Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 643
Filter
1.
Psicol. USP ; 33: e220039, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1394518

ABSTRACT

Resumo No mundo contemporâneo, o patriarcado se estabeleceu de forma hegemônica, por isso, este estudo tem como propósito investigar hipóteses sobre a origem evolutiva desse sistema, explorar os motivos para tal construção social e discutir a filopatria masculina como possível causa da manutenção da estrutura patriarcal. Por meio de pesquisa bibliográfica e estudos etológicos foi possível analisar os comportamentos, conceitos, origens, padrões e conformações em nível filogenético desse sistema social. Além disso, verifica-se a existência de sociedades contemporâneas que se contrapõem ao patriarcalismo por possuírem organizações matrilineares, matrilocais e matriarcais. Dessa maneira, apesar da hegemonia do sistema patriarcal, essa estrutura não é única e estática, sendo seu dinamismo evidenciado por conformações sociais existentes na contemporaneidade.


Abstract Patriarchy is a hegemonic social system in the contemporary world. This study investigates the evolutionary origins of patriarchy, exploring its basis and whether masculine philopatry acts to maintain the patriarchal structure. An an integrative literature review of ethological studies allowed us to analysing behaviors, concepts, origins, patterns and conformations at the phylogenetic level. Moreover, it verified the existence of current matrilineal and matriarchal communities that oppose patriarchy. Despite its hegemony, patriarchy is neither unique nor static, as evidenced by distinct contemporary social configurations.


Résumé Le patriarcat est u système social hégémonique dans le monde contemporain. Cette étude a pour but d''évaluerse penche sur les origines évolutives du patriarcat, en explorant ses fondements et en examinant si la philopatrie masculine agit pour maintenir la structure patriarcale. Une revue de littérature intégrative des études éthologiques nous a permis d'analyser les comportements, les concepts, les origines, les modèles et la configuration du patriarcat au niveau phylogénétique. De plus, elle a permis de vérifier l'existence de communautés matrilinéaires et matriarcales contemporaines qui s'opposent au patriarcat. Malgré son hégémonie, le patriarcat n'est ni unique ni statique, comme en témoignent les différentes configurations sociales contemporaines.


Resumen En la contemporaneidad, el sistema patriarcal se ha establecido de forma hegemónica. Este estudio tiene como propósito plantear hipótesis sobre el origen evolutivo del patriarcado, explorar los motivos para tal construcción social y discutir la filopatria masculina como posible causa del mantenimiento de la estructura patriarcal. A partir de la investigación bibliográfica y de estudios etológicos ha sido posible hacer un análisis de los comportamientos, conceptos, orígenes, patrones y conformaciones a nivel filogenético de ese sistema social. Además, se observa la existencia de sociedades contemporáneas que se contraponen al patriarcalismo al poseer organizaciones matrilineales, matrilocales y matriarcales. De esta forma, a pesar de la hegemonía del sistema patriarcal, esta estructura no es única y estática, y su dinamismo es evidenciado por conformaciones sociales existentes en la actualidad.


Subject(s)
Phylogeny , Family Characteristics/history , Social Organization , Biological Evolution , Gender Role , Social Dominance , Ethology , Men
2.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200620, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287338

ABSTRACT

The phylogenetic paradigm of eukaryotic evolution has changed dramatically over the past two decades, with profound reflections on the understanding of life on earth. Arcellinida testate (shelled) amoebae lineages represent some of the oldest fossils of eukaryotes, and the elucidation of their phylogenetic relationships opened a window to the distant past, with important implications for understanding the evolution of life on earth. This four-part essay summarises advances made in the past 20 years regarding: (i) the phylogenetic relationships among amoebae with shells evolving in concert with the advances made in the phylogeny of eukaryotes; (ii) paleobiological studies unraveling the biological affinities of Neoproterozoic vase-shaped microfossils (VSMs); (iii) the interwoven interpretation of these different sets of data concluding that the Neoproterozoic contains a surprising diversity of organisms, in turn demanding a reinterpretation of the most profound events we know in the history of eukaryotes, and; (iv) a synthesis of the current knowledge about the evolution of Arcellinida, together with the possibilities and pitfalls of their interpretation.


Subject(s)
Paleontology , Amoeba , Phylogeny , Biological Evolution , Fossils
3.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(5): 577-583, nov. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1144254

