic therapy with bezafibrate proved effective in maintaining the levels of triglycerides, cholesterol and its fractions at normal levels, and its use was not correlated with severe side effects during the described period.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Male , Bezafibrate/therapeutic use , Hypertriglyceridemia/drug therapy , Hypolipidemic Agents/therapeutic use , Lipodystrophy, Congenital Generalized/drug therapy , Growth Charts
7.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 46(5): 433-439, maio 2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-675673

ABSTRACT

Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic and slowly progressive cholestatic liver disease of autoimmune etiology. A number of questions regarding its etiology are unclear. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a critical role in self-tolerance and, for unknown reasons, their relative number is reduced in PBC patients. B-cell-activating factor (BAFF) is a key survival factor during B-cell maturation and its concentration is increased in peripheral blood of PBC patients. It has been reported that activated B cells inhibit Treg cell proliferation and there are no BAFF receptors on Tregs. Therefore, we speculated that excessive BAFF may result in Treg reduction via B cells. To prove our hypothesis, we isolated Tregs and B cells from PBC and healthy donors. BAFF and IgM concentrations were then analyzed by ELISA and CD40, CD80, CD86, IL-10, and TGF-β expression in B cells and Tregs were measured by flow cytometry. BAFF up-regulated CD40, CD80, CD86, and IgM expression in B cells. However, BAFF had no direct effect on Treg cell apoptosis and cytokine secretion. Nonetheless, we observed that BAFF-activated B cells could induce Treg cell apoptosis and reduce IL-10 and TGF-β expression. We also showed that BAFF-activated CD4+ T cells had no effect on Treg apoptosis. Furthermore, we verified that bezafibrate, a hypolipidemic drug, can inhibit BAFF-induced Treg cell apoptosis. In conclusion, BAFF promotes Treg cell apoptosis and inhibits cytokine production by activating B cells in PBC patients. The results of this study suggest that inhibition of BAFF activation is a strategy for PBC treatment.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Apoptosis/drug effects , B-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/drug effects , B-Lymphocytes/drug effects , Bezafibrate/pharmacology , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary/immunology , B-Cell Activating Factor , B-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/metabolism , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Flow Cytometry , Lymphocyte Activation
8.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 1006-1009, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-356468

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the lipid-regulating effect and safety of combined statin and bezafibrate therapy in acute coronary syndrome(ACS) patients complicating with dyslipedemia.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>One hundred and four hospitalized patients with established ACS and increased serum triglycerides (TG) levels and/or low serum levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were selected. Except for conventional therapy, the patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: control group (n = 52), treated with atorvastatin 20 mg qn or other statin equivalent to 20 mg atorvastatin; treatment group (n = 52), treated with the same dose statin plus bezafibrate 200 mg bid. The serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), TG, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and HDL-C were assessed before and after 6 and 12 weeks treatment, side effects and adverse events were recorded.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>After 6 weeks treatment, the serum levels of TC, TG and LDL-C in two groups were significantly reduced compared to baseline (all P < 0.05), which were further declined after 12 weeks treatment, and the reduction was more significant in treatment group(29.8%, 38.0% and 36.1%, respectively) than in control group(14.7%, 9.8% and 26.7%, respectively) (all P < 0.05). After treatment, the serum levels of HDL-C in the two groups were significantly higher than the baseline levels, especially after 12 weeks treatment (all P < 0.05), and the elevations of HDL-C levels in control group and in treatment group were 19.3% and 24.2%, respectively, but there were no significant difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). After 12 weeks, the rates reaching to target goals of LDL-C, TG, HDL-C, and non-HDL-C levels in the treatment group (69.2%, 88.5%, 92.3%, 46.2% and 65.4%, respectively) were significantly higher than those in the control group (34.6%, 65.4%, 46.2%, 7.7% and 42.3%, respectively, all P < 0.05). No serious side effects were observed in the two groups during the treatment period.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The combined statin and bezafibrate treatment is safe and could increase the ratios of reaching target lipid levels in ACS patients complicating with increased TG and (or) decreased HDL-C.</p>


