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1.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190214, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057290

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate some virulence factors in Candida albicans isolates from patients with onychomycosis and determine the correlation between these factors and the antifungal resistance profile. METHODS: Seventy species of C. albicans were confirmed using polymerase chain reaction amplification of the HWP1 gene. According to the Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines, the susceptibility profile of four antifungal agents was investigated, and the production of aspartyl protease, phospholipase, haemolysin, and biofilm was determined. The correlation between these profiles was also investigated. RESULTS: The isolates indicated different levels of resistance and production of virulence factors. Significant correlations were observed between the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of fluconazole/itraconazole and biofilm production, between phospholipase production and fluconazole/itraconazole MIC, and between fluconazole MIC and hemolytic activity in C. albicans isolates. The results also showed significant correlations between phospholipase activity and biofilm production. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings will contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of C. albicans and characterize the relationship between virulence factors and antifungal resistance, which may suggest new therapeutic strategies considering the possible involvement of the virulence mechanism in the effectiveness of treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Candida albicans/pathogenicity , Onychomycosis/microbiology , Virulence Factors , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Nails/microbiology , Phospholipases/biosynthesis , Candida albicans/drug effects , Candida albicans/ultrastructure , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Biofilms/growth & development , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Aspartic Acid Proteases/biosynthesis , Hemolysis
2.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190336, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057282

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Candida parapsilosis complex species differ from each other with regard to their prevalence and virulence. METHODS: The hydrolytic enzyme activity, biofilm production, and adhesion to epithelial cells were analyzed in 87 C. parapsilosis complex strains. RESULTS: Among the studied isolates, 97.7%, 63.2%, and 82.8% exhibited very strong proteinase, esterase, and hemolysin activity, respectively. All the C. parapsilosis complex isolates produced biofilms and presented an average adherence of 96.0 yeasts/100 epithelial cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that Candida parapsilosis complex isolates showed different levels of enzyme activity, biofilm production, and adhesion to epithelial cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Virulence Factors/analysis , Candida parapsilosis/pathogenicity , Cell Adhesion , Mycological Typing Techniques , Biofilms/growth & development , Candida parapsilosis/isolation & purification , Candida parapsilosis/classification , Candida parapsilosis/enzymology , Hydrolases/biosynthesis
3.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e050, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132693

ABSTRACT

Abstract Candida infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. The increase in its incidence has been associated with resistance to antimicrobial therapy and biofilm formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of tea tree oil (TTO) and its main component - terpinen-4-ol - against resistant Candida albicans strains (genotypes A and B) identified by molecular typing and against C. albicans ATCC 90028 and SC 5314 reference strains in planktonic and biofilm cultures. The minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum fungicidal concentration, and rate of biofilm development were used to evaluate antifungal activity. Results were obtained from analysis of the biofilm using the cell proliferation assay 2,3-Bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Terpinen-4-ol and TTO inhibited C. albicans growth. CLSM confirmed that 17.92 mg/mL of TTO and 8.86 mg/mL of terpinen-4-ol applied for 60 s (rinse simulation) interfered with biofilm formation. Hence, this in vitro study revealed that natural substances such as TTO and terpinen-4-ol present promising results for the treatment of oral candidiasis.


Subject(s)
Terpenes/pharmacology , Candida albicans/drug effects , Biofilms/drug effects , Tea Tree Oil/pharmacology , Reference Values , Terpenes/chemistry , Acrylic Resins , Candida albicans/growth & development , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Microscopy, Confocal , Biofilms/growth & development , Tea Tree Oil/chemistry , Denture Bases/microbiology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology
4.
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190501, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1090766

