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Semina cienc. biol. saude ; 43(1): 129-152, jan./jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354470


This macro-level scientometrics study aimed to analyze the similarities and differences in the scientific communication patterns of the Brazilian postgraduate programs (BPPs) belonging to the Biological Sciences II field (BS2), as defined by Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES). Also, it was identified the most researched diseases and it was discussed their relationship with the needs of Brazilian public health considering the burden of disease (Disability-Adjusted Life Year - DALY, Brazil) estimated by the World Health Organization (WHO). Thus, the scientific production of the BS2's sub-areas Biophysics, Biochemistry, Pharmacology, Physiology, and Morphology was evaluated from 2013 to 2016, through considering the citation impact, Impact Factor (Journal Citation Reports), and scientific collaboration. Data collected included formal information provided to CAPES by all BPPs through the Plataforma Sucupira as well as metadata from Web of Science documents. In addition, were employed the standardized Medical Subject Headings (PubMed) for the analysis of researched diseases. We concluded that the patterns of scientific communication in Biophysics, Biochemistry, Pharmacology, Physiology, and Morphology were predominantly different. Thus, there is a need to consider specificities among the five sub-areas in the evaluation process performed by CAPES. Different approaches are revealed by identifying the most frequently researched diseases and explaining the contributions of each sub-area for Brazilian public health.

Este estudo cientométrico de nível macro teve como objetivo analisar as semelhanças e as diferenças nos padrões de comunicação científica dos programas de pós-graduação brasileiros (PPGs) da área de Ciências Biológicas II, avaliados pela Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES). Além disso, foram identificadas as doenças mais pesquisadas e foi discutido sua relação com as necessidades de saúde pública brasileira, considerando a carga de doenças (Disability-Adjusted Life Year - DALY, Brasil) estimada pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS). Assim, a produção científica das subáreas Biofísica, Bioquímica, Farmacologia, Fisiologia e Morfologia da área de Ciências Biológicas II foi avaliada de 2013 a 2016, considerando o impacto de citações, o Fator de Impacto (Journal Citation Reports) e a colaboração científica. Os dados coletados incluíram informações declaradas à CAPES por todos os PPGs por meio da Plataforma Sucupira, bem como metadados de documentos da Web of Science. Além disso, foram utilizados os cabeçalhos de Medical Subject Headings (PubMed) para a análise das doenças pesquisadas. Concluímos que os padrões de comunicação científica entre as subáreas Biofísica, Bioquímica, Farmacologia, Fisiologia e Morfologia foram predominantemente diferentes. Assim, é necessário considerar as especificidades entre as cinco subáreas no processo de avaliação realizado pela CAPES. Diferentes abordagens são reveladas a partir da identificação das doenças mais pesquisadas e da explicação das contribuições de cada subárea para a saúde pública brasileira.

Humans , World Health Organization , Biological Science Disciplines , Medical Subject Headings , Impact Factor , Metadata , Powders , Biochemistry , Biophysics , Public Health , PubMed
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1649-1661, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927809


As the content of static biochemistry is boring and traditional cramming education fails to draw the attention of students, we divided the course into small units and then made full use of "micro-teaching" resources such as multimedia slides, pictures, objects, experimental demonstrations and animations of the biochemical principles. The method created a "micro-teaching" environment, which combined boring static knowledge with vivid dynamic elements, thus producing a strong sensory impact on students, highlighting the knowledge in their mind, prompting students' participation, and greatly improving the teaching effects. This article introduces the goals and development process of this teaching method, and takes "Protein Denaturation and Renaturation" as an example to demonstrate the design and implementation process of the "micro-teaching", which seems to be of great significance to the improvement of the teaching quality of biochemistry course and serves as a reference for reform in other courses.

Biochemistry/education , Humans , Students
Afr. j. lab. med. (Print) ; 11(1): 1-6, 2022. tables, figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1378850


Background: A national proficiency test (PT) programme is not currently implemented in most low-income countries. However, participation in such PT programmes assists improves test performance and result accuracy.Objective: This study assessed how well 11 government hospital laboratories performed 18 basic clinical chemistry tests and identified areas needing improvement.Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out by the Division of Laboratories of the Ministry of Health of Togo from 01 July 2016 to 31 December 2016. The test performance was evaluated using panels provided by One World Accuracy, Canada (Vancouver). The Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments criteria were used in evaluating the laboratories, and their success rates were compared with the World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa's target of 80%.Results: The overall rate of acceptable results at the laboratories was over 80% for glucose, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase and triglycerides tests. The laboratories using fully automated spectrophotometers had an acceptable results rate of 89% (p = 0.001). The overall performance of the laboratories by cycles varied from 71% to 82%.Conclusion: This national PT programme identified the tests, which laboratories must improve their performance (urea, creatinine, uric acid, bilirubin, cholesterol, total protein, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus). It demonstrated the need for the use of routine appropriate internal quality control in all laboratories. The proficiency test programme should be extended to all clinical laboratories and target all biology disciplines

Male , Female , Quality Control , Clinical Chemistry Tests , Biochemistry , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Engineering , Academic Performance
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 28(4): 211-217, out./dez. 2021. il.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363493


O objetivo do presente estudo foi validar intervalos de referências (IRs) para hematologia e bioquímica sanguínea de cães domiciliados da Amazônia Oriental e estabelecer novos IRs para os parâmetros não validados. Foram utilizadas amostras de 44 cães adultos clinicamente saudáveis de diferentes raças e sexos. Na validação, foi utilizada a metodologia proposta pelo Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) e na determinação dos IRs dos parâmetros não validados foi utilizada a metodologia estatística proposta pela American Society for Clinical Veterinary Pathology (ASCPV). Os IRs foram determinados por meio do programa Excel com o suplemento Reference Value Advisor (versão 2.1). O software realiza os cálculos de acordo com as recomendações CLSI, conforme sugerido pelas diretrizes da ASCVP. Um total de 25 parâmetros (13 hematológicos e 12 bioquímicos) foram submetidos ao processo de validação. Desse total, seis (24%) parâmetros não foram validados (Hemoglobina, CHGM, eosinófilos, linfócitos, albumina e GGT) e para estes foram estabelecidos novos intervalos. Para a maioria dos parâmetros hematológicos e bioquímicos (76%), os IRs estabelecidos previamente na literatura ainda são válidos para utilização em cães criados na Amazônia Oriental. Para os parâmetros não validados, apenas para eosinófilos e linfócitos recomendamos que outros trabalhos, com um número maior de animais, sejam realizados para confirmar os nossos resultados ou estabelecer novos IRs. Os IRs estabelecidos para hemoglobina, CHGM, albumina e GGT podem ser utilizados em substituição aos intervalos antigos.