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , Drug Therapy , Aged , Anticholesteremic Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Atorvastatin , Bezafibrate , Therapeutic Uses , Dyslipidemias , Female , Heptanoic Acids , Therapeutic Uses , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Therapeutic Uses , Lipids , Blood , Lipoproteins , Blood , Male , Middle Aged , Pyrroles , Therapeutic Uses , Treatment Outcome
9.
Cir. & cir ; 78(3): 229-237, mayo-jun. 2010. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-565599

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La hiperfibrinogenemia se considera predictora de eventos cardiovasculares en sujetos sanos y pacientes con cardiopatía isquémica. Como medida de prevención primaria, el bezafibrato disminuye el fibrinógeno sanguíneo y los eventos cardiovasculares, pero su efecto en el síndrome coronario agudo aún no se conoce. Material y métodos: Ensayo clínico, aleatorizado, controlado con tratamiento convencional. Se incluyeron pacientes con infarto agudo del miocardio con elevación del segmento ST y concentraciones de fibrinógeno > 500 mg/dl a las 72 horas de evolución. Se asignaron a recibir 400 mg de bezafibrato (grupo I) o tratamiento convencional (grupo II). Punto primario de evaluación: concentraciones de fibrinógeno; puntos secundarios: recurrencia de angina o infarto, falla ventricular izquierda y puntos finales combinados durante la estancia hospitalaria. Resultados: Se incluyeron 25 pacientes por grupo. Las concentraciones de fibrinógeno al egreso hospitalario fueron significativamente menores en el grupo I (532.42 ± 129.6 versus 889 ± 127.32 mg/dl del grupo II, p < 0.0001). Los puntos secundarios se presentaron con mayor frecuencia en el grupo II que en el grupo I: angina (56 versus 4%, riesgo relativo 0.071 [0.010-0.503], p < 0.0001), falla ventricular (24 versus 4%, riesgo relativo 0.167 [0.022-1.286], p = 0.049) y puntos finales combinados (76 versus 8%, riesgo relativo 0.105 [0.027- 0.405], p < 0.001). Conclusiones: El tratamiento con bezafibrato fue seguro y logró reducir el fibrinógeno en pacientes con infarto agudo. Esta reducción se asoció con menor frecuencia de eventos cardiovasculares a corto plazo.


BACKGROUND: Hyperfibrinogenemia is a predictor of cardiovascular events in healthy subjects and in patients with chronic ischemic heart disease. Bezafibrate decreases fibrinogen levels and also the incidence of major cardiovascular events in primary prevention, but its effects in acute coronary syndrome are unknown. METHODS: This is a randomized, controlled clinical trial with conventional therapy. We included patients with Acute ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEAMI) and fibrinogen concentration >500 mg/dl at 72 h of evolution. We randomized subjects into two groups: bezafibrate 400 mg (group I) and conventional therapy (group II). Primary end point was decrease of fibrinogen concentrations. Secondary end points were recurrence of angina or infarction, left ventricular failure and combined end points during hospitalization. RESULTS: We included 25 patients in each group. Fibrinogen concentrations were lower at hospital discharge in Group I than in Group II (532.42 +/- 129.6 vs. 889 +/- 127.32 mg/dl in group II, p <0.0001). Secondary end points were more frequent in Group II than in Group I: angina (56% vs. 4%, RR 0.071 [0.010-0.503], p <0.0001), left ventricular failure (24% vs. 4%, RR 0.167 [0.022-1.286], p = 0.049) and combined end points (76% vs. 8%, RR 0.105 [0.027-0.405], p <0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Bezafibrate treatment was a safe treatment and reduced fibrinogen levels in patients with STEAMI and hyperfibrinogenemia. In the short term, this reduction was associated with a lower incidence of major cardiovascular events.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Bezafibrate/therapeutic use , Fibrinogen/analysis , Fibrinogen/drug effects , Myocardial Infarction/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology
10.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2010. 138 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-601469