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La tuberculosis es un problema de salud pública de alta prevalencia. Los niños constituyen una población de riesgo de enfermar y evolucionar a formas graves. Objetivo: Describir la frecuencia, características epidemiológicas, clínicas y evolutivas de los pacientes bajo 15 años de edad, internados por tuberculosis extra-pulmonar (TBCEP) en el Centro Hospitalario Pereira Rossell-Uruguay, durante 2009 a 2019. Pacientes y Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, revisión de historias clínicas y registros de la Comisión Honoraria para la Lucha Antituberculosa. Variables: edad, sexo, nexo epidemiológico, clínica, confirmación diagnóstica, tratamiento y complicaciones. Resultados: Se registraron 77 casos de TBCEP, fueron hospitalizados en este centro 45 (58%). Media de edad 7 años, varones 25 (56%). Todos recibieron vacuna BCG. Se identificó nexo epidemiológico en 28 (62%). Las formas de TBCEP fueron: pleural 26 (58%), sistema nervioso central (SNC) 9 (20%), linfoganglionar 4 (9%), cutánea 2 (5%), ósea 1 (2%), peritoneal 1 (2%), pleural-peritoneal 1 (2%), ósea-SNC 1 (2%). Confirmación etiológica hubo en 23 (51%): mediante cultivo 16, GeneXpert 5, por ambos 2. Completaron tratamiento 36 (80%). Presentaron complicaciones 4 (9%): status convulsivo 2, hemorragia cerebral 1, fallo orgánico múltiple 1. Conclusiones: La TBCEP ocurrió en niños previamente sanos. El diagnóstico requiere alto índice de sospecha y la confirmación el empleo simultáneo de varias técnicas diagnósticas.


Abstract Background: Tuberculosis is a public health problem. Children constitute a population at risk of becoming ill and evolving into serious forms. Aim: To describe the frequency, epidemiological, clinical and evolutionary characteristics of children under 15 years of age hospitalized for extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) at the Pereira Rossell Hospital-Uruguay, during 2009-2019. Methods: Descriptive, retrospective study, review of medical records and records of the Honorary Commission for the Fight Against Tuberculosis. Variables: age, sex, epidemiological and clinical link, diagnostic confirmation, treatment and complications. Results: 77 cases of EPTB were registered, 45 (58%) were hospitalized in this center. Average age 7 years, males 25 (56%). All received the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine. An epidemiological link was identified in 28 (62%). The forms of EPTB were: pleural 26 (58%), central nervous system (CNS) 9 (20%), lymphoganglionic 4 (9%), cutaneous 2 (5%), bone 1 (2%), peritoneal 1 (2%), pleural- peritoneal 1 (2%), bone-CNS 1 (2%). Etiology was confirmed in 23 (51%): by culture 16, GeneXpert 5, by both 2. Thirty-six (80%) patients completed treatment. Four (9%) presented complications: convulsive state 2, cerebral hemorrhage 1, multiple organ failure 1. Conclusions: EPTB occurred in previously healthy children. The diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion and the confirmation of the simultaneous use of several diagnostic techniques.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Uruguay/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Biological Evolution , Hospitals
4.
Acta bioeth ; 26(2): 165-177, oct. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1141922

ABSTRACT

Abstract Social implementation of post-humanism could affect the biological evolution of living beings and especially that of humans. This paper addresses the issue from the biological and anthropological-philosophical perspectives. From the biological perspective, reference is made first to the evolution of hominids until the emergence of Homo sapiens, and secondly, to the theories of evolution with special reference to their scientific foundation and the theory of extended heredity. In the anthropological-philosophical part, the paradigm is presented according to which human consciousness, in its emancipatory zeal against biological nature, must "appropriate" the roots of its physis to transcend the human and move towards a more "perfect" entity; we also assess the theory that refers this will to the awakening of the cosmic consciousness in our conscious matter. Finally, it assesses whether this post-humanist emancipatory paradigm implies true evolution or, instead, an involution to the primitive state of nature.


Resumen La implementación social del poshumanismo podría afectar la evolución biológica de los seres vivos y, especialmente, la de los humanos. Este artículo aborda el tema desde las perspectivas biológica y antropológico-filosófica. Desde la perspectiva biológica, se hace referencia, en primer lugar, a la evolución de los homínidos hasta la aparición del Homo sapiens, y en segundo lugar a las teorías de la evolución, con especial referencia a su fundamento científico y a la teoría de la herencia extendida. En la parte antropológico-filosófica se presenta el paradigma según el cual la conciencia humana, en su afán emancipador frente a la naturaleza biológica, debe "apropiarse" de las raíces de su physis para trascender lo humano y avanzar hacia una entidad más "perfecta"; evaluamos también la teoría que refiere esta voluntad al despertar de la conciencia cósmica en nuestra materia consciente. Finalmente, evalúa si este paradigma emancipatorio poshumanista implica una verdadera evolución o, en cambio, una involución al primitivo estado de naturaleza.


Resumo A implementação social do pós-humanismo pode afetar a evolução biológica dos seres vivos e especialmente dos humanos. Esse artigo aborda o problema de perspectivas biológicas e antropológico-filosófica. Desde uma perspectiva biológica, é feito referencia primeiro à evolução de hominídeos até a emergência do Homo sapiens e, em seguida, às teorias da evolução, com especial referencia ao seu fundamento científico e à teoria da hereditariedade estendida. Na parte antropológico-filosófica, o paradigma é apresentado de acordo com o qual a consciência humana, em seu zelo emancipatório da natureza biológica, deve "apropriar" as raízes da sua natureza para transcender o humano e se mover em direção a uma entidade mais "perfeita": nós também avaliamos a teoria que refere este desejo ao despertar da consciência cósmica em nossa matéria consciente. Finalmente, ele avalia se este paradigma emancipatório pós-humanista implica evolução verdadeira ou, contrariamente, uma involução para o estado primitivo da natureza.