The aim of the present study was to validate reference intervals (RIs) for hematology and blood biochemistry of dogs domiciled in the Eastern Amazon and to establish new RIs for parameters not yet validated. Samples from 44 clinically healthy adult dogs of different breeds and sexes were used. The methodology proposed by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) was used for validation, and the statistical methodology proposed by the American Society for Clinical Veterinary Pathology (ASCPV) was used to determine the RIs of the non-validated parameters. The IRs were determined using the Excel program with the Reference Value Advisor add-in (version 2.1). The software performs calculations according to CLSI recommendations as suggested by the ASCVP guidelines. A total of 25 parameters (13 hematological and 12 biochemical) were submitted to the validation process. Of this total, six (24%) parameters were not validated (Hemoglobin, CHGM, eosinophils, lymphocytes, albumin and GGT) and new intervals were established for these. For most hematological and biochemical parameters (76%), the RIs previously established in the literature are still valid for use in dogs raised in the Eastern Amazon. For non-validated parameters, just for eosinophils and lymphocytes, we recommend that other studies, with a larger number of animals, be carried out to confirm our results or establish new IRs. The established IRs for hemoglobin, CHGM, albumin and GGT can be used in place of the old ranges.

Animals , Dogs , Reference Values , Dogs , Reference Standards , Hematologic Tests/veterinary , Biochemistry , Amazonian Ecosystem , Hematology
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 28(3): 167-173, jul./set. 2021. il.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1366793


Hematological and serum biochemical characteristics and prevalence of microorganisms in the uterine content of bitches with pyometra were described, according to type and age. This study was carried out at the Veterinary Medicine Hospital Renato Rodenburg de Medeiros Netto of the UFBA with 132 patients diagnosed with pyometra through imaging and laboratory tests, divided into two groups: Group 1 - less than eight years (n=72) and Group 2 - more than eight years (n=60). Both groups were submitted to Ovariohysterectomy (OH), in which blood and uterine lumen secretion samples were collected. The highest incidence of pyometra was found in bitches under 8 years (54.5%), Poodle breed (31.8%) and mixed-breed (27.3%). Open pyometra represented 80.3% of all cases. The death rate (6.0%) did not show significant difference between the types. Anemia (73.0%), thrombocytopenia (41.2%) and leukocytosis (77.0%) were observed. Urea and ALP were above the reference values in 41.8% and 52.2% of each group, respectively, while ALT (94.0%) and creatine (82%) remained normal in most animals. Serum biochemistry did not show significant differences (P<0.05). Escherichia coli and Klebsiella sp. grew in 33.3% and 16.7% of the samples, respectively. Therefore, no significant hematological and serum biochemical differences were observed in bitches with pyometra in both age categories.

Descreveu-se características hematológicas, bioquímicas séricas e prevalência de microrganismos no conteúdo uterino de cadelas com piometra, de acordo com o tipo e idade. Realizou-se este estudo no Hospital de Medicina Veterinária Renato Rodenburg de Medeiros Netto da UFBA com 132 pacientes diagnosticadas com piometra, por exames de imagem e laboratoriais, divididas em dois grupos: Grupo 1 ­ menos de oito anos (n=72) e Grupo 2 ­ mais de oito anos (n=60), submetidas a Ovariectomia (OH), quando se coletou amostras de sangue e secreção do lúmen uterino. A incidência maior deu-se em cadelas abaixo de 8 anos (54,5%), da raça Poodle (31,8%) e sem raça definida (SRD) (27,3%), sendo 80,3% de piometra aberta. A taxa de óbito (6,0%) não apresentou diferença significativa entre os tipos. Observou-se a ocorrência de anemia (73,0%), trombocitopenia (41,2%) e leucocitose (77,0%). Os valores de ureia e FA estiveram acima dos valores de referência em 41,8% e 52,2% das cadelas respectivamente, enquanto a ALT (94,0%) e a creatina (82%) mantiveram-se dentro dos valores de referência na maioria dos animais. A bioquímica sérica não apresentou diferenças significativas (P<0,05). Observou-se crescimento de Escherichia coli e Klebsiella sp. em 33,3% e 16,7% das amostras, respectivamente. Sendo assim, não se observou diferenças significativas hematológicas e na bioquímica sérica de cadelas com piometra nas categorias de idade.

Animals , Dogs , Dog Diseases , Pyometra/veterinary , Biochemistry , Age Factors , Endometrial Hyperplasia/veterinary , Hematologic Tests/veterinary
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2581-2588, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887824


Biochemistry experiment is an experimental module associated with biochemistry curriculum. In the context of deepening the education reform on innovation & entrepreneurship, integrating the concept of innovation & entrepreneurship with the experimental course is an effective way for the biology discipline to foster professional talents with strong engineering ability and innovation & entrepreneurship ability. Outcome-based education (OBE) is a new concept for education. Guided by this concept, we encouraged students to propose and take part in research projects, redesigned the time frame for research project-based experiment teaching, and implemented a multi-dimensional evaluation system along the entire teaching process. Furthermore, we integrated the concept of innovation & entrepreneurship for training undergraduates during the teaching process of biochemistry experiment. These measures not only boosted the students' interest in research and innovation, but also guided the teachers to participate in the entire process, which helped improving the engineering ability and innovation & entrepreneurship ability of the students.