ABSTRACT

Abstract The acquired pellicle formation is the first step in dental biofilm formation. It distinguishes dental biofilms from other biofilm types. Objective To explore the influence of salivary pellicle formation before biofilm formation on enamel demineralization. Methodology Saliva collection was approved by Indiana University IRB. Three donors provided wax-stimulated saliva as the microcosm bacterial inoculum source. Acquired pellicle was formed on bovine enamel samples. Two groups (0.5% and 1% sucrose-supplemented growth media) with three subgroups (surface conditioning using filtered/pasteurized saliva; filtered saliva; and deionized water (DIW)) were included (n=9/subgroup). Biofilm was then allowed to grow for 48 h using Brain Heart Infusion media supplemented with 5 g/l yeast extract, 1 mM CaCl2.2H2O, 5% vitamin K and hemin (v/v), and sucrose. Enamel samples were analyzed for Vickers surface microhardness change (VHNchange), and transverse microradiography measuring lesion depth (L) and mineral loss (∆Z). Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA. Results The two-way interaction of sucrose concentration × surface conditioning was not significant for VHNchange (p=0.872), ∆Z (p=0.662) or L (p=0.436). Surface conditioning affected VHNchange (p=0.0079), while sucrose concentration impacted ∆Z (p<0.0001) and L (p<0.0001). Surface conditioning with filtered/pasteurized saliva resulted in the lowest VHNchange values for both sucrose concentrations. The differences between filtered/pasteurized subgroups and the two other surface conditionings were significant (filtered saliva p=0.006; DIW p=0.0075). Growing the biofilm in 1% sucrose resulted in lesions with higher ∆Z and L values when compared with 0.5% sucrose. The differences in ∆Z and L between sucrose concentration subgroups was significant, regardless of surface conditioning (both p<0.0001). Conclusion Within the study limitations, surface conditioning using human saliva does not influence biofilm-mediated enamel caries lesion formation as measured by transverse microradiography, while differences were observed using surface microhardness, indicating a complex interaction between pellicle proteins and biofilm-mediated demineralization of the enamel surface.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Saliva/chemistry , Sucrose/chemistry , Tooth Demineralization/microbiology , Biofilms/growth & development , Dental Enamel/microbiology , Reference Values , Saliva/microbiology , Sucrose/analysis , Surface Properties , Microradiography/methods , Dental Enamel/chemistry , Dental Pellicle/microbiology , Pasteurization , Hardness
5.
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190578, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1101256

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective This study sought to analyze the gene expression of Candida albicans in sound root surface and root caries lesions, exploring its role in root caries pathogenesis. Methodology The differential gene expression of C. albicans and the specific genes related to cariogenic traits were studied in association with samples of biofilm collected from exposed sound root surface (SRS, n=10) and from biofilm and carious dentin of active root carious lesions (RC, n=9). The total microbial RNA was extracted, and the cDNA libraries were prepared and sequenced on the Illumina Hi-Seq2500. Unique reads were mapped to 163 oral microbial reference genomes including two chromosomes of C. albicans SC5314 (14,217 genes). The putative presence of C. albicans was estimated (sum of reads/total number of genes≥1) in each sample. Count data were normalized (using the DESeq method package) to analyze differential gene expression (using the DESeq2R package) applying the Benjamini-Hochberg correction (FDR<0.05). Results Two genes (CaO19.610, FDR=0.009; CaO19.2506, FDR=0.018) were up-regulated on SRS, and their functions are related to biofilm formation. Seven genes ( UTP20 , FDR=0.018; ITR1 , FDR=0.036; DHN6 , FDR=0.046; CaO19.7197 , FDR=0.046; CaO19.7838 , FDR=0.046; STT4 , FDR=0.046; GUT1 , FDR=0.046) were up-regulated on RC and their functions are related to metabolic activity, sugar transport, stress tolerance, invasion and pH regulation. The use of alternative carbon sources, including lactate, and the ability to form hypha may be a unique trait of C. albicans influencing biofilm virulence. Conclusions C. albicans is metabolically active in SRS and RC biofilm, with different roles in health and disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tooth Root/microbiology , Candida albicans/genetics , DNA, Fungal/genetics , Root Caries/microbiology , Biofilms/growth & development , Candida albicans/isolation & purification , Candida albicans/growth & development , Gene Expression , Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal , Up-Regulation , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Transcriptome , Morphogenesis
6.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 87: e1382018, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1118084

ABSTRACT

This review aimed to describe the biofilm formation ability of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, addressing its impact to the food industry. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus have the ability to produce enterotoxins in food, making it an important line of study, as it constitutes a risk to public health. The biofilm formation by these microorganisms requires physicochemical processes, such as hydrophobic forces, which are essential for the first phase of fixing the biofilm on the surface. In industrial facilities, stainless steel equipment is the most associated with the formation of biofilms, due to the presence grooves and cracks. Many species of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus produce biofilm, but the most studied is S. epidermidis, as it is the most frequently isolated from food. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus form biofilm on different surfaces in the food industry, and can become a source of permanent contamination, that can be present in the final product, intended for human consumption. Among other alternatives to combat the formation of biofilm in industrial food facilities, there is the implementation of Good Manufacturing Practices, which is effective in preventing bacterial adhesion, and therefore, the formation of biofilm. However, further studies are needed in order to quantify the occurrence of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus biofilms in the food industry.(AU)


