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Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 467-473, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985785


Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is the second most common primary malignant tumor in the liver after hepatocellular carcinoma. Its incidence and mortality rates have increased worldwide in recent years. Surgical resection is the best treatment modality for ICC;however,the overall prognosis remains poor. Accurate evaluation of post operative prognosis allows personalized treatment and improved long-term outcomes of ICC. The American Joint Commission on Cancer TNM staging manual is the basis for the standardized diagnosis and treatment of ICC;however,the contents of stage T and stage N need to be improved. The nomogram model or scoring system established in the analysis of commonly used clinicopathological parameters can provide individualized prognostic evaluation and improve prediction accuracy;however,more studies are needed to validate the results before clinical use. Meanwhile,imaging features exhibit great potential to establish the post operative prognosis evaluation system for ICC. Molecular-based classification provides an accurate guarantee for prognostic assessment as well as selection of populations that are sensitive to targeted therapy or immunotherapy. Therefore,the establishment of a prognosis evaluation system,based on clinical and pathological characteristics and centered on the combination of multidisciplinary and multi-omics,will be conducive to improving the long-term outcomes of ICC after surgical resection in the context of big medical data.

Humans , Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic/pathology , Cholangiocarcinoma/pathology , Prognosis , Liver Neoplasms/surgery , Bile Duct Neoplasms/pathology
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 35-41, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970949


What are the new contents of the guideline since 2010?A.Patients with primary and non-primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) are included in these guidelines for the diagnosis and management of cholangiocarcinoma.B.Define "related stricture" as any biliary or hepatic duct stricture accompanied by the signs or symptoms of obstructive cholestasis and/or bacterial cholangitis.C.Patients who have had an inconclusive report from MRI and cholangiopancreatography should be reexamined by high-quality MRI/cholangiopancreatography for diagnostic purposes. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography should be avoided for the diagnosis of PSC.D. Patients with PSC and unknown inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) should undergo diagnostic colonoscopic histological sampling, with follow-up examination every five years until IBD is detected.E. PSC patients with IBD should begin colon cancer monitoring at 15 years of age.F. Individual incidence rates should be interpreted with caution when using the new clinical risk tool for PSC for risk stratification.G. All patients with PSC should be considered for clinical trials; however, if ursodeoxycholic acid (13-23 mg/kg/day) is well tolerated and after 12 months of treatment, alkaline phosphatase (γ- Glutamyltransferase in children) and/or symptoms are significantly improved, it can be considered to continue to be used.H. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with cholangiocytology brushing and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis should be performed on all patients suspected of having hilar or distal cholangiocarcinoma.I.Patients with PSC and recurrent cholangitis are now included in the new unified network organ sharing policy for the end-stage liver disease model standard.J. Liver transplantation is recommended after neoadjuvant therapy for patients with unresectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma with diameter < 3 cm or combined with PSC and no intrahepatic (extrahepatic) metastases.

Child , Humans , Cholangitis, Sclerosing/diagnosis , Constriction, Pathologic/complications , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Cholangiocarcinoma/therapy , Liver Diseases/complications , Cholestasis , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/therapy , Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic/pathology , Bile Duct Neoplasms/therapy
ABCD (São Paulo, Online) ; 36: e1740, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1447009


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Liver transplantation represents the best therapeutic modality in end-stage chronic liver disease, severe acute hepatitis, and selected cases of liver tumors. AIMS: To describe a double retransplant in a male patient diagnosed with Crohn's disease and complicated with primary sclerosing cholangitis, severe portal hypertension, and cholangiocarcinoma diagnosed in the transplanted liver. METHODS: A 48-year-old male patient diagnosed with Crohn's disease 25 years ago, complicated with primary sclerosing cholangitis and severe portal hypertension. He underwent a liver transplantation in 2018 due to secondary biliary cirrhosis. In 2021, a primary sclerosing cholangitis recurrence was diagnosed and a liver retransplantation was indicated. Recipient's hepatectomy was very difficult by reason of complex portal vein thrombosis requiring extensive thromboendovenectomy. Intraoperative ultrasound with liver doppler evaluation was performed. Two suspicious nodules were incidentally diagnosed in the donor's liver and immediately removed for anatomopathological evaluation. RESULTS: After pathological confirmation of carcinoma, probable cholangiocarcinoma, at frozen section, the patient was re-listed as national priority and a new liver transplantation was performed within 24 hours. The patient was discharged after 2 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: The screening for neoplasms in donated organs should be part of our strict daily diagnostic arsenal. Moreover, we argue that, for the benefit of an adequate diagnosis and the feasibility of a safer procedure, the adoption of imaging tests routine for the liver donor is essential, allowing a reduction of the costs and some potential risks of liver transplant procedure.