Biochemistry/education , Curriculum , Entrepreneurship , Humans , Students
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06575, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1250486


This study aimed to report the hematological and biochemical changes caused by conventional and metronomic chemotherapies, using vincristine sulfate to treat canine Transmissible Venereal Tumor (TVT). Twelve dogs were selected, six of them for the group receiving conventional chemotherapy (G1), and six dogs for the group receiving metronomic chemotherapy (G2). The G1 group received vincristine sulfate once a week at the dose of 0.75mg/m² until the tumor had disappeared with treatment, and the G2 group was treated with vincristine sulfate three times a week at the dose of 0.25mg/m2 until the tumor had disappeared. Before and after chemotherapy treatment, hematological and biochemical blood tests were performed to evaluate the main alterations caused by both chemotherapeutic models. Dogs undergoing conventional chemotherapy had significant leukocyte changes (p<0.05), causing neutropenia and leukopenia. In dogs undergoing metronomic chemotherapy, leukocytes remained within the reference range. Half of the dogs in group G1 had normochromic, normocytic anemia. The only biochemical alteration observed was the increase of urea in group G2. Thus, metronomic chemotherapy for the treatment of TVT with vincristine sulfate proved to be an excellent method for treatment, with fewer adverse effects, especially in maintaining the leukogram of dogs within normal range and reducing the number of anemia in animals during treatment.(AU)

Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo relatar as alterações hematológicas e bioquímicas causadas pelo tratamento quimioterápico convencional e pela quimioterapia metronômica, utilizando-se sulfato de vincristina para o tratamento do tumor venéreo transmissível canino(TVTC). Foram selecionados 12 cães, sendo seis para o grupo que recebeu quimioterapia convencional (G1) e seis cães para o grupo que recebeu quimioterapia metronômica (G2). O grupo G1 recebeu sulfato de vincristina, uma vez por semana, na dose de 0,75mg/m2, até o desaparecimento do tumor e o grupo G2 foi tratado com sulfato de vincristina, três vezes por semana, na dose de 0,25mg/m2, até o desaparecimento do tumor. Antes e após o tratamento quimioterápico foram realizados exames hematológicos e bioquímicos sanguíneos para avaliação das principais alterações causadas pelos dois modelos quimioterápicos. Os cães submetidos à quimioterapia convencional tiveram alterações leucocitárias significativas (p<0,05), causando uma leucopenia por neutropenia enquanto nos cães, submetidos à quimioterapia metronômica, os leucócitos mantiveram-se dentro do intervalo de referência. A metade dos cães do grupo G1 tiveram uma anemia do tipo normocítica normocrômica. A única alteração bioquímica observada foi o aumento da ureia no grupo G2. Desta forma, a quimioterapia metronômica para o tratamento do TVT com sulfato de vincristina, demonstrou ser um excelente método para a cura do animal, com menores reduções de efeitos adversos, sobretudo, na manutenção do leucograma dos cães e na redução de animais com anemia.(AU)

Animals , Dogs , Venereal Tumors, Veterinary , Vincristine/analogs & derivatives , Biochemistry/methods , Hematologic Tests/veterinary , Anemia , Leukopenia , Neoplasms , Urea , Dogs/blood , Drug Therapy
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06742, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1287511


The result of the reaction of free radicals with biomolecules is the formation of substances with the potential of inducing oxidative damage, a condition known as oxidative stress. There are voluminous literature data reporting the association, both as a cause and as a consequence, between different diseases and oxidative stress. In this study, 144 female dogs with mammary neoplasia were analyzed. The animals were submitted to clinical evaluation for disease staging, hematological evaluation, serum biochemistry (renal and hepatic function tests), and dosage of the oxidative damage biomarker, malondialdehyde (MDA), at the time of its approach and 30 days after treatment. A control group of 100 healthy animals was also submitted to determination of serum MDA levels. The mean age of the animals affected by mammary neoplasms was 9.88±2.95 (4 to 14) years, while in healthy animals it was 2.31±1.90 years (1 to 6). Of the 144 animals, 113 (78.9%) had malignant neoplasms, and 15, 21, 46, 17 and 14 animals were in clinical stage I, II, III, IV and V respectively and the carcinoma in a mixed tumor was the most frequent histological pattern in this group (26%). Thirty-one animals were diagnosed with benign neoplasms and mammary adenoma was the most frequent histological pattern in 15 animals (51.61%). Hematological changes in the preoperative period were observed in 44 (38.9%) and 12 (38.7%) animals with malignant and benign neoplasias, respectively, and there was a positive correlation between anemia and higher levels of MDA (P=0.0008) for animals with malignant tumors. Regarding serum biochemical parameters, the most frequent alterations in animals with malignant neoplasms were elevated ALT levels in 12 animals (10.6%), creatinine in 10 animals (8.84%) and urea in eight animals (7.07%). Females with benign neoplasms presented less occurrence of changes in these parameters. In the group of healthy animals (control), the mean serum MDA values were 12.08±4.18, whereas in the pre-treatment group, mean MDA was 24.80±5.74 for bitches with benign neoplasms and 32.27±10.24 for bitches with malignant tumors. A significant increase (P<0.001) in MDA levels was observed in animals with malignant mammary neoplasms when compared to healthy animals and with benign tumors. In addition, a significant reduction (P<0.001) was observed 30 days after treatment in MDA levels (27.37±7.86) in animals with malignant tumors. In conclusion, our results indicate an association between MDA seric levels and mammary neoplasms in dogs. The results suggest that this factor can be used as a biomarker of oxidative stress with a potential impact in the prognostic of mammary tumors, since significantly higher levels of MDA were detected especially in dogs carrying malignant tumors and presenting anemia.(AU)

