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Braz. j. biol ; 83: e03316, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345530


Abstract Behavioral lab bioassays involving termites must be promptly performed to allow intended observations prior to death from dissecation, typical of these soft-bodied insects. To this end, topic markers have been proposed as an alternative to histological stains which, while not always toxic are inevitably lengthy to apply. Among recommended topic markers, gouache is easy to apply, dries out quickly, but it is known affect termites in the long run, being suitable only to short-term bioassays. Its alternative, colored glue, is also easy to apply, but it takes long to dry and it is too dense and heavy, being thus prone to affect termite walking patterns. Here we tested a mix of gouache and colored glue aiming to combine the qualities of both into a suitable topical marker for Cornitermes cumulans termites. Similar patterns of survival presented by marked and unmarked termites ruled out concerns about toxicity of this mixture. Such results were consistent across distinct group densities evidencing that the mixture does not interfere with, nor it is affected by, crowding effects. Because crowding regulates interindividual interactions and these underlie most behaviors, the mixture can be thought to be suitable to behavioral studies. We argue that this 1:2 glue:gouache mixture is an excellent alternative to mark termites for lab bioassays. Being atoxic, cheap, easy to apply, and non-invasive, this mixture may happen to be useful not only for termites but also in bioassaying other similarly soft-bodied insects.

Resumo Bioensaios comportamentais em laboratório com cupins devem ser realizados rapidamente a fim de garantir observações antes da morte por dissecação, típico desses insetos de corpo mole. Para este fim, marcadores tópicos têm sido propostos como uma alternativa para marcadores histológicos que, embora nem sempre tóxico, possuem uma aplicação demorada. Entre os marcadores tópicos recomendados, tinta guache é de fácil aplicação, rápida secagem, porém afeta os cupins em bioensaios longos, sendo adequado apenas para bioensaios curtos. Sua alternativa, cola colorida, também é de fácil aplicação mas leva muito tempo para secar e é muito denso e pesado, afetando os padrões de caminhamento dos cupins. No presente estudo, nós testamos uma mistura de tinta guache e cola colorida objetivando combinar as qualidades de ambos os marcadores tópicos em um marcador tópico adequado para Cornitermes cumulans. Padrões similares de sobrevivência entre cupins marcados e controle indicam a ausência de toxicidade na mistura de tinta guache e cola colorida. Tais resultados são consistentes em grupos de densidades distintas, o que comprova que a mistura não interfere, nem sofre efeitos de aglomeração. Uma vez que a aglomeração regula as interações inter-individuais e afetam a maioria dos comportamentos, a mistura pode ser adequada para estudos comportamentais. Nós argumentamos que a mistura de tinta guache e cola (1:2) é uma excelente alternativa como marcador tópico em cupins para bioensaios em laboratório. Sendo atóxico, barato, fácil de aplicar e não invasivo, esta mistura pode ser útil não só para os cupins, mas também em bioensaios com outros insetos de corpo mole.

Animals , Cockroaches , Isoptera , Biological Assay , Laboratories
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(2): 215-223, mar. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395235


Control of the Chagas disease vector, Triatoma infestans (Klug) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) with synthetic pesticides in Bolivia has become increasingly inefficient due to the development of resistance in the insects. In the Chaco region of Bolivia, guaraní populations have approached the problem by fumigating their houses with the smoke of native plants. Through interviews and field work with local guides, the main plant used by the guaraníes was collected and later identified as Capsicum baccatumL. var. baccatum (Solanaceae). In choice bioassays, filter papers exposed to the smoke of the plant repelled nymphs of T. infestans. Activity remained significant after storing the exposed filter papers for 9 days. Chemical analysis of smoke and literature data suggested that capsaicinoids present in the smoke were responsible for the repellent effect. The data presented provide a rationale for the use of C. baccatumvar. baccatumto control the Chagas vector bythe guaraní populations.

El control del vector de la enfermedad de Chagas, Triatoma infestans (Klug) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) con plaguicidas sintéticos en Bolivia se ha vuelto cada vez más ineficiente debido al desarrollo de resistencias en los insectos. En la región del Chaco de Bolivia, las poblaciones guaraníes han abordado el problema fumigando sus casas con el humo de las plantas nativas. A través de entrevistas y trabajo de campo con guías locales, se recogió la principal planta utilizada por los guaraníes y posteriormente se identificó como Capsicum baccatumL. var. baccatum (Solanaceae). En bioensayos selectos, los papeles de filtro expuestos al humo de la planta repelieron a las ninfas de T. infestans. La actividad siguió siendo significativa después de almacenar los papeles de filtro expuestos durante 9 días. El análisis químico del humo y los datos de la literatura sugieren que los capsaicinoides presentes en el humo eran responsables del efecto repelente. Los datos presentados proporcionan una justificación para el uso de C. baccatum var. baccatum para el control del vector Chagas por las poblaciones guaraníes.

Humans , Smoke/analysis , Triatoma , Capsicum/chemistry , Pest Control, Biological , Fumigation/methods , Indigenous Peoples , Biological Assay , Bolivia , Capsaicin/analysis , Interviews as Topic , Chagas Disease , Solanaceae/chemistry , Volatile Organic Compounds/analysis , Hemiptera , Insect Repellents/chemistry
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(2): 207-214, mar. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395229


In this study, we investigated the main constituent, the predominant class and biological activity of the essential oil extracted from the leaves of Pimenta dioica and the pattern of the major constituent against larvae in the third stage of Aedes aegypti. For this reason, we extracted the oil by hydrodistillation, identified its components by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and calculated the lethal concentration (LC50) of the larvicidal activity using the Reed-Muench method. The results show that the oil consists mainly of eugenol, in which the phenylpropanoid class predominated and the lethal concentration, LC50, was 38.86 µg mL-1at a confidence level of 2.25 µg mL-1, while the eugenol standard presented LC5079.75 µg mL-1at a confidence level of 2.10 µg mL-1. Given the facts, we conclude that the oil is more active than the standard and that it has the potential to replace chemical larvicides.

