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1.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 40(1): e989, ene.-mar. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289447

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los ácidos biliares en condiciones no fisiológicas se consideran agentes inflamatorio-carcinógenos endógenos que originan alteraciones en membranas plasmáticas, mitocondrias, el ADN, los genes y, la apoptosis de las células epiteliales. Objetivo: Describir la asociación entre los niveles elevados de ácidos biliares en la luz intestinal y la secuencia inflamación-cáncer, expresados como lesiones inflamatorias, premalignas y malignas del tracto digestivo. Métodos: Revisión sistemática y crítica de las evidencias sobre los mecanismos biomoleculares asociados a niveles altos de ácidos biliares en la luz intestinal y la secuencia inflamación-carcinogénesis, en bases de datos como PubMed, Medline, SciELO, LILACS y Elsevier, publicados entre 2015-2020, que establecen el fundamento teórico y metabolómico de dicha secuencia. Resultados: Los ácidos biliares tienen una acción tóxica en la secuencia inflamación-cáncer del tracto digestivo, al perderse el control de su homeostasis o la integridad anatomo-funcional del sistema hepato-vesículo-bilio-intestinal. Conclusiones: Los mecanismos celulares y biomoleculares desencadenados por los niveles altos de ácidos biliares contextualizan la génesis del proceso secuencial inflamación-cáncer y su interacción con los factores de riesgo clásicos, genéticos y epigenéticos reconocidos como un nuevo paradigma fisiopatológico del cáncer digestivo(AU)


Introduction: In non-physiological conditions, bile acids (BA) are considered to be endogenous inflammatory-carcinogenic agents causing alterations in plasma membranes, mitochondria, DNA, genes and epithelial cell apoptosis. Objective: Describe the association between high bile acid levels in the intestinal lumen and the inflammation-cancer sequence, expressed as inflammatory premalignant and malignant lesions of the digestive tract. Methods: A systematic critical review was conducted of the evidence about biomolecular mechanisms associated to high bile acid levels in the intestinal lumen and the inflammation-carcinogenesis sequence published in the databases PubMed, Medline, SciELO, LILACS and Elsevier in the period 2015-2020, laying the theoretical and metabolomic foundations of that sequence. Results: Bile acids display toxic activity in the inflammation-cancer sequence of the digestive tract, since control is lost of its homeostasis or the anatomical-functional integrity of the hepato-vesicular-biliary-intestinal system. Conclusions: The cellular and biomolecular mechanisms triggered by high bile acid levels provide a context for the genesis of the inflammation-cancer sequential process and its interaction with the classic, genetic and epigenetic risk factors recognized as a new pathophysiological paradigm of digestive cancer(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Bile Acids and Salts/toxicity , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Carcinogenesis/pathology , Inflammation , Risk Factors
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921685

ABSTRACT

To investigate the changes of bile acid(BA) levels in mice with sleep deprivation and the regulatory effect of Jiaotai Pills(JTP) on bile acid metabolism, this study established an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(UPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of 23 BAs in mice. A total of 24 ICR mice were randomized into normal group, model group, and JTP group. Mice in the model group and JTP group were deprived of sleep at 20 h·d~(-1) by sleep deprivation apparatus for 8 consecutive days. Mice in the JTP group were given(ig, qd) JTP 3.3 g·kg~(-1) and those in the normal group and model group received(ig) the same volume of purified water. UPLC conditions are as follows: Waters ACQUITY UPLC BEH C_(18) column(2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 μm), gradient elution with the mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid in water-methanol. MS conditions are as below: negative-ion electrospray ionization, multiple reaction monitoring(MRM). Thereby, the content of 23 BAs in serum, liver, and ileum was determined and methodological investigation of the method was performed. The results showed that 23 BAs could be accurately determined within 15 min and the correlation coefficients were all higher than 0.99. The precision, accuracy, specificity, reproducibility, matrix effect, and recovery of BAs all met the requirement. The levels of BAs were significantly increased in the serum, liver, and ileum of sleep-deprived mice, but JTP can significantly reduce the levels. The UPLC-MS/MS method is simple, rapid, and accurate, which can be used for the determination of 23 BAs in biological samples, and JTP can adjust the elevated BA levels of sleep-deprived mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bile Acids and Salts , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Reproducibility of Results , Sleep , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921626