RESUMO RACIONAL: O transplante de fígado representa a melhor modalidade terapêutica na doença hepática crônica terminal, hepatite aguda grave e casos selecionados de tumores hepáticos. OBJETIVOS: Descrever um retransplante duplo em paciente do sexo masculino, diagnosticado com doença de Crohn e complicado com colangite esclerosante primária, hipertensão portal grave e colangiocarcinoma diagnosticado no fígado transplantado. MÉTODOS: Paciente do sexo masculino, 48 anos, diagnosticado com doença de Crohn há 25 anos e complicado com colangite esclerosante primária e hipertensão portal grave. Foi submetido a um transplante de fígado em 2018 devido a cirrose biliar secundária. Em 2021, foi diagnosticada recidiva de colangite esclerosante primária e indicado retransplante hepático. A hepatectomia do receptor foi de alta complexidade devido à trombose complexa da veia porta, exigindo extensa tromboendovenectomia. Foi realizada ultrassonografia intraoperatória com doppler hepático. Dois nódulos suspeitos foram diagnosticados incidentalmente no fígado do doador e imediatamente removidos para avaliação anatomopatológica. RESULTADOS: Após confirmação patológica de carcinoma, provável colangiocarcinoma, pela congelação, o paciente foi relistado como prioridade nacional, e novo transplante hepático foi realizado em 24 horas. O paciente teve alta após 2 semanas. CONCLUSÕES: O rastreamento de neoplasias em órgãos doados deve fazer parte de nosso estrito arsenal diagnóstico diário. Além disso, defendemos que, em benefício de um diagnóstico correto e da viabilidade de um procedimento mais seguro, a adoção de uma rotina de exames de imagem é essencial em doadores hepáticos, permitindo a redução dos custos e alguns riscos potenciais do procedimento de transplante hepático.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Bile Duct Neoplasms/surgery , Cholangitis, Sclerosing/surgery , Crohn Disease/complications , Liver Transplantation , Cholangiocarcinoma/surgery , Cholangiocarcinoma/diagnostic imaging , Reoperation , Bile Duct Neoplasms/pathology , Bile Duct Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic , Cholangitis, Sclerosing/etiology , Cholangiocarcinoma/pathology , Ultrasonography, Doppler , Living Donors , Hypertension, Portal/etiology
Rev. méd. Chile ; 150(11): 1431-1437, nov. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1442049


Background: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a primary hepatic tumor, frequently found in patients with liver cirrhosis and biliary tract diseases. Its varieties include isolated CCA or "combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma" (cHCC-CCA). The latter is uncommon, with poorly defined diagnostic criteria and natural history. Aim: To characterize patients with cirrhosis with a pathological diagnosis of CCA and cHCC-CCA. Material and Methods: Forty-nine liver biopsies with a pathological diagnosis of CCA were reviewed. The clinical records of patients were reviewed to fetch demographic variables, etiology of cirrhosis and clinical presentation. Results: Eight of the 49 patients had cirrhosis (16% of CCA biopsies reviewed). Their median age was 64 (27-71) years and five were females. Four patients had CCA, three patients cHCC-CCA and one had a bifocal tumor. Patients in the CCA group were more commonly symptomatic. Alpha-fetoprotein and CA 19-9 levels were elevated in one of eight and four of six patients, respectively. Within 12 months from diagnosis, five of eight patients died. Conclusions: In most of these cases, the diagnosis of cHCC-CCA and CCA was made in the liver explant study without previous imaging diagnosis. This reinforces the usefulness of the histological study, in specific cases, prior to liver transplantation and emphasizes the importance of systematic explant exploration in these cases.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Bile Duct Neoplasms/complications , Bile Duct Neoplasms/diagnosis , Cholangiocarcinoma/complications , Cholangiocarcinoma/diagnosis , Cholangiocarcinoma/pathology , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/etiology , Liver Neoplasms/diagnosis , Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Liver Cirrhosis/complications
Hepatología ; 3(2): 155-175, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1396088


La colangitis biliar primaria (CBP) es una enfermedad autoinmune caracterizada por daño de los conductos biliares intrahepáticos, que hasta ahora tiene mecanismos poco claros de respuesta celular inflamatoria, con la mitocondria como orgánulo blanco. Durante varias décadas han sido el control de los ácidos biliares y el tratamiento de la colestasis lo que ha permitido el manejo médico de los pacientes, logrando un impacto parcial en el curso y la progresión de la enfermedad, mejorando además la sobrevida de los individuos. Con el hallazgo de nuevos mecanismos fisiopatológicos se han iniciado estudios con terapias inmunomoduladoras, que podrían ser prometedoras en el mejoramiento de la calidad de vida de los pacientes que padecen la enfermedad. Aún los resultados son inciertos, y se hacen necesarios más estudios para aclarar el papel de los nuevos tratamientos en el arsenal terapéutico disponible para la CBP.

Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is an autoimmune disease characterized by damage of intrahepatic bile ducts, so far with unclear mechanisms of inflammatory cellular response with the mitochondria as the target organelle. For several decades it has been the control of bile acids and the treatment of cholestasis what has allowed the management of patients, achieving a partial impact on the course and progression of the disease, also improving the survival of individuals. With the discovery of new pathophysiological mechanisms, studies have been initiated with new immunomodulatory therapies that could be promising in improving the quality of life of patients suffering from the disease. The results are still uncertain and further studies are needed to clarify the role of the new treatments in the therapeutic arsenal available for PBC.

Humans , Ursodeoxycholic Acid , Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary , Autoimmune Diseases , Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic , Cholestasis , Immunomodulation
Hepatología ; 3(2): 176-190, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1396099


Los niveles de bilirrubina sérica normal en el adulto varían entre 0,3 mg/dL y 1,2 mg/dL, y su valor está determinado por la tasa de captación hepática, conjugación y excreción. La ictericia se hace evidente cuando los niveles de bilirrubina sérica se elevan por encima de 2,5 mg/dL a 3 mg/dL, siendo un indicador de enfermedad subyacente. La bilis es producida por los hepatocitos y fluye desde los canalículos, canales de Hering, conductos biliares intrahepáticos, conductos hepáticos derechos e izquierdos hasta llegar al duodeno. A nivel histopatológico, cualquier entidad que lleve a la acumulación intrahepática de bilis por disfunción hepatocelular u obstrucción biliar genera colestasis, que se observa en la biopsia hepática como la acumulación de tapones de color marrón verdoso de pigmento biliar en los hepatocitos, y secundariamente se observan los canalículos dilatados. Las causas de colestasis intrahepática son diversas e incluyen enfermedades como colangitis biliar primaria, colangitis esclerosante primaria, hepatitis autoinmune, hepatitis virales y toxicidad medicamentosa. Esta revisión tiene como objetivo analizar algunos tipos de hiperbilirrubinemia, resaltando sus características histopatológicas.

Normal serum bilirubin levels in adults range from 0.3 mg/dL to 1.2 mg/dL, and its value is determined by the rate of hepatic uptake, conjugation, and excretion. Jaundice becomes apparent when serum bilirubin levels rise above 2.5 mg/dL to 3.5 mg/dL and is an indicator of underlying disease. Bile is produced by hepatocytes and flows from the canaliculi, Hering's canals, intrahepatic bile ducts, and right and left hepatic ducts to the duodenum. Pathologically, any condition that leadsto intrahepatic accumulation of bile due to hepatocellular dysfunction or biliary obstruction, generates cholestasis, which is observed in liver biopsy as the accumulation of greenish-brown deposits of bile pigment in hepatocytes, with dilated canaliculi. The causes of intrahepatic cholestasis are diverse and include diseases such as primary biliary cholangitis and primary sclerosing cholangitis, autoimmune hepatitis, viral hepatitis, and drug toxicity. This review aims to analyze some types of hyperbilirubinemia, highlighting their histopathological characteristics.

Humans , Pathologists , Hyperbilirubinemia , Jaundice , Bile , Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic , Bile Pigments , Bilirubin , Biopsy , Cholangitis, Sclerosing , Cholestasis , Cholestasis, Intrahepatic , Hepatitis, Autoimmune , Hepatitis , Liver , Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 363-371, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935612


Objective: Constructing and validating a nomogram model for preoperative prediction of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) lymph node metastasis to assist decision making during surgery. Methods: Retrospectively collecting the clinical and pathological data of 1 031 ICC patients who underwent partial hepatectomy at Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital of Naval Military Medical University,General Hospital of Eastern Theater Command,or Zhongda Hospital Southeast University from January 2003 to January 2014. There were 682 males and 349 females; mean age was 54.7 years(range:18 to 82 years). There were 562 patients who underwent lymph node dissection and 469 patients who did not. Among the patients in the dissection group,Lasso regression method was used to filtrate preoperative variables related to lymph node metastasis and establish a nomogram. Bootstrap method was used to internally validate the discrimination of the nomogram,and the accuracy of the nomogram was assessed by using calibration curves. Patients were divided into low-moderate and high-risk groups based on model prediction probability. Propensity score matching(PSM) was used to analyze the overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) of patients with and without lymph node dissection in the two groups,and to judge the importance of lymph node dissection in the two groups. Results: Six factors related to ICC lymph node metastasis were determined by Lasso regression,including hepatitis B surface antigen,CA19-9,age,lymphadenopathy,carcinoembryo antigen and maximum tumor diameter. These factors were integrated into a nomogram to predict ICC lymph node metastasis. The aera under curve value was 0.764,and the C-index was 0.754. Stratified analysis showed that OS and RFS in the high-risk group of lymph node metastasis were significantly lower than those in the low-medium risk group(median OS:14.6 months vs. 27.0 months,P<0.01; median RFS:9.1 months vs. 15.5 months,P<0.01). In the high-risk group,the median OS was 16.7 months and 6.3 months(Log-rank test: P=0.187;Wilcoxon test:P=0.046),and the median RFS was 11.0 months and 4.8 months(P=0.403),respectively in the lymph node dissection group and undissected group after PSM. In the low-medium-risk group,the median OS was 22.7 months and 26.7 months(P=0.288),and the median RFS was 13.0 months and 14.5 months(P=0.306),respectively in the lymph node dissection group and undissected group after PSM. Conclusions: The nomogram could be used for preoperative prediction of lymph node metastasis and prognostic stratification in patients with ICC. For patients with high risk of lymph node metastasis predicted by the model,active dissection should be performed. For patients predicted to be at low-moderate risk,lymph node dissection might be optional in some specific cases.

Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Bile Duct Neoplasms/surgery , Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic/pathology , Cholangiocarcinoma/surgery , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis , Nomograms , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 356-362, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935611


Objectives: To investigate the clinical value of adjuvant chemotherapy(ACT) in patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma(ICC) who underwent radical resection and to explore the optimal population that can benefit from ACT. Methods: A retrospective cohort study method was adopted. The clinical and pathological data of 685 patients with ICC who underwent curative intent resection in 10 Chinese hepatobiliary surgery centers from January 2010 to December 2018 were collected;There were 355 males and 330 females. The age(M(IQR)) was 58(14) years (range: 22 to 83 years). Propensity score matching(PSM) was applied to balance the differences between the adjuvant and non-adjuvant chemotherapy groups. Log-rank test was used to compare the prognosis of the two groups of patients. A Bayesian network recurrence-free survival(RFS) prediction model was constructed using the median RFS time (14 months) as the target variable, and the importance of the relevant prognostic factors was ranked according to the multistate Birnbaum importance calculation. A survival prognostic prediction table was established to analyze the population benefiting from adjuvant chemotherapy. Results: Among 685 patients,214 received ACT and 471 did not receive ACT. A total of 124 pairs of patients were included after PSM, and patients in the ACT group had better overall survival (OS) and RFS than those in the non-ACT group(OS: 32.2 months vs. 18.0 months,P=0.003;RFS:18.0 months vs. 10.0 months,P=0.001). The area under the curve of the Bayesian network RFS prediction model was 0.7124. The results of the prognostic factors in order of importance were microvascular invasion (0.158 2),perineural invasion (0.158 2),N stage (0.155 8),T stage (0.120 9), hepatic envelope invasion (0.090 3),adjuvant chemotherapy (0.072 1), tumor location (0.057 5), age (0.042 3), pathological differentiation (0.034 0), sex (0.029 3), alpha-fetoprotein (0.028 9) and preoperative jaundice (0.008 5). A survival prediction table based on the variables with importance greater than 0.1 (microvascular invasion,perineural invasion,N stage,T staging) and ACT showed that all patients benefited from ACT (increase in the probability of RFS≥14 months from 2.21% to 7.68%), with a more significant increase in the probability of RFS≥14 months after ACT in early-stage patients. Conclusion: ACT after radical resection in patients with ICC significantly prolongs the OS and RFS of patients, and the benefit of ACT is greater in early patients.

Female , Humans , Male , Bayes Theorem , Bile Duct Neoplasms/surgery , Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic/pathology , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Cholangiocarcinoma/surgery , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 351-355, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935610


At present, the classification, nomenclature, and definition of carcinoma of the bile ducts are controversial. Moreover, there is no uniformity between China and aboard, which has brought confusion to clinical practice. It needs to clarify regarding tumor naming principles, anatomical location, tumor origin, pathological classification, biological characteristics, clinical manifestations, treatment methods, etc. Additionally, the WHO tumor classification, UICC staging, ICD disease classification, relevant Chinese regulations, EASL, AJCC staging, and NCCN guidelines were also needed to be referred. After investigating the above-mentioned latest authoritative literature, based on the existing problems, combined with clinical practice in China, the author reevaluated the definition, classification, and nomenclature of cholangiocarcinoma, and proposes updated suggestions. Hoping to standardize and unify clinical practice for classification and nomenclature of cholangiocarcinoma in China.

