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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888786

ABSTRACT

Candida is an intractable life-threatening pathogen. Candida infection is extremely difficult to eradicate, and thus is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised individuals. Morevover, the rapid spread of drug-resistant fungi has led to significant decreases in the therapeutic effects of clinical drugs. New anti-Candida agents are urgently needed to solve the complicated medical problem. Natural products with intricate structures have attracted great attention of researchers who make every endeavor to discover leading compounds for antifungal agents. Their novel mechanisms and diverse modes of action expand the variety of fungistatic agents and reduce the emergence of drug resistance. In recent decades, considerable effort has been devoted to finding unique antifungal agents from nature and revealing their unusual mechanisms, which results in important progress on the development of new antifungals, such as the novel cell wall inhibitors YW3548 and SCY-078 which are being tested in clinical trials. This review will present a brief summary on the landscape of anti-Candida natural products within the last decade. We will also discuss in-depth the research progress on diverse natural fungistatic agents along with their novel mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Biological Products/pharmacology , Candida/drug effects , Candidiasis/drug therapy , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879085

ABSTRACT

Diaporthe sp. fungi is one of the important sources of active natural products. Polyketides, alkaloids, terpenes, anthraquinones and other types of novel metabolic products are found from this genus, and many of them have significant anti-tumor, antibacterial, anti-hyperlipidemia, inhibition of pulmonary fibrosis, antioxidant and other biological activities. This paper reviewed source, structure and biological activity of natural products from Diaporthe sp. in the past two decades, and provided a reference for in-depth study of natural product of this genus fungus and innovative drug development.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Biological Products/pharmacology , Fungi , Polyketides , Terpenes
3.
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190519, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1101254

ABSTRACT

Abstract Natural products have emerged as a rich source of bioactive compounds for adjunctive treatments of many infectious and inflammatory conditions, including periodontitis. Among the monoterpenes with significant biological properties, there is the perillyl alcohol (POH), which can be found in several essential oils and has shown immunomodulatory properties in recent studies, which may be interesting in the treatment of non-neoplastic inflammatory disorders. Objective To determine the antibacterial and immune modulatory activities of the POH. Methodology The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the POH for two significant Gram-negative periodontal pathogens were determined by macrodilution and subculture, respectively. Cell proliferation and cytotoxicity in RAW 264.7 macrophages were determined by Trypan Blue and mitochondrial enzymatic activity assay. The modulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was analyzed by flow cytometry and expression of TNF and arginase-1 by real-time PCR. Results The POH was effective against P. gingivalis (ATCC 33277) and F. nucleatum (ATCC 25586) with MIC= MBC=1600 μM. No cytotoxicity up to 100 µM was observed on macrophages. The cell proliferation was inhibited from 48 hours at 100 μM (p<0.05) and 250 μM (p<0.01). The POH increased ROS production at both 10 μM and 100 μM (p<0.05) in unstimulated cells. The PMA-induced ROS production was not affected by POH, whereas 100 μM significantly reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced (LPS-induced) ROS. The expression of TNF was not affected by POH in unstimulated cells or in cells polarized to M1 phenotype, whereas both concentrations of POH reduced (p<0.05) the expression of arginase-1 in M2-polarized macrophages. Conclusion The POH has antibacterial activity against periodontal pathogens and reduced proliferation of murine macrophages without significant cytotoxicity at concentrations up to 100 μM. In addition, the POH reduced the LPS-induced ROS and the expression of arginase-1 in M2-polarized macrophages.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Fusobacterium nucleatum/drug effects , Reactive Oxygen Species/analysis , Porphyromonas/drug effects , Monoterpenes/pharmacology , Macrophages/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Arginase/analysis , Time Factors , Biological Products/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Gene Expression , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Reproducibility of Results , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Fusobacterium nucleatum/growth & development , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Porphyromonas/growth & development , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Flow Cytometry , RAW 264.7 Cells , Macrophages/metabolism
4.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(6): e8694, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132522