En este estudio, investigamos el constituyente principal, la clase predominante y la actividad biológica del aceite esencial extraído de las hojas de Pimenta dioica y el patrón del constituyente principal contra las larvas en la tercera etapa de Aedes aegypti. Por este motivo, extrajimos el aceite por hidrodestilación, identificamos sus componentes mediante cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas (GC/MS) y calculamos la concentración letal (CL50) de la actividad larvicida mediante el método Reed-Muench. Los resultados muestran que el aceite está constituido principalmente por eugenol, en el que predominó la clase fenilpropanoide y la concentración letal, CL50, fue de 38,86 µg.mL-1 a un nivel de confianza de 2,25 µg.mL-1, mientras que el estándar de eugenol presentó CL50 79,75 µg.mL -1 a un nivel de confianza de 2,10 µg.mL-1. Dados los hechos, concluimos que el aceite es más activo que el estándar y que tiene el potencial de reemplazar los larvicidas químicos.

Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Aedes/drug effects , Pimenta/chemistry , Larvicides , Biological Assay , Biological Products , Eugenol/analysis , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Leaves , Monoterpenes/analysis , Larva , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Int. j. morphol ; 40(1): 91-97, feb. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385597


SUMMARY: Carnosine is known as a natural dipeptide, which inhibits the proliferation of tumor cells throughout its action on mitochondrial respiration and cell glycolysis. However, not much is known about its effects on the metabolism of healthy cells. We explored the effects of Karnozin EXTRA® capsule with different concentrations of L-carnosine, on the cell viability and the expressions of intermediate filament vimentin (VIM) and superoxide dismutase (SOD2) in normal fibroblasts BHK-21/C13. Furthermore, we investigated its action on the energy production of these cells. Cell viability was quantified by the MTT assay. The Clark oxygen electrode (Oxygraph, Hansatech Instruments, England) was used to measure the "intact cell respiration rate", state 3 of ADP-stimulated oxidation, maximum oxidation capacity and the activities of complexes I, II and IV. Results showed that Karnozin EXTRA® capsule in concentrations of 2 and 5 mM of L-carnosine did not induce toxic effects and morphological changes in treated cells. Our data revealed a dose-dependent immunofluorescent signal amplification of VIM and SOD2 in the BHK-21/C13 cell line. This supplement substantially increased the recorded mitochondrial respiration rates in the examined cell line. Due to the stimulation of mitochondrial energy production in normal fibroblasts, our results suggested that Karnozin EXTRA® is a potentially protective dietary supplement in the prevention of diseases with altered mitochondrial function.

RESUMEN: La carnosina se conoce como dipéptido natural, que inhibe la proliferación de células tumorales a través de su acción sobre la respiración mitocondrial y la glucólisis celular. Sin embargo, no se sabe mucho de sus efectos sobre el metabolismo de las células sanas. Exploramos los efectos de la cápsula Karnozin EXTRA® con diferentes concentraciones de L-carnosina, sobre la viabilidad celular y las expresiones de vimentina de filamento intermedio (VIM) y superóxido dismutasa (SOD2) en fibroblastos normales BHK-21 / C13. Además, estudiamos su acción sobre la producción de energía de estas células. La viabilidad celular se cuantificó mediante el ensayo MTT. Se utilizó el electrodo de oxígeno Clark (Oxygraph, Hansatech Instruments, Inglaterra) para medir la "tasa de respiración de células intactas", el estado 3 de oxidación estimulada por ADP, la capacidad máxima de oxidación y las actividades de los complejos I, II y IV. Los resultados mostraron que la cápsula de Karnozin EXTRA® en concentraciones de 2 y 5 mM de L- carnosina no indujo efectos tóxicos ni cambios morfológicos en las células tratadas. Nuestros datos revelaron una amplificación de señal inmunofluorescente dependiente de la dosis de VIM y SOD2 en la línea celular BHK-21 / C13. Este suplemento aumentó sustancialmente las tasas de respiración mitocondrial registradas en la línea celular examinada. Debido a la estimulación de la producción de energía mitocondrial en fibroblastos normales, nuestros resultados sugirieron que Karnozin EXTRA® es un suplemento dietético potencialmente protector en la prevención de enfermedades con función mitocondrial alterada.

Animals , Carnosine/pharmacology , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Kidney/cytology , Superoxide Dismutase/drug effects , Vimentin/drug effects , Biological Assay , Cell Survival/drug effects , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Cricetinae , Cell Culture Techniques , Energy Metabolism
Int. j. morphol ; 40(5): 1209-1218, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405272


SUMMARY: Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is among the most common plasticizer additives that humans are in contact with daily. DEHP can be released from plastic and enter the human body, whereby it is metabolized and transformed into oxidative hydrophilic molecules. Clinical follow-ups in patients exposed to this phthalate and investigations in cultures of several cell types have provided information on its effects. For example, it is associated with inhibition of diploid human cell development and morphological changes in cultured germ cells. Although skeletal muscle represents around 50 % of the human body mass, knowledge about the effects of DEHP on this tissue is poor. Cultured skeletal muscle cells were exposed to DEHP (1 mM) for 13 days with the aim of exploring and evaluating some of the potential morphological effects. Three culture development parameters and nine cell characteristics were monitored during the bioassay. At 13 days, growth area, cell viability, and concentration of total proteins were lower in DEHP exposed than in control cells. Cell width and area, as well as the diameter of the nucleus and nucleolus, were greater in exposed cells than in control cells. These are interpreted as signs of cytotoxicity and suggest potential adverse effects on the development of skeletal muscle cells from DEHP exposure, as reported for other cell types.