ABSTRACT

Bile of animal(mainly chicken, pig, snake, cow, and bear) has long been used as medicine. As the major active components of bile, bile acids mainly include cholic acid, deoxycholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, ursodeoxycholic acid, and taurochenodeoxycholic acid. They interact with intestinal microorganisms in enterohepatic circulation, thereby playing an important part in nutrient absorption and allocation, metabolism regulation, and dynamic balance. Bile acids have pharmacological effects such as protecting liver, kidney, heart, brain, and nerves, promoting bile secretion, dissolving gallstones, anti-cancer, relieving cough and dyspnea, dispelling phlegm, treating eye diseases, and regulating intestinal function and blood glucose, which are widely used in clinical practice. This study summarized and analyzed the research on the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of bile acids from medicinal animals, in a bid to provide scientific basis and reference for the further development and utilization of bile acids.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bile Acids and Salts , Cattle , Chenodeoxycholic Acid , Cholic Acids , Deoxycholic Acid , Female , Swine , Ursodeoxycholic Acid
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878922

ABSTRACT

Polygonum multiflorum is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine and has many biological activities such as hair-blacking, anti-atherosclerosis, anti-inflammatory and anti-aging. However, the liver injury induced by P. multiflorum has aroused wide attention in recent years. 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystibane-2-O-β-D-glucoside(TSG) is a main component of P. multiflorum, but the role of TSG in inducing liver injury is unclear. The aim of present study was to evaluate TSG's potential liver injury and effects on bile acid homeostasis and phospholipids efflux. C57 BL/6 J mice received intraperitoneal administration of 400 mg·kg~(-1) of TSG daily for 15 days, and then biochemical indexes of liver injury and changes of phospholipid content were detected. The changes of bile acid compositions were detected by LC-MS/MS. The results showed TSG 400 mg·kg~(-1) significantly increased the content of serum total bile acid(TBA) and alkaline phosphatase(ALP). Elevated free bile acid levels were observed in TSG-treated groups, including β-muricholic acid(β-MCA), ursodeoxycholic acid(UDCA), hyodeoxycholic acid(HDCA), chenodeoxycholic acid(CDCA), deoxcholic acid(DCA) in serum and β-MCA, CDCA in liver. TSG inhibited the protein expression of farnesoid X receptor(FXR) and down stream bile salt export pump(BSEP), which may result in the accumulation of bile acid. TSG also inhibited the expression of 25-hydroxycholesterol-7 alpha-hydroxylase(CYP7 B1), which may disturb the alternative pathway for bile acid synthesis. In addition, intraperitoneal injection of TSG 400 mg·kg~(-1) significantly decreased the content of phospholipids in bile. The research showed that TSG significantly inhibited the expression of multidrug resistance protein 2(MDR2) and destroyed the regular distribution of MDR2 on the bile duct membrane of liver. In vitro results showed that the IC_(50) of TSG on HepG2 cells was about 1 500 μmol·L~(-1) and TSG at 500 μmol·L~(-1)(for 24 h) could destroy the distribution of MDR2 on the bile duct membrane of liver. In conclusion, TSG induced liver injury by disrupting bile acid homeostasis and phospholipids efflux.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bile Acids and Salts , Chromatography, Liquid , Glucosides , Homeostasis , Liver , Mice , Phospholipids , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878921