Humans , Bile Duct Neoplasms/pathology , Bile Ducts/pathology , Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic/pathology , China , Cholangiocarcinoma/pathology , Neoplasm Staging , Prognosis
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 400-406, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935553


Objective: To investigate the utility of albumin RNAscope in situ hybridization in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma and its mimics. Methods: One hundred and fifty-two cases of hepatocellular carcinoma and its mimics and 33 cases of normal tissue were selected from the pathology database of the Department of Pathology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine from January 2013 to December 2019. Tissue microarrays were constructed and RNAscope in situ hybridization was performed to detect the expression of albumin mRNA. Results: No albumin mRNA expression was detected in normal tissues except for the liver. All hepatocellular carcinoma regardless of its degree of differentiation and primary or metastatic nature had detectable albumin mRNA, with strong and diffuse staining in 90.7% (49/54) of cases. While the positive rate of HepPar-1, Arg-1 or one of them by immunohistochemistry was 87.0% (47/54), 85.2% (46/54) and 92.6% (50/54) respectively. The positive rates of albumin mRNA in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and biphenotypic hepatocellular carcinoma were 7/15 and 9/10, respectively. The former showed focal or heterogeneous staining, while the latter showed strong and diffuse staining. The positive rate of hepatoid adenocarcinoma was 8/19, and the albumin expression could be diffuse or focal. Sporadic cases of poorly differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma and metastatic colon adenocarcinoma showed focal staining of albumin mRNA. Conclusions: Detection of albumin mRNA by RNAscope in situ hybridization is of great value for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of HCC, and the sensitivity may be improved by combining with HepPar-1 and Arg-1. It also offers different diagnostic clues according to different expression patterns.

Humans , Adenocarcinoma/diagnosis , Albumins/genetics , Bile Duct Neoplasms/pathology , Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic/pathology , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/genetics , China , Colonic Neoplasms , Diagnosis, Differential , In Situ Hybridization , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , RNA, Messenger
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 72-80, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927849


Objective To investigate the expression and the potential roles of long non-coding RNA(lncRNA)cancer susceptibility candidate 2(CASC2)and imprinted gene H19 in extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma(ECC). Methods Four samples from patients with ECC were collected for high-throughput sequencing which was conducted to reveal the transcriptomic profiles of lncRNA CASC2 and H19.Bioinformatics tools were employed to predict the potential roles of the two genes.Another 22 ECC tissue samples and the cholangiocarcinoma cell lines(RBE,QBC939,HuH-28,and HuCCT1)with different degrees of differentiation were selected for validation.The para-carcinoma tissue and normal human intrahepatic biliary epithelial cell(HIBEC)were used as the control groups.The expression levels of lncRNA CASC2 and H19 in carcinoma tissue,para-carcinoma tissue,and cell lines were determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction(qRT-PCR).The correlation analysis was carried out for the clinical indicators of patients with the expression levels of the target genes. Results The two target genes showed significantly different expression between carcinoma tissue and para-carcinoma tissue(all P<0.05).Specifically,CASC2 had higher expression level in the carcinoma tissue than in the para-carcinoma tissue(t=1.262,P=0.025),whereas the expression of H19 showed an opposite trend(t=1.285,P=0.005).The expression levels of CASC2 in QBC939(t=8.114,P=0.015)and HuH-28(t=9.202,P=0.012)cells were significantly higher than that in the control group.The expression levels of H19 were significantly lower in RBE(t=-10.244,P<0.001),QBC939(t=-10.476,P<0.001),HuH-28(t=-19.798,P<0.001),and HuCCT1(t=-16.193,P=0.004)cells than in the control group.Bioinformatics analysis showed that CASC2 was mainly involved in the metabolic process and H19 in the development of multicellular organisms.Both CASC2 and H19 were related to catalytic activity.The expression level of lncRNA CASC2 was correlated with pathological differentiation(χ 2=6.222,P=0.022)and lymph node metastasis(χ2=5.455,P=0.020),and that of lncRNA H19 with pathological differentiation(χ2=1.174,P=0.029)and tumor size(χ2=-0.507,P=0.037). Conclusions In the case of ECC,lncRNA CASC2 and H19 have transcription disorders.lncRNA CASC2 is generally up-regulated in the carcinoma tissue,while H19 is down-regulated.Both genes have the potential to become new molecular markers for ECC.

Humans , Bile Duct Neoplasms/genetics , Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic/metabolism , Cholangiocarcinoma/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , Tumor Suppressor Proteins/genetics
Rev. argent. cir ; 113(4): 460-466, dic. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356955


RESUMEN La enfermedad de Caroli es una enfermedad infrecuente que requiere un alto índice de sospecha para su diagnóstico. Puede afectar un segmento hepático, un lóbulo o todo el hígado; suele generar episodios repetidos de colangitis. Existe una amplia gama de propuestas terapéuticas que oscilan desde el tratamiento médico hasta el trasplante de hígado. En este trabajo presentamos 3 casos, realizamos una revisión de la literatura y proponemos una ampliación de la clasificación de Alonso-Lej modificada por Todani que, a nuestra manera de ver, tiene implicaciones a la hora de seleccionar un tratamiento.