ABSTRACT

Este trabalho teve o objetivo de estudar o efeito de medicamentos com diferentes ações agonista PPAR (rosiglitazona, fenofibrato e bezafibrato) sobre o perfil lipídico, glicídico e alterações na massa corporal e morfologia do tecido adiposo e pancreático em modelo de diabetes e sobrepeso induzido por dieta. Camundongos C57BL/6 (2 meses de idade) foram alimentados com dieta padrão (SC, n=10) ou dieta hiperlipídica rica em sacarose (HFHS, n=40) por 6 semanas. Logo após, os animais HFHS foram subdividos em: HFHS não tratado e HFHS tratado com rosiglitazona (HFHS-Ro), fenofibrato (HFHS-Fe) ou bezafibrato (HFHS-BZ) (5 semanas). Os camundongos alimentados com dieta HFHS apresentaram maior glicemia e insulina de jejum (+33% e +138%, respectivamente), intolerância à glicose, resistência à insulina, aumento da massa corporal (MC) (+20%) e adiposidade, hipertrofia de adipócitos e redução da imunocoloração para adiponectina no tecido adiposo. No pâncreas houve aumento da massa (+28%), acúmulo de gordura (+700%), hipertrofia da ilhota (+38%) e redução da imunocoloração para GLUT-2 (-60%). A rosiglitazona diminuiu a glicemia e insulina de jejum, porém induziu o ganho de MC e hipertrofia cardíaca. O fenofibrato estabilizou a MC, enquanto o bezafibrato levou a perda de MC. Apenas o bezafibrato impediu a hipertrofia da ilhota. A imunocoloração para GLUT-2 foi aumentada por todos os medicamentos, e não houve alterações na imunocoloração para o PPARalfa. Sinais morfológicos de pancreatite foram vistos no grupo HFHS-Fe, apesar dos níveis normais de amilase e lipase séricos. A rosiglitazona exacerbou a infiltração intrapancreática de gordura (+75% vs. HFHS), e o bezafibrato aumentou a imunocoloração para o PPARbeta/delta nas ilhotas pancreáticas. Em conclusão, o bezafibrato apresentou um efeito mais amplo sobre as alterações metabólicas, morfológicas e biométricas decorrentes da dieta HFHS, sugerindo que a inibição das três isoformas do PPAR seria melhor do que a inibição...


This work aimed to evaluate the effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists (rosiglitazone, fenofibrate and bezafibrate) on lipid and glucose metabolism, body mass, and adipose and pancreatic tissue morphology in a model of diet-induced type 2 diabetes and overweight in mice. Two-month-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a standard chow (SC, n=10) or a high-fat high-sucrose chow (HFHS, n=40) for 6 weeks, and then HFHS-fed mice were subdivided by treatment: untreated HFHS and HFHS treated with rosiglitazone (HFHS-Ro), fenofibrate (HFHS-Fe), or bezafibrate (HFHS-Bz) (5 weeks on medication). HFHS-fed mice have altered fasting glucose (+33%) and insulin (+138%), GI, IR, increased body mass (+20%) and fat pad weight, adipocyte hypertrophy, and decreased adiponectin immunostain. They also presented increased pancreatic (+28%) mass, intrapancreatic fat (+700%), islet hypertrophy (+38%), and decreased GLUT-2 immunostain (-60%). Rosiglitazone reduced fasting glucose and insulin but induced weight gain and heart hypertrophy. Fenofibrate impaired body mass gain, while bezafibrate induced weight loss. Only bezafibrate impaired islet hypertrophy. GLUT-2 immunostain was improved by all treatments, and there were no alterations in PPAR-alfa stain. There were morphological signs of pancreatitis in fenofibrate-treated mice, although there was no alteration in serum amylase and lipase. Rosiglitazone exacerbated pancreatic fat infiltration (+75% vs. HFHS group), and bezafibrate increased PPAR-beta expression in pancreatic islets. In conclusion, bezafibrate showed a wider range of action on metabolic, morphologic, and biometric alterations due to HFHS intake, suggesting that inhibiting the three PPAR isoforms is better than inhititing each isoform alone. Rosiglitazone exacerbated body mass gain, pancreatic fat infiltration and induced heart hyperthophy as well, thus, precaution has to be taken in prescribing rosiglitazone to obese patients.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Adiponectin , Bezafibrate/agonists , Dietary Fats , Fenofibrate/agonists , Lipid Metabolism , PPAR alpha/metabolism , PPAR-beta/metabolism , PPAR gamma/metabolism , Sucrose , Thiazolidinediones/agonists , /chemically induced , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Models, Animal , Pancreas/metabolism
11.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 3417-3421, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-336610