ABSTRACT

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors. Ethanol extract of Antrodia cinnamomea (EEA) has been widely studied for its health benefits including anticancer effects. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of EEA on HNSCC. Cell proliferation, transwell, and wound healing assays were performed. The impact of EEA on tumor growth was investigated using a xenograft model. Expressions of migration-related proteins (MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2) and apoptosis-related proteins (cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved PARP) were determined using western blot analysis. The results indicated that EEA significantly inhibited the capacities of proliferation, invasion, and migration of HNSCC cells in a dose-dependent manner. Cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved PARP expressions were increased in cells treated with an increasing concentration of EEA, which suggested that EEA induced apoptosis of HNSCC. MMP-2 and MMP-9 were downregulated when cells were administered EEA, while TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were not affected, which uncovered the mechanisms mediating the EEA-induced inhibition on cell invasion and migration. The animal experiment also suggested that EEA inhibited tumor growth. Our study confirmed the inhibitive effects of EEA on cell proliferation, invasion, and migration of HNSCC in vitro and in vivo, providing the basis for further study of the application of EEA as an effective candidate for cancer treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Rabbits , Biological Products/pharmacology , Ethanol/pharmacology , Antrodia/chemistry , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Time Factors , Blotting, Western , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Ethanol/isolation & purification , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Mice, Inbred BALB C
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881042

ABSTRACT

Two new 2-carboxymethyl-3-hexyl-maleic anhydride derivatives, arthrianhydride A (1) and B (2), along with three known compounds 3-5, were isolated from the fermentation broth of a grasshopper-associated fungus Arthrinium sp. NF2410. The structures of new compounds 1 and 2 were determined based on the analysis of the HR-ESI-MS and NMR spectroscopic data. Furthermore, compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated on inhibitory activity against the enzyme SHP2 and both of them showed moderate inhibitory activity against SHP2.


Subject(s)
Anhydrides/pharmacology , Animals , Biological Products/pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Fungi/chemistry , Grasshoppers/microbiology , Molecular Structure , Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 11/antagonists & inhibitors , Secondary Metabolism
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(4): 665-668, Nov. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001481

ABSTRACT

Abstract Synadenium grantii is a Euphorbiaceae plant commonly found in Brazil, known as Janaúba or Leitosinha, whose latex is traditionally used for several purposes. However, it is not known whether the nematicidal action of this plant latex occurs due to the action of proteases. The present work aims to evaluate the nematicidal activity of proteases from Synadenium grantii latex on Meloidogyne incognita and Panagrellus redivivus. S. grantii latex used in the present study was collected from specimens found in Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The drained latex was collected in Eppendorf microtubes and immediately stored on ice at 4 °C. After this extraction, the latex was frozen (-20 °C) during 2 hours, thawed at room temperature (25 °C) and centrifuged at 10,000 g at 4 °C for 30 minutes to remove larger particles and concentrate the proteases. After the centrifugation, assays of enzymatic activity were performed in order to know in which of the phases the enzymes were found. S. grantii latex presented protease, but no chitinase activity. The results show that there was a significant difference (p <0.01) between the treated and control groups, with 100% mortality of Meloidogyne incognita and 72% average mortality of Panagrellus redivivus. In addition, it was demonstrated that the nematicidal action occurred due to the action of the proteases, since the control was only differentiated from the treatment by the presence of the enzymes with biological activity.


Resumo Synadenium grantii é uma planta Euphorbiaceae comumente encontrada no Brasil, conhecida como Janaúba ou Leitosinha, e tem seu látex usado tradicionalmente para diferentes propósitos. Entretanto, não se conhece se a atividade nematicida da planta ocorre devido à ação de proteases. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar a atividade nematicida das proteases do látex de Synadenium grantii sobre Meloidogyne incognita e Panagrellus redivivus. O látex de S. grantii utilizado no presente trabalho foi coletado a partir de espécimes encontradas na Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. O látex foi coletado em microtubos Eppendorf e imediatamente armazenado em gelo a 4 °C. Após esta extração, o látex foi congelado (-20 °C) durante 2 horas, descongelado à temperatura ambiente (25 °C) e centrifugado a 10000 g a 4 °C durante 30 minutos para a remoção de partículas e concentração das proteases. Após a centrifugação, foram realizados ensaios de atividade enzimática para saber em qual das fases as enzimas foram encontradas. O látex de S. grantii apresentou atividade de protease, mas nenhuma atividade de quitinase. Os resultados mostram que houve diferença significativa (p <0,01) entre os grupos tratados e controle, com 100% de mortalidade de Meloidogyne incognita e 72% de mortalidade média de Panagrellus redivivus. Além disso, foi demonstrado que a ação nematicida ocorreu devido à ação das proteases, uma vez que o grupo controle só foi diferenciado do tratamento pela presença das enzimas com atividade biológica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Tylenchoidea/drug effects , Rhabditida/drug effects , Euphorbiaceae/enzymology , Peptide Hydrolases/pharmacology , Biological Products/pharmacology , Latex/pharmacology , Anthelmintics/pharmacology
7.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(1): 126-133, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990809