ABSTRACT Caroli's disease is a rare condition, and its diagnosis requires high level of suspicion. The disease may affect one segment, one lobe or the entire liver, and may result in repeated episodes of cholangitis. The disease can be managed using different therapeutic approaches ranging from medical treatment to liver transplantation. In this paper we report 3 cases with review of the literature and propose a modification of the classification by Alonso-Lej modified by Todani which we believe may be useful to guide treatment.

Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic , Cholelithiasis , Caroli Disease , Therapeutics , Bile Ducts , Cholangitis , Liver Transplantation , Selectins , Dilatation
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 36(2): 180-190, abr.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289297


Resumen Introducción: La enfermedad de Caroli es un trastorno congénito poco usual, el cual cursa con dilatación segmentaria multifocal de los conductos biliares intrahepáticos. Fue descrita por Jacques Caroli en 1958 como una dilatación sacular, segmentada o fusiforme de los ductos biliares intrahepáticos. Objetivo: Caracterizar a la población que ha padecido la enfermedad de Caroli. Metodología: Revisión sistemática de la literatura. Resultados: Se analizaron 66 artículos, el grupo de edad más afectado es los menores de 10 años, en el que se evidenció una mayor prevalencia en varones, y se encontró asociado con otras comorbilidades como el riñón poliquístico (20 %). La manifestación más frecuente fue la hepatomegalia (44,7 %), seguido de la fiebre (42,4 %) y el dolor abdominal en el hipocondrio derecho (41,2 %). Como método diagnóstico más utilizado se encontraba la resonancia magnética (73,8 %); dentro de los hallazgos predominó la dilatación intrahepática (76,5 %) y el manejo más empleado fue la antibioticoterapia para tratar las recurrencias por colangitis. Conclusión: La enfermedad de Caroli tiene una baja prevalencia, se presenta con mayor frecuencia en el continente americano, afecta principalmente a la primera década de la vida, tiene predilección por el sexo masculino y se caracteriza por una dilatación de los conductos intrahepáticos que pueden afectar a otros órganos como los riñones, lo que produce quistes renales.

Abstract Caroli's disease (CD) is a rare congenital disease, which presents with multifocal segmental intrahepatic bile duct dilatation. It was first described by Jacques Caroli in 1958 as a saccular or fusiform dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts. Objective: To characterize the population that has been diagnosed with Caroli's disease. Materials and methods: Systematic review. Results: 66 articles were analyzed. The age group most affected was children under 10 years old, where a higher prevalence was evidenced in males. This condition was associated with other comorbidities such as polycystic kidney in 20%. The most frequent manifestation was hepatomegaly (44.7%), followed by fever (42.4%), and abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant (41.2%). The most used diagnostic method was magnetic resonance imaging in 73.8% of the sample. The findings showed predominance of intra-hepatic dilatation in 76.5%. The most widely used treatment was antibiotic therapy to treat recurrences due to cholangitis. Conclusion: Caroli's disease has an extremely low incidence and occurs more frequently in the American continent, affecting mainly patients in the first decade of life, with a predilection for the male sex. It is characterized by a dilatation of the intrahepatic ducts that can affect other organs such as the kidneys, causing renal cysts.

Humans , Male , Female , Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic , Abdominal Pain , Caroli Disease , Dilatation , Fever , Hepatomegaly , Disease , Cysts , Diagnosis
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 36(2): 200-205, abr.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289299


Resumen Introducción y objetivos: El ultrasonido endoscópico con punción-aspiración con aguja fina (USE-PAAF) en lesiones neoplásicas biliopancreáticas suele tener un rendimiento alto, que depende de características de la lesión; aspectos técnicos de la USE-PAAF y la experiencia del endoscopista. De los factores menos estudiados es la presencia de patólogo en sala. Se plantea la realización de USE-PAAF con patólogo en sala para disminuir el número de pases, la tasa de muestras inadecuadas y la necesidad de repetir el procedimiento. Material y métodos: Estudio observacional, retrospectivo, con recolección prospectiva de enero de 2018 a junio de 2019, en pacientes adultos sometidos a USE-PAAF. Las muestras obtenidas fueron extendidas y evaluadas en salas de endoscopia por médico patólogo con coloración Diff-Quick y cuando se obtenía una muestra suficiente se enviaba en frasco con formol para bloque celular o biopsias. Resultados: Se realizaron 48 USE-PAAF biliopancreáticas en individuos con una edad mediana de 64 años. Las indicaciones más frecuentes fueron punciones por masa o pseudomasa pancreática (71 % de casos); Se diagnosticaron 35 malignidades (77 % correspondientes a adenocarcinoma, y 14 % a tumores neuroendocrinos). La mediana de tamaño de lesiones fue de 28 mm; el número de pases promedio fue de 3. Se obtuvieron resultados diagnósticos en 89 % frente a 11 % de falsos negativos. Se presentó 1 complicación menor (2,1 %), que fue dolor abdominal. Conclusiones: La USE-PAAF con patólogo en sala tiene alto rendimiento diagnóstico, con escasos resultados falsos negativos. Se requiere una mediana de pases menor, que podría minimizar los riesgos del procedimiento y la necesidad de repetir la prueba.