ABSTRACT

As a precious traditional Chinese medicine(TCM), snake bile has been widely used in numerous Chinese medicine prescriptions. Bile acid(BA) derivatives have been demonstrated as the primary chemical family in snake bile. In-depth chemical characterization of BAs is of great importance towards the establishment of quality standards and clarification of the effective material basis for snake bile. This study firstly employed ~1H-NMR to preliminarily analyze the chemical profiles of snake bile, an automated fraction collector was subsequently implemented to obtain the fractions-of-interest. The fraction was then concentrated and re-analyzed by LC-MS. Based on ~1H-NMR, BAs were found to be the main components of snake bile, and six BAs including CDCA, CA, TCDCA, TCA, TDCA and GCA were tentatively identified from the representative spectrum with the assistance of literature and reference compounds. Whereas the content of TCA in snake bile was too great, resulting in a great obstacle for the detection of trace components, the automated fraction collector was subsequently implemented to obtain the fractions-of-interest for LC-MS analysis. According to matching MS/MS information and retention time with reference compounds as well as database retrieval, a total of 57 BAs were detected and annotated. Because of the combination of ~1H-NMR and LC-MS platforms, the findings are beneficial for the in-depth characterization of BAs in snake bile, which provides references for the establishment of quality control and evaluation methods of snake bile.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bile , Bile Acids and Salts , Chromatography, Liquid , Snakes , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
6.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 39(1): e260, ene.-mar. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126582

ABSTRACT

Introducción: los ácidos biliares no solo tienen como actividad biológica regular la absorción de vitaminas liposolubles, colesterol y lípidos, sino actúan también como moléculas de señalización, moduladores de la proliferación celular intestinal, de la expresión de genes y del metabolismo energético según estudios in vitro e in vivo; en condiciones fisiológicas mantienen su homeostasis, que al ser interrumpida promueve suacción toxicológica. Objetivo: describir la actualidad de los nuevos conocimientos sobre la actividad biológica y toxicológica de los ácidos biliares en el aparato digestivo, dirigido a cirujanos generales, gastroenterólogos, clínicos y fisiólogos que les permitan contextualizar el proceso inflamación-carcinogénesis relacionado con los efectos toxicológicos de los ácidos biliares. Método: se realizó una revisión sistemática de la actividad biológica y toxicológica de los ácidos biliares para los cirujanos generales, gastroenterólogos, clínicos y fisiólogos, como herramienta útil en la compresión fisiopatológico del metabolismo de los ácidos biliares. Conclusión: los ácidos biliares desempeñan una función clave como moléculas de señalización en la modulación de la proliferación de células epiteliales, la expresión de genes y el metabolismo energético, que cuando se interrumpe su homeostasis se promueve la acción tóxica de estos, lo que se traduce en el proceso inflamación-carcinogénesis digestiva(AU)


Introduction: bile acids not only have as a regular biological activity the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, cholesterol and lipids, but also act as signaling molecules, modulators of intestinal cell proliferation, gene expression and energy metabolism according to in vitro studies and in vivo; under physiological conditions they maintain their homeostasis, which when interrupted promotes their toxicological action. Objective: to describe the news of the new knowledge about the biological and toxicological activity of bile acids in the digestive system, aimed at general surgeons, gastroenterologists, clinicians and physiologists that allow them to contextualize the inflammation-carcinogenesis process related to the toxicological effects of bile acids. Method: A systematic review of the biological and toxicological activity of bile acids was performed for general surgeons, gastroenterologists, clinicians and physiologists, as a useful tool in the pathophysiological compression of bile acid metabolism. Conclusion: bile acids play a key role as signaling molecules in the modulation of epithelial cell proliferation, gene expression and energy metabolism, which when their homeostasis is interrupted, their toxic action is promoted, which translates in the inflammation-digestive carcinogenesis process(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Bile Acids and Salts/analysis , Bile Acids and Salts/toxicity , Biological Availability , Digestive System/metabolism
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828937