ABSTRACT

Abstract The antitumor properties of ticks salivary gland extracts or recombinant proteins have been reported recently, but little is known about the antitumor properties of the secreted components of saliva. The goal of this study was to investigate the in vitro effect of the saliva of the hard tick Amblyomma sculptum on neuroblastoma cell lines. SK-N-SK, SH-SY5Y, Be(2)-M17, IMR-32, and CHLA-20 cells were susceptible to saliva, with 80% reduction in their viability compared to untreated controls, as demonstrated by the methylene blue assay. Further investigation using CHLA-20 revealed apoptosis, with approximately 30% of annexin-V positive cells, and G0/G1-phase accumulation (>60%) after treatment with saliva. Mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) was slightly, but significantly (p < 0.05), reduced and the actin cytoskeleton was disarranged, as indicated by fluorescent microscopy. The viability of human fibroblast (HFF-1 cells) used as a non-tumoral control decreased by approximately 40%. However, no alterations in cell cycle progression, morphology, and Δψm were observed in these cells. The present work provides new perspectives for the characterization of the molecules present in saliva and their antitumor properties.


Resumo As propriedades antitumorais de extratos de glândulas salivares de carrapatos ou proteínas recombinantes foram relatadas recentemente, mas pouco se sabe sobre as propriedades antitumorais dos componentes secretados da saliva. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o efeito in vitro da saliva bruta do carrapato duro Amblyomma sculptum sobre as linhagens celulares de neuroblastoma. Células SK-N-SK, SH-SY5Y, Be(2)-M17, IMR-32 e CHLA-20 foram suscetíveis à saliva, com redução de 80% na sua viabilidade em comparação com controles não tratados, como demonstrado pelo ensaio de Azul de Metileno. Investigações posteriores utilizando CHLA-20 revelaram apoptose, com aproximadamente 30% de células positivas para anexina-V, e G0/G1 (> 60%) após tratamento com saliva. O potencial de membrana mitocondrial (Δψm) foi reduzido significativamente (p <0,05), e o citoesqueleto de actina foi desestruturado, como indicado pela microscopia de fluorescência. A viabilidade do fibroblasto humano (células HFF-1), usado como controle não tumoral, diminuiu em aproximadamente 40%. No entanto, não foram observadas alterações na progressão do ciclo celular, morfologia e Δψm nestas células. O presente trabalho fornece novas perspectivas para a caracterização das moléculas presentes na saliva e suas propriedades antitumorais.


Subject(s)
Animals , Saliva/chemistry , Biological Products/pharmacology , Cytoskeleton/drug effects , Ixodidae/chemistry , Arthropod Proteins/pharmacology , Neuroblastoma/pathology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Biological Products/isolation & purification , Cell Survival/drug effects , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Line, Tumor , Arthropod Proteins/isolation & purification , Antineoplastic Agents/isolation & purification
8.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(2): 212-219, Apr.-June 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889241

ABSTRACT

Abstract The evolution of microorganisms resistant to many medicines has become a major challenge for the scientific community around the world. Motivated by the gravity of such a situation, the World Health Organization released a report in 2014 with the aim of providing updated information on this critical scenario. Among the most worrying microorganisms, species from the genus Candida have exhibited a high rate of resistance to antifungal drugs. Therefore, the objective of this review is to show that the use of natural products (extracts or isolated biomolecules), along with conventional antifungal therapy, can be a very promising strategy to overcome microbial multiresistance. Some promising alternatives are essential oils of Melaleuca alternifolia (mainly composed of terpinen-4-ol, a type of monoterpene), lactoferrin (a peptide isolated from milk) and chitosan (a copolymer from chitin). Such products have great potential to increase antifungal therapy efficacy, mitigate side effects and provide a wide range of action in antifungal therapy.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Biological Products/pharmacology , Candida/drug effects , Chitosan/pharmacology , Lactoferrin/pharmacology , Melaleuca/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/isolation & purification , Biological Products/isolation & purification , Candidiasis/drug therapy , Chitosan/isolation & purification , Lactoferrin/isolation & purification
9.
Clinics ; 73(supl.1): e813s, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974953

ABSTRACT

Cell cycle control genes are frequently mutated in cancer cells, which usually display higher rates of proliferation than normal cells. Dysregulated mitosis leads to genomic instability, which contributes to tumor progression and aggressiveness. Many drugs that disrupt mitosis have been studied because they induce cell cycle arrest and tumor cell death. These antitumor compounds are referred to as antimitotics. Vinca alkaloids and taxanes are natural products that target microtubules and inhibit mitosis, and their derivatives are among the most commonly used drugs in cancer therapy worldwide. However, severe adverse effects such as neuropathies are frequently observed during treatment with microtubule-targeting agents. Many efforts have been directed at developing improved antimitotics with increased specificity and decreased likelihood of inducing side effects. These new drugs generally target specific components of mitotic regulation that are mainly or exclusively expressed during cell division, such as kinases, motor proteins and multiprotein complexes. Such small molecules are now in preclinical studies and clinical trials, and many are products or derivatives from natural sources. In this review, we focused on the most promising targets for the development of antimitotics and discussed the advantages and disadvantages of these targets. We also highlighted the novel natural antimitotic agents under investigation by our research group, including combretastatins, withanolides and pterocarpans, which show the potential to circumvent the main issues in antimitotic therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biological Products/chemistry , Antimitotic Agents/chemistry , Drug Development/methods , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Biological Products/pharmacology , Antimitotic Agents/pharmacology , Mitosis/drug effects , Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology
10.
Biol. Res ; 50: 41, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950889

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The marine environment is a rich source of bioactive natural products. Many of the marine bioactive compounds have been derived successfully from molluscs. Euchelus asper is a marine mollusc which is commonly found in the intertidal rocky regions of the Mumbai coast. The present study was focused on evaluating the anti-angiogenic and anti- proliferative activities of methanolic extract of Euchelus asper (EAME). METHODS: The anti-angiogenic activity of EAME (50-800 µg/mL) was assessed by chick chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM) model wherein multiple parameters in the CAM blood vessels were analysed through morphometric and histo-logical investigations. In vitro testing of EAME (5-20 µg/mL) included its cytotoxicity against three different cancer cell lines, its effect on cell proliferation by wound healing assay as well as their relevant molecular mechanisms. Statistical analysis was carried out by two-tailed student's t test for two unpaired groups. RESULTS: Analysis of CAM revealed that the extract is effective in reducing the branching points of the 1st order blood vessels or capillaries of CAM. Histological analysis of CAM showed significant decrease in capillary plexus and compartmentalization along with increase in mesodermal blood vessels, thus establishing its anti-angiogenicity. Further, EAME exhibited moderate but significant cytotoxicity against A549 non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line. We also demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of EAME in A549 was associated with its apoptotic activity by subG1 phase arrest. Lastly, EAME significantly reduced A549 proliferation by reducing the expression of Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). CONCLUSION: Overall, our study suggested that EAME has potential to inhibit tumour angiogenic and proliferative activity and may be a potential source for development of new anti-cancer pharmaceuticals.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chick Embryo , Biological Products/pharmacology , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/pharmacology , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Gastropoda/chemistry , Biological Products/isolation & purification , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/isolation & purification , Cell Line, Tumor/drug effects
11.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 52(4): 603-612, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951888

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Glutaraldehyde (GTA) has been extensively used as a gelatin crosslinking agent, however, new natural ones have been suggested as more biocompatible. Polyphenols are possible candidates and the flavonols, such as rutin (RUT), also exhibit potential synergism with sunscreens and antioxidant agents used in cosmetics. In this work, gelatin microspheres (M0) were obtained and crosslinked with GTA 10 mM (MG) or RUT 10 mM (MR), dissolved in acetone:NaOH 0,01M (70:30 v/v). MG exhibited crosslinking extent of 54.4%. Gelatin, M0, