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Infectio ; 25(3): 143-144, jul.-set. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1250083


Frente al escepticismo de encontrar una vacuna para COVID19, los resultados de los ensayos clínicos de Fase III dieron la sentencia: se lograron vacunas con alto grado de eficacia que llega al 70% a 95%. Al momento de escribir esta editorial, dos de ellas ya tienen autorización para uso de emergencia por el FDA. La OMS realiza un seguimiento cotidiano a los avances de candidatos vacunales, el reporte para el 22 de Diciembre encontraba 57 en fases de evaluación clínica (entre estas 11 en fase III) y 166 en fase preclínica.

In the face of skepticism about finding a vaccine for COVID19 , the results of the Phase III clinical trials were conclusive: vaccines with a high degree of efficacy of 70% to 95% were achieved. At the time of writing this editorial, two of them have already been authorized for emergency use by the FDA. The WHO monitors the progress of vaccine candidates on a daily basis; the report as of December 22nd found 57 in clinical evaluation phases (including 11 in Phase III) and 166 in preclinical phase.

Humans , Vaccines , COVID-19 , Science , Biological Assay , Efficacy
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06821, 2021. tab
Article in English | ID: biblio-1250485


Fipronil was registered in Uruguay in 1997, and, since then, it has been used for the control of Haematobia irritans irritans and Rhipicephalus microplus. The susceptibility of H. irritants to this drug has not been evaluated. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to evaluate the resistance of H. irritans to fipronil. Additionally, a survey was carried out with the farmers to evaluate the use of fipronil for H. irritans control in the ranches where the flies came from. For the bioassays, 31 field populations of H. irritans were exposed to 10 concentrations of fipronil (3.2-16.0μg.cm2), and their LC50 values were calculated using probit analysis. A bioassay was performed with horn flies from the susceptible colony maintained at the USDA-ARS Knipling-Bushland U.S. Livestock Insects Research Laboratory for comparison and calculation of resistance ratios (RRs). All 31 field populations surveyed in the study were susceptible to fipronil, with resistance ratios ranging from <0.5 to 2.2. Four populations with RRs >1 did not differ significantly from the susceptible strain. A single population showed an RR >2.2. Overall, the survey shows that fipronil was mostly used for R. microplus control, and in only three ranches, which were free of R. microplus, was fipronil used for horn fly control. Seventeen farmers did not use fipronil at all in the last three years. It is concluded that, in Uruguay, field populations of horn flies remain susceptible to fipronil.(AU)

O fipronil foi registrado no Uruguai em 1997 e, desde então, tem sido utilizado no controle de Haematobia irritans irritans e Rhipicephalus microplus. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a susceptibilidade de populações de campo de H. irritans ao fipronil. Além disso, foi realizada uma pesquisa para avaliar a utilização de fipronil e as práticas de controle de H. irritans nas fazendas de onde provinham as moscas. Para os bioensaios, 31 populações de campo de H. irritans foram expostas a 10 concentrações de fipronil (3,2-16,0μg.cm2), e seus valores de CL50 foram calculados usando análise probit. Um bioensaio foi realizado com H. irritans da colônia suscetível mantida no USDA-ARS Knipling-Bushland U.S. Livestock Insects Research Laboratory para comparação e cálculo das razões de resistência (RRs). Todas as 31 populações de campo pesquisadas no estudo eram suscetíveis ao fipronil, com taxas de resistência variando de <0,5 à 2,2. Quatro populações com Rrs >1 não diferiram significativamente da cepa suscetível. Uma única população apresentou RR >2,2. No geral, o fipronil tinha sido usado principalmente para o controle de R. microplus, e em apenas três fazendas, que estavam livres de R. microplus, o fipronil era utilizado para o controle da H. irritans. Em 17 fazendas não tinha sido utilizado fipronil nos últimos três anos. Conclui-se que no Uruguai as populações de H. irritans no campo permanecem suscetíveis ao fipronil.(AU)

Animals , Cattle , Biological Assay , Pest Control, Biological , Rhipicephalus/pathogenicity , Diptera , Livestock , Surveys and Questionnaires , Disease Susceptibility , Laboratories
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879160


Based on the heat-clearing and detoxifying effects of Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma, the network pharmacology is mainly used to predict the potential targets of Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma for anti-inflammatory activity and to perform the experimental verification. A method for detecting the biological potency of Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma based on verifiable targets has been established to provide a reference for improving the quality evaluation and control standards of Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma. High performance liquid chromatography can be used to construct chemical fingerprints of different batches of Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma. Constructing a component-target-disease network of Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma for its anti-inflammatory activity was applied to screen potential anti-inflammatory components and related targets of Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma, and to verify the target of Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma by using biological evaluation methods. Detecting the biological potency of different batches of Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma extracts was used to inhibit COX-2 enzyme activity based the verifiable target cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2). The results showed that different batches of Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma accorded with the pharmacopoeia testing regulations, and the chemical fingerprints have a high similarity(similarity>0.93), suggesting that there is no significant difference in the characteristics of the chemical components. Based on network pharmacology predictions, 18 candidate targets were found to have potential direct interactions with the ingredients in Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma. Among them, the most important target is COX-2. Based on the experimental verification of recombinant human COX-2 protease activity inhibition, Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma can inhibit the COX-2 enzyme activity in a dose-dependent manner. It can function with a low concentration(0.75 mg·mL~(-1)), which preliminarily confirmed the accuracy of network pharmacology prediction. The biological potency detection method of Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma based on COX-2 inhibitory activity was optimized and established. The qualitative response parallel line method was used to calculate the biological potency of anti-inflammatory activity, which ranged from 23.04 to 46.60 U·mg~(-1). For network pharmacology prediction, it can screen and clarify the possible targets of traditional Chinese medicine rapidly, which can guide the establishment of a biological evaluation method for the quality of medicinal materials with related activities. Compared with chemical fingerprints, the biological potency testing can better detect quality fluctuations of traditional Chinese medicine.

Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Biological Assay , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Quality Control , Rhizome
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 117-125, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877178


@#Background. Accidental radiation exposure can occur anytime. Biodosimeters help in quantifying the absorbed dose of individuals who are not equipped with personal dosimeters during radiation exposure. The dicentric assay can quantify radiation damage by correlating radiation dose exposure with the frequency of dicentric chromosomes in the peripheral lymphocytes extracted from exposed individuals. Objective. The study aims to present the interim results of the reference dose-response curve for a Philippine radiotherapy facility constructed using a 6MV linear accelerator (ClinacX, Varian). Methods. Samples of peripheral blood from healthy volunteers were irradiated in a customized water phantom of doses 0.10 to 5.0 Gray using a linear accelerator. The irradiated samples were cultured and analyzed following the International Atomic Energy Agency Cytogenetic Dosimetry Protocol (2011) with modifications. Linear-quadratic model curve fitting and further statistical analysis were done using CABAS (Chromosome Aberration Calculation Software Version 2.0) and Dose Estimate (Version 5.2). Interim results of the samples were used to generate these curves. Results. The dose-response curve generated from the preliminary results were comparable to published dose response curves from international cytogenetic laboratories. Conclusion. The generated dose-response calibration curve will be useful for medical triage of the public and radiologic staff accidentally exposed to radiation during medical procedures or in the event of nuclear accidents.

Cytogenetics , Biological Assay , Chromosome Disorders , Cytogenetic Analysis , Radiation
Salud bienestar colect ; 4(3): 39-57, sept.-dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1281954


Con el propósito de caracterizar la praxis Bioanalítica desde la matriz epistemológica vigente, la investigación se realizó bajo el Enfoque Integrador Transcomplejo. Para el abordaje de la problemática de estudio se empleó la complementariedad metódica. El grupo humano quedó constituido por cinco docentes Bioanalistas, a los que se le realizó una entrevista focalizada y en profundidad. Entre los hallazgos se evidenció que la praxis bioanalítica fue modelada desde la modernidad como un ejercicio mecanicista, repetitivo, desarticulado de lo social y lo humano. La modernidad es reproducida en las universidades mediante una formación vertical, donde no se articula lo biológico con lo social, con lo histórico o lo cultural; ya que la malla curricular está definida por un grupo de asignaturas cargados de contenidos procedimentales, impartidos a partir de objetivos de forma aislada, que centra la atención en la enfermedad y concibe su praxis desde roles y tareas, dándole mayor énfasis al rol de analista. Desde esta perspectiva, se niega los aportes dados por la epistemología, la historia, lo sociología, antropología y la educación al saber Bioanalítico, quedando limitado su impacto en la Salud Pública. Para redimensionar la concepción social del Bioanálisis y su praxis es necesario que se asuman nuevos paradigmas y nuevas metodologías y la Transcomplejidad constituye una opción para dar respuesta a esta demanda.

In purpose to characterize the Bioanalytical praxis from the current epistemological matrix, the research was carried out under the TranscomplexIntegrative Approach. Methodical complementarity was used to address the study problem. The human group was made up of five Bioanalyst teachers, who were given a focused and in-depth interview. Among the findings, it was evident that bioanalytic praxis was modeled since modernity as a mechanistic, repetitive, disjointed exercise of the social and the human. Modernity is reproduced in universities through vertical training, where the biological is not articulated with the social, with the historical or the cultural; since the curricular mesh is defined by a group of subjects loaded with procedural content, taught from objectives in isolation, which focuses attention on the disease and conceives its praxis from roles and tasks, giving greater emphasis to the role of analyst. From this perspective, the contributions given by epistemology, history, sociology, anthropology and education to Bioanalytical knowledge are denied, leaving their impact on Public Health limited. To resize the social conception of Bioanalysis and its praxis, it is necessary to assume new paradigms and new methodologies and Transcomplexity constitutes an option to respond to this demand.

Humans , Biological Assay , Chemistry Techniques, Analytical , Public Health , Social Values , Venezuela , Interview , Biomedical Research/methods , Professional Training
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(4): 1339-1345, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-1131509


Free-range chickens may ingest oocysts of T. gondii present in the environment and consequently harbor virulent strains of this parasite in different tissues, without any clinical signs. Isolation of T. gondii through bioassays on mice and cats from naturally infected chicken tissues has been described in several countries, demonstrating the importance of free-range chickens in the transmission of this parasite. The aim of this study was the genotypic characterization of T. gondii isolates obtained from naturally infected free-range chickens in a rural area of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Brain and heart tissue from 12 chickens seropositive for T. gondii were processed using peptic digestion technique for parasite isolation. From 12 samples subjected to mouse bioassay, nine isolates were obtained. RFLP-PCR genotypic characterization was performed using 11 genetic markers: SAG1, 5'-3'SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico. Genetic characterization of the isolates revealed the presence of five atypical genotypes according to ToxoDB (# 11, # 55, # 64, # 140 and # 163). Our results showed a wide genetic diversity of T. gondii in free-range chickens in this region.(AU)

Galinhas criadas ao ar livre podem ingerir oocistos de T. gondii presentes no ambiente e, com isso, albergar cepas virulentas desse parasita em diferentes tecidos, sem sinais clínicos. O isolamento de T. gondii por meio de bioensaios em camundongos e gatos, a partir de tecidos de galinhas naturalmente infectadas, tem sido descrito em vários países. Isso demonstra a importância das galinhas caipiras na epidemiologia desse parasita. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar genotipicamente isolados de T. gondii obtidos de galinhas caipiras naturalmente infectadas em uma área rural do município de Santa Maria, estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Fragmentos de cérebro e de coração, de 12 galinhas soropositivas para T. gondii, foram processados pela técnica de digestão péptica para isolamento do parasita. Das 12 amostras submetidas a bioensaio com camundongos, nove isolados foram obtidos. A caracterização genotípica por RFLP-PCR foi realizada utilizando-se 11 marcadores genéticos: SAG1, 5'-3'SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 e Apico e revelou a presença de cinco genótipos atípicos de acordo com o ToxoDB (# 11, # 55, # 64, # 140 e # 163). Os resultados mostraram uma ampla diversidade genética de T. gondii em galinhas caipiras nessa região.(AU)

Animals , Mice , Toxoplasma , Biological Assay/veterinary , Chickens/virology , Toxoplasmosis, Animal , Genotyping Techniques/veterinary , Rural Areas , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 45: 19-29, May 15, 2020. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177401


BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), as post-transcriptional regulators, were thought to function in the inductive property of dermal papilla cells (DPCs) in cashmere goat. Previously, lncRNA-599554 was identified in secondary hair follicle (SHF) of cashmere goat, but its functional significance is unknown. RESULTS: In the present investigation, we verified that lncRNA-599554 had significantly higher expression at the anagen dermal papilla of cashmere goat SHF than that at telogen. Based on overexpression and knockdown techniques, we found that lncRNA-599554 contributes the inductive property of DPCs of cashmere goat, which was assessed by detecting the changes in the expression of several typical indictor genes in DPCs including ET-1, SCF, Versican, ALP, Lef1 and Ptc-1. Based on RNA pull-down assay, we verified that lncRNA-599554 directly interacted with chi-miR-15a-5p. Also, we showed that lncRNA-599554 positively regulated the Wnt3a expression in DPCs but which did not appear to involve its modulating of promoter methylation. Based on the use of Dual-luciferase reporter assays, our data indicated that lncRNA-599554 regulated the Wnt3a expression through chi-miR-15a-5p-mediated post-transcriptional level. CONCLUSIONS: We showed that lncRNA-599554 contributes the inductive property of DPCs in cashmere goat which might be achieved through sponging chi-miR-15b-5p to promote the Wnt3a expression. The results from the present investigation provided a novel insight into the functional mechanism of lncRNA-599554 in the SHF regeneration of cashmere goat along with the formation and growth of cashmere fiber.

Animals , Hair Follicle/cytology , Hair Follicle/metabolism , Dermis/cytology , Wnt3A Protein/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , Biological Assay/methods , Goats , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , Luciferases , Methylation
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(2): 221-235, mar. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104211


Santiago Quiotepec, one of the oldest communities of the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley (México), has a great tradition using medicinal plants. The aim of this study was to make an inventory of the medicinal species used by the inhabitants of Santiago Quiotepec and evaluate the antibacterial activity. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants was carried out, 60 informants mentioned that 66 species of plants are being used in the treatment of different diseases. Fifteen species were selected to evaluate the antibacterial activity in possible bacterial originated diseases treatment. The lowest values were presented in the hexane extract of Plumbago pulchella, with a MIC of 0.25 mg/mL over Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis as well as the hexanic extract of Echinopterys eglandulosa showed a MIC of 0.25 mg/mL over Pseudomona aeruginosa.

Santiago Quiotepec es una de las comunidades más antiguas del valle de Tehuacán-Cuicatlán (México), y tiene una gran tradición en el uso de plantas medicinales. El objetivo de este estudio fue realizar un inventario de las especies medicinales utilizadas por los habitantes de Santiago Quiotepec y evaluar la actividad antibacteriana. Se realizó un estudio etnobotánico de plantas medicinales, 60 informantes mencionaron 66 especies de plantas utilizadas en el tratamiento de diferentes enfermedades. Quince especies utilizadas en la comunidad para tratar enfermedades de posible origen bacteriano fueron seleccionadas para evaluar la actividad antibacteriana. Los valores más bajos se presentaron en el extracto hexánico de Plumbago pulchella, con una CMI de 0.25 mg/ml sobre Staphylococcus aureus y S. epidermidis, así como el extracto hexánico de Echinopterys eglandulosa mostró una CMI de 0.25 mg/mL sobre Pseudomona aeruginosa.

Plants, Medicinal/classification , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Ethnobotany , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Biological Assay , Mexico
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(2): 390-400, 01-03-2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146263


The use of herbicides belonging to a single mechanism of action for several consecutive years in the same area may lead to the selection of weed biotypes resistant to herbicides. Weeds resistant to glyphosate have been problem worldwide. As an alternative control, farmers have used glyphosate mixed with sulfentrazone. When two herbicides are mixed, the parameters that govern the behaviour of herbicides in the soil can be altered. In this study, the sorption of sulfentrazone was estimated when applied in isolation with glyphosate formulations. For this, increasing doses of sulfentrazone were applied using Red-Yellow Latosol substrate and washed sand. Each dose of sulfentrazone was applied in a mixture with 1080 g a. e. ha-1 Roundup Ready®, Roundup Ultra® and Zapp Qi®. To evaluate the presence of sulfentrazone in the soil solution, Sorghum bicolor was used as an indicator species. Symptoms of intoxication were evaluated at 7, 14 and 21 days after sowing. At 21 days after sowing, the plants were collected and dried in an oven at 70 ± 10 °C to determine the dry matter. Based on the intoxication of the indicator plants, it was verified that, regardless of the formulation, the presence of glyphosate in the mixture increased the sorption of sulfentrazone in the Red-Yellow Latosol. However, based on dry matter accumulation, sulfentrazone sorption increased because of the mixture with Roundup Ultra®, but decreased due to the presence of Roundup Ready® and Zapp Qi®. Therefore, the application of sulfentrazone in mixture with glyphosate alters the sorptive forces of sulfentrazone in a Red-Yellow Latosol.

A utilização de herbicidas pertencentes a um único mecanismo de ação por vários anos consecutivos na mesma área pode levar a seleção de biótipos de plantas daninhas resistentes a herbicidas. Plantas daninhas resistentes ao glyphosate têm sido problema no mundo inteiro. Como alternativa de controle, os agricultores têm utilizado glyphosate em mistura com sulfentrazone. Quando se misturam duas moléculas herbicidas, os parâmetros que governam o comportamento de herbicidas no solo podem ser alterados. Neste estudo foi estimada a sorção do sulfentrazone quando aplicado de forma isolada e em mistura com formulações de glyphosate. Para isso, doses crescentes de sulfentrazone foram aplicadas utilizando-se como substrato Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo e areia lavada. Cada uma das doses de sulfentrazone foi aplicada em mistura com 1080 g ha-1 de glyphosate comercializado nas formulações Roundup Ready®, Roundup Ultra® e Zapp Qi®. Para avaliar a presença do sulfentrazone na solução do solo utilizou-se o Sorghum bicolor como espécie indicadora. Os sintomas de intoxicação foram avaliados aos 7, 14 e 21 dias após a semeadura. Aos 21 dias após a semeadura, as plantas foram coletadas e secadas em estufa a 70 ±10C para determinação da matéria seca. Com base na intoxicação das plantas indicadoras, verificou-se que, independente da formulação, a presença glyphosate na mistura, aumentou a sorção do sulfentrazone no Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo. No entanto com base no acúmulo de matéria seca, constatou-se que a sorção do sulfentrazone aumentou em função da mistura com Roundup Ultra®, mas diminuiu devido a presença de Roundup Ready® e Zapp Qi®. Conclui-se que a aplicação de sulfentrazone em mistura com glyphosate altera as forças sortivas do sulfentrazone no Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo.

Soil , Sorghum , Herbicide Resistance , Herbicides , Plants , Poisoning , Biological Assay , Control
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200314, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136805


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Rapid and accurate tuberculosis detection is critical for improving patient diagnosis and decreasing tuberculosis transmission. Molecular assays can significantly increase laboratory costs; therefore, the average time and economic impact should be evaluated before implementing a new technology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost and average turnaround time of smear microscopy and Xpert assay at a university hospital. METHODS: The turnaround time and cost of the laboratory diagnosis of tuberculosis were calculated based on the mean cost and activity based costing (ABC). RESULTS: The average turnaround time for smear microscopy was 16.6 hours while that for Xpert was 24.1 hours. The Xpert had a mean cost of USD 17.37 with an ABC of USD 10.86, while smear microscopy had a mean cost of USD 13.31 with an ABC of USD 6.01. The sensitivity of smear microscopy was 42.9% and its specificity was 99.1%, while the Xpert assay had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 96.7%. CONCLUSIONS: The Xpert assay has high accuracy; however, the turnaround time and cost of smear microscopy were lower than those of Xpert.

Humans , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Biological Assay/economics , Pathology, Molecular/economics , Tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/economics , Biological Assay/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity , Costs and Cost Analysis , Pathology, Molecular/methods , Microscopy , Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20180428, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132198


Abstract Development of transgenic Bt crops with stable and high level of Bt protein expression over generations under different environmental conditions is critical for successful deployment at field level. In the present study, progenies of transgenic cotton Coker310 event, CH12 expressing novel cry2AX1 gene were evaluated in T3 generation for stable integration, expression and resistance against cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. The cry2AX1 gene showed stable inheritance and integration in the T3 progeny plants as revealed by PCR and Southern blot hybridization. The expression of Cry2AX1 protein on 90 days after sowing (DAS) was in the range of 1.055 to 1.5 µg/g of fresh leaf tissue except one plant which showed 0.806 µg/g of fresh leaf tissue and after 30 days (i.e., on 120 DAS) three plants recorded in between 0.69 to 0.82 µg/g and other plants are in range of 0.918 to 1.058 µg/g of fresh leaf tissue. Detached leaf bit bioassay in T3 progeny on 110 DAS recorded mortality of 73.33 to 93.33 per cent against H. armigera and severe growth retardation in surviving larvae. These results indicate that the expression of chimeric cry2AX1 is stable and exhibits insecticidal activity against H. armigera in T3 progeny of CH12 event of transgenic cotton.

Animals , Bacillus thuringiensis/pathogenicity , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Gossypium/genetics , Endotoxins/genetics , Moths , Plant Diseases/prevention & control , Plants, Toxic , Biological Assay , Plants, Genetically Modified
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190211, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057287


Abstract INTRODUCTION Anopheles stephensi is the main malaria vector in Southeast Asia. Recently, plant-sourced larvicides are attracting great interests. METHODS: The essential oil was extracted from the leaf of Cinnamomum camphora (L.), and a bioassay was conducted to determine the larvicidal efficacy. The chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by GC-MS analysis. RESULTS: The oil showed strong, dose-dependent larvicidal activities. The onset of larvicidal efficiency was rapid. The LC50 and LC95 were determined as 0.146% and 1.057% at 1 h, 0.031% and 0.237% at 12 h, 0.026% and 0.128% at 24 h, respectively. The oil contains 32 compounds. CONCLUSIONS The essential oil of C. camphora leaf has an excellent larvicidal potential for the control of A. stephensi.

Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Cinnamomum camphora/chemistry , Mosquito Vectors/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacology , Larva/drug effects , Anopheles/drug effects , Biological Assay , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Mosquito Vectors/classification , Insecticides/isolation & purification , Lethal Dose 50 , Anopheles/classification
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20200111, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132215


Abstract Anticarsia gemmatalis is one of the main pests of the soybean crop, being controlled mainly with agrochemicals. The environmental and health risks, as well as the development of resistance by the pests, has led to the search for alternative control measures, aiming to use more eco-friendly procedures. The objective of this research was to evaluate the chemical composition and the bioactivity of Schinus molle and Schinus terebinthifolia essential oils (EOs) on A. gemmatalis. The major compound in both EOs was α-pinene (60.04 wt.% for S. molle and 38.49 wt.% for S. terebinthifolia). Bioassays were carried out with third instar larvae, with five replicates and each replicate with ten larvae, totaling 50 larvae per treatment. The oils were incorporated in the artificial diet (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% v/v). The controls were: water, Tween-80® 0.5% v/v, and novaluron 0.075% v/v. According to the Probit method, the S. terebinthifolia EO presented a LC50 of 1.74% v/v (1.58-1.97% v/v); it was not possible to determine the LC50 for the S. molle EO. The mortality percentage after 24 and 48 h was 52% and 30% at 2.0% v/v for S. terebinthifolia and S. molle oil, respectively. After 72 h, the mortality rate for S. molle EO have not changed; for S. terebinthifolia EO it increased to 70%; the larvae treated with the chemical control (synthetic insecticide) had a mortality of 100%.

Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Anacardiaceae/chemistry , Lepidoptera/drug effects , Biological Assay , Lethal Dose 50
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2066-2075, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878466


To achieve uniform soluble expression of multiple proteins in the same Escherichia coli strain, and simplify the process steps of antigen production in genetic engineering subunit multivalent vaccine, we co-expressed three avian virus proteins including the fowl adenovirus serotype 4 (FAdV-4) Fiber-2 protein, infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) VP2 protein and egg-drop syndrome virus (EDSV) Fiber protein in E. coli BL21(DE3) cells after optimization of gene codon, promoter, and tandem expression order. The purified proteins were analyzed by Western blotting and agar gel precipitation (AGP). The content of the three proteins were well-proportioned after co-expression and the purity of the purified proteins were more than 80%. Western blotting analysis and AGP experiment results show that all the three co-expression proteins had immunoreactivity and antigenicity. It is the first time to achieve the three different avian virus antigens co-expression and co-purification, which simplified the process of antigen production and laid a foundation for the development of genetic engineering subunit multivalent vaccine.

Animals , Antigens, Viral/genetics , Biological Assay , Chickens/immunology , Escherichia coli/genetics , Infectious bursal disease virus/immunology , Poultry Diseases , Vaccines, Synthetic/isolation & purification , Viral Structural Proteins/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(4): 802-806, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057988


Abstract Population explosions of the stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans) have become a serious concern for livestock producers near sugarcane mills in some regions of Brazil due to the insect's massive reproduction on sugarcane byproducts and waste. Despite the limited efficiency of insecticides for controlling stable fly outbreaks, producers still rely on chemical control to mitigate the alarming infestations in affected areas. This study evaluated the susceptibility of S. calcitrans populations to cypermethrin in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Stable flies were tested from three field populations and two colonies, established from flies previously collected at sugarcane mills. Wild flies were collected with Nzi traps in areas of sugarcane plantations. Both wild and colonized flies were exposed to eleven concentrations of cypermethrin in impregnated filter paper bioassays. All the populations proved to be resistant to cypermethrin, with resistance factors among field populations ranging from 6.8 to 38.6. The intensive use of insecticides has led to the development of pyrethroid resistance in stable fly populations in the proximities of sugarcane mills in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul.

Resumo Explosões populacionais da mosca-dos-estábulos (Stomoxys calcitrans) tornaram-se uma séria preocupação para a pecuária próxima a usinas de cana-de-açúcar em algumas regiões do Brasil, devido à massiva reprodução da mosca em resíduos e subprodutos do processamento da cana. Apesar da limitada eficiência dos inseticidas no controle dos surtos desta mosca, produtores dependem do controle químico para mitigar as alarmantes infestações nas áreas afetadas. Este estudo objetivou avaliar a suscetibilidade de populações de S. calcitrans a piretroides no estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Moscas-dos-estábulos de três populações de campo e duas colônias, estabelecidas a partir de moscas previamente coletadas em usinas de cana-de-açúcar, foram testadas. Moscas selvagens foram coletadas com armadilhas Nzi em áreas de cana. Moscas coletadas foram expostas a onze concentrações de cipermetrina em bioensaios com papel de filtro impregnado. Todas as populações testadas mostraram-se resistentes ao piretroide, com fatores de resistência variando de 6,8 a 38,6 nas populações de campo. O uso intensivo de inseticidas tem levado ao desenvolvimento de resistência da mosca-dos-estábulos a piretroides em populações próximas a usinas de cana-de-açúcar no estado do Mato Grosso do Sul.

Animals , Pyrethrins/pharmacology , Muscidae/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacology , Biological Assay , Brazil , Insecticide Resistance , Lethal Dose 50
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 51(4): 345-353, dic. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057399


Abstract A novel microbiological system in microtiter plates consisting of five bioassays is presented for the detection and classification of antibiotic residues in milk. The bioassays were optimized for the detection of beta-lactams (Bioassay B: Geobacillus stearothermophilus), macrolides (Bioassay M: Bacillus megaterium with fusidic acid), tetracyclines (Bioassay T: B. megaterium with chloramphenicol), quinolones (Bioassay Q: Bacillus licheniformis) and sulfamides (Bioassay QS: B. licheniformis with trimethoprim) at levels near the maximum residue limits (MRL). The response of each bioassay was interpreted visually (positive or negative) after 4-5.5h of incubation. The system detects and classifies beta-lactams (5 pg/l of amoxicillin, 4 pg/l of ampicillin, 36 pg/l of cloxacillin, 22 pg/l of amoxicillin, 3 pg/l of penicillin, 114 pg/l of cephalexin, 89pg/l of cefoperazone and 116 pg/l of ceftiofur), tetracyclines (98 pg/l of chlortetracycline, 92 pg/l of oxytetracycline and 88 pg/l of tetracycline), macrolides (33 pg/l of erythromycin, 44 pg/l of tilmicosin and 50 pg/l of tylosin), sulfonamides (76 pg/l of sulfadiazine, 85 pg/l of sulfadimethoxine, 77 pg/l of sulfamethoxazole and 87pg/l of sulfathiazole) and quinolones (94 pg/l of ciprofloxacin, 98 pg/l of enrofloxacin and 79 pg/l marbofloxacin). In addition, the specificity values were high for B, T, Q (99.4%), M (98.8%) and QS (98.1%) bioassays. The control of antibiotics through this system can contribute to improving the quality and safety of dairy products.

Resumen Se presenta un novedoso sistema microbiológico en placas de microtitulación compuesto por 5 bioensayos para la detección y clasificación de residuos de antibióticos en leche. Los bioensayos fueron optimizados para la detección de betalactámicos (bioensayo B: Geobacillus stearothermophilus), macrólidos (bioensayo M: Bacillus megaterium con ácido fusídico), tetraciclinas (bioensayo T: Bacillus megaterium con cloranfenicol), quinolonas (bioensayo Q: Bacillus licheniformis) y sulfamidas (bioensayo QS: Bacillus licheniformis con trimetoprima), a niveles cercanos a los límites máximos de residuos (LMR). La respuesta de cada bioensayo se interpretó visualmente (positiva o negativa) después de 4 a 5,5 h de incubación. El sistema detecta y clasifica betalactámicos (5 pg/l de amoxicilina, 4 pg/l de ampicilina, 36 pg/l de cloxacilina, 22 pg/l de amoxicilina, 3 pg/l de penicilina, 114 pg/l de cefalexina, 89 pg/l de cefoperazona y 116 pg/l de ceftiofur), tetraciclinas (98 pg/l de clortetraciclina, 92 pg/l de oxitetraciclina y 88 pg/l de tetraciclina), macrólidos (33 pg/l de eritromicina, 44 pg/l de tilmi-cosina y 50 pg/l de tilosina), sulfamidas (76 pg/l de sulfadiacina, 85 pg/l de sulfadimetoxina, 77 pg/l de sulfametoxazol y 87 pg/l de sulfatiazol) y quinolonas (94 pg/l de ciprofloxacina, 98 pg/l de enrofloxacina y 79pg/l de marbofloxacina). Además, los valores de especificidad fueron altos para los bioensayos B, T, Q (99,4%), M (98,8%) y QS (98,1%). El control de residuos de antibióticos mediante este sistema puede contribuir a mejorar la calidad e inocuidad de los productos lácteos.

Biological Assay/methods , Food Microbiology/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Sulfonamides/analysis , Tetracycline/analysis , Quinolones/analysis , Macrolides/analysis , Dairy Products , beta-Lactams/analysis
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 51(4): 316-323, dic. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057395


Abstract Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is an important cattle pathogen that causes major economic losses worldwide, especially in dairy farms. The use of animal models provides valuable insight into the pathogenesis of viral infections. Experimental infections of sheep have been conducted using blood from BLV-infected cattle, infectious BLV molecular clones or tumor-derived cells. The Fetal Lamb Kidney cell line, persistently infected with BLV (FLK-BLV), is one of the most commonly used long-term culture available for the permanent production of virus. FLK-BLV cells or the viral particles obtained from the cell-free culture supernatant could be used as a source of provirus or virus to experimentally infect sheep. In this report, we aimed to determine the minimum amount of FLK-BLV cells or cell-free supernatant containing BLV needed to produce infection in sheep. We also evaluated the amount of antibodies obtained from a naturally-infected cow required to neutralize this infection. We observed that both sheep experimentally inoculated with 5000 FLK-BLV cells became infected, as well as one of the sheep receiving 500 FLK-BLV cells. None of the animals inoculated with 50 FLK-BLV cells showed evidence of infection. The cell-free FLK-BLV supernatant proved to be infective in sheep up to a 1:1000 dilution. Specific BLV antibodies showed neutralizing activity as none of the sheep became infected. Conversely, the animals receiving a BLV-negative serum showed signs of BLV infection. These results contribute to the optimization of a sheep bioassay which could be useful to further characterize BLV infection.

Resumen El virus de la leucosis bovina (bovine leukemia virus [BLV]) es un importante agente patógeno del ganado que causa importantes pérdidas económicas en todo el mundo, especialmente en los rodeos lecheros. El uso de modelos animales proporciona información valiosa sobre la patogénesis de las infecciones virales. Se realizaron infecciones experimentales en ovejas usando sangre de bovinos infectados con BLV, clones moleculares de BLV infecciosos o células derivadas de tumores. La línea celular Fetal Lamb Kidney, persistentemente infectada con el BLV (FLK-BLV), es uno de los cultivos a largo plazo más utilizados para la producción permanente de virus. Las células FLK-BLV o las partículas virales obtenidas del sobrenadante del cultivo libre de células podrían usarse como fuente de provirus o de virus para infectar experimentalmente ovejas. En este trabajo, nuestro objetivo fue determinar la cantidad mínima de células FLK-BLV o de sobrenadante libre de células que contiene BLV necesaria para producir infección en ovejas. También evaluamos la cantidad de anticuerpos bovinos anti-BLV necesaria para neutralizar la infección. Observamos que las dos ovejas inoculadas experimentalmente con 5000 células FLK-BLV se infectaron, y que una de las dos ovejas que recibieron 500 células FLK-BLV se infectó. Ninguno de los animales inoculados con 50 células FLK-BLV mostró evidencia de infección. El sobrenadante FLK-BLV libre de células demostró ser infectivo en ovejas hasta la dilución 1:1000. Los anticuerpos BLV específicos mostraron actividad neutralizante, ya que ninguna de las ovejas se infectó. Por el contrario, los animales que recibieron un suero BLV negativo mostraron signos de infección por BLV. Estos resultados contribuyen a la optimización de un bioensayo en ovejas útil para caracterizar la infección por BLV.

Animals , Biological Assay/veterinary , Sheep/immunology , Enzootic Bovine Leukosis/prevention & control , Leukemia Virus, Bovine/pathogenicity , Deltaretrovirus Infections/immunology , Models, Animal
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(4): 1198-1212, july/aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048859


In this study the potential bioinseticide of the essential oil (OE) extracted from the rhizomes of the species Curcuma zedoaria (Zingiberaceae) was evaluated. The rhizomes were collected during dormancy (winter) and budding (summer). The EO was obtained by hydrodistillation (2h) and identified by GC/MS. In addition, a multivariate exploratory analysis was done to determine the analysis of the major compounds (PCA). The EO yield in dormancy was 0.61± 0.07 (%) and in budding 0.55 ± 0.08 (%). The bioassays on Aedes aegypti larvae and pupae were done by immersion test at different EO concentrations which ranged from 500.00 to 0.003 mg mL-1 (v/v). The results on the larvae and pupae indicated LC99.9 of (0.01 and 1.38 mg mL-1) for EO in dormancy, and (0.08 and 2.63 mg mL-1) for EO during budding, respectively. The action mechanism of EOs in both periods was determined by autobiographic method evaluating the inhibitory potential on the acetylcholinesterase enzyme, indicating greater inhibition of the EO enzyme during dormancy (0.039 mg mL-1) when compared to the EO during budding (0.156 mg mL-1). The projection representation of the EO chemical classes in both evaluated periods indicated that oxygenated sesquiterpenes are the major compound class (46.99% in dormancy) and (43.59% in budding). The projection of major chemical compounds of EOs presented three compounds with greater mass flow distancing: epicurzerenone (18.20% and 12.10%); 1.8 cineole (15.76% and 12.10%) and ß-elemene (4.43 and 0.01%) that are found in greater amounts in the dormancy EO when compared to budding, respectively. These results corroborate with the greater potential on Ae. aegypti larvae and pupae found for the dormancy EO. The results are promising because they show in which vegetative cycle phase C. zedoaria EO presents greater bioinsecticidepotential.

Neste trabalho foi avaliado o potencial bioinseticida do óleo essencial (OE) extraído dos rizomas da espécie Curcuma zedoaria (Zingiberaceae), coletados no período de dormência (inverno) e brotação das gemas (verão). O OE foi obtido por hidrodestilação (2h) e identificado por CG/EM foi observado rendimento 0,61 ± 0,07 (%) no óleo da dormência, quando comparado no período de brotação 0,55 ± 0,08 (%). Os bioensaios sobre as larvas e pupas de Aedes aegypti foram realizados pelo teste de imersão em diferentes concentrações dos OEs, que variaram de 500,00 a 0,003 mg mL-1 (v/v). Os resultados sobre as larvas e pupas indicaram uma CL99,9 de (0,01 e 1,38 mg mL-1) para o OE da dormência, e (0,08 e 2,63 mg mL-1) para o OE do período de brotação, respectivamente. Indicando maior atividade do OE da dormência. O mecanismo de ação dos OEs nos dois períodos foi determinado pelo método autobiográfico avaliando o potencial inibitório sobre a enzima acetilcolinesterase. Os resultados indicaram maior inibição da enzima do OE no período de dormência (0,039 mg mL-1), quando comparado ao OE de brotação (0,156 mg mL-1). A análise química destacou três compostos: epicurzerenone (18,20% e 12,10%) e 1,8 cineol (15,76% e 14,05%) e ß- elemeno (4,43 e 0,01%) em maior quantidade no período de dormência quando comparado ao período de brotação, respectivamente. Esta diferença pode explicar a maior ação inseticida do OE de dormência sobre as larvas e pupas do Ae. aegypti. Os resultados são promissores, pois estabelece em qual período do ciclo vegetativo o OE da C. zedoaria apresenta maior potencial bioinseticida.

Oils, Volatile , Aedes , Curcuma , Insecticides , Biological Assay
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(4): 359-377, jul. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008174


Plant species have been used for therapeutic purposes since ancient times and are still in use today since these products represent a source of raw material for the production of phytotherapeutic formulations. Screening and investigation of plants with pharmacological potential require the evaluation of characteristics related to their action, efficacy and safety in different steps. Among these steps, pre- clinical trials are used to evaluate the properties of the test product in in vitro experiments, such as cytotoxicity assays. Within this context, this study consists of a bibliometric analysis of some in vitro cytotoxicity and toxicity assays in erythrocytes used during bioprospecting of medicinal plants. The results demonstrated the wide application of erythrocytes to evaluate the biological effects of medicinal plant extracts. The methods were found to be valid and effective for the preliminary investigation of the in vitro cytotoxicity and toxicity of plant products.

El uso de especies vegetales para fines terapéuticos es una práctica histórica y todavía bastante actual, ya que estos productos pueden representar una fuente de materia prima para la producción de formulaciones fitoterápicas. En investigación de plantas con potencial farmacológico requiere la evaluación de su acción, eficacia y seguridad, a través de diferentes etapas. Entre estas, en los ensayos preclínicos se evalúan las propiedades del producto-prueba en experimentos in vitro, tales como ensayos de citotoxicidad, entre otros. En este aspecto, el presente estudio consiste en un análisis bibliométrico acerca de algunas pruebas de citotoxicidad y toxicidad in vitro en eritrocitos realizados en los ensayos de bioprospección de plantas medicinales. Los resultados evidencian la amplia utilización de eritrocitos para la evaluación de los efectos biológicos de extractos de plantas medicinales, apuntándolos como métodos válidos y eficaces para la investigación preliminar de la citotoxicidad y toxicidad in vitro de productos vegetales.

Biological Assay/methods , Plant Extracts/toxicity , Erythrocytes/drug effects , Antioxidants/toxicity , Osmotic Fragility , Oxidative Stress , Erythrocytes/cytology , Bioprospecting , Hemolysis/drug effects
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785734


The study aimed to assess the single and joint lethal toxicity, type of interaction and the extent to which simple mathematical model of concentration addition (CA), independent action (IA) and generalized concentration addition (GCA) could predict the joint toxicity of copper hydroxide and glyphosate mixture in Clarias gariepinus. Static bioassay were setup to determine the individual and combined (based on ratio 1:2) lethal concentrations (LCx) of the pesticides. Data from the static bioassays were then fitted into the synergistic ratio (SR), concentration-addition (toxicity unit; TU) and isobologram model to determine the type of interaction between the different classes of pesticides, while the CA, IA and GCA models were used to predicted the observed mixture effects. The estimated 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h LC50 for copper hydroxide were 198.66 mg/L, 167.51 mg/L, 138.64 mg/L, and 104.82 mg/L; glyphosate were 162.92 mg/L, 103.88 mg/L, 61.95 mg/L, and 52.6l mg/L; while the mixtures were 63.18 mg/L, 59.06 mg/L, 56.42 mg/L, and 50.67 mg/L, respectively. Glyphosate was 2 times more toxic than copper hydroxide to C. gariepinus when acting singly. The SR and RTU was <1 indicate that the interaction between the pesticides was synergistic. Synergism was also corroborated by the isobologram model. The interaction of the mixture of copper hydroxide and glyphosate followed the IA model while the CA and GCA model underestimated the observed mixture effects. The study showed that copper hydroxide was practically non-toxic, while glyphosate and the mixture were slightly toxic to C. gariepinus

Biological Assay , Catfishes , Copper , Joints , Models, Theoretical , Pesticides