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a new member of FGF super family that is an important endogenous regulator for systemic glucose and lipid metabolism. This study aimed to explore whether FGF21 reduces atherosclerotic injury and prevents endothelial dysfunction as an independent protection factor.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The present study was designed to investigate the changes of FGF21 levels induced by oxidized-low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), and the changes of apoptosis affected by regulating FGF21 expression. The FGF21 mRNA levels of cultured cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs) were determined by real time-PCR and the protein concentration in culture media was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We analyzed the different expression levels of untreated controls and CMECs incubated with ox-LDL, and the changes of CMECs apoptosis initiated by the enhancement or suppression of FGF21 levels.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The secretion levels of FGF21 mRNA and protein were significantly upregulated in CMECs incubated with ox-LDL. Furthermore, FGF21 levels increased by 200 µmol/L bezafibrate could reduce CMECs apoptosis, and inhibit FGF21 expression by shRNA induced apoptosis (P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>FGF21 may be a signal of injured target tissue, and may play physiological roles in improving the endothelial function at an early stage of atherosclerosis and in stopping the development of coronary heart disease.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Bezafibrate , Pharmacology , Cells, Cultured , Coronary Artery Disease , Endothelial Cells , Physiology , Fibroblast Growth Factors , Genetics , Physiology , Lipoproteins, LDL , Toxicity , Male , PPAR alpha , Physiology , RNA, Messenger , Rats , Rats, Wistar
12.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 1113-1117, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-244093

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)α agonist bezafibrate and oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) on fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) expression and apoptosis in cardiac endothelial cells.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The mRNA level of FGF21 was determined by real time-PCR and the protein concentration of FGF21 in culture media was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in cultured cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs) incubated with 10, 50, 100 µg/ml ox-LDL, 50, 100 or 200 µmol/L bezafibrate alone or in combination with 100 µg/ml ox-LDL. CMECs apoptosis in various treatment groups was also determined.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>FGF21 mRNA and protein expressions were significantly upregulated in proportion to increased ox-LDL, and 200 µmol/L bezafibrate alone also significantly upregulated FGF21 expression and CMECs apoptosis was significantly reduced in 200 µmol/L bezafibrate + 100 µg/ml ox-LDL group compared to 100 µg/ml ox-LDL group (P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Our data suggest that bezafibrate and ox-LDL induced upregulation of FGF21 might mediate the protective effect against apoptosis. Endogenous FGF21 could thus play important roles in improving the endothelial function at the early stage of atherosclerosis and slowing the development of coronary heart disease.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Atherosclerosis , Metabolism , Pathology , Bezafibrate , Pharmacology , Cells, Cultured , Endothelium, Vascular , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Fibroblast Growth Factors , Metabolism , Lipoproteins, LDL , Pharmacology , PPAR alpha , Rats , Rats, Wistar
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727801

ABSTRACT

The present study demonstrates the effect of fibrates, agonists of PPARalpha on cytokines-induced proliferation in primary cultured astrocytes. Alone or combination treatment with cytokines, such as IL-1beta (10 ng/ml), IFNgamma (10 ng/ml), and TNF-alpha (10 ng/ml) cause a significant increase of cell proliferation in a time-dependent manner. Treatment of astrocytes with bezafibrate and fenofibrate (0, 5, and 10 micrometer) reduced the IFNgamma and IL-1beta-induced cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. To address the involvement of IL-6 on the IFNgamma and IL-1beta-induced cell proliferation, released IL-6 level was measured. IFNgamma and IL-1beta cause an increase of released IL-6 protein level in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, pretreatment with IL-6 antibody (0, 0.1, 1, 2.5, and 5 ng/ml) dose-dependently inhibited the IFNgamma and IL-1beta-induced cell proliferation. However, bezafibrate and fenofibrate did not affect increased mRNA and protein levels of IL-6 in IFNgamma and IL-1beta-stimulated astrocytes. Taken together, these results clearly suggest that activation of PPARalpha attenuates the IFNgamma and IL-1beta-induced cell proliferation through IL-6 independent pathway.