Esta revisão bibliográfica teve como objetivo descrever a capacidade de formação de biofilme por Staphylococcus coagulase-negativo, relacionando seu impacto na indústria alimentícia. Os Staphylococcus coagulase-negativos possuem a capacidade de produzir enterotoxina nos alimentos, tornando-se uma importante linha de estudo, pois constitui um risco para a saúde pública. A formação do biofilme por esses micro-organismos requer processos físico-químicos, como forças hidrofóbicas, essenciais para a primeira fase de fixação do biofilme na superfície. Nas indústrias, equipamentos de aço inoxidável são os mais associados à formação de biofilmes, em decorrência de possuírem ranhuras e fendas. Muitas espécies de Staphylococcus coagulase-negativo produzem biofilme, porém, o mais estudado é o S. epidermidis, por ser o mais frequentemente isolado de alimentos. Os Staphylococcus coagulase-negativos formam biofilme em diferentes superfícies de indústrias alimentícias, podendo se tornar uma fonte de contaminação permanente, contaminando o produto final destinado ao consumo humano. Dentre outras alternativas para combater a formação do biofilme nas plantas alimentícias, a implantação das Boas Práticas de Fabricação é eficaz para prevenir a adesão bacteriana, evitando a formação do biofilme. No entanto, são necessários estudos para quantificar a ocorrência de biofilmes de Staphylococcus coagulase-negativos em indústrias alimentícias.(AU)


Subject(s)
Staphylococcus/physiology , Coagulase , Biofilms/growth & development , Food Contamination , Food Industry
7.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(4): 411-424, jul. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008180

ABSTRACT

Thymol (2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol) is an aromatic monoterpene found in essential oils extracted from plants belonging to the Lamiaceae family, such as Thymus, Ocimum, Origanum, Satureja, Thymbra and Monarda genera. Growth and biofilm formation by Listeria monocytogenes CLIP 74902 were evaluate using three carbon sources in the presence of thymol. Specific growth rate (h-1) values at 37o with glucose, trehalose and cellobiose with the addition of thymol (µg/mL) 0 (control) and 750, were respectively: 0.22, 0.07; 0.14, 0.04; 0.11, 0.04. Lag periods obtained under the same conditions were (h): 8.19, 13.2; 22.5, 27.5; 23.1, 28.1. A marked antibiofilm activity was observed against the exposure with 750 µg/mL of thymol, showing a high percentage of inhibition: glucose (99 %), trehalose (97 %) and cellobiose (98%), compared to the control. The results suggest that thymol could be used to inhibit the growth and production of biofilms by L. monocytogenes in the food industry.


Timol (2-isopropil-5-metilfenol) es un monoterpeno aromático presente en los aceites esenciales extraídos de plantas pertenecientes a la familia Lamiaceae, como los géneros Thymus, Ocimum, Origanum, Satureja, Thymbra y Monarda. El crecimiento y formación de biopelícula por Listeria monocytogenes CLIP 74902 fueron evaluados utilizando tres fuentes de carbono en presencia de timol. La velocidad específica de crecimiento (h-1) a 37o con glucosa, trehalosa y celobiosa con la adición de timol (µg/mL) 0 (control) y 750, fueron respectivamente: 0.22, 0.07; 0.14, 0.04, 0.11, 0,04. Los períodos lag obtenidos en las mismas condiciones fueron (h): 8.19, 13.2; 22.5, 27.5; 23.1, 28.1. Una marcada actividad antibiofilm fue obtenida con 750 µg/mL de timol, mostrando un alto porcentaje de inhibición con glucosa (99%), trehalosa (97%) y celobiosa (98%), respecto al control. Los resultados sugieren que timol podría ser usado para inhibir el crecimiento y producción de biopelículas por L. monocytogenes en la industria alimentaria.


Subject(s)
Thymol/pharmacology , Biofilms/drug effects , Listeria monocytogenes/drug effects , Terpenes/pharmacology , Kinetics , Biofilms/growth & development , Environment , Fermentation , Food Microbiology , Listeria monocytogenes/growth & development
8.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 13(1): 93-96, mar. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990071

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of commercial sweeteners on root dentin demineralization using a microcosm biofilm model. Bovine dentin specimens with pre-determined surface hardness were randomized into six groups according to the studied sweeteners: sucralose, stevia, saccharin, aspartame. Sucrose was used as a positive control and an untreated group as a negative control. The specimens were submitted to biofilm development from one saliva donor and the cariogenic challenge occurred on subsequent five days, twice a day. At the end, the percentage of surface hardness loss (%SHL) and biomass was determined and submitted to ANOVA followed by Tukey's test. Sucrose presented the highest rate of demineralization, however, all sweeteners tested lead to a statistically higher root demineralization compared to the negative control (p <0.05). Sucrose caused greater demineralization in root dentin, however, the sweeteners were also able to induce it under this biofilm model.