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effects of taurolithocholic acid (tLCA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) on the expression of aorexigenic neuropeptide in mouse hypothalamus GT1-7 cells.@*METHODS@#Mouse hypothalamic GT1-7 cells were treated with culture medium containing 10% FBS (control group, =3) or with 10 nmol/L, 100 nmol/L, 1 μmol/L and 10 μmol/L tLCA (tLCA group, =3) or CDCA (CDCA group, =3) for 12, 24 or 48 h. Real-time PCR was performed to determine the expression levels of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA in the cells, and the production levels of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) were assessed using an ELISA kit. Signal transduction and activator of transcription 3 phosphorylation (p-STAT3), threonine kinase phosphorylation (p-AKT), suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), G protein-coupled bile acid receptor-1 (TGR5) and farnesoid X receptor (FXR) protein were detected by Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#Western blotting results showed that mouse hypothalamic GT1-7 cells expressed two bile acid receptors, TGR5 and FXR, whose expressions were regulated by bile acids. Real-time PCR showed that the expression of POMC mRNA was significantly increased in the cells after treatment with 10 μmol/L tLCA or CDCA for 24 h. POMC-derived anorexigenic peptide α-MSH increased significantly in GT1-7 cells after treatment with 10 μmol/L tLCA or CDCA for 24 h. Treatment of the cells with tLCA or CDCA significantly increased the expressions of intracellular signaling proteins including p-STAT3, p-AKT and SOCS3.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Mouse hypothalamic GT1-7 cells express bile acid receptors TGR5 and FXR. Bile acids tLCA or CDCA can promote the expression of POMC mRNA and increase the production of the anorexigenic peptide α-MSH. The intracellular signaling proteins p-AKT, p-STAT3 and SOCS3 are likely involved in bile acid-induced anorexigenic peptide production.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bile Acids and Salts , Chenodeoxycholic Acid , Hypothalamus , Mice , Neuropeptides , Phosphorylation , STAT3 Transcription Factor , Signal Transduction , Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 3 Protein
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827940

ABSTRACT

Traditional Chinese medicine boasts aunique theoretical system and rich practical experience. However, traditional Chinese medicine has an unclear material basis, vague pharmacological mechanism, and potential toxicity, which is the key factor to hinder its modernization and wide application. Therefore, when the physico-chemical analysis of chemical components of traditional Chinese medicine is insufficient to reflect the characteristics and mechanisms, the multi-target biological system correlation analysis in conformity to the holistic view of the basic theory of traditional Chinese medicine has gradually attracted wide attention. Specifically, bile acids, as an important endogenous metabolite in the body, play an important role in regulating digestion, absorption and metabolism of nutrients, and greatly impact the health. In recent years, a number of studies have been made on the metabolism pathway of bile acids and their important regulatory effects in body metabolism, making bile acids as a significant target of traditional Chinese medicine on the body. In view of this, based on bile acid metabolism, the paper reviewed the biological functions of bile acids in regulating body metabolism and its interaction with intestinal microbiota, providing a basis for exploring the connotation of bile acid metabolism changes under physiological/pathological conditions of the body. The study progress of bile acid metabolism in traditional Chinese medicine efficacy/toxic mechanism is further reviewed, which provides a basis for exploring the efficacy and hepatotoxicity mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine with bile acid as a biomarker, thereby laying a foundation for the clinical safety of traditional Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Bile Acids and Salts , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878810

ABSTRACT

In this study, 10 batches of samples of cultured Bovis Calculus(cow-bezoar) were determined for the investigation of chemical profile of bile acids with the UPLC-QDA method established. The results showed that nine common bile acids, cholic acid(CA), deoxycholic acid(DCA), chenodeoxycholic acid(CDCA), taurocholic acid(TCA), taurodeoxycholic acid(TDCA), taurochenodeoxycholic acid(TCDCA), glycocholic acid(GCA), glycodeoxycholic acid(GDCA) and glycochenodeoxycholic acid(GCDCA), were founded in samples and 7 bile acids were quantified except GDCA and GCDCA. In these samples, unconjugated bile acids, the major type of bile acids, accounted for more than 97% of all types of bile acids. As for unconjugated bile acids, CA was the most major bile acid in cultured cow-bezoar and it was about twice as much as DCA. The relative low-cost method established in the current study is accurate, rapid and sensitive, which is suitable for the studies of other drugs from animal bile.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bile , Bile Acids and Salts , Calculi , Cattle , Female
10.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2779-2790, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878529

ABSTRACT

Bile acids facilitate the absorption of lipids, and affect the development of various diseases by regulating intestinal flora structure and modulating immunity and metabolism. It is therefore important to quantitatively detect bile acids. Current analytical methods are still immature due to constituent complexity, structural heterogeneity and bioactive variability of bile acids. Detection of individual bile acids is of significance for pharmacological research, clinical diagnosis and disease prevention. Advances have been made in bile acid analysis from multiple sources including serum, bile, urine and feces, although several limitations still exist for bile acid quantification. Here we review research progress in conventional bile acid assays, including spectrophotometry, thin-layer chromatography, liquid/gas chromatography and liquid/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Moreover, we emphasize the development of bile acid biosensors that may have promising prospects.