Abstract Introduction: Endoscopic ultrasound with fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) of pancreatobiliary neoplastic lesions usually has a high performance that depends on the characteristics of the lesion, technical aspects, and expertise of the endoscopist. One of the least studied factors is rapid on-site evaluation with a pathologist in the room. Objective: To perform EUS-FNA with a pathologist in the endoscopy room to reduce the number of passes, the rate of inadequate samples and the need to repeat the procedure. Material and methods: Observational retrospective study with a prospective data collection approach from January 2018 to June 2019 of adult patients undergoing EUS-FNA. The samples obtained were spread and evaluated in endoscopy rooms by a pathologist with Diff-Quick stain, and when a sufficient sample was obtained, it was sent in a vial with formalin for cell block and/or biopsy. Results: 48 pancreatobiliary EUS-FNA were performed in individuals with a median age of 64 years. The most frequent indication was aspiration due to pancreatic mass (71%); 35 malignancies were diagnosed (77% were adenocarcinomas and 14% were neuroendocrine tumors). The median size of the lesions was 28mm, and the average number of passes was 3. Diagnostic results were obtained in 89% vs. 11% of false negatives. There was 1 minor complication (2.1%), which was abdominal pain. Conclusions: EUS-FNA with an in-room pathologist has a high diagnostic performance, with few false negative results. Also, a lower median number of passes is required, minimizing the risks of the procedure and the need for repeating it.

Humans , Male , Female , Bile Duct Diseases , Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic , Caroli Disease , Ultrasonics , Abdominal Pain , Cholangitis , Diagnosis
ABCD (São Paulo, Impr.) ; 34(3): e1618, 2021. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355518


ABSTRACT Background: Hilar cholangiocarcinoma represents more than half of all cholangiocarcinoma cases, having poor prognosis and presenting a median overall survival after diagnosis of 12-24 months. In patients who have unresectable tumors with a better prognosis, the proposal to perform liver transplantation emerged for expanding the possibility of free margins by performing total hepatectomy. Aim: To provide a Brazilian protocol for liver transplantation in patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Method: The protocol was carried out by two Brazilian institutions which perform a large volume of resections and liver transplantations, based on the study carried out at the Mayo Clinic. The elaboration of the protocol was conducted in four stages. Result: A protocol proposal for this disease is presented, which needs to be validated for clinical use. Conclusion: The development of a liver transplantation protocol for cholangiocarcinoma aims not only to standardize the treatment, but also enable a better assessment of the surgical results in the future.

RESUMO Racional: O colangiocarcinoma hilar representa mais da metade de todos os casos de colangiocarcinoma; tem prognóstico reservado e sobrevida global mediana de 12- 24 meses após o diagnóstico. A proposta de realizar transplante hepático surgiu para ampliar a possibilidade de margens livres através de hepatectomia total nos portadores de tumoresirressecáveis com melhor prognóstico. Objetivo: Apresentar protocolo brasileiro para realização de transplante hepático em pacientes com colangiocarcinoma hilar. Método: O protocolo foi realizado por duas instituições com grande volume de ressecções e transplantes hepáticos no Brasil, baseado no trabalho realizado pela MayoClinic. A elaboração foi dividida em quatro etapas. Resultado: É apresentada proposta de protocolo para esta doença a ser validada na aplicação clínica. Conclusão: Foi possível elaborar protocolo de transplante hepático para colangiocarcinoma a fim de uniformizar o tratamento e melhor avaliar os resultados cirúrgicos.

Humans , Bile Duct Neoplasms/surgery , Liver Transplantation , Cholangiocarcinoma/surgery , Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Klatskin Tumor/surgery , Hepatectomy
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 35(3): 390-393, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138799


Resumen La enfermedad de Caroli es una rara patología caracterizada por la existencia de dilataciones saculares segmentarias del árbol biliar intrahepático, que, por lo general, afectan a todo el parénquima hepático, aunque es poco frecuente el compromiso biliar extrahepático. Presentamos el caso de un varón que ingresó con un cuadro clínico de 45 días de evolución, consistente en ictericia colestásica, baja ponderal y prurito. La colangiorresonancia informó múltiples dilataciones saculares en las vías biliares intrahepáticas.