O resultado da reação de radicais livres com biomoléculas é a formação de substâncias que podem ser utilizadas como marcadores de dano oxidativo, condição mais conhecida como estresse oxidativo. Evidências científicas comprovam a relação, quer como causa, quer como consequência, entre muitas doenças e o estresse oxidativo. Neste estudo, 144 cadelas portadoras de neoplasia de mama, foram submetidas à avaliação clínica para estadiamento da doença, avaliação hematológica, testes de função renal e hepática e dosagem do biomarcador de dano oxidativo, malondialdeído (MDA), no momento de sua abordagem e 30 dias após realização de tratamento. Um grupo controle de 100 cadelas saudáveis foi submetido também à determinação dos níveis séricos de MDA. A idade média dos animais acometidos por neoplasias mamárias foi de 9,88±2,95 (4 a 14) anos, enquanto que nos animais saudáveis foi de 2,31±1,90 anos (1 a 6). Dos 144 animais, 113 (78, 9%) apresentavam neoplasias malignas, sendo que 15, 21, 46, 17 e 14 animais encontravam-se em estadiamento clínico I, II, III, IV e V respectivamente, e o carcinoma em tumor misto foi o padrão histológico mais frequente neste grupo (26%). Trinta e um animais tiveram diagnóstico de neoplasias benignas, sendo que 7 estavam no estádio I, 16 no estádio II e 8 no estádio III e o adenoma mamário foi o padrão histológico mais frequente em 15 animais (51,61%). Alterações hematológicas no período pré-operatório foram observadas em 44 (38,9%) e 12 (38,7%) animais portadores de neoplasias malignas e benignas, respectivamente, sendo que houve correlação positiva entre anemia e níveis mais elevados de MDA (P=0,0008), para os animais com tumores malignos. Em relação aos parâmetros bioquímicos séricos, as alterações mais frequentes nos animais com neoplasias malignas foram a elevação dos níveis de ALT em 12 animais (10,6%), de creatinina em 10 animais (8,84%) e de ureia em oito animais (7,07%) Cadelas portadoras de neoplasias benignas apresentaram menor ocorrência de alterações nesses parâmetros. No grupo controle, a média dos valores séricos de MDA foi 12,08±4,18, enquanto que no grupo pré-tratamento, a média de MDA foi de 24,80±5,74 para as cadelas com neoplasia benigna e 32,27±10,24 para as neoplasias malignas. Verificou-se aumento significativo do valor sérico de MDA em cadelas portadoras de neoplasias malignas em comparação com os animais hígidos ou com neoplasias benignas (P<0,001). Ainda, 30 dias após o tratamento observou-se uma diminuição significativa (P<0,001) no valor médio de MDA (27,37±7,86) nos animais com neoplasias malignas. Em conclusão, os resultados deste estudo evidenciam uma associação entre níveis séricos aumentados de MDA e presença de neoplasias mamárias em cadelas. Os resultados sugerem que este fator pode ser utilizado como biomarcador de estresse oxidativo em cães, com provável impacto no prognóstico dos tumores mamários, uma vez que níveis significativamente mais altos de MDA foram detectados especialmente nas cadelas portadoras de tumores malignos e apresentando anemia.(AU)

Animals , Female , Dogs , Biochemistry , Mammary Neoplasms, Animal , Oxidative Stress , Dogs , Free Radicals , Malondialdehyde
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(12): 992-1001, Dec. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1155031


Studies on biochemical constituents and hydration of horses in training or competitions are essential for the knowledge of their adaptive physiological and metabolic responses to the type of exercise inherent to the sport. The present research evaluated the effects of exercise on hydric status and physiologic and biochemical profiles in Quarter Horses during a barrel race training session. The design consisted of three evaluation times (T): at rest, before the start of physical activity (T0); immediately after a 10-minute warm-up trot and then running the barrel race courses twice with a 10-minute interval (T1); and after one hour's rest after the second course (T2). The parameters analyzed were: heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), body temperature (BT) and mucose color; the capillary refill time (CRT), packed cell volume (PCV), total plasma proteins (TPP), serum creatinine (CRE) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were evaluated and used to infer water status; plasma osmolarity (Osm) was measured; the electrolytes sodium (Na), potassium (K), chloride (Cl), total calcium (tCa), total magnesium (tMg) and phosphorus (P), plasma glucose (Glu) and lactate (Lac) and the muscle enzymes creattine kinase (CK) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) completed the evaluated parameters. The data for the variables studied were submitted to ANOVA and the Tukey test at 5% probability. After exercise (in T1), HR, RR, BT, PCV, TPP, Glu, Lac, Cre increased (P<0.05), there was also increase in phosphorus and decrease in K (P<0.05), but there was no hypophosphatemia and hipokalemia, respectively. After rest (in T2), only glucose returned to baseline levels (T0) and, with lower mean values, HR, RR, BT, PCV, K and Lac did not return to baseline levels (T0), while P decreased (P<0.05). Osm, BUN, Na, Cl, tCa, tMg, CK and AST did not change between times (P>0.05). It was concluded that the maximum intensity exercise performed on two barrel race courses caused mild hemoconcentration, did not changed plasma osmolality or concentrations of important electrolytes and muscle enzymes of horses, but caused hyperlactatemia without the plasma lactate concentrations being fully recomposed after resting.(AU)

O perfil bioquímico e o status de hidratação de equinos em treinamentos ou competições fornecem dados importantes das suas respostas fisiológicas e metabólicas em relação ao tipo específico de exercício em uma modalidade esportiva. No presente estudo, o status hídrico e o perfil fisiológico-bioquímico de equinos foram avaliados durante treinamento de três tambores, em três tempos (T): em repouso, antes do início da atividade física (T0); imediatamente após 10 minutos de aquecimento ao trote seguido de duas corridas na pista de tambor, intervaladas em 10 minutos (T1); e após uma hora de descanso do segundo percurso (T2). Os parâmetros avaliados foram: frequência cardíaca (FC), frequência respiratória (FR), temperatura corporal (BT) e cor da mucosa; o tempo de enchimento capilar (TEC), volume globular ou hematócrito (VG), proteínas plasmáticas totais (TPP), creatinina sérica (Cre) e a ureia (Ure) foram avaliados e utilizados para inferir o estado hídrico dos animais; a osmolaridade plasmática (Osm) também foi mensurada; as concentrações dos eletrólitos sódio (Na), potássio (K), cloreto (Cl), cálcio total (tCa), magnésio total (tMg) e fósforo (P), e das enzimas musculares foram mensurados no soro, e as de glicose (Gli) e lactato (Lac) no plasma. Os dados das variáveis estudadas foram submetidos à ANOVA e ao teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade. Após o exercício (T1), a FC, FR, TC, VG, TPP, Gli, Lac, Cre aumentaram. O P também aumentou (P<0,05), mas não alcançou nível de hiperfosfatemia, e o K diminuiu (P<0,05), mas não ao nível de hipocalemia. Embora com médias menores, a FC, FR, TC, VG, K e o Lac não retornaram aos níveis basais (T0) após o repouso (T2), apenas a Gli, enquanto o fósforo diminuiu (P<0,05). A Osm, ureia, Na, Cl, tCa, tMg, CK e AST não variaram entre os tempos (P>0,05). Concluiu-se que, o exercício de intensidade máxima realizado em dois percursos de três tambores causou leve hemoconcentração, não alterou a osmolaridade plasmática nem importantes concentrações de eletrólitos e de enzimas musculares dos equinos, porém, causou hiperlactatemia, sem completa recomposição da concentração do lactato após uma hora de descanso.(AU)