Subject(s)
Bile , Bile Acids and Salts , Biosensing Techniques , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
11.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18094, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285510

ABSTRACT

Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a secondary bile acid (BA), has been used as a drug to treat various liver diseases. UDCA is synthesised from cholic or chenodeoxycholic acid (CA/CDCA), two primary BAs frequently used as the starting materials. Nowadays, swine, cattle, and poultry bile are the main sources of those BAs. However, other commercial animals could be promising sources as well. We identified two livestock, two poultries, and eight fishes that are commercially cultivated in Indonesia. Four free BAs including CA, CDCA, deoxycholic acid (DCA), and lithocholic acid (LA) were identified for their occurrences using thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. CA was detected in cow, duck, red tilapia, gourami, the common carp, and grouper, whereas CDCA was only detected in two poultries and the common carp. The occurrence of DCA was common and abundant in most tested animals. In contrast, the presence of LA was found to be very low in all samples. The biliary bile of tilapia has been found to contain a high abundance of free CA (43% of the total bile). A simple extraction was able to purify CA from biliary bile of tilapia. This is a new promising and competitive source of CA.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Bile/drug effects , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Chromatography, Thin Layer/methods , Indonesia/ethnology , Animals , Ursodeoxycholic Acid , Ursodeoxycholic Acid/antagonists & inhibitors , Bile Acids and Salts/therapeutic use , Chenodeoxycholic Acid , Tilapia/classification , Cholic Acid/agonists , Deoxycholic Acid , Lithocholic Acid
12.
Gut and Liver ; : 569-575, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763869

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cholangiocytes are capable of reabsorbing bile salts from bile, but the pathophysiological significance of this process is unclear. To this end, we detected the expression and distribution of bile acid transport proteins in cholangiocytes from normal rat liver and analyzed the possible pathophysiological significance. METHODS: Bile duct tissues of Sprague-Dawley rats were isolated by enzymatic digestion and mechanical isolation, and then divided into large and small bile duct tissues. Immunohistochemistry, real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were used to determine the expression of the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT), ileal bile acid binding protein (IBABP), and basolateral organic solute transporter α (Ostα) in the biliary tract system of rats. Differences in the expression and distribution of these proteins were analyzed. RESULTS: In cholangiocytes, ASBT and IBABP were mainly expressed in cholangiocytes of the large bile ducts, in which the expression of both was significantly higher than that in the small ducts (p0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Bile acid transporters are expressed and heterogeneously distributed in rat bile ducts, indicating that bile acid reabsorption by cholangiocytes might mainly occur in the large bile ducts. These findings may help explore the physiology of bile ducts and the pathogenesis of various cholangiopathies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bile Acids and Salts , Bile Ducts , Bile , Biliary Tract , Blotting, Western , Carrier Proteins , Digestion , Immunohistochemistry , Liver , Physiology , Population Characteristics , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774126