Abstract Caroli disease is a condition characterized by cystic dilatation of the intrahepatic biliary tree that usually affects the entire liver parenchyma, although extrahepatic biliary involvement is rare. The following is the case of a male patient who was admitted due to cholestatic jaundice, low weight, and pruritus for 45 days. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography reported multiple cystic dilatations in the intrahepatic bile ducts.

Humans , Male , Adult , Caroli Disease , Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic , Cholangiopancreatography, Magnetic Resonance , Jaundice
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 632-637, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877361


@#We report 13 children fulfilling criteria of Alagille syndrome. All had chronic cholestasis secondary to paucity of intrahepatic bile ducts and triangular facies. Eight children had associated congenital heart disease (six pulmonic stenosis, one each tetralogy of Fallot and patent ductus arteriosus), seven with butterfly vertebrae and one with posterior embryotoxon. Seven of the 13 children are alive and jaundice-free but three with concomitant hypercholesterolemia; the six other children died of liver-related complications.

Butterflies , Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic , Jaundice , Musculoskeletal Abnormalities , Spine
ABCD (São Paulo, Impr.) ; 33(1): e1490, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130509


ABSTRACT Background: Cholangiocarcinoma is an aggressive neoplasm that usually requires palliative biliary drainage. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been described as a successful adjunct treatment to malignant biliary obstruction. Aim: To describe the use of digital cholangioscope to help provide laser light during biliary PDT session using locally developed light source. Method: Patient receives intravenous photosensitizer 24 h before the procedure. It starts with a regular duodenoscopy. After identification of the major papilla and retrograde cannulation, the digital cholangioscope is introduced into the common bile duct. Then, the cholangioscopic examination helps to identify the neoplastic stricture. Under direct visualization lighting catheter is advanced through the cholangioscope. Repositioning is recommended every centimeter to cover all strictured area. At the end of the procedure, a final cholangioscopy assesses the bile duct for the immediate result and adverse events. Result: This procedure was applied in one 82-year-old male due to obstructive jaundice in the last two months. EUS and ERCP revealed a severe dilation of the common bile duct associated with choledocholithiasis. Besides, was revealed dilation of hepatic duct up to a well-circumscribed hypoechoic solid mass measuring 1.8x2 cm compressing the common hepatic duct. The mass was deemed unresectable and the patient was referred for palliative treatment with PDT. He remained asymptomatic for three months. He perished due to complications 15 months after the PDT session. Conclusion: Digital cholangioscopy-guided biliary PDT is feasible and seems safe and effective as an adjunct modality in the palliation of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

RESUMO Racional: Colangiocarcinoma é neoplasia agressiva que geralmente exige drenagem biliar paliativa. A terapia fotodinâmica (TFD) tem sido descrita como tratamento adjunto bem-sucedido para tratar obstrução biliar maligna. Objetivo: Descrever o emprego do colangioscópio digital para ajudar a fornecer luz de laser durante sessão de TFD biliar usando fonte de luz desenvolvida localmente. Método: Paciente recebe fotossensibilizador intravenoso 24 h antes do procedimento que começa com duodenoscopia regular. Após a identificação da papila principal e da canulação retrógrada, o colangioscópio digital é introduzido no ducto biliar comum. Em seguida, o exame colangioscópico ajuda a identificar a estenose neoplásica. Sob visualização direta, o cateter de iluminação avança através do colangioscópio. Reposicionamento é feito a cada centímetro. Ao final colangioscopia avalia o ducto biliar quanto ao resultado imediato e a eventos adversos. Resultado: Este procedimento foi aplicado em um homem de 82 anos devido à icterícia obstrutiva nos últimos dois meses. EUS e CPRE revelaram dilatação grave do ducto biliar comum associada à coledocolitíase. Além disso, havia dilatação do ducto hepático até massa sólida hipoecóica bem circunscrita, medindo 1,8x2 cm, comprimindo o ducto hepático comum. Ela foi considerada irressecável e paciente encaminhado para tratamento paliativo com TFD que permaneceu assintomático por três meses. Morreu devido a complicações 15 meses após a sessão de TFD. Conclusão: A TFD biliar guiada por colangioscopia digital é viável e parece segura e eficaz como modalidade auxiliar na paliação de colangiocarcinoma extra-hepático.

Humans , Male , Aged, 80 and over , Photochemotherapy , Bile Duct Neoplasms/drug therapy , Bile Duct Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Cholangiocarcinoma/drug therapy , Cholangiocarcinoma/diagnostic imaging , Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic , Fatal Outcome