RESUMEN: El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el efecto de los edulcorantes comerciales en la desmineralización de la dentina radicular utilizando un modelo de biofilm microcosmo. Se asignaron al azar muestras de dentina bovina con una dureza de la superficie predeterminada de acuerdo con los edulcorantes estudiados: sucralosa, estevia, sacarina, aspartame. La sacarosa se utilizó como control positivo y un grupo no tratado como control negativo. Las muestras se enviaron al desarrollo de biopelículas de un donante de saliva y el desafío cariogénico se produjo en los siguientes cinco días, dos veces al día. Al final, se determinó el porcentaje de pérdida de dureza de la superficie (% PDS) y biomasa y se aplicó un estudio estadístico de ANOVA seguido de la prueba de Tukey. La sacarosa presentó la mayor tasa de desmineralización; sin embargo, todos los endulzantes probados condujeron a una desmineralización de la raíz estadísticamente mayor en comparación con el control negativo (p<0,05). La sacarosa causó una mayor desmineralización en la dentina de raíz, sin embargo, los edulcorantes también fueron capaces de inducirla bajo este modelo de biofilm.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Sweetening Agents/pharmacology , Tooth Root/drug effects , Cariogenic Agents/pharmacology , Tooth Demineralization/chemically induced , Dentin/drug effects , Tooth Root/microbiology , Analysis of Variance , Tooth Demineralization/microbiology , Biofilms/growth & development , Dietary Sucrose/pharmacology , Dentin/microbiology
9.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180699, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1012504

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective This study investigated the role of extracellular deoxyribonucleic acid (eDNA) on Enterococcus faecalis ( E. faecalis ) biofilm and the susceptibility of E. faecalis to sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Methodology E. faecalis biofilm was formed in bovine tooth specimens and the biofilm was cultured with or without deoxyribonuclease (DNase), an inhibitor of eDNA. Then, the role of eDNA in E. faecalis growth and biofilm formation was investigated using colony forming unit (CFUs) counting, eDNA level assay, crystal violet staining, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The susceptibility of E. faecalis biofilm to low (0.5%) or high (5%) NaOCl concentrations was also analyzed by CFU counting. Results CFUs and biofilm formation decreased significantly with DNase treatment (p<0.05). The microstructure of DNase-treated biofilms exhibited less structured features when compared to the control. The volume of exopolysaccharides in the DNase-treated biofilm was significantly lower than that of control (p<0.05). Moreover, the CFUs, eDNA level, biofilm formation, and exopolysaccharides volume were lower when the biofilm was treated with DNase de novo when compared to when DNase was applied to matured biofilm (p<0.05). E. faecalis in the biofilm was more susceptible to NaOCl when it was cultured with DNase (p<0.05). Furthermore, 0.5% NaOCl combined with DNase treatment was as efficient as 5% NaOCl alone regarding susceptibility (p>0.05). Conclusions Inhibition of eDNA leads to decrease of E. faecalis biofilm formation and increase of susceptibility of E. faecalis to NaOCl even at low concentrations. Therefore, our results suggest that inhibition of eDNA would be beneficial in facilitating the efficacy of NaOCl and reducing its concentration.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Sodium Hypochlorite/pharmacology , DNA, Bacterial/pharmacology , Enterococcus faecalis/growth & development , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Biofilms/growth & development , Biofilms/drug effects , Deoxyribonucleases/pharmacology , Polysaccharides, Bacterial/isolation & purification , Time Factors , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Colony Count, Microbial , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Reproducibility of Results , Microscopy, Confocal , Dental Pulp Cavity/microbiology
10.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180163, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-975895

ABSTRACT

Abstract Microcosm biofilm has been applied to induce carious lesions in dentin. However, no study has been done to compare the impact of the type of model for providing nutrients to microcosm biofilm formation on dentin. Objective This study compared the performance of two kinds of models (static and semi-dynamic) on the biofilm formation and the development of dentin carious lesions. Material and Methods In both models, biofilm was produced using inoculum from pooled human saliva mixed with McBain saliva for the first 8 h (5% CO2 and 37°C). Afterwards, for the static model, the samples were placed in 24-wells microplate containing McBain saliva with 0.2% sucrose, which was replaced at 24 h. In the semi-dynamic model, the samples were submitted to artificial mouth system with continuous flow of McBain saliva with 0.2% sucrose (0.15 ml/min, 37°C) for 10 h a day (for the other 14 h, no flow was applied, similarly to the static model). After 5 days, biofilm viability was measured by fluorescence and dentin demineralization by transverse microradiography. Results Biofilm viability was significantly lower for the static compared with semi-dynamic model, while dentin demineralization was significantly higher for the first one (p<0.05). The static model was able to produce a higher number of typical subsurface lesions compared with the semi-dynamic model (p<0.05). Conclusions The type of model (static and semi-dynamic) applied in the microcosm biofilm may have influence on it's viability and the severity/profile of dentin carious lesions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Cattle , Biofilms/growth & development , Dental Caries/microbiology , Dentin/microbiology , Models, Biological , Saliva/microbiology , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Microradiography , Tooth Demineralization/microbiology , Microbial Viability
11.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180182, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041508