ABSTRACT

Dubin-Johnson syndrome (DJS) is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from biallelic mutations of ABCC2 gene, with long-term or intermittent conjugated hyperbilirubinemia being the main clinical manifestation. This paper aims to report the clinical features and ABCC2 genotypes of an infant with DJS. A 9.5-month-old male infant was referred to the hospital due to abnormal liver function discovered over 9 months. The major clinical presentation was prolonged jaundice since neonatal period. A series of biochemistry analysis revealed markedly elevated total bilirubin, conjugated bilirubin and total bile acids. The patient had been managed in different hospitals, but the therapeutic effects were unsatisfactory due to undetermined etiology. Physical examination revealed jaundiced skin and sclera, and a palpable liver 3 cm below the right subcostal margin with medium texture. The spleen was not enlarged. Genetic analysis revealed a splice-site variant c.3988-2A>T and a nonsense variant c.3825C>G (p.Y1275X) in the ABCC2 gene of the infant, which were inherited from his mother and father respectively. The former had not been previously reported. Then ursodeoxycholic acid and phenobarbital were given orally. Half a month later, as a result, his jaundice disappeared and the biochemistry indices improved. However, the long-term outcome needs to be observed. Literature review revealed that neonates/infants with DJS presented with cholestatic jaundice soon after birth as the major clinical feature, and the ABCC2 variants exhibited marked heterogeneity.


Subject(s)
Bile Acids and Salts , Bilirubin , Humans , Infant , Jaundice , Jaundice, Chronic Idiopathic , Genetics , Male , Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins , Genetics , Ursodeoxycholic Acid
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773229

ABSTRACT

Bile acids( BAs),the major constituents of bile,are also known to be potential biomarkers of various diseases,especially liver disease. The systematic analysis of BAs is believed to be of great importance towards the clarification of the effective material basis for bile-type medicines,and the diagnosis and therapy of related diseases as well. As a part of systematic study on bile-type medicine ongoing in our group,this study lays emphasis on the isomer discrimination,and the improvement of analytical method of BAs. Further,this method was subsequently applied to elucidate in depth the chemical profile of BAs in yak bile. Regarding isomer discrimination for BAs,we constructed relative response-collision energy curves( RRCECs) by high performance liquid chromatographyion trap-time of flight-mass spectrometry( HPLC-IT-TOF-MS) in combination with high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry( HPLC-Qtrap-MS). As a result,both the optimum collision energy( OCE) and CE_(50) exhibited great correlations with structural characteristics,thus enabling the isomer distinguishing,such as unconjugated BAs,glycine-conjugated BAs,and taurine-conjugated BAs. According to information provided by mass spectrometry,the comparison of OCE and CE_(50),retention time matching,combined with reference substances and database retrieval,a total of 30 bile acid derivatives were observed and identified in yak bile. The newly developed method could serve as a feasible tool for the in-depth characterization of BAs in bile and biological samples.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bile , Chemistry , Bile Acids and Salts , Chemistry , Cattle , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Mass Spectrometry , Taurine
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773221

ABSTRACT

To study the mechanism and action of Cinnamomi Ramulus in ameliorating intrahepatic cholestasis induced by α-isothiocyanate( ANIT) in rats by regulating FXR pathway. Forty SD rats were randomly divided into normal group,model group,positive control( ursodeoxycholic acid) group( 60 mg·kg~(-1)),Cinnamomi Ramulus treatment( 60 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)) group,and Cinnamomi Ramulus treatment( 20 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)) group,with 8 rats in each group. Except for the normal control group,the other groups were intragastrically administered with the corresponding concentrations of continuous aqueous solution( 0. 005 m L·g~(-1)),once a day,for 7 days.Except for the normal group,the other groups were treated with ANIT( 100 mg·kg~(-1)),once a day,for 3 days. Blood was taken from the abdominal aorta 24 hours after the last administration,and serum alanine aminotransferase( ALT),aspartate aminotransferase( AST),total bilirubin( TBi L),and total bile acid( TBA) were measured. 1. 5-2 cm of rat liver tissue was taken. After fixation with10% formaldehyde,paraffin-embedded sections were taken,HE staining was performed,and immunohistochemistry( IHC) was used to analyze the expression of FXR. RNA and protein were extracted from rat liver tissue to detect FXR mRNA expression,as well as bile acid synthesis and detoxification,transport related SHP,UGT2 B4,BSEP protein expressions at downstream of FXR. Compared with the normal group,serum ALT,AST,TBi L,and TBA levels were elevated in the model group( P<0. 01),liver damage was severe,FXR protein's optical density decreased,FXR mRNA expression decreased,and SHP,UGT2 B4,BSEP protein expressions were decreased( P<0. 05,P<0. 01). Compared with the model group,the drug group could reduce serum ALT,AST,TB,TBA levels to different degrees( P<0. 05,P<0. 01),alleviate liver tissue damage,increase the optical density of FXR protein,and promote the expressions of FXR mRNA and FXR,SHP,BSEP and UGT2 B4 proteins( P<0. 05,P<0. 01). Cinnamomi Ramulus can alleviate ANIT-induced intrahepatic cholestasis,and reduce hepatocyte injury and serum ALT,AST,TBi L and TBA levels. The mechanism may be through FXR-SHP,FXR-UGT2 B4,FXR-BSEP signaling pathways. Therefore,in the pathogenesis of intrahepatic cholestasis,we can try to further explore in alleviating intrahepatic cholestasis with Cinnamomi Ramulus,so as to provide effective drugs for clinical treatment of intrahepatic cholestasis.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase , Blood , Animals , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Blood , Bile Acids and Salts , Blood , Bilirubin , Blood , Cholestasis, Intrahepatic , Drug Therapy , Cinnamomum , Chemistry , Isothiocyanates , Liver , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , RNA-Binding Proteins , Metabolism , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763653