Adaptation, Physiological , Exercise Test/veterinary , Respiratory Rate , Horses/physiology , Muscles , Biochemistry
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 39(4): e620, oct.-dic. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156463


Introducción: La bioquímica, como ciencia particular dentro de las ciencias médicas, ha tenido un gran desarrollo. Las enzimas lipasas se obtienen de organismos vivos que abundan en la naturaleza y han sido utilizadas en la producción de alimentos, jabones, detergentes, aceites y otros productos industriales. Actualmente se han logrado nuevas clasificaciones de estas, subdivididas en grupos y subgrupos. Se aprecia además interés de utilizarlas en la producción de biodiesel y en la biotecnología y genética médica. Objetivo: Recopilar las principales consideraciones teóricas actualizadas acerca la caracterización, clasificación y usos de las enzimas lipasas. Método: La búsqueda y análisis de la información se realizó desde el primero de septiembre al 23 de diciembre de 2019, con un total de 50 artículos publicados en las bases de datos PubMed, Hinari, SciELO y Medline, mediante el gestor de búsqueda y administrador de referencias EndNote. se utilizaron 42 citas seleccionadas para realizar la revisión, de ellas 38 de los últimos cinco años. Conclusiones: Las enzimas lipasas son proteínas que catalizan procesos biológicos. son activas en un amplio rango de sustrato, realizan reacciones de síntesis, hidrólisis o de intercambio de grupos. Poseen diversas actividades catalíticas, son menos costosas y menos contaminantes, se obtienen en gran cantidad, se producen de forma regular. Son estables y su proceso de producción es más factible y seguro. Se caracterizan por su capacidad de catalizar reacciones de acidólisis, alcohólisis, aminólisis, esterificación, interesterificación y transesterificación, entre otras características(AU)

Introduction: Biochemistry has experienced great development as a particular medical science. Lipase enzymes are obtained from living organisms which are abundant in nature, and have been used in the manufacture of foods, soap, detergents, oils and other industrial products. New classifications are now available of lipase enzymes, and they have been subdivided into groups and subgroups. An interest is also noticed in using them for biodiesel production and in biotechnology and medical genetics. Objective: Collect the main updated theoretical considerations about the characterization, classification and uses of lipase enzymes. Method: The search for and analysis of the information extended from 1 September to 23 December 2019, for a total 50 papers published in the databases PubMed, Hinari, SciELO and Medline, using the search engine and reference manager EndNote. Forty-two citations were selected for the review, 38 of which were from the last five years. Conclusions: Lipase enzymes are proteins that catalyze biological processes. They are active in a wide range of substrates, performing synthesis reactions, hydrolysis or group exchanges. They display a variety of catalytic activities, are less costly and less contaminating, are obtained in large quantities and are produced in a regular manner. They are stable and their production process is more feasible and safer. They are characterized by their ability to catalyze reactions of acidolysis, alcoholysis, aminolysis, esterification, interesterification and transesterification, among other characteristics(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Biochemistry , Biotechnology , Enzymes/analysis , Lipase/pharmacokinetics
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 54(1): 39-44, mar. 2020. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130577


A partir del año 2008, la carrera de Bioquímica de la UNS incorporó en su plan de estudios la asignatura Practicanato Profesional de Bioquímica (PPB) dentro de la cual se implementó un mecanismo de seguimiento en la trayectoria de los graduados, diseñando una encuesta de elección múltiple que fue enviada a 457 egresados, de los cuales contestaron 213 (47%). De su análisis surge que al año de finalizar el Practicanato y actualmente ejercen en laboratorio hospitalario 31% y 37%; en extrahospitalario privado 20,6% y 25,4%; en laboratorio propio 0,5% y 6,6%; se encuentran realizando residencia bioquímica 18,8% y 8,9%; docencia universitaria e investigación 4,7% y 2,8%; docencia no universitaria 1,9% y 3,8% y están sin trabajo 22,5% y 16% respectivamente. El 46,5% residía en Bahía Blanca y actualmente un 40,8%, seguido por ciudades del interior de la provincia de Buenos Aires y Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires. El objetivo de este trabajo es difundir información de egresados de la carrera de Bioquímica obtenida a 10 años de la incorporación del PPB, considerando que este proceso de investigación es un punto de partida que tiene como fuente de información al egresado y fomentará debates en comisiones académicas y de políticas universitarias.

Since 2008, the course of studies of Biochemistry at Universidad Nacional del Sur (UNS), has incorporated into its curriculum the degree course of Professional Practice for biochemists (PPB) and implemented a mechanism to monitor graduates' careers, designing a multiple choice questionnaire that was sent to 457 graduates and answered by 213 (47%) of them. From the analysis of those answers one year after finishing the PPB and at the moment, it stands out that 31% and 37% work in a hospital laboratory; ; 20.6% and 25.4% in a private outpatient hospital; 0.5% and 6.6% in their own laboratory; 18.8% and 8.9% are doing the biochemistry residence; 4.7% and 2.8% are doing university teaching and research; 1.9% and 3.8% non-university teaching and that 22.5% and 16% respectively do not have a job. Regarding their domicile, a year after finishing, 46.5% lived in Bahía Blanca and currently, 40.8%; followed by other cities inside Buenos Aires province, and finally the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires. The objective of this work is to share information of graduates of the Biochemistry course of studies obtained 10 years after the incorporation of the PPB, considering that this research process is a starting point that has the graduate as a source of information and will encourage debates in academic commissions and of university policies.

A partir de 2008, a carreira de Bioquímica da UNS, incorporou em seu plano de estudos a disciplina Prática Profissional de Bioquímica (PPB) dentro da qual um mecanismo de monitoramento na trajetória dos diplomados foi implementado, elaborando uma pesquisa de escolha múltipla que foi enviada a 457 graduados; dos quais responderam 213 (47%). Da análise dessa pesquisa, surge que depois de um ano de finalizar a Prática e atualmente: exercem em laboratório Hospitalar 31% e 37%; em extra-hospitalar privado 20,6% e 25,4%; em laboratório próprio 0,5% e 6,6%; estão realizando residência bioquímica 18,8% e 8,9%: ensino universitário e pesquisa 4,7% e 2,8%; ensino não universitário 1,9% e 3,8%; sem trabalho 22,5% e 16%, respectivamente. Residiam em Bahía Blanca 46,5% e atualmente 40,8%; seguido pelas cidades do interior da província de Buenos Aires e, Cidade Autônoma de Buenos Aires. O objetivo deste trabalho é divulgar informações sobre graduados da carreira de Bioquímica obtidas após 10 anos da incorporação da PPB, considerando que este processo de pesquisa é um ponto de partida que tem como fonte de informações o graduado, e promoverá discussões em comissões acadêmicas e de políticas universitárias.

Humans , Male , Female , Professional Practice , Professional Practice/statistics & numerical data , Residence Characteristics , Biochemistry , Aftercare , Curriculum , Courses , Policy
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2226-2233, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878481


Biochemistry is an important fundamental course of biology related majors, and has the characteristics of speedy development, massive information, sound theoretical basis and feasible applicability. It is difficult for students to learn well in the process of teaching. In addition, the experimental course lacks integrity, comprehensiveness and design experiments. Under the guidance of outcome-based education (OBE) concept, we established a multi-dimensional teaching reform system through theoretically and practically introducing of various teaching methods, online courses, bilingual teaching, stronger practical teaching and optimized assessment mode. The teaching reform system could effectively allow students to change from "passive learning" to "active learning" through activating learning enthusiasm, resulting in cultivated innovation ability. This system could play very important role in promoting quality of talent training of colleges and universities.

Biochemistry/education , China , Humans , Learning , Students , Universities/trends
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 26: e20190079, 2020. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135133


Scolopendra polymorpha (S. polymorpha) is a predatory centipede whose venom contains a multiplicity of biochemical effectors that can cause muscle damage and cumulative cell destruction in its prey. Despite previous investigations of S. polymorpha and other centipede venoms, there is a lack of information on the morphological and biochemical patterns elicited by their myotoxic effects. To elucidate these processes, this paper presents evidence of skeletal muscle damage, and alterations in key biochemical mediators that appear only after exposure to centipede venom. Methods: Venom was collected and fractionated using RP-HPLC; mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle was exposed to whole venom and venom fractions to evaluate myotoxicity by means of creatine kinase (CK) - a muscle damage marker - activity measurements and histochemical analysis. Results: CK activity was higher in EDL muscle exposed to venom than in unexposed muscle. This increase was observed after 15 min of venom incubation, and remained stable up to 45 min. Venom-exposed EDL muscle showed signs of muscle damage including necrosis, loss of fascicular structure as well as mitochondrial accumulations and ragged red fibers (RRF), suggesting an impairment in the normal mitochondrial arrangement. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and cytochrome oxidase (COX) tests also indicate that respiratory complexes might be affected. Conclusion: Our results suggest a different biochemical composition of S. polymorpha venom, based on the different effects of four venom fractions on the cells tested, according to statistical evidence. Fractions F6 and F7 caused the most important alterations.(AU)

Animals , Mice , Creatine Kinase , Myotoxicity , Chilopoda , Biochemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Rev. ABENO ; 20(2): 137-146, 20200600. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1370596


Diante da importância do ensino de Bioquímica na formação do futuro cirurgião-dentista, o objetivo é apresentar uma estratégia pedagógica que possibilita a articulação dos conceitos moleculares básicos da disciplina no entendimento da complexidade das doenças bucais e sistêmicas, por meio da análise bioquímica da saliva de pacientes com deficiência cognitiva e física do Centro de Assistência Odontológica à Pessoa com Deficiência (CAOE) da Faculdade de Odontologia de Araçatuba-Universidade Estadual Paulista(UNESP).Para tanto, grupos de cinco estudantesrealizaram as análises na saliva, coletada por um cirurgião-dentista doCAOE. Imediatamente após a coleta, foi determinado o fluxo salivar, pH e a capacidade tamponante. Na sequência, a saliva foi centrifugada, fracionada e armazenada a -20 °C até o momento das análises bioquímicas. Durante as aulas práticas, realizaram-se os seguintes ensaios, utilizando kitscomerciais: proteína total, α-amilase, fosfatase alcalina, ácido úrico, glicose, aspartato aminotransferase, cálcio e fósforo. Ao final do ano letivo, os estudantes apresentaram relatório contextualizando os resultados com a saúde bucal e sistêmica do paciente. Plantões de dúvidas com monitores e professores auxiliaram na interpretação da ficha de anamnese e nas correlações dos parâmetros clínicosbucais e sistêmicos. Para os estudantes ingressantes, foi a primeira oportunidade de integrar o conhecimento teórico às condições clínicas de um paciente. Conclui-se que a estratégia adotada é viável e pode beneficiar educadores que buscam alternativas que permitam a integração das ciências básicas e clínicas ao ensino de Bioquímica para a Odontologia (AU).