Subject(s)
Astrocytes , Bezafibrate , Cell Proliferation , Cytokines , Fenofibrate , Fibric Acids , Interleukin-6 , PPAR alpha , RNA, Messenger , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
14.
An. bras. dermatol ; 84(3): 289-292, jul. 2009. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-521756

ABSTRACT

Xantoma eruptivo e granuloma anular são doenças dermatológicas com quadros clínicos distintos que, algumas vezes, apresentam semelhanças histopatológicas que podem conduzir a diagnóstico errôneo. Relata-se o caso de paciente do sexo masculino com 34 anos, portador de dislipidemia, com lesões clinicamente características de xantoma eruptivo cujo exame histopatológico foi sugestivo de granuloma anular. No entanto, a revisão da lâmina mostrou tratar-se de xantoma eruptivo. A remissão completa e rápida das lesões após o tratamento da dislipidemia confirmou o diagnóstico de xantoma eruptivo e motivou a pesquisa sobre as semelhanças e diferenças histopatológicas entre essas doenças.


Eruptive xanthoma with unexpected granuloma annulare-like microscopic appearance - Case report Abstract: Eruptive xanthoma and granuloma annulare are dermatological diseases with different clinical findings that, sometimes, exhibit histopathological similarities with potential for misinterpretation. We report a case of an eruption of yellow-orange papules with erythematous borders in a 34-year-old male with high levels of serum triglycerides and cholesterol. The skin biopsy specimen has diagnosed granuloma annulare. Review of the histologic material revealed eruptive xanthoma. Remission of the eruption after treatment of dyslipidemia confirmed the diagnosis of the eruptive xanthoma and motivated research about the histological similarities and differences between these diseases.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Granuloma/pathology , Xanthomatosis/pathology , Hypolipidemic Agents/therapeutic use , Bezafibrate/therapeutic use , Diagnosis, Differential , Dyslipidemias/complications , Dyslipidemias/drug therapy , Xanthomatosis/etiology
15.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 343-346, 2007.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-328026

ABSTRACT

To establish a new high-throughput screening model for the agonist of PPARdelta, PPARdelta gene was obtained by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and subcloned to pGEM-T Vector for sequencing, then the PPARdelta fragment was excised by restriction enzymes, and inserted into pTARGET Vector to construct expression vector pTARGET-ppARdelta. Insert three copies of PPRE into pGl3-promoter vector to construct expression vector pGl3-PPRE x 3-luc. The vector pTARGET-ppARdelta was transiently cotransfected with pGl3-PPRE x 3-luc into different cell lines to assay the expression levels of luciferase. The PPARdelta agonist screening model was established and optimized. Bezafibrate and linoleic acid can induce the expression of luciferase significantly and in a dose-dependent manner. This method can be used for high throughput screening for the agonist of PPARdelta, which might become lead compounds for new anti-atheroscleriosis or anti-adiposity drugs.


Subject(s)
3T3 Cells , Animals , Bezafibrate , Pharmacology , Cell Line , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Methods , Genetic Vectors , Chemistry , Genetics , HeLa Cells , Humans , Linoleic Acid , Pharmacology , Lipids , Chemistry , Luciferases , Genetics , Metabolism , Mice , PPAR delta , Genetics , Recombinant Fusion Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Transfection , Methods
16.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 10(3): 159-164, June 2006. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-435279