RESUMEN: Diariamente los seres humanos tenemos contacto con aditivos plastificantes, el di-(2-etilhexil) ftalato (DEHP) se encuentra entre los más comunes. El DEHP puede liberarse del plástico e ingresar al cuerpo humano, donde es metabolizado y transformando en moléculas hidrofílicas oxidativas. Seguimientos en pacientes expuestos a este ftalato e investigaciones en cultivos de varios tipos celulares han aportado información sobre sus efectos. El DEHP es asociado con la inhibición del desarrollo de células humanas diploides y cambios morfológicos en células germinales en cultivo. Sin embargo, aún es poco lo que se sabe sobre los efectos en el músculo esquelético, a pesar de que este tejido representa alrededor del 50 % de la masa corporal del humano. Para explorar y evaluar algunos efectos morfológicos en células de músculo esquelético, cultivos primarios fueron expuestos a DEHP (1 mM) durante 13 días. Se dio seguimiento a tres parámetros de desarrollo del cultivo y nueve características celulares. Al término de 13 días de exposición, los valores del área de crecimiento, viabilidad celular y concentración de proteínas totales fueron inferiores con respecto a los cultivos control. Se observaron cambios morfométricos en las células expuestas. Particularmente, el ancho y área celular, así como los diámetros del núcleo y nucleolos, fueron mayores a los registros en las células control. Estos resultados se interpretan como signos de citotoxicidad y sugieren efectos potencialmente adversos en el desarrollo de las células del músculo esquelético ante una exposición al DEHP, como se ha registrado para otros tipos celulares.

Humans , Plasticizers/toxicity , Muscle, Skeletal/drug effects , Diethylhexyl Phthalate/toxicity , Biological Assay , Muscle, Skeletal/cytology , Environmental Pollutants , Primary Cell Culture
Bull. méd. Owendo (En ligne) ; 20(51): 30-37, 2022.
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1378230


Introduction: La mise en place depuis Septembre 2016 au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHUL) d'une consultation d'hématologie dédiée aux adultes drépanocytaires a été l'occasion de mener cette étude dont le but principal était d'établir les profils clinique et paraclinique de l'adulte drépanocytaire régulièrement suivi.Patients et méthodes : Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective. La population d'étude était constituée de patients drépanocytaires homozygotes de 18 ans et plus, qui avaient effectués au moins trois consultations d'hématologie sur une année. Les informations recueillies, après étude du dossier médical et entretien téléphonique avec le patient, concernaient les données socio-démographiques, l'histoire de la drépanocytose, les antécédents, les complications de la maladie, les examens biologiques et radiologiques et le traitement.Résultats : Au total 88 patients répondaient aux critères d'inclusion sur les 233 drépanocytaires vus durant la période de l'étude. L'âge moyen était de 30,4 ± 7,8 ans. L'interrogatoire révélait que la crise vaso-occlusive (CVO) était la principale complication aiguë et la lithiase vésiculaire (36,3%) la première complication chronique. L'hémoglobine moyenne était de 7,8 g/dl et pour 49,3% des patients elle se situait entre 7 et 9 g/dl. Les leucocytes étaient augmentés dans 65,7%. L'échographie cardiaque réalisée chez 35 patients retrouvait 11,1% d'hypertension artérielle pulmonaire et 22,8% d'hypertrophie ventriculaire gauche. L'intensité de la crise douloureuse motivait une consultation au service des urgences du CHU dans 81,6% des cas dont plus de 62% déploraient un retard dans l'exécution de cette prise en charge bien qu'ils en aient été satisfaits dans 54,9% des cas.Conclusion : Les drépanocytaires adultes régulièrement suivis au CHUL sont peu nombreux. La transition entre le suivi pédiatrique et adulte doit se faire avec une transmission des informations du dossier médical sur l'histoire de la drépanocytose.

Introduction: The establishment since September 2016 at the University Hospital Center (CHUL) of a hematology consultation dedicated to adults with sickle cell disease was an opportunity to conduct this study, the main purpose of which was to establish the clinical and paraclinical profiles of the adults with sickle cell disease regularly monitored. Patients and methods: This was a retrospective study. The study population consisted of homozygous sickle cell patients aged 18 and over, who had performed at least three hematology consultations over a year. The information collected, after studying the medical file and telephone interview with the patient, concerned socio-demographic data, history of sickle cell disease, history, complications of the disease, biological and radiological examinations and treatment. Results: A total of 88 patients met the inclusion criteria out of the 233 sickle cell patients seen during the study period. The mean age was 30.4 ± 7.8 years. The questioning revealed that vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC) was the main acute complication and cholelithiasis (36.3%) the first chronic complication. The average hemoglobin was 7.8 g/dl and for 49.3% of the patients it was between 7 and 9 g/dl. Leukocytes were increased in 65.7%. Cardiac ultrasound performed in 35 patients found 11.1% pulmonary arterial hypertension and 22.8% left ventricular hypertrophy. The intensity of the painful crisis motivated a consultation in the emergency department of the CHU in 81.6% of cases, of which more than 62% complained of a delay in the execution of this care although they were satisfied with it in 54 .9% of cases.Conclusion: Few adult sickle cell sufferers are regularly monitored at the CHUL. The transition between pediatric and adult follow-up must be made with a transmission of information from the medical file on the history of sickle cell disease

Humans , Male , Female , Pathology, Clinical , Anemia, Sickle Cell , Biological Assay , Chelation Therapy , Cell Tracking
Arq. Inst. Biol. (Online) ; 89: e00152021, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1393889


Botulism is a disease usually fatal, caused by the ingestion of neurotoxins produced by Clostridium botulinum. In dogs, intoxication is caused by the ingestion of botulinum toxin type C, and animals often recover spontaneously. The present study describes the occurrence of type C botulism in two dogs domiciled on neighboring rural properties in the municipality of Goiânia, state of Goiás, Brazil, probably associated with ingestion of decomposing bovine carcass. Upon clinical evaluation, the dogs were alert in the lateral decubitus position with ascending flaccid paralysis, absence of eyelid reflexes, and reduced muscle tone. Due to their worsening clinical symptoms, the animals died within 12 h and 3 days after supportive treatment. Botulinum toxin type C was identified, in the serum and feces of both dogs, by seroneutralization in mice with homologous monovalent antitoxin. The results of the high-throughput gene sequencing showed that the abundance of C. botulinum in the fecal microbiota of one of the affected dogs was low (0.53%). In this way, the present study highlights the need of sanitary practices related to the appropriate collection and disposal of bovine carcasses in rural areas since they represent a risk factor for the occurrence of botulism in dogs domiciled on rural properties.

Animals , Dogs , Mice , Botulinum Toxins/analysis , Botulism/epidemiology , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Sequence Analysis, RNA/veterinary , Clostridium botulinum type C/isolation & purification , Biological Assay/veterinary
Infectio ; 25(3): 143-144, jul.-set. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1250083


Frente al escepticismo de encontrar una vacuna para COVID19, los resultados de los ensayos clínicos de Fase III dieron la sentencia: se lograron vacunas con alto grado de eficacia que llega al 70% a 95%. Al momento de escribir esta editorial, dos de ellas ya tienen autorización para uso de emergencia por el FDA. La OMS realiza un seguimiento cotidiano a los avances de candidatos vacunales, el reporte para el 22 de Diciembre encontraba 57 en fases de evaluación clínica (entre estas 11 en fase III) y 166 en fase preclínica.

In the face of skepticism about finding a vaccine for COVID19 , the results of the Phase III clinical trials were conclusive: vaccines with a high degree of efficacy of 70% to 95% were achieved. At the time of writing this editorial, two of them have already been authorized for emergency use by the FDA. The WHO monitors the progress of vaccine candidates on a daily basis; the report as of December 22nd found 57 in clinical evaluation phases (including 11 in Phase III) and 166 in preclinical phase.

Humans , Vaccines , COVID-19 , Science , Biological Assay , Efficacy
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 10(2): 1-9, abr. 30, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1381731


Objective: To determine the cytotoxicity and effects of graphene oxide (GO) on cellular proliferation of gingival-fibroblasts, pulp-dental cells and human osteoblasts in culture, and to determine the physical, mechanical and biological properties of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) enriched with GO. Material and Methods: The GO was characterized with SEM. Cytotoxicity and cell proliferation were determined by the MTT bioassay. The physical mechanical tests (flexural strength and elastic modulus) were carried out with a universal testing machine. Sorption and solubility were determined by weighing before and after drying and immersion in water. Porosity was evaluated by visual inspection. Data were analyzed with Student's t-test and Tukey's posthoc ANOVA. Results: The GO has a heterogeneous morphology and a particle size of 66.67±64.76 µm. GO has a slight to no-cytotoxicity (>50-75% viability) at 1-30 days, and at 24 hours incubation of PMMA with GO significantly stimulates osteoblasts (45±8%, p<0.01). The physical and mechanical properties of PMMA with GO increase considerably without altering sorption, solubility and porosity. Conclusion: GO alone or with PMMA has an acceptable biocompatibility, could contribute to cell proliferation, cell regeneration and improve the physical mechanical properties of PMMA.

Objective: To determine the cytotoxicity and effects of graphene oxide (GO) on cellular proliferation of gingival-fibroblasts, pulpdental cells and human osteoblasts in culture, and to determine the physical, mechanical and biological properties of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) enriched with GO. Material and Methods: T he G O w as c haracterized with SEM. Cytotoxicity and cell proliferation were determined by the MTT bioassay. The physical-mechanical tests (flexural strength and elastic modulus) were carried out with a universal testing machine. Sorption and solubility were determined by weighing before and after drying and immersion in water. Porosity was evaluated by visual inspection. Data were analyzed with Student's t-test and Tukey's post-hoc ANOVA. Results: The GO has a heterogeneous morphology and a particle size of 66.67±64.76 ?m. GO has a slight to no-cytotoxicity (>50-75% viability) at 1-30 days, and at 24 hours incubation of PMMA with GO significantly stimulates osteoblasts (45±8%, p<0.01). The physical and mechanical properties of PMMA with GO increase considerably without altering sorption, solubility and porosity. Conclusion: GO alone or with PMMA has an acceptable biocompatibility, could contribute to cell proliferation, cell regeneration and improve the physical-mechanical properties of PMMA.