Subject(s)
Humans , Conscience , Nature , Biological Evolution , Humanism , Anthropology
5.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 27(3): 819-836, set. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134082

ABSTRACT

Resumo Analisa-se o discurso sobre o desenvolvimento humano veiculado em manuais de psicologia educacional destinados à formação docente. Caracteriza-se nesses discursos a presença da "teoria da recapitulação". Essa teoria, elaborada por Ernst Haeckel no campo da embriologia no final do século XIX, afirma que o indivíduo atravessa diversos estágios de desenvolvimento, que correspondem à forma adulta de seus antepassados na sequência evolutiva. Foi apropriada pela psicologia e serviu como modelo explicativo para diversos aspectos do desenvolvimento, desde as diferenças individuais e grupais na forma e no tamanho do cérebro até a evolução da linguagem e da moral. A análise recorre aos escritos de Michel Foucault acerca da análise do discurso e de Nikolas Rose a respeito da história da psicologia.


Abstract We analyze the discourse on human development in educational psychology manuals written for teacher training. "Recapitulation theory" is seen in this discourse. This theory, developed by Ersnt Haeckel in the field of embryology in the late nineteenth century, asserts that individuals pass through different development stages that correspond to the adult form of their ancestors in the evolutionary sequence. It was appropriated by psychology and served as an explanatory model for various different aspects of development, for everything from individual and group differences in the shape and size of the brain to the evolution of language and morals. The analysis refers to the writings of Michel Foucault on discourse analysis and to those of Nikolas Rose on the history of psychology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Psychology, Educational/history , Child Development , Biological Evolution , Psychology, Educational/education , Brazil
7.
Mali méd. (En ligne) ; 35(35): 1-5, 2020. ilus
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1265755

ABSTRACT

Objectif:L'hémodialyse est la seule méthode de suppléance rénale au Mali.But du travail:étudierl'évolution des hémodialysés chroniques.Patients et Méthodes:Etude rétrospective transversale de3 ans chez 150 patients. Les paramètres étudiés: le profil épidémioclinique, les facteurs de risques, la qualité et l'impact des prestations sur la survie. Les données ont été analysées sur SPSS 12.0 pour Windows avec p<0,05 comme valeur de significativité.Résultats:L'âge moyendes patients était de40,45 ans. Le revenu était faible chez 60%. Le taux d'hémoglobine était inférieur à 9g/dl chez 63,3%.La néphropathie vasculaire était la principale cause 42%. L'hyperphosphorémie isolée était retrouvée chez 38,6%. Le bilan lipidique était perturbé chez 73,9%. L'abord vasculaire était le cathéter central chez78,7%. La mortalité était de 37,3%. Le décès était dû à la cardiomyopathie hypertrophique chez 35,5% (p = 0,002). Le taux d'hémoglobine bas (p=0,0002), le KT central (p=0,008), les complications cardiovasculaires (p=0,007) et la durée en hémodialyse (p=0,00001) sont des facteurs de risques de mortalité élevée.Conclusion:La durée de vie en hémodialyse reste liée aux complications de l'atteinterénale et à la prise en charge précoce


Subject(s)
Biological Evolution , Mali
8.
Rev. Asoc. Colomb. Cien. Biol. (En línea) ; 1(32): 89-102, 20200000. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1379198

ABSTRACT

La familia Phyllostomidae presenta una gran diversidad de dietas que requieren adaptaciones fisiológicas para metabolizar los diferentes alimentos que consumen. En frugívoros de la familia Pteropodidae e insectívoros de las familias Vespertilionidae y Molossidae se han reportado proteínas salivales distintivas de cada dieta. Por ello, se planteó determinar moléculas salivales asociadas con las diferentes dietas de los filostómidos. Los organismos se encontraban en ayuno al tomar la muestra, a la cual se le adicionó un buffer inhibidor de proteasas y se almacenó a -20°C hasta su uso. Las proteínas se identificaron por medio de SDS-PAGE y se evaluó si su presencia en los individuos estaba asociada con la historia evolutiva de las especies. Además, se determinó si las proteínas encontradas estarían relacionadas con la dieta del individuo. Se capturaron 15 especies con dietas nectarívora, insectívora y frugívora. Se encontró una proteína de 60kDa en filostómidos herbívoros y una de 50kDa en vespertilionidos y filostómidos con alto consumo de insectos. Además, se registró una proteína de 30kDa en todos los filostómidos y en 2 de las 3 especies de vespertilionidos. Los análisis indicaron que la presencia de las proteínas no estaría relacionada con la cercanía filogenética y que, para las proteínas de 30 y 50kDa, tampoco sería explicada por la dieta como sí ocurre con la proteína de 60kDa. Los filostómidos habrían retenido de su dieta ancestral insectívora la proteína de 30kDa y adquirido evolutivamente la de 60kDa para procesar plantas y lograr la amplia diversificación ecológica que presentan.