ABSTRACT

The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-infected patients has been associated with the development of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CD) including dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia being the most frequent metabolic disturbance in these patients. Fibrates are indicated when hypertriglyceridemia is accentuated and persists for over six months. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of bezafibrate for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia in HIV-infected individuals on HAART. All patients received 400mg/day of bezafibrate and were evaluated three times: Mo (pre-treatment), M1 (one month after treatment), and M2 (six months after treatment). Fifteen adult individuals, eight males and seven females with mean age = 41.2 ± 7.97 years and triglyceride serum levels > 400mg/dL were included in the study. Smoking, alcohol ingestion and sedentarism rates were 50 percent, 6.66 percent and 60 percent, respectively. Family history of CD, hypertension and diabetes mellitus was reported in 33.3 percent, 40 percent and 46.7 percent of the cases, respectively, while dyslipidemia was reported by only 13.3 percent. More than half of the patients were using a protease inhibitor plus a nucleotide analog transcriptase inhibitor. Eutrophy and tendency toward overweight were observed at all three study time points. There were significant reductions in triglyceride serum levels from Mo to M1 and from Mo to M2. No significant changes were observed in the serum levels of creatine phosphokinase, hepatic enzymes, CD4+, CD8+ and viral load. Therefore, bezafibrate seems to be safe and effective for the reduction of hypertriglyceridemia in HIV-infected patients on HAART.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Hypolipidemic Agents/therapeutic use , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/adverse effects , Bezafibrate/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Hypertriglyceridemia/drug therapy , HIV Infections/blood , Hypertriglyceridemia/chemically induced , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load
17.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 530-536, 2006.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-295281

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effects and related mechanisms of bezafibrate, a ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha (PPARalpha), on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Firstly, in cultured bovine aorta endothelial cells (BAEC), the effects of bezafibrate on eNOS mRNA and protein levels were investigated by Northern blot and Western blot. The half-life of eNOS mRNA and NO production determined from BAECs treated with bezafibrate were performed by real-time quantitative PCR and NO assay. Next, the effects of bezafibrate on signal pathways in BAEC, through inhibitors of PPARalpha, PI3 kinase and MAPK, were investigated by Western blot. Then luciferase reporter gene driven by human eNOS promoter were cloned and transfected endothelial cells to see the effects of bezafibrate on eNOS promoter-driven luciferase activity.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In cultured BAEC, bezafibrate significantly upregulated eNOS expressions at protein and mRNA levels in a concentration-dependent fashion (50 - 200 micromol/L) (P < 0.05), and increased nitric oxide (NO) production, respectively[control (14.97 +/- 1.29) micromol/L, different concentration groups (25.12 +/- 1.25) micromol/L, (30.12 +/- 1.85) micromol/L, (33.47 +/- 1.22) micromol/L], and enhanced phosphorylation of eNOS-ser-1179 site (P < 0.05), but not eNOS-thr-497 site. Through real-time quantitative PCR, bezafibrate prolonged eNOS mRNA half-life from 3.1 hour to 6.1 hour were demonstrated. Further studies showed that bezafibrate treatments significantly enhanced dose-dependently luciferase activity (relative luciferase activity in 100 micromol/L and 200 micromol/L groups 4429.43 +/- 391.41 and 6187.5 +/- 307.53), compared with untreated luciferase reporter gene group (3361.81 +/- 316.85) (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively), and induced MAPK phosphorylation expression (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). Then these effects of bezafibrate upregulated eNOS expressions could be blocked by PPARalpha antagonist, MAPK and PI3K inhibitor while not affected by PKC and MEK inhibitor (P < 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Bezafibrate can upregulate eNOS expression, enhance eNOS-ser-1179 site phosphorylation, increase NO production and stabilize eNOS mRNA through PPARalpha dependent pathway and PPARalpha independent MAPK and PI3K pathways. This mechanism provides additional anti-atherosclerotic and anti-hypertension benefits of bezafibrate in addition of lipid-lowering effects.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Bezafibrate , Pharmacology , Cattle , Cells, Cultured , Endothelial Cells , Metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular , Gene Expression Regulation , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III , Genetics , Metabolism , PPAR alpha , Metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Metabolism
18.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-46504

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study the effectiveness of nicotinic acid and Bezafibrate alone and in combination for reducing triglyceride level. DESIGN: It was a randomised, prospective, longitudinal study. SETTING: Patients attending a private clinic, and medical department of Kathmandu Medical College, Sinamangal. METHODS: This study included 83 consecutive patients, 19 females and 64 males with hypertriglyceridaemia (defined as serum triglyceride >200mg/dl) attending the department of medicine, Kathmandu Medical College, Sinamangal and private clinic. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Statistically significant reduction of serum triglyceride level. RESULT: 51 out of 83 patients completed the study in which Nicotinic acid alone reduced the serum trygleceride level from 320.62 +/- 104.23 to 182.55 +/- 46.21, which is a reduction of 138.07 +/- 85.69 (P. value = 001). Bezafibrate when given alone also reduced triglyceride level significantly from 345.25 +/- 181.03 to 203.30+/-93.59 which is a reduction of 141.95 +/- 121.130 (P value= .001). When a combination of both drugs was given the reduction of 472.73+/-247.53 (P value =.002) was achieved. CONCLUSIONS: Nicotinic acid is a very effective drug in reducing serum triglyceride level and its effectiveness is similar to Bezafibrate. There is no added benefit of giving a combination of nicotinic acid and Bezafibrate in reducing serum triglyceride level.


Subject(s)
Hypolipidemic Agents/administration & dosage , Bezafibrate/administration & dosage , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Hypertriglyceridemia/blood , Male , Niacin/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome , Triglycerides/blood
19.
São Paulo; s.n; 2003. 128 p. tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-348730

ABSTRACT

Esse estudo pretendeu fazer uma análise custo-eficácia de duas estratégias de tratamento de hiperlipidemia em pacientes HIV/AIDS, uma de caráter nutricional e a outra de caráter medicamentosa, mais precisamente com pravastatina e bezafibrato, respectivamente para casos de colesterol e triglicérides elevados, num horizonte entre 3 e 12 meses. Os dados foram coletados no CRT-AIDS de São Paulo. Encontram-se resultados similares em termos de eficácia no caso da hipercolesterolemia, a um custo menor via abordagem nutricional. As dosagens iniciais em ambos os grupos se revelaram similares. No caso da hipertrigliceridemia, verificou-se o mesmo efeito proporcional, apesar de que se deve considerar que as dosagens iniciais eram bastante diversas, apresentando os pacientes medicados níveis mais altos de triglicérides...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Bezafibrate , Cholesterol , Counseling , HIV , Hyperlipidemias , Nutritional Sciences , Pravastatin , Triglycerides , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Remedial Teaching , Treatment Outcome
20.
Bulletin of Alexandria Faculty of Medicine. 2003; 39 (4): 257-366
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-61705

ABSTRACT

The ligand-dependent transcription factors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors [PPARs] are expressed in hepatic stellate cells [HSCs], which are the cells reported to play a central role in liver fibrosis. It has been reported that the transcriptional activity of PPAR gamma and alpha is reduced during activation of HSCs. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether oral administration of pioglitazone [alpha PPAR gamma ligand], and bezafibrate [alpha PPAR alpha ligand], might retard liver fibrosis in rats. Fifty male albino rats weighing 150-200 g were used in the present study. Rats were divided into five groups, each often rats. Group I, injected intraperitonealy [i.p.] by thioacetamide [TAA]. Group II, injected i.p. by saline. Groups III and IV, treated with bezafibrate and pioglitazone respectively, orally starting from the first day of TAA administration. Group V, served as a control group for groups III and IV. The duration of the study was six weeks. Administration of TAA to rats for six weeks resulted in significant increases in portal pressure, serum cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-alpha TNF-alpha and transforming growth factor-beta 1 TGF-beta 1], hepatic hydroxyproline [HPO], and serum aspartate aminotransferase [AST] and alanine aminotransferase [ALT] associated with a significant decrease in hepatic glycogen concentration. On the other hand, the two PPAR ligands, pioglitazone and bezafibrate, produced a significant decrease in portal pressure, a significant decrease in serum TNF-alpha and TGF-beta 1, a significant improvement in all the estimated parameters of liver function, as well as a significant decrease in hepatic HPO concentration in rats that received the drugs for six weeks compared to the control untreated rats. The results of the present study demonstrated that the PPAR agonists, pioglitazone and bezafibrate were effective in preventing the fibrogenic process via modulating the action of the cytokines TNF-alpha and TGF- beta1. Further studies on humans are needed in order to assess the clinical use of PPAR agonists in patients with liver fibrosis


Subject(s)
Male , Animals, Laboratory , Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental , Thioacetamide , Bezafibrate , Tumor Necrosis Factors , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Portal Pressure , Liver Function Tests , Rats
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