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Administration of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) via catheters increases the risk for candidemia from Candida parapsilosis. METHODS: C. parapsilosis sensu stricto blood isolates were evaluated for ability total biomass biofilm formation and morphogenesis in presence of glucose at TPN equivalent concentrations. RESULTS: Biofilms were increased at high glucose concentrations (25-30%) compared to the control medium. Significant increase in filamentous forms was observed in cultures with 30% glucose. CONCLUSIONS: Biofilm formation by C. parapsilosis sensu stricto in hyperglycidic medium may contribute to its pathogenic potential for fungemia related to TPN catheters.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biofilms/growth & development , Candida parapsilosis/physiology , Glucose/pharmacology , Colony Count, Microbial , Parenteral Nutrition, Home Total , Biofilms/drug effects , Culture Media/chemistry
12.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e019, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989473

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride (PHMGH) in the physico-chemical properties and antibacterial activity of an experimental resin sealant. An experimental resin sealant was formulated with 60 wt.% of bisphenol A glycol dimethacrylate and 40 wt.% of triethylene glycol dimethacrylate with a photoinitiator/co-initiator system. PHMGH was added at 0.5 (G0.5%), 1 (G1%), and 2 (G2%) wt.% and one group remained without PHMGH, used as control (GCTRL). The resin sealants were analyzed for degree of conversion (DC), Knoop hardness (KHN), and softening in solvent (ΔKHN), ultimate tensile strength (UTS), contact angle (θ) with water or α-bromonaphthalene, surface free energy (SFE), and antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans for biofilm formation and planktonic bacteria. There was no significant difference for DC (p > 0.05). The initial Knoop hardness ranged from 17.30 (±0.50) to 19.50 (± 0.45), with lower value for GCTRL (p < 0.05). All groups presented lower KHN after immersion in solvent (p < 0.05). The ΔKHN ranged from 47.22 (± 4.30) to 57.22 (± 5.42)%, without significant difference (p > 0.05). The UTS ranged from 54.72 (± 11.05) MPa to 60.46 (± 6.50) MPa, with lower value for G2% (p < 0.05). PHMGH groups presented no significant difference compared to GCTRL in θ (p > 0.05). G2% showed no difference in SFE compared to GCTRL (p > 0.05). The groups with PHMGH presented antibacterial activity against biofilm and planktonic bacteria, with higher antibacterial activity for higher PHMGH incorporation (p < 0.05). PHMGH provided antibacterial activity for all resin sealant groups and the addition up to 1 wt.% showed reliable physico-chemical properties, maintaining the caries-protective effect of the resin sealant over time.


Subject(s)
Humans , Streptococcus mutans/drug effects , Biofilms/drug effects , Dental Materials/chemistry , Guanidines/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Materials Testing , Biofilms/growth & development , Dental Materials/pharmacology , Guanidines/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry
13.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33(supl.1): e064, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039323

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim was of this study was to determine the current weight of evidence for the existence of specific differences between the microbiota of healthy teeth and healthy implants, or of teeth with periodontitis and implants with peri-implantitis. A systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA statement. The MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases were searched up to February 2018 for studies comparing microbiological data of biofilm samples collected from healthy teeth and implants or from teeth with periodontitis and implants with peri-implantitis. The weight of evidence was defined in three categories (strong, moderate and mild/some), according to the difference in number of studies showing statistically significantly higher counts and/or proportions and/or abundance and/or prevalence of microorganisms in health or in disease. Of the 132 articles identified, 8 were included. A wide range of microorganisms were present in different conditions but no microorganisms showed strong, moderate or mild/some evidence for a specific association with either teeth or implants. The results of this systematic review indicated that there is insufficient evidence in the literature to support specific differences between microorganisms colonizing teeth and implants, either in health or in disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Periodontitis/microbiology , Dental Implants/microbiology , Peri-Implantitis/microbiology , Gingiva/microbiology , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Case-Control Studies , Biofilms/growth & development , Dental Plaque/microbiology , Microbiota
14.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33(supl.1): e065, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039317

ABSTRACT

Abstract Additive manufacturing (AM) is an emerging process for biomaterials and medical devices. Direct Laser Metal Sintering (DLMS) is an AM technique used to fabricate Ti-6Al-4V implant materials with enhanced surface-related properties compared with wrought samples; thus, this technique could influence microbial adsorption and colonization. Therefore, this in vitro study was conducted to evaluate the impact of different implant production processes on microbial adhesion of periodontal pathogens. Titanium discs produced using two different processes—conventional and AM—were divided into three groups: conventional titanium discs with machined surface (G1), AM titanium discs with chemical treatment (G2) and AM titanium discs without chemical treatment (G3). Subgingival biofilm composed of 32 species was formed on the titanium discs, and positioned vertically in 96-well plates, for 7 days. The proportions of microbial complexes and the microbial profiles were analyzed using a DNA-DNA hybridization technique, and data were evaluated using Kruskal-Wallis and Dunnett tests (p < 0.05). Lower proportions of the red complex species were observed in the biofilm formed in G2 compared with that in G1 (p < 0.05). Moreover, the proportions of the microbial complexes were similar between G2 and G3 (p > 0.05). Compared with G1, G2 showed reduced levels of Porphyromonas gingvalis , Actinomyces gerencseriae, and Streptococcus intermedius , and increased levels of Parvimonas micra , Actinomyces odontolyticus, and Eikenella corrodens (p < 0.05). The microbial profile of G3 did not differ from G1 and G2 (p > 0.05). The results of this in vitro study showed that titanium discs produced via AM could alter the microbial profile of the biofilm formed around them. Further clinical studies should be conducted to confirm these findings.