The Phyllostomidae family presents a great diversity of diets that require physiological adaptations to metabolize the different foods that they consume. In frugivores of the family Pteropodidae and insectivores of the families Vespertilionidae and Molossidae, distinctive salivary proteins of each diet have been reported. For this reason, it was proposed to determine salivary molecules associated with the different diets of the phylostomids. The organisms were fasting when taking the sample, to which a protease inhibitor buffer was added and it was stored at -20°C until use. The proteins were identified by means of SDS-PAGE and it was evaluated whether their presence in individuals was associated with the evolutionary history of the species. In addition, it was determined whether the proteins found would be related to the individual's diet. 15 species were caught with nectarivorous, insectivorous and frugivorous diets. A protein of 60kDa was found in herbivorous phyllostomids and a 50kDa protein in vespertilionids and phyllostomids with high insect consumption. In addition, a 30kDa protein was recorded in all phylostomids and in 2 of the 3 species of vespertilionids. The analyzes indicated that the presence of the proteins would not be related to the phylogenetic closeness and that, for the 30 and 50kDa proteins, it would not be explained by the diet as it is the case with the 60kDa protein. The phylostomids would have retained the 30kDa protein from their ancestral insectivorous diet and evolutionarily acquired the 60kDa protein to process plants and achieve the broad ecological diversification they present.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chiroptera , Phylogeny , Biodiversity , Biological Evolution
10.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(4): 1353-1360, Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040137

ABSTRACT

The myodural bridge (MDB) is confirmed that connecting the most of suboccipital muscles to the cervical dura mater through the posterior intervertebral spaces and widely exists in mammals and birds. In order to reveal whether the MDB is universally existing in amniota of vertebrates, we explored the existence and the morphological features of the MDB in the Trachemys scripta elegans. Twenty fresh red-eared slider specimens were observed by the gross anatomy dissection and histological analysis. In the results, three kind of muscles in the postoccipital region of the red-eared slider were found. The rectus capitis dorsum minor muscle originated from the posterior margin of the occiput (C0) and terminated at the spinous process of the atlas (C1). The transversospinales muscle was attached to the vertebral arch and the postzygapophysis of the atlas and extended to the spinous process of the axis (C2). The C2-C3 intertransversales muscle were extended from the postzygapophysis of C2 and the one of C3. The three muscles covered the dorsal interspaces among C0-C3, and meantime they were closely connected with dense connective tissues, which filled in these interspaces. Each of these thick dense connective tissue membranes sent off several short and strong fibrous bundles ventrally to merge with the cervical spinal dura mater. Furthermore the connective tissues connecting these muscles with cervical spinal dura mater directly were revealed under the microscopy and they consisted of parallel and intensive collagen fibers with orientation from dorsal to ventral. In conclusion, this study for the first time demonstrated the existence of the MDB in the testudines, in all of the dorsal atlantooccipital, atlantoaxial and C2-C3 intervertebral spaces. Based on our results and comparative anatomical evidences in recent year, it could be inferred that the MDB might be its highly conserved structure in the evolution of amniota.


Se confirma que el puente miodural (PMD) conecta la mayoría de los músculos suboccipitales con la duramadre cervical a través de los espacios intervertebrales posteriores y existe ampliamente en mamíferos y aves. Para revelar si el MDB existe universalmente en la amniota de vertebrados, exploramos la existencia y las características morfológicas del PMD en Trachemys scripta elegans. Veinte muestras se observaron mediante disección anatómica y análisis histológico. En los resultados, se encontraron tres tipos de músculos en la región occipital. El músculo recto capitis dorsum minor se originó en el margen posterior del occipital (C0) y terminó en el proceso espinoso del atlas (C1). El músculo transverso espinal se unió al arco vertebral y el proceso del atlas y se extendió al proceso espinoso del axis (C2). El músculo intertransversario C2-C3 se extendió entre los procesos transversos de C2 y el de C3. Los tres músculos cubrían los espacios intermedios dorsales entre C0-C3 y, mientras tanto, estaban estrechamente conectados con tejidos conectivos densos, que rellenaban estos espacios. Cada una de estas membranas densas de tejido conectivo envían varios haces fibrosos cortos y fuertes ventralmente para fusionarse con la duramadre espinal cervical. Además, los tejidos conectivos que conectan estos músculos con la duramadre cervical y espinal se revelaron directamente bajo microscopía y consistían en intensas fibras de colágeno, paralelas, con orientación desde dorsal a ventral. En conclusión, este estudio demostró por primera vez la existencia del PMD en los estudios de prueba, en todos los espacios dorsales atlantooccipital, atlantoaxial e intervertebral C2-C3. Sobre la base de nuestros resultados y las evidencias anatómicas comparativas de los últimos años, se podría inferir que el PMD podría ser una estructura altamente conservada en la evolución de la amniota.