ABSTRACT

Diabetes and obesity have reached an epidemic status worldwide. Diabetes increases the risk for cardiovascular disease and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Primary bile acids are synthesized in hepatocytes and are transformed to secondary bile acids in the intestine by gut bacteria. Bile acids are nutrient sensors and metabolic integrators that regulate lipid, glucose, and energy homeostasis by activating nuclear farnesoid X receptor and membrane Takeda G protein-coupled receptor 5. Bile acids control gut bacteria overgrowth, species population, and protect the integrity of the intestinal barrier. Gut bacteria, in turn, control circulating bile acid composition and pool size. Dysregulation of bile acid homeostasis and dysbiosis causes diabetes and obesity. Targeting bile acid signaling and the gut microbiome have therapeutic potential for treating diabetes, obesity, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Bile Acids and Salts , Bile , Cardiovascular Diseases , Dysbiosis , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Glucose , Hepatocytes , Homeostasis , Intestines , Membranes , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Obesity , Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled
17.
J. health med. sci. (Print) ; 4(1): 17-21, Ene.-Mar. 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151482

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de esta revisión fue exponer el conocimiento actual sobre la relación existente entre dietas altas en grasa (DAG), alteraciones morfológicas de la mucosa intestinal, efectos inflamatorios y cáncer intestinal. Las DAG inicialmente producen aumento de la microbiota patógena, lo que reduce la cantidad y calidad de la secreción de los exocrinocitos caliciformes, disminuyendo la efectividad de la barrera intestinal. Las bacterias y sus lipopolisacaridos (LPS) promueven la secreción de citoquinas proinflamatorias activando vías de inflamación, que a su vez afectan la integridad de las uniones intercelulares alterando la barrera intestinal. Lo anterior, permite que los LPS ingresen a la lámina propia y circulación sanguínea produciendo inflamación local y sistémica. Así mismo, las DAG generan efectos nocivos en la morfología y función de la mucosa gastrointestinal lo que podría favorecer el desarrollo de cáncer. Lo anterior, podría deberse a que el consumo de DAG es capaz de aumentar la proliferación de células de la mucosa y el número y proliferación de células madres tumorales en el intestino.


The aim of this review was to present current knowledge about the relationship between high fat diets (HFD), morphological alterations of intestinal mucosa, inflammatory effects and intestinal cancer. The HFD initially produces an increase in the pathogenic microbiota, which reduces quantity and quality of secretion of goblet cells, decreasing the effectiveness of intestinal barrier. Bacteria and their lipopolysaccharides (LPS) stimulate the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by activating inflammation pathways, which in turn affect the integrity of intercellular junctions by changing intestinal barrier. The above allows the LPS enter to lamina propria and blood circulation producing local and systemic inflammation. Likewise, HFD generate deleterious effects on morphology and function of gastrointestinal mucosa, which could favor the development of cancer. This could be due to the fact that consumption of HFD is capable of increasing proliferation of mucosal cells and number and proliferation of tumor stem cells in the intestine.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dietary Fats/adverse effects , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/drug effects , Inflammation/etiology , Intestinal Mucosa/drug effects , Bile Acids and Salts/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Tight Junctions/drug effects , Gastrointestinal Tract/microbiology , Inflammation/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa/microbiology
18.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 140-146, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719080