Subject(s)
Titanium/pharmacology , Titanium/chemistry , Biofilms/growth & development , Reference Values , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Bacteria/drug effects , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , DNA Probes , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Microscopy, Atomic Force , Biofilms/drug effects , Photoelectron Spectroscopy
15.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180593, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1019973

ABSTRACT

Abstract There is growing evidence that C. albicans is associated with dental caries, but its role on caries development needs to be better clarified. Objective: To evaluate at the hard tissue level the effect of C. albicans on the cariogenic potential of S. mutans biofilms focusing on the mineral profile of induced carious lesions. This study also aimed to evaluate the effect of C. albicans on the acidogenic potential of S. mutans biofilms. Methodology: Dual-species (CA+SM) and single-species biofilms (CA or SM) were grown on the surface of enamel slabs in the presence of glucose/sucrose supplemented culture medium for 24, 48 and 72 hours. Demineralization was evaluated through percentage of surface microhardness change (%SMC) and transversal microradiography analysis (ILM and LD) and pH of the spent medium was recorded daily. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni correction. Results: %SMC was statistically different among the biofilms at each time point being the highest for SM biofilms and the lowest for CA biofilms which also differed from CA+SM biofilms [SM (24 h: 47.0±7.3; 48 h: 66.3±8.3; 72 h: 75.4±3.9); CA (24 h: 7.3±3.3; 48 h: 7.1±6.4; 72 h: 6.6±3.6); CA+SM (24 h: 35.9±7.39.1; 48 h: 47.2±9.5; 72 h: 47.6±9.5)]. pH of spent medium was statistically lower for SM biofilms compared to the other biofilms at each time point and remained constant over time while pH values increased from 24 to 72 h for both CA and CA+SM biofilms [SM (24 h: 4.4±0.1; 48 h: 4.4±0.1; 72 h: 4.5±0.1); CA (24 h: 6.9±0.3; 48 h: 7.2±0.2; 72 h: 7.5±0.2); CA+MS (24 h: 4.7±0.2; 48 h: 5.1±0.1; 72 h: 6.1±0.6)]. IML and LD for SM biofilms increased over time while no difference was observed from 24 to 72 h for the other biofilms. Conclusions: The present data suggest that C. albicans has low enamel demineralization potential and the presence of C. albicans can reduce both the cariogenic and acidogenic potentials of S. mutans biofilms.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Streptococcus mutans/metabolism , Candida albicans/physiology , Tooth Demineralization/microbiology , Biofilms/growth & development , Dental Enamel/microbiology , Reference Values , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Acids/metabolism , Microradiography/methods , Colony Count, Microbial , Dental Enamel/chemistry , Hardness Tests , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
16.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180001, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041589

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Studies have demonstrated that pathogens react to the harsh conditions in human tissues by inducing mechanisms that promote survival. METHODS: Persistence and biofilm-forming ability were evaluated during stress conditions that mimic those in the host. RESULTS: Carbon-source availability had a positive effect on Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62A adhesion during hypoxia, accompanied by a decrease in pH. In contrast, iron limitation led to decreased surface-adherent biomass, accompanied by an increase medium acidification and lactate levels. Interestingly, iron starvation and hypoxia induced persister cells in planktonic culture. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the role of host stress in the virulence of S. epidermidis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Staphylococcus epidermidis/physiology , Virulence/physiology , Biofilms/growth & development , Culture Media/pharmacology , Host Microbial Interactions/physiology , Staphylococcus epidermidis/drug effects , Staphylococcus epidermidis/pathogenicity , Stress, Physiological , Virulence/drug effects , Biological Assay , Host Microbial Interactions/drug effects
17.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(6): 761-767, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977107

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are a frequent cause of bacteremia, especially in neonates. The major virulence determinant in CoNS is the ability to produce biofilms, which is conferred by the icaADBC genes. This study aimed to assess different methods for the detection of biofilm formation in 176 CoNS isolates from blood cultures of newborns. METHODS: The presence of the icaACD genes was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and biofilm formation was assessed on congo red agar (CRA), by the tube method (TM), and on tissue culture plates (TCP). RESULTS: Of the 176 CoNS isolates, 30.1% expressed icaACD and 11.4% expressed icaAD. The CRA assay and TM showed that 42% and 38.6% of the isolates were biofilm producing, respectively. On TCP, 40.9% of the isolates produced biofilms; 21% were weakly adherent and 19.9% were strongly adherent. When compared to the gold standard technique (PCR), the CRAassay showed 79% sensitivity and 84% specificity (kappa = 0.64), TM showed 78% sensitivity and 89% specificity (kappa = 0.68), and TCP showed 99% sensitivity and 100% specificity (kappa = 0.99). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, ~42% of CoNS isolates produced biofilms, and the presence of icaACD was associated with a greater capacity to form biofilms. Compared to the other phenotypic methodologies, TCP is an ideal procedure for routine laboratory use.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcus/isolation & purification , Bacteremia/microbiology , Biofilms/growth & development , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcus/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity , Congo Red , Culture Techniques , Genotype
18.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 55(4): 390-396, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983850

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is one of the main acute and chronic diarrhea causes both in children and adults, mainly in developing countries. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study is to characterize EAEC strains isolated from faecal samples and to identify genes potentially contributing to virulence, biofilm production and antimicrobial resistance in children admitted to a pediatric hospital in Porto Velho, Rondônia State. METHODS: The total of 1,625 E. coli specimens were isolated from 591 children in the age group 6 years or younger who were hospitalized in Cosme and Damião Children Hospital in Porto Velho, between February 2010 and February 2012, with acute gastroenteritis. Colonies suggestive of E. coli were subjected to polymerase chain reaction testing in order to identify the virulence factors. The in vitro adhesion assays using HEp-2 adherence were tests. Biofilm detection through spectrophotometry and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were conducted in the disk diffusion method. RESULTS: The mentioned study examined 591 stool samples from children with diarrhea. Diarrheogenic E. coli was found in 27.4% (162/591) of the children. EAEC was the diarreagenic E. coli most frequently associated with diarrhea 52.4% (85/162), which was followed by enteropathogenic E. coli 43.8% (71/162), enterotoxigenic E. coli 2.4% (4/162), and enterohemorrhagic E. coli 1.2% (2/162). The aggR gene was detected in 63.5% (54/85) of EAEC isolates; moreover, statistically significant correlation was observed among typical EAEC (aggR) and aatA (P<0.0001), irp2 (P=0.0357) and shf (P=0.0328). It was recorded that 69% (59/85) of the 85 analyzed EAEC strains were biofilm producers; 73% (43/59) of the biofilm producers carried the aggR gene versus 42.3% (11/26) of non-producers (P=0.0135). In addition, there was association between the aatA gene and biofilm production; 61% (36/59) of the samples presented producer strains, versus 19.2% (5/26) of non-producers (P<0.0004). Antibiotic sensitivity test evidenced that most EAEC were ampicillin 70.6% (60/85), sulfamethoxazole 60% (51/85), tetracycline 44.7% (38/85) and cefotaxime 22.4% (19/85) resistant. CONCLUSION: As far as it is known, the present study is pioneer in Northern Brazil to investigate EAEC virulence factors and to show the antimicrobial susceptibility of EAEC strains isolated from children with diarrhea.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A Escherichia coli enteroagregativa (EAEC) é um dos principais agentes causadores de diarreia aguda e crônica em crianças e adultos, principalmente em países em desenvolvimento. OBJETIVO: Caracterizar cepas de EAEC isoladas de amostras fecais e identificar genes que potencialmente contribuem para a virulência, produção de biofilme e resistência antimicrobiana em crianças internadas em um hospital pediátrico em Porto Velho, Rondônia. MÉTODOS: Um total de 1.625 cepas de E. coli foram isolados de 591 crianças com gastroenterite aguda na faixa etária de 6 anos que foram internadas no Hospital Infantil Cosme e Damião na cidade de Porto Velho, entre fevereiro de 2010 e fevereiro de 2012. Colônias sugestivas de E. coli foram submetidas a reação em cadeia da polimerase para identificação de fatores de virulência. O ensaio de adesão in vitro foi desenvolvido com célula HEp-2. A detecção de biofilme foi realizada através do teste de espectrofotometria e os testes de susceptibilidade aos antimicrobiana foram realizados através do método de difusão em disco. RESULTADOS: A E. coli diarreiogênica foi encontrada em 27,4% (162/591) das crianças e a EAEC foi a E. coli diarreiogênica mais frequentemente associada à diarreia com 52,4% (85/162), seguida pela E. coli enteropatogênica 43,8% (71/162), E. coli enterotoxigênica 2,4% (4/162) e E. coli enterohemorrágica 1,2% (2/162). O gene aggR foi detectado em 63,5% (54/85) dos isolados de EAEC com correlação estatisticamente significante entre esse gene com os genes aatA (P<0,0001), irp2 (P=0,0357) e shf (P=0,0328). Neste estudo 69% (59/85) das cepas de EAEC eram produtoras de biofilme, destas 73% (43/59) possuíam o gene aggR, ao passo que entre as não produtoras 42,3% (11/26) possuíam o gene (P=0,0135). Essa associação também foi observada com o gene aatA, presente em 61% (36/59) das cepas produtoras e em 19,2% (5/26) das não produtoras (P<0,0004). O teste de sensibilidade aos antibimicrobianos evidenciou que a maioria das EAEC eram resistentes a ampicilina 70,6% (60/85), ao sulfametoxazol 60% (51/85), a tetraciclina 44,7% (38/85) e a cefotaxima 22,4% (19/85). CONCLUSÃO: Este é o primeiro estudo no Norte do Brasil sobre a investigação dos fatores de virulência de EAEC mostrando a susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de cepas de EAEC isoladas de crianças com diarreia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Biofilms/growth & development , Diarrhea/microbiology , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Escherichia coli/physiology , Escherichia coli Infections/microbiology , Virulence/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology , Feces/microbiology , Genes, Bacterial/genetics
19.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(5): 603-609, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-957466