Humans , Biocompatible Materials , Polymethyl Methacrylate/chemistry , Graphite/chemistry , Osteoblasts , Oxides , Regeneration , Biological Assay , Cell Proliferation , Flexural Strength
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(1): e028520, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156222


Abstract This study aimed to identify members of the Sarcocystidae family in naturally infected wild birds at a rescue center in the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. The heart and brain of 44 wild birds were evaluated by bioassay in mice to detect T. gondii, and extracted DNA was used for nested PCR of the 18S ribosomal DNA gene to detect members of the Sarcocystidae family. The positive samples were sequenced, assembled, edited and compared with sequences deposited in GenBank. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from six (13.6%) out of 44 birds. Toxoplasma gondii DNA was identified in 10/44 (22.7%) of the birds. The amplified sequences exhibited 100% similarity with the DNA of the ME49 strain of T. gondii. Sarcocystis DNA (99% similarity) was identified in 5/44 (11.4%) of the birds. T. gondii and Sarcocystis spp. are common in wild birds in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar membros da família Sarcocystidae em aves silvestres de vida livre naturalmente infectadas e resgatadas no estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Coração e cérebro de 44 aves silvestres foram avaliados por bioensaio em camundongos para detecção de T. gondii e extração de DNA para Nested-PCR do gene 18S do DNA ribossomal de membros da família Sarcocystidae. As amostras positivas foram sequenciadas, analisadas, editadas e comparadas com sequências depositadas no GenBank. Toxoplasma gondii foi isolado de seis (13,6%) das 44 aves. DNA de T. gondii foi identificado em 10/44 (22,7%) das 44 aves. As sequências amplificadas exibiram 100% de similaridade com o DNA da cepa ME49 de T. gondii. DNA de Sarcocystis (99% de similaridade) foi identificado em 5/44 (11,4%) das 44 aves. T. gondii e Sarcocystis spp. são encontrados, comumente, em aves silvestres no estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil.

Animals , Rabbits , Bird Diseases/parasitology , Bird Diseases/epidemiology , Coccidiosis/epidemiology , Sarcocystidae/genetics , Toxoplasma/genetics , Biological Assay , Birds , Brazil , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/epidemiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , DNA, Protozoan , Sarcocystis/genetics
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887726


Objective@#To obtain precise data on the changes in the levels of 29 cytokines in mice after high or low linear energy transfer (LET) irradiation and to develop an accurate model of radiation exposure based on the cytokine levels after irradiation.@*Methods@#Plasma samples harvested from mice at different time points after carbon-ion or X-ray irradiation were analyzed using meso-scale discovery (MSD), a high-throughput and sensitive electrochemiluminescence measurement technique. Dose estimation equations were set up using multiple linear regression analysis.@*Results@#The relative levels of IL-6 at 1 h, IL-5 and IL-6 at 24 h, and IL-5, IL-6 and IL-15 at 7 d after irradiation with two intensities increased dose-dependently. The minimum measured levels of IL-5, IL-6 and IL-15 were up to 4.0076 pg/mL, 16.4538 pg/mL and 0.4150 pg/mL, respectively. In addition, dose estimation models were established and verified.@*Conclusions@#The MSD assay can provide more accurate data regarding the changes in the levels of the cytokines IL-5, IL-6 and IL-15. These cytokines could meet the essential criteria for radiosensitive biomarkers and can be used as radiation indicators. Our prediction models can conveniently and accurately estimate the exposure dose in irradiated organism.

Animals , Biological Assay , Biomarkers/blood , Carbon , Cytokines/blood , Female , Heavy Ions , Linear Energy Transfer , Linear Models , Mice , Radiation Dosage , Radiation, Ionizing
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06821, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1250485


Fipronil was registered in Uruguay in 1997, and, since then, it has been used for the control of Haematobia irritans irritans and Rhipicephalus microplus. The susceptibility of H. irritants to this drug has not been evaluated. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to evaluate the resistance of H. irritans to fipronil. Additionally, a survey was carried out with the farmers to evaluate the use of fipronil for H. irritans control in the ranches where the flies came from. For the bioassays, 31 field populations of H. irritans were exposed to 10 concentrations of fipronil (3.2-16.0μg.cm2), and their LC50 values were calculated using probit analysis. A bioassay was performed with horn flies from the susceptible colony maintained at the USDA-ARS Knipling-Bushland U.S. Livestock Insects Research Laboratory for comparison and calculation of resistance ratios (RRs). All 31 field populations surveyed in the study were susceptible to fipronil, with resistance ratios ranging from <0.5 to 2.2. Four populations with RRs >1 did not differ significantly from the susceptible strain. A single population showed an RR >2.2. Overall, the survey shows that fipronil was mostly used for R. microplus control, and in only three ranches, which were free of R. microplus, was fipronil used for horn fly control. Seventeen farmers did not use fipronil at all in the last three years. It is concluded that, in Uruguay, field populations of horn flies remain susceptible to fipronil.(AU)

O fipronil foi registrado no Uruguai em 1997 e, desde então, tem sido utilizado no controle de Haematobia irritans irritans e Rhipicephalus microplus. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a susceptibilidade de populações de campo de H. irritans ao fipronil. Além disso, foi realizada uma pesquisa para avaliar a utilização de fipronil e as práticas de controle de H. irritans nas fazendas de onde provinham as moscas. Para os bioensaios, 31 populações de campo de H. irritans foram expostas a 10 concentrações de fipronil (3,2-16,0μg.cm2), e seus valores de CL50 foram calculados usando análise probit. Um bioensaio foi realizado com H. irritans da colônia suscetível mantida no USDA-ARS Knipling-Bushland U.S. Livestock Insects Research Laboratory para comparação e cálculo das razões de resistência (RRs). Todas as 31 populações de campo pesquisadas no estudo eram suscetíveis ao fipronil, com taxas de resistência variando de <0,5 à 2,2. Quatro populações com Rrs >1 não diferiram significativamente da cepa suscetível. Uma única população apresentou RR >2,2. No geral, o fipronil tinha sido usado principalmente para o controle de R. microplus, e em apenas três fazendas, que estavam livres de R. microplus, o fipronil era utilizado para o controle da H. irritans. Em 17 fazendas não tinha sido utilizado fipronil nos últimos três anos. Conclui-se que no Uruguai as populações de H. irritans no campo permanecem suscetíveis ao fipronil.(AU)

Animals , Cattle , Biological Assay , Pest Control, Biological , Rhipicephalus/pathogenicity , Diptera , Livestock , Surveys and Questionnaires , Disease Susceptibility , Laboratories
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 88: e00482020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1349006


The aim of the present study was to evaluate the resistance of tick populations on 16 family farms that were members of the agricultural producers' cooperative of the São Pedro region of the state of São Paulo (COOPAMSP). Bioassays were conducted on nine commercial products in 2018 and 2019. Their active agents were as follows: deltamethrin, amitraz, cypermethrin + chlorpyrifos + citronella, cypermethrin + chlorpyrifos + fenthion, cypermethrin + chlorpyrifos + piperonyl butoxide, dichlorvos + chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, chlorfenvinphos + dichlorvos, and ivermectin. On some farms, a larval packet test (LPT) was also performed. Overall, four acaricides presented mean efficacy greater than 89%, among which two were associations of pyrethroids + organophosphates and two were associations of organophosphates + organophosphates. Deltamethrin, cypermethrin and ivermectin presented mean efficacy lower than 50%. In the bioassays using the LPT, all five farms showed resistance to diazinon, while only one farm presented resistance to cypermethrin. The results were handed over to each farmer with appropriate guidance for treatments. This study demonstrated that the important points to be implemented related directly to use control strategies, based on direct assistance for farmers and diagnosis of tick population sensitivities.

Ticks , Tick Control , Acaricides , Organophosphates , Biological Assay , Community-Institutional Relations , Cymbopogon , Rhipicephalus , Diazinon , Fenthion
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879160


Based on the heat-clearing and detoxifying effects of Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma, the network pharmacology is mainly used to predict the potential targets of Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma for anti-inflammatory activity and to perform the experimental verification. A method for detecting the biological potency of Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma based on verifiable targets has been established to provide a reference for improving the quality evaluation and control standards of Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma. High performance liquid chromatography can be used to construct chemical fingerprints of different batches of Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma. Constructing a component-target-disease network of Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma for its anti-inflammatory activity was applied to screen potential anti-inflammatory components and related targets of Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma, and to verify the target of Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma by using biological evaluation methods. Detecting the biological potency of different batches of Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma extracts was used to inhibit COX-2 enzyme activity based the verifiable target cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2). The results showed that different batches of Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma accorded with the pharmacopoeia testing regulations, and the chemical fingerprints have a high similarity(similarity>0.93), suggesting that there is no significant difference in the characteristics of the chemical components. Based on network pharmacology predictions, 18 candidate targets were found to have potential direct interactions with the ingredients in Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma. Among them, the most important target is COX-2. Based on the experimental verification of recombinant human COX-2 protease activity inhibition, Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma can inhibit the COX-2 enzyme activity in a dose-dependent manner. It can function with a low concentration(0.75 mg·mL~(-1)), which preliminarily confirmed the accuracy of network pharmacology prediction. The biological potency detection method of Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma based on COX-2 inhibitory activity was optimized and established. The qualitative response parallel line method was used to calculate the biological potency of anti-inflammatory activity, which ranged from 23.04 to 46.60 U·mg~(-1). For network pharmacology prediction, it can screen and clarify the possible targets of traditional Chinese medicine rapidly, which can guide the establishment of a biological evaluation method for the quality of medicinal materials with related activities. Compared with chemical fingerprints, the biological potency testing can better detect quality fluctuations of traditional Chinese medicine.

Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Biological Assay , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Quality Control , Rhizome
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 117-125, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877178


@#Background. Accidental radiation exposure can occur anytime. Biodosimeters help in quantifying the absorbed dose of individuals who are not equipped with personal dosimeters during radiation exposure. The dicentric assay can quantify radiation damage by correlating radiation dose exposure with the frequency of dicentric chromosomes in the peripheral lymphocytes extracted from exposed individuals. Objective. The study aims to present the interim results of the reference dose-response curve for a Philippine radiotherapy facility constructed using a 6MV linear accelerator (ClinacX, Varian). Methods. Samples of peripheral blood from healthy volunteers were irradiated in a customized water phantom of doses 0.10 to 5.0 Gray using a linear accelerator. The irradiated samples were cultured and analyzed following the International Atomic Energy Agency Cytogenetic Dosimetry Protocol (2011) with modifications. Linear-quadratic model curve fitting and further statistical analysis were done using CABAS (Chromosome Aberration Calculation Software Version 2.0) and Dose Estimate (Version 5.2). Interim results of the samples were used to generate these curves. Results. The dose-response curve generated from the preliminary results were comparable to published dose response curves from international cytogenetic laboratories. Conclusion. The generated dose-response calibration curve will be useful for medical triage of the public and radiologic staff accidentally exposed to radiation during medical procedures or in the event of nuclear accidents.