Given the importance of teaching biochemistry in dental surgeon trainingcourses, the objective was to present a pedagogical strategy that enables the articulation of basic molecular concepts within the subject, allowing a betterunderstanding of the complexity of oral and systemic diseases, through the biochemical analysis of saliva from patients with cognitive and physical disabilities at the Dental Assistance Center for Disabled Persons (CAOE)of the School of Dentistry, Araçatuba -São Paulo State University (UNESP).For this purpose, groups of five students analyzedthesaliva collected by a dentalsurgeon from CAOE. Immediately after collection, salivary flow, pH, and buffering capacity were determined. Subsequently, the saliva was centrifuged, fractionated, and stored at -20°C until the time of biochemical analysis. During the practical classes, using commercial kits, the samples were tested for: total protein, α-amylase, alkaline phosphatase, uric acid, glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, calcium, and phosphorus. At the end of the school year, students presented a report contextualizing the results with the patient's oral and systemic health. Tutoring sessions with monitors and teachers helped in the interpretation of the anamnesis form and the correlations of oral and systemic clinical parameters. For incoming students, this was the first opportunity to integrate theoretical knowledge with clinical perspectives.It is concluded that the adopted strategy is viable and can benefit educators who seek alternatives that allow the integration of basic and clinical sciences forteaching Biochemistry in Dentistry (AU).

Saliva/immunology , Students, Dental , Biochemistry/education , Disabled Persons , Research Report , Learning , Oral Health/education , Mouth Diseases
NOVA publ. cient ; 17(32): 109-129, jul.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056793


Resumen Una hormona vegetal o fitohormona es un compuesto producido internamente por una planta, que ejerce su función en muy bajas concentraciones y cuyo principal efecto se produce a nivel celular, cambiando los patrones de crecimiento de los vegetales y permitiendo su control. Los reguladores vegetales son compuestos sintetizados químicamente u obtenidos de otros organismos y son, en general, mucho más potentes que los análogos naturales. Es necesario tener en cuenta aspectos críticos como oportunidad de aplicación, dosis, sensibilidad de la variedad, condición de la planta, etc., ya que cada planta requerirá de unas condiciones específicas de crecimiento que pueden afectarse por la concentración de ellos en el medio. Los reguladores vegetales son productos sintéticos que se han convertido en las primeras herramientas capaces de controlar el crecimiento y actividad bioquímica de las plantas por lo que su uso ha aumentado en los últimos años. Esta revisión busca hacer una recopilación bibliográfica de los primeros acontecimientos de la aplicación de los reguladores de crecimiento vegetal. Se presentan las principales características fisiológicas que pueden desarrollar la aplicación de estos sobre el crecimiento vegetal a nivel celular y su repercusión a nivel fenotípico; además, se describen las principales fitohormonas más conocidas en la aplicación biotecnológica. Entre ellas se encuentran auxinas, giberelinas, citoquininas, ácido abscísico, ácido salicílico, poliaminas, jasmonatos y derivados, brasinoesteroides, etileno y estrigolactonas. Se detallan las principales funciones a nivel del metabolismo vegetal y sus posibles interacciones intra e intercelular.

Abstract A vegetal hormone or phytohormone is a compound produced inside by a plant, that work in low concentrations and whose mainly effect occurs at the cellular level, changing the patterns of grow in vegetal organism and allow their control. The plant grows regulators are synthetic chemical compounds that can be obtained by the organism different to the plants and are more stronger that natural analogues, is necessary have in consideration different aspects like application opportunity, concentration, sensibility, plant condition, it's because every plant requires specific conditions of grow that can be affected by phytohormonal concentration in the soil or medium. The vegetal regulators are synthetic products that it has been converted in the mainly tool available to control the growing and biochemical activity of the plant and for that reason their use are increased in the last years. This review makes a bibliography compilation of the first events in the beginning of vegetal plant regulators application and presents the mainly physiologic characteristics that can be developed by application of vegetal hormones and their action in cellular and phenotypic response, furthermore we explain some of the mechanisms of action of the mainly ten phytohormones more knowledge in the biotechnological application: auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, abscisic acid, salicylic acid, polyamines, jasmonates and derived compounds, brassinosteroids, ethylene, and strigolactones. We describe their mainly functions to vegetal metabolism and their possible interactions intracellular and extracellular.

Plant Growth Regulators , Biochemistry , Agricultural Cultivation , Plant Shoots , Plant Development , Growth
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 53(4): 459-468, dic. 2019. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124023


Los profesionales que ejercen la bioquimica clinica son conscientes de la falta de resultados comparables entre laboratorios, independientemente de donde y cuando se realicen. Durante muchos anos el centro de la gestion de la calidad estuvo en la estandarizacion de los procedimientos de medida, la armonizacion va mas alla del metodo y los resultados analiticos e incluye todos los aspectos que hay que tener en cuenta durante el proceso total de la prueba. Los laboratorios de bioquimica clinica han logrado en las ultimas decadas importantes mejoras en la calidad de los procesos analiticos, pero es necesario un esfuerzo mayor dedicado a la vulnerabilidad de los procedimientos extra analiticos para asegurar la comparacion y la concordancia de los resultados obtenidos por diferentes laboratorios clinicos. Las iniciativas destinadas a mejorar la armonizacion de los resultados de laboratorio tienen una dimension etica y de gran importancia en el diagnostico de las dislipemias asociadas al desarrollo de aterosclerosis y la evaluacion del riesgo cardiovascular. Los estudios poblacionales aun muestran dificultades en la identificacion del mejor biomarcador que pueda evidenciar adecuadamente el riesgo cardiovascular en un individuo. La correlacion, discordancia y concordancia muestran que es necesario el diseno de un perfil de pruebas de laboratorio personalizado, con marcadores estandarizados y armonizados, que permita la prediccion del riesgo.

The health professionals who practice clinical biochemistry are aware of the lack of comparable results between laboratories, regardless of where and when they are performed. For many years, the objective of the quality management was the standardization of measurement procedures. The harmonization is beyond the methods and the analytical results, and it includes all the aspects to be taken into account during the whole process of the test. The clinical biochemistry laboratories have achieved important improvements in the quality of the analytical processes in the last decades, but greater effort is necessary for the vulnerability of the extra analytical procedures to ensure the comparison and the agreement of the results obtained by different clinical laboratories. The initiatives aimed to improve the harmonization of laboratory results have an ethical dimension and importance in the diagnosis of dyslipidemia associated with the development of atherosclerosis and the assessment of cardiovascular risk. The population studies still show difficulties in the identification of the best biomarker that can adequately show the cardiovascular risk in an individual. The correlation, discordance and concordance between biomarkers show that it is necessary to design a personalized laboratory test profile, and with standardized and harmonized markers that allow the prediction of risk.