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The behavior of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from central venous catheter-related infection was evaluated to determine its biofilm potential, antimicrobial resistance, and adhesion genes. METHODS: A total of 1,156 central venous catheters (CVC) were evaluated to screen for pathogens. Antimicrobial sensitivity, biofilm formation potential, and molecular analysis of MRSA were examined following standard guidelines. RESULTS: Of the 1,156 samples, 882 (76%) were colonized by bacteria or candida. Among the infected patients, 69% were male and 36% were female with median age of 32 years. Staphylococcus aureus infected 39% (344/882) of CVCs in patients. Of the 59% (208/344) of patients with MRSA, 57% had community acquired MRSA and 43% had hospital acquired MRSA. Linezolid and vancomycin killed 100% of MRSA; resistance levels to fusidic acid, doxycycline, clindamycin, azithromycin, amikacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, gentamycin, tobramycin, and ofloxacin were 21%, 42%, 66%, 68%, 72%, 85%, 95%, 97%, and 98% respectively. Strong biofilm was produced by 23% of samples, moderate by 27%, and weak by 50% of MRSA. The presence of adhesion genes, sdrC and sdrD (90%), eno (87%), fnbA (80%), clfA and sdrE (67%), fnbB, sdrD (61%), and cna (51%), in most MRSA samples suggested that the adhesion genes are associated with biofilm synthesis. CONCLUSIONS: The superbug MRSA is a major cause of CVC-related infection. Antibiotic resistance to major classes of antibiotics and biofilm formation potential enhanced superbug MRSA virulence, leading to complicated infection. MRSA causes infection in hospitals, communities, and livestock.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Community-Acquired Infections/microbiology , Biofilms/growth & development , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/physiology , Catheter-Related Infections/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Adhesion/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Biofilms/drug effects , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Genes, Bacterial/genetics , Middle Aged
20.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(5): 644-650, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-957457

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The increase in the incidence of fungal infections, especially those caused by Candida albicans and other Candida species, necessitates the understanding and treatment of Candida-associated infections. In this study, we aimed to investigate the identification, distribution, and biofilm formation ability of different clinical Candida isolates and evaluate the distribution and antifungal susceptibilities of high biofilm-forming (HBF) Candida isolates. METHODS: For identification, carbohydrate fermentation, carbohydrate assimilation, and ChromAgar tests were used. Biofilm formation was assessed using crystal violet binding assay, while the susceptibility to antifungal agents was determined using ATBTM Fungus 3 test kits. RESULTS: The majority of Candida species were C. parapsilosis (31.3%; 31/99) and C. tropicalis (30.3%; 30/99). C. tropicalis was found to be the most frequently isolated species among all HBF Candida species. HBF Candida isolates were more frequently isolated from vaginal swab (35.7%; 10/28), tracheal aspirate (17.9%; 5/28), and urine (17.9%; 5/28). The majority of tested isolates were resistant to itraconazole and voriconazole, whereas no isolate was deemed resistant to 5-flucytosine. CONCLUSIONS: C. tropicalis displays the highest biofilm formation ability among all the Candida species evaluated, and HBF Candida isolates were more frequently seen in vaginal swab, tracheal aspirate, and urine samples. Our findings revealed that 5-flucytosine is the most efficient antifungal agent against HBF Candida isolates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Candida/drug effects , Biofilms/drug effects , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Candida/classification , Candida/physiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Biofilms/growth & development
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