Cytogenetics , Biological Assay , Chromosome Disorders , Cytogenetic Analysis , Radiation
Braz. j. biol ; 80(4): 735-740, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142518


Abstract The management and use of native species under laboratory conditions is the main difficult for species proposal for its use in bioassays. The present study showed the results about management under controlled conditions of Paratanytarsus grimmii (Diptera: Chironomidae), that is a parthenogenetic species with wide geographical distribution. It obtained its eggs from a pre Andean river from Araucania region (39° S), and it determined the conditions for larval rearing under artificial food, adults getting (manipulation), eggs (hatching sincronization) and larvae getting after hatching. The P.grimmii life cycle had larvae that late 23 days in get the pupa stage (stage I to IV), the adult within the next 48 hours deposits the eggs that hatched at 72 hours. It stablished laboratory conditions: incubation room temperature, water pH, and artificial feeding, photoperiod and larvae and eggs management techniques. In according to obtained results it managed all life cycles under laboratory conditions that can propose the use of this species as potential biological material for toxicity bioassays.

Resumo O manejo e o uso de espécies nativas em condições de laboratório são as principais dificuldades para a proposta de uso de espécies em bioensaios. O presente estudo mostrou os resultados acerca do manejo sob condições controladas de Paratanytarsus grimmii (Diptera: Chironomidae), espécie partenogenética com ampla distribuição geográfica. Foram obtidos seus ovos de um rio pré-andino da região de Araucanía (39º S) e determinadas as condições para criação de larvas sob alimentação artificial, obtenção de adultos (manipulação), de ovos (sincronização de eclosão) e de larvas após a eclosão. O ciclo de vida de P. grimmii teve larvas que, ao final dos 23 dias, atingiram o estágio de pupa (estágio I a IV). O adulto depositou nas 48 horas seguintes os ovos que eclodiram às 72 horas. Foram estabelecidas condições laboratoriais: temperatura da sala de incubação, pH da água e alimentação artificial, fotoperíodo e técnicas de manejo de larvas e ovos. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, foram gerenciados todos os ciclos de vida em condições de laboratório que podem propor o uso dessa espécie como material biológico potencial para bioensaios de toxicidade.

Animals , Chironomidae , Diptera , Pupa , Reference Standards , Biological Assay , Larva
Salud bienestar colect ; 4(3): 39-57, sept.-dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1281954


Con el propósito de caracterizar la praxis Bioanalítica desde la matriz epistemológica vigente, la investigación se realizó bajo el Enfoque Integrador Transcomplejo. Para el abordaje de la problemática de estudio se empleó la complementariedad metódica. El grupo humano quedó constituido por cinco docentes Bioanalistas, a los que se le realizó una entrevista focalizada y en profundidad. Entre los hallazgos se evidenció que la praxis bioanalítica fue modelada desde la modernidad como un ejercicio mecanicista, repetitivo, desarticulado de lo social y lo humano. La modernidad es reproducida en las universidades mediante una formación vertical, donde no se articula lo biológico con lo social, con lo histórico o lo cultural; ya que la malla curricular está definida por un grupo de asignaturas cargados de contenidos procedimentales, impartidos a partir de objetivos de forma aislada, que centra la atención en la enfermedad y concibe su praxis desde roles y tareas, dándole mayor énfasis al rol de analista. Desde esta perspectiva, se niega los aportes dados por la epistemología, la historia, lo sociología, antropología y la educación al saber Bioanalítico, quedando limitado su impacto en la Salud Pública. Para redimensionar la concepción social del Bioanálisis y su praxis es necesario que se asuman nuevos paradigmas y nuevas metodologías y la Transcomplejidad constituye una opción para dar respuesta a esta demanda.

In purpose to characterize the Bioanalytical praxis from the current epistemological matrix, the research was carried out under the TranscomplexIntegrative Approach. Methodical complementarity was used to address the study problem. The human group was made up of five Bioanalyst teachers, who were given a focused and in-depth interview. Among the findings, it was evident that bioanalytic praxis was modeled since modernity as a mechanistic, repetitive, disjointed exercise of the social and the human. Modernity is reproduced in universities through vertical training, where the biological is not articulated with the social, with the historical or the cultural; since the curricular mesh is defined by a group of subjects loaded with procedural content, taught from objectives in isolation, which focuses attention on the disease and conceives its praxis from roles and tasks, giving greater emphasis to the role of analyst. From this perspective, the contributions given by epistemology, history, sociology, anthropology and education to Bioanalytical knowledge are denied, leaving their impact on Public Health limited. To resize the social conception of Bioanalysis and its praxis, it is necessary to assume new paradigms and new methodologies and Transcomplexity constitutes an option to respond to this demand.

Humans , Biological Assay , Chemistry Techniques, Analytical , Public Health , Social Values , Venezuela , Interview , Biomedical Research/methods , Professional Training
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(4): 1339-1345, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131509


Free-range chickens may ingest oocysts of T. gondii present in the environment and consequently harbor virulent strains of this parasite in different tissues, without any clinical signs. Isolation of T. gondii through bioassays on mice and cats from naturally infected chicken tissues has been described in several countries, demonstrating the importance of free-range chickens in the transmission of this parasite. The aim of this study was the genotypic characterization of T. gondii isolates obtained from naturally infected free-range chickens in a rural area of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Brain and heart tissue from 12 chickens seropositive for T. gondii were processed using peptic digestion technique for parasite isolation. From 12 samples subjected to mouse bioassay, nine isolates were obtained. RFLP-PCR genotypic characterization was performed using 11 genetic markers: SAG1, 5'-3'SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico. Genetic characterization of the isolates revealed the presence of five atypical genotypes according to ToxoDB (# 11, # 55, # 64, # 140 and # 163). Our results showed a wide genetic diversity of T. gondii in free-range chickens in this region.(AU)

Galinhas criadas ao ar livre podem ingerir oocistos de T. gondii presentes no ambiente e, com isso, albergar cepas virulentas desse parasita em diferentes tecidos, sem sinais clínicos. O isolamento de T. gondii por meio de bioensaios em camundongos e gatos, a partir de tecidos de galinhas naturalmente infectadas, tem sido descrito em vários países. Isso demonstra a importância das galinhas caipiras na epidemiologia desse parasita. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar genotipicamente isolados de T. gondii obtidos de galinhas caipiras naturalmente infectadas em uma área rural do município de Santa Maria, estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Fragmentos de cérebro e de coração, de 12 galinhas soropositivas para T. gondii, foram processados pela técnica de digestão péptica para isolamento do parasita. Das 12 amostras submetidas a bioensaio com camundongos, nove isolados foram obtidos. A caracterização genotípica por RFLP-PCR foi realizada utilizando-se 11 marcadores genéticos: SAG1, 5'-3'SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 e Apico e revelou a presença de cinco genótipos atípicos de acordo com o ToxoDB (# 11, # 55, # 64, # 140 e # 163). Os resultados mostraram uma ampla diversidade genética de T. gondii em galinhas caipiras nessa região.(AU)

Animals , Mice , Toxoplasma , Biological Assay/veterinary , Chickens/virology , Toxoplasmosis, Animal , Genotyping Techniques/veterinary , Rural Areas , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 45: 19-29, May 15, 2020. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177401


BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), as post-transcriptional regulators, were thought to function in the inductive property of dermal papilla cells (DPCs) in cashmere goat. Previously, lncRNA-599554 was identified in secondary hair follicle (SHF) of cashmere goat, but its functional significance is unknown. RESULTS: In the present investigation, we verified that lncRNA-599554 had significantly higher expression at the anagen dermal papilla of cashmere goat SHF than that at telogen. Based on overexpression and knockdown techniques, we found that lncRNA-599554 contributes the inductive property of DPCs of cashmere goat, which was assessed by detecting the changes in the expression of several typical indictor genes in DPCs including ET-1, SCF, Versican, ALP, Lef1 and Ptc-1. Based on RNA pull-down assay, we verified that lncRNA-599554 directly interacted with chi-miR-15a-5p. Also, we showed that lncRNA-599554 positively regulated the Wnt3a expression in DPCs but which did not appear to involve its modulating of promoter methylation. Based on the use of Dual-luciferase reporter assays, our data indicated that lncRNA-599554 regulated the Wnt3a expression through chi-miR-15a-5p-mediated post-transcriptional level. CONCLUSIONS: We showed that lncRNA-599554 contributes the inductive property of DPCs in cashmere goat which might be achieved through sponging chi-miR-15b-5p to promote the Wnt3a expression. The results from the present investigation provided a novel insight into the functional mechanism of lncRNA-599554 in the SHF regeneration of cashmere goat along with the formation and growth of cashmere fiber.

Animals , Hair Follicle/cytology , Hair Follicle/metabolism , Dermis/cytology , Wnt3A Protein/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , Biological Assay/methods , Goats , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , Luciferases , Methylation
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(2): 221-235, mar. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104211


Santiago Quiotepec, one of the oldest communities of the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley (México), has a great tradition using medicinal plants. The aim of this study was to make an inventory of the medicinal species used by the inhabitants of Santiago Quiotepec and evaluate the antibacterial activity. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants was carried out, 60 informants mentioned that 66 species of plants are being used in the treatment of different diseases. Fifteen species were selected to evaluate the antibacterial activity in possible bacterial originated diseases treatment. The lowest values were presented in the hexane extract of Plumbago pulchella, with a MIC of 0.25 mg/mL over Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis as well as the hexanic extract of Echinopterys eglandulosa showed a MIC of 0.25 mg/mL over Pseudomona aeruginosa.

Santiago Quiotepec es una de las comunidades más antiguas del valle de Tehuacán-Cuicatlán (México), y tiene una gran tradición en el uso de plantas medicinales. El objetivo de este estudio fue realizar un inventario de las especies medicinales utilizadas por los habitantes de Santiago Quiotepec y evaluar la actividad antibacteriana. Se realizó un estudio etnobotánico de plantas medicinales, 60 informantes mencionaron 66 especies de plantas utilizadas en el tratamiento de diferentes enfermedades. Quince especies utilizadas en la comunidad para tratar enfermedades de posible origen bacteriano fueron seleccionadas para evaluar la actividad antibacteriana. Los valores más bajos se presentaron en el extracto hexánico de Plumbago pulchella, con una CMI de 0.25 mg/ml sobre Staphylococcus aureus y S. epidermidis, así como el extracto hexánico de Echinopterys eglandulosa mostró una CMI de 0.25 mg/mL sobre Pseudomona aeruginosa.

Plants, Medicinal/classification , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Ethnobotany , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Biological Assay , Mexico