ABSTRACT

Though bile acids have been well known as digestive juice, recent studies have demonstrated that bile acids bind to their endogenous receptors, including Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (GPBAR1; TGR5) and serve as hormone to control various biological processes, including cholesterol/bile acid metabolism, glucose/lipid metabolism, immune responses, and energy metabolism. Deficiency of those bile acid receptors has been reported to induce diverse metabolic syndromes such as obesity, hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance. As consistent, numerous studies have reported alteration of bile acid signaling pathways in type II diabetes patients. Interestingly, bile acids have shown to activate TGR5 in intestinal L cells and enhance secretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) to potentiate insulin secretion in response to glucose. Moreover, FXR has been shown to crosstalk with TGR5 to control GLP-1 secretion. Altogether, bile acid receptors, FXR and TGR5 are potent therapeutic targets for the treatment of metabolic diseases, including type II diabetes.


Subject(s)
Bile , Bile Acids and Salts , Biological Phenomena , Energy Metabolism , Enteroendocrine Cells , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 , Glucose , Homeostasis , Humans , Hyperglycemia , Hyperlipidemias , Insulin , Insulin Resistance , Metabolic Diseases , Metabolism , Obesity
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718451

ABSTRACT

Bile acids are major constituents of bile and known to help absorb dietary fat and fat-soluble vitamins in the gastrointestinal tract. In the past few decades, many studies have shown that bile acids not only play a role in fat digestion but also function as broad range of signal transduction hormones by binding to various receptors present in cell membranes or nuclei. Bile acid receptors are distributed in a wide range of organs and tissues in the human body. They perform multitudes of physiological functions with complex mechanisms. When bile acids bind to their receptors, they regulate fat and glucose metabolism in a tissue-specific way. In addition, bile acids are shown to inhibit inflammation and fibrosis in the liver. Considering the roles of bile acids as metabolic regulators, bile acids and their receptors can be very attractive targets in treating metabolic disorders. In the future, if roles of bile acids and their receptors are further clarified, they will be the novel target of drugs in the treatment of various metabolic diseases.


Subject(s)
Bile Acids and Salts , Bile , Cell Membrane , Dietary Fats , Digestion , Fibrosis , Gastrointestinal Tract , Glucose , Human Body , Inflammation , Liver , Metabolic Diseases , Metabolism , Signal Transduction , Vitamins
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718401

ABSTRACT

Oxysterol 7α-hydroxylase deficiency is a very rare liver disease categorized as inborn errors of bile acid synthesis, caused by CYP7B1 mutations. As it may cause rapid progression to end-stage liver disease even in early infancy, a high index of suspicion is required to prevent fatal outcomes. We describe the case of a 3-month-old boy with progressive cholestatic hepatitis and severe hepatic fibrosis. After excluding other etiologies for his early liver failure, we found that he had profuse urinary excretion of 3β-monohydroxy-Δ5-bile acid derivatives by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis with dried urine spots on filter paper. He was confirmed to have a compound heterozygous mutation (p.Arg388Ter and p.Tyr469IlefsX5) of the CYP7B1 gene. After undergoing liver transplantation (LT) from his mother at 4 months of age, his deteriorated liver function completely normalized, and he had normal growth and development until the current follow-up at 33 months of age. We report the first Korean case of oxysterol 7α-hydroxylase deficiency in the youngest infant reported to undergo successful living donor LT to date.


Subject(s)
Bile , Bile Acids and Salts , Fatal Outcome , Fibrosis , Follow-Up Studies , Growth and Development , Hepatitis , Humans , Infant , Liver , Liver Diseases , Liver Failure , Liver Transplantation , Living Donors , Male , Mothers , Spectrum Analysis
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