Subject(s)
Animals , Turtles/anatomy & histology , Dura Mater/anatomy & histology , Biological Evolution , Head/anatomy & histology , Neck/anatomy & histology
11.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(4): 1397-1403, Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040144

ABSTRACT

The cuboid facet of the navicular bone is an irregular flat surface, present in non-human primates and some human ancestors. In modern humans, it is not always present and it is described as an "occasional finding". To date, there is not enough data about its incidence in ancient and contemporary populations, nor a biomechanical explanation about its presence or absence. The aim of the study was to evaluate the presence of the cuboid facet in ancient and recent populations, its relationship with the dimensions of the midtarsal bones and its role in the biomechanics of the gait. 354 pairs of naviculars and other tarsal bones from historical and contemporary populations from Catalonia, Spain, have been studied. We used nine measurements applied to the talus, navicular, and cuboid to check its relationship with facet presence. To analyze biomechanical parameters of the facet, X-ray cinematography was used in living patients. The results showed that about 50 % of individuals developed this surface without differences about sex or series. We also observed larger sagittal lengths of the talar facet (LSAGTAL) in navicular bones with cuboid facet. No significant differences were found in the bones contact during any of the phases of the gait. After revising its presence in hominins and non-human primates, and its implication in the bipedalism and modern gait, we suggest that cuboid facet might be related with the size of talar facet and the position of the talonavicular joint. However, other factors such as geographical conditions, genetics and stressful activities probably affect its presence too.


La faceta cuboídea del hueso navicular es una carilla plana e irregular, presente en primates no humanos y en algunos de nuestros ancestros. En humanos modernos, no siempre está presente y es descrita como "un hallazgo ocasional" por la bibliografía. Hasta la fecha, no hay suficientes datos acerca de su incidencia en poblaciones antiguas y contemporáneas, ni una explicación biomecánica sobre su presencia o ausencia. El objetivo de nuestro estudio fue evaluar la frecuencia de la faceta cuboídea en poblaciones recientes y antiguas, su relación con las dimensiones de los huesos tarsales y su rol en la biomecánica de la marcha. Fueron estudiados 354 pares de naviculares y otros huesos del tarso provenientes de colecciones osteológicas de Cataluña, España. Aplicamos nueve medidas aplicadas al talus, navicular y cuboides para corroborar su relación con la presencia de la faceta. Para analizar sus parámetros biomecánicos, se empleó X-ray cinematography en pacientes hospitalarios. Los resultados mostraron que alrededor de un 50 % de los individuos desarrollaron esta carilla, sin diferencias entre sexos o series. Además, observamos que la longitud sagital de la faceta talar (LSAGTAL) es mayor en aquellas muestras con faceta cuboídea. No hay diferencias significativas en el contacto de los huesos en ninguna de las fases de la marcha. Después de revisar su presencia en primates no humanos, su implicancia en el bipedismo y en la marcha moderna, sugerimos que la faceta cuboídea podría estar relacionada con el tamaño de la faceta talar y la posición de la articulación talo-navicular. Sin embargo, otros factores como las condiciones geográficas, genética y stress ocupacional también podrían afectar su presencia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Tarsal Bones/anatomy & histology , Tarsal Bones/physiology , Gait/physiology , Population , Biomechanical Phenomena , Supination , Biological Evolution
12.
E-Cienc. inf ; 9(2): 121-140, jul.-dic. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1089870

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La designación tecnologías convergentes hace referencia a la confluencia de la iencia computacional con campos tecnocientíficos como la Nanotecnología, la Biotecnología y las Ciencias Cognitivas. El objetivo de este trabajo es señalar y analizar los vínculos que guardan estas tecnologías convergentes con la Bibliotecología -que también recurre al uso de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación-, ya sea en términos metodológicos, conceptuales o de aplicación. Como principal conclusión se deduce que la Nanotecnología, la Biotecnología y las Ciencias Cognitivas han reconfigurado, en los últimos años, sus propios conceptos de información. Esto ha hecho que profesionales de otras disciplinas, que tienen por objeto de estudio a la información, se detengan a re-pensar su naturaleza, dinámica y utilización.


ABSTRACT The denomination convergent technologies refers to the confluence of computational science with techno-scientific fields such as nanotechnology, biotechnology and cognitive sciences. The objective of this work is to point out and analyze the links that these convergent technologies keep with Library Science (which also uses the information and communication technologies), either in methodological, conceptual or application terms. The main conclusion is that both nanotechnology, biotechnology and cognitive sciences have reconfigured their own conceptuation of information in recent years. This has caused professionals from other disciplines, who study information, to stop to rethink its nature, dynamics and use.