Os profissionais que exercem a bioquímica clínica Clinical estão cientes da falta de resultados comparáveis entre laboratórios, independentemente de onde e quando forem realizados. Por muitos anos, o centro de gestão da qualidade esteve na padronização dos procedimentos de medição, a harmonização vai além do método analítico e dos resultados analíticos e inclui todos os aspectos a considerar durante o processo do teste. Laboratórios bioquímica clínica têm alcançado, nas últimas décadas grandes melhorias na qualidade dos processos analíticos, mas precisa de um esforço maior dedicado à vulnerabilidade dos procedimentos extra-analíticos, para garantir a comparação e concordancia dos resultados obtidos pelos diferentes laboratórios clínicos. Iniciativas para melhorar a harmonização dos resultados laboratoriais têm uma dimensão ética e de grande importȃncia no diagnóstico de dislipidemias associadas ao desenvolvimento de aterosclerose e à avaliação do risco cardiovascular. As pesquisas populacionais mostram ainda dificuldades em identificar o melhor biomarcador que possa demonstrar em forma adecuada o risco cardiovascular em um individuo, a correlação, discordância e concordância mostram que é necessário o desenho de um perfil de testes personalizado, com marcadores padronizados e harmonizada, que permite a previsão de risco.

Humans , Reference Standards , Biomarkers , Total Quality Management , Diagnosis , Laboratories , Lipids , Lipids/analysis , Methods , Biochemistry , Health , Risk , Atherosclerosis , Dyslipidemias , Ethics , Laboratory Test , Forecasting
Int. j. morphol ; 37(3): 830-837, Sept. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012361


The main purpose of this study was to explore the latent relations of the selected morphometric, physiological and biochemical parameters. Thirty-six variables (12 morphometric, 9 physiological and 15 biochemical variables) were measured on 317 male-entities aged 17 - 35 y/o. The obtained data were analysed through the factor analysis of the first and second order. The statistical analyses were performed with the IBM SPSS Statistics software package, version 20. The factorization of the first order enabled extraction of 12 latent factors that explain 74.8 % of the total variance, while the factorization of the second order enabled extraction of five latent components that explain 51.39 % of the total variance. The final results of this study confirm the main hypothesis that there exist the numbers of latent variables that explain the latent structure of selected biometric measures. The nature of the extracted latent factors/ components in both orders of factorization is relatively clear, understandable, and easy to interpret. The higher projections of the manifest biometric variables on the extracted latent factors of the first and second order were accordingly with the nature of the measured variables. The results of this research might be considered as one step more in the holistic approach to the biometric measures.

El objetivo principal de este estudio fue explorar las relaciones latentes de parámetros morfométricos, fisiológicos y bioquímicos seleccionados. Treinta y seis variables (12 morfométricas, 9 fisiológicas y 15 bioquímicas) se midieron en 317 hombres de 17 a 35 años. Los datos obtenidos fueron analizados a través del análisis factorial de primer y segundo orden. Los análisis estadísticos se realizaron con el software IBM SPSS Statistics, versión 20. La factorización del primer orden permitió la extracción de 12 factores latentes que explican el 74,8 % de la varianza total, mientras que la factorización del segundo orden permitió la extracción de cinco componentes latentes que determinaron el 51,39 % de la varianza total. Los resultados finales de este estudio confirmaron la hipótesis principal de que existen números de variables latentes que explican la estructura latente de las medidas biométricas seleccionadas. La naturaleza de los factores/componentes latentes extraídos en ambos órdenes de factorización es relativamente clara, comprensible y fácil de interpretar. Las proyecciones superiores de las variables biométricas manifiestas en los factores latentes extraídos del primer y segundo orden correspondieron a la naturaleza de las variables medidas. Los resultados de esta investigación podrían considerarse como un paso más en el enfoque holístico de las medidas biométricas.

Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Anthropometry , Anatomy , Physiology , Biochemistry , Body Weights and Measures , Cross-Sectional Studies , Analysis of Variance , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Homeostasis
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 26(3): 841-862, jul.-set. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039964


Resumen Partiendo de la hipótesis de que el laboratorio jugó un papel importante en la autonomía disciplinar de la pediatría, este artículo estudia la influencia del viaje científico en la apropiación de nuevas metodologías por parte de los pediatras y puericultores españoles del primer tercio del siglo XX. Para ello, se analizan las pensiones concedidas a tal efecto por la Junta para Ampliación de Estudios e Investigaciones Científicas. Se describe la geografía científica creada por el programa y se profundiza en el papel de los mentores - especialmente de Gustavo Pittaluga (1876-1956) - en este proceso. Además de un estudio prosopográfico del grupo, se presentan tres casos que demuestran la importancia del programa en el encuentro de la pediatría con la bacteriología, la anatomía patológica y la bioquímica.

Abstract Starting from the hypothesis that laboratories played an important role in pediatrics becoming an autonomous discipline, this article studies the influence of scientific travel on the appropriation of new methodologies by Spanish pediatricians and child-care experts in the first third of the twentieth century. To do so, it analyzes the travel awards granted by the Junta para Ampliación de Estudios e Investigaciones Científicas. It describes the scientific geography created by the program and takes an in-depth look at the role of mentors - especially Gustavo Pittaluga (1876-1956) - in this process. In addition to a prosopographical study of the group, it presents three cases that demonstrate the importance of the program in bringing pediatrics into contact with bacteriology, pathological anatomy and biochemistry.

Humans , Pediatrics/history , Travel/history , Pathology , Spain , Awards and Prizes , Bacteriology/history , Biochemistry/history , Mentors/history , Biomedical Research/history , Laboratories/history