Subject(s)
Biotechnology , Cognitive Science , Nanotechnology , Scientific and Technical Activities , Information Technology Management , Library Science , Communication , Biological Evolution
13.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 26(1): 219-244, Jan.-Mar. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989868

ABSTRACT

Abstract This paper provides an overview of the state of Mexican genetics and biomedical knowledge during the second half of the twentieth century, as well as its impact on the visual representation of human groups and racial hierarchies, based on social studies of scientific imaging and visualization (SIV) and theoretical concepts and methods. It also addresses the genealogy and shifts of the concept of race and racialization of Mexican bodies, concluding with the novel visual culture that resulted from genetic knowledge merged with the racist phenomenon in the second half of the twentieth century in Mexico.


Resumo Este artigo traça um panorama do estado da genética e do conhecimento biomédico no México durante a segunda metade do século XX, assim como seu impacto na representação visual de grupos humanos e hierarquias raciais, baseado em estudos sociais da imagem e visualização cientifica e de seus métodos e conceitos teóricos. Também aborda a genealogia e as mudanças nos conceitos de raça e racismo nos corpos mexicanos, que resultaram na nova cultura visual fruto do conhecimento genético, interligando-se ao fenômeno do racismo na segunda metade do século XX no México.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Racial Groups/genetics , Biological Evolution , Genetics, Medical/history , Medical Illustration/history , Internationality/history , Racism/history , Mexico
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739094

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study tries to analyze the concept of Yangsaeng in the Korean aged, with focus on nursing. METHODS: Rodgers'evolutionary approach was used to identify the common definitions, attributes, antecedents, and consequences of the Yangsaeng concept for the aged. Literature search was conducted at the NAL, NDSL, RISS, ProQuest, PubMed, AMED, and MEDLINE databases from 2004 to 2016, using the keywords “Yangsaeng,” “health promotion,” “health management,” “traditional oriental methods,” and “traditional oriental nursing.”Finally, 20 relevant articles were selected and thoroughly reviewed. RESULTS: The analysis shows that the model of Yangsaeng for the Korean aged is that of personal adaptive-capacity, totality, challenging, and coping resource and includes physical, social and psychological health and wellness. CONCLUSION: This work provides some implications on the development of nursing intervention related with Yangsaeng for the Korean aged, and suggests the implementation of such intervention in the practice of Yangsaeng for the Korean aged. Therefore, a better understanding of the Korean aged and Yangsaeng within the context of nursing can be achieved.


Subject(s)
Biological Evolution , Health Behavior , Humans , Nursing
15.
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1264035

ABSTRACT

BUT : Etudier l'évolution des acouphènes après myringoplastie chez l'adulte et rechercher les facteurs prédictifs de leur disparition après la chirurgie.METHODES : Etude rétrospective, portant sur 71 myringoplasties réalisées sur une période de quatre ans [2010-2013], tous les patients présentaient des acouphènes préopératoires et une surdité de transmission à l'audiométrie préopératoire.RESULTATS : L'âge moyen de nos patients était de 43,3 ±15 ans avec 44 femmes et 20 hommes. A l'audiométrie préopératoire, ils avaient tous une surdité de transmission. Les acouphènes ont régressé totalement en post opératoire dans 44,3% des cas et ont persisté dans 18,6% des cas. L'amélioration était partielle dans 37,1% des cas. en analyse univariée, nous avons trouvé une corréla¬tion significative, entre la disparition totale des acouphènes en post opératoire et le seuil moyen de la CA préopératoire inférieur à 39 dB (0.033) et un seuil moyen de la conduction osseuse (CO) pré opératoire inférieur à 15 dB sur les fréquences 2000 (0.028) ; 3000 (0.024) et 4000 Hz (0.022), un rinne préopératoire inférieur à 25 dB sur la fréquence de 1000 Hz (0.048), un seuil moyen de la CA post opératoire inférieur ou égal à 30 dB (p=0,001), un Rinne résiduel inférieur à 20 dB (p=0,014). La marginalité de la perforation par rapport au manche du marteau était significativement associée à la persistance des acouphènes (p=0,028). En analyse multivariée, seuls l'âge ≤ 56 ans; l'étiologie traumatique de la perforation et le seuil moyen de la CA post opératoire ≤26,89 dB étaient retenus par l'étude multivariée, comme des facteurs prédictifs de la disparition des acouphènes.CONCLUSION : Nous avons trouvé une corrélation entre la régression des acouphènes apres myringoplastie et des facteurs liée au terrain tel que l'âge, aux caractéristiques et à l'étiologie de la perforation et les résultats audiométriques post opératoires


Subject(s)
Biological Evolution , Hearing Loss, Conductive , Myringoplasty , Tunisia , Tympanic Membrane Perforation
16.
Rev. salud bosque ; 9(2): 27-34, 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1102787

ABSTRACT

La epigenética es el estudio de los cambios de los genes y su expresión que no generan modificaciones en la secuencia de ADN. Esta implica una serie de mecanismos como la metilación de citosinas del ADN, lo cual se manifiesta en el fenotipo y genera heredabilidad, también llamada heren-cia "suave y fuerte". Aquí es importante recordar que el fenotipo es una condición emergente del genotipo y de la epigenética. La epigenética mantiene una correcta impronta genómica en condiciones naturales y sin perturbaciones, por el contrario, anormalidades epigenéticas generan una expresión génica y fenotípica inapropiada. Las modifica-ciones fenotípicas se presentan en plantas, animales y seres humanos, lo que finalmente se expresa en los ecosistemas generando una condición emergente más allá de la condición humana: la salud. De acuerdo a lo anterior y desde la perspectiva del pensamiento complejo, la salud es la expresión de la vida per se, razón por la cual la epigenética forma parte de los factores que permiten la emergencia de la salud. En otras palabras, la salud surge como consecuencia de la interacción entre genética, cultura, sociedad, economía, pensamiento, vivencias y experiencias, y es el reflejo de lo que nos hace plenamente humanos.


Epigenetics refers to the study of gene-changes and its expression without altering DNA sequencing. It implies a series of mechanisms such as DNA cytokine methylation. Such mechanism generates heritability and is expressed in the phenotype. Heritability has also become known as soft and strong heredity. The phenotype is an emergent condition stemming from both the genotype and Epigenetics, thus responding to the four dimensions of biological evolution. Under natural, undisturbed conditions, Epigenetics maintains an appropriate genomic imprinting, while epigenetic abnormalities create gene and phenotypic inappropriate expressions. Phenotypic modifications are also present in plants, animals and human beings. Such, ultimately is expressed in ecosystems generating an emerging condition that stretches beyond the human condition and constitutes that which is referred to as health. According to the complex thought approach, health goes beyond determination and balance; health is the very expression of life per se. It emerges as a consequence of genetics, economics, thought and experiences, encompassing that which reflects what makes us fully humans


Epigenética é o estudo das alterações genéticas e de sua expressão sem gerar modificações na sequência do DNA. Envolve uma série de mecanismos, como a metilação da DNA pela citosina, que se manifesta no fenótipo, gerando herdabilidade, denominada herança "mole e forte". O fenótipo é uma condição emergen-te do genótipo e, por sua vez, da epigenética, respondendo às quatro dimensões da evolução biológica. A epigenética em condições naturais, sem distúrbios, mantém uma impressão genómica certa, ao contrário, as anormalidades epigenéticas geram um gene inadequado e expressão fenotípica. Da mesma forma, modificações fenotípicas são apresentadas em plantas, animais e seres humanos, que são finalmente expressas em ecossistemas, gerando uma condição emergente além da condição humana: Saúde. De acordo com o exposto e sob a perspectiva do pensamento complexo, a saúde vai além da determinação, do equilíbrio, sendo a expressão da vida em si. A epigenética é uma dimensão que infere na emergência, mas não um fator determinístico. Finalmente, a saúde surge como conseqüência da genética, da cultura, da condição social e econômica, do pensamento, em fim, das experiências, refletindo o que nos torna plenamente humanos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Epigenomics , Phenotype , Biological Evolution , Biological Coevolution , Biological Coevolution/genetics
17.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(4): 697-705, Nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951600

ABSTRACT

Abstract Between July 2014 and April 2015, we conducted weekly inventories of the circadian activity patterns of mammals in Passo Novo locality, municipality of Alegrete, southern Brazil. The vegetation is comprised by a grassy-woody steppe (grassland). We used two camera traps alternately located on one of four 1 km transects, each separated by 1 km. We classified the activity pattern of species by the percentage of photographic records taken in each daily period. We identify Cuniculus paca individuals by differences in the patterns of flank spots. We then estimate the density 1) considering the area of riparian forest present in the sampling area, and 2) through capture/recapture analysis. Cuniculus paca, Conepatus chinga and Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris were nocturnal, Cerdocyon thous had a crepuscular/nocturnal pattern, while Mazama gouazoubira was cathemeral. The patterns of circadian activity observed for medium and large mammals in this Pampa region (southern grasslands) may reflect not only evolutionary, biological and ecological affects, but also human impacts not assessed in this study. We identified ten individuals of C. paca through skin spot patterns during the study period, which were recorded in different transects and months. The minimum population density of C. paca was 3.5 individuals per km2 (resident animals only) and the total density estimates varied from 7.1 to 11.8 individuals per km2, when considering all individuals recorded or the result of the capture/recapture analysis, respectively.


Resumo De julho de 2014 a abril de 2015, realizamos levantamentos semanais para estudar padrões de atividade circadiana da mastofauna na localidade de Passo Novo, Alegrete, sul do Brasil. A vegetação é compreendida por savana estépica (campo). Utilizamos duas armadilhas fotográficas distribuídas alternadamente ao longo de quatro transectos, com extensão de 1 km e distantes cerca de 1 km entre si. Nós classificamos o padrão de atividade das espécies através da percentagem de fotos registradas em cada período diário. Nós identificamos indivíduos de Cuniculus paca através dos diferentes padrões de manchas nos flancos dos animais. Nós então estimamos a densidade 1) considerando a área de floresta ripária presente na área amostrada, e 2) através da análise de captura/recaptura. As espécies Cuniculus paca, Conepatus chinga e Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris foram classificadas como noturnas, Cerdocyon thous apresentou um padrão crepuscular/noturno, enquanto Mazama gouazoubira foi classificada como catemeral. O padrão de atividade circadiana observado para os mamíferos de médio e grande porte nessa região do Pampa (campos sulinos) pode refletir não só aspectos evolutivos, biológicos e ecológicos, mas também impactos humanos não avaliados nesse estudo. Através do padrão de manchas da pelagem de C. paca nós identificamos dez indivíduos durante o período de estudo, que foram registrados em diferentes transectos e meses. A densidade populacional mínima de C. paca foi de 3,5 ind/km2 (apenas indivíduos residentes) e a densidade total variou de 7,1 a 11,8 ind/km2, quando consideramos todos os indivíduos registrados ou com base em análises de captura e recaptura, respectivamente.


Subject(s)
Animals , Circadian Rhythm/physiology , Mammals/physiology , Brazil , Forests , Population Density , Ecology , Biological Evolution
19.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 89(2): 261-269, abr. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-900097

ABSTRACT

La glándula mamaria y la leche materna son el resultado de millones de años de una evolución que llevó a una composición óptima para el crecimiento y desarrollo de recién nacidos y lactantes; la leche materna favorece el crecimiento, la adaptación y la supervivencia de su organismo y de sus órganos inmaduros. Análisis recientes han demostrado en ella la presencia de 1606 proteínas que en su mayoría son sintetizadas en los acinos de la glándula mamaria aunque otras proteínas y péptidos provienen de órganos como el sistema linfático y el aparato digestivo. La composición de la leche materna incluye enzimas que modifican sus proteínas y originan péptidos antimicrobianos, antihipertensivos y estimuladores del metabolismo. Esta actividad proteolítica actúa en sitios específicos de las cadenas peptídicas de la proteína de la leche. La activación extemporánea de estos enzimas en los acinos es regulada por péptidos inhibidores y activadores que previenen procesos inflamatorios. Algunos enzimas de la leche actúan en el tubo digestivo de recién nacidos y lactantes y complemen tan la menor concentración y actividad de sus propios enzimas digestivos. Así, la enteroquinasa de la leche estimula la liberación de enzimas pancreáticos (mediada por el estímulo de la colecistoquinina-pancreozimina); la lipasa activada por las sales biliares complementa la baja producción de lipasa pancreática. Estas actividades probablemente facilitan la nutrición de los prematuros, cuyo tubo di gestivo es más permeable a las proteínas parcialmente hidrolizadas y cuyas actividades enzimáticas y factores defensivos locales no han alcanzado su plena madurez. Esto también puede estimular en ellos la tolerancia inmunológica. En este artículo se presentan los aspectos fisiológicos relevantes de la leche materna, y los avances en el conocimiento de su composición, para el cabal conocimiento del pediatra de esta importante materia.


The mammary gland and maternal milk are the product of millions of years of evolution that resul ted in an optimal composition that sustains the growth and development of newborns and infants. Maternal milk supports the growth, adaptation and survival of this immature organism. Recent studies have detected 1606 different proteins in human milk, most of them synthesized in the acini of the glandular tissue while others originate from distant organs such as the lymphoid tissue and the digestive tract. Maternal milk enzymes modify its proteins and liberate peptides with antimicrobial, antihypertensive or stimulatory activities. This proteolytic activity occurs at specific sites in peptide chains. To prevent the extemporaneous activation of these proteolytic enzymes, that would result in inflammatory processes, maternal milk also contains inhibitory peptides that together with the stimulatory peptides conform a complex regulatory system. Some enzymes in maternal milk main tain their activity in the gastrointestinal tract of infants and compensate for the decreased activity of digestive tract enzymes in newborns. Thus, the milk enterokynase stimulates the release of pancreatic proteases as it induces the liberation of cholecystokynin/pancreozymin. The bile salt-activated lipase of human milk is activated in the duodenum by the infants' bile salts and partially compensates for the low levels of pancreatic lipase in newborns. These milk enzymes probably contribute to the nutrition of premature infants as they increase the availability of amino acids and peptides in their upper gastrointestinal tract; furthermore, as their intestinal epithelium is more permeable to peptides and partially digested protein this may help induce immune tolerance. The most relevant issues in the physiology and composition of the maternal milk are presented in this review.


Subject(s)
Humans , Proteome/metabolism , Milk, Human/metabolism , Milk Proteins/metabolism , Mammary Glands, Human/physiology , Biological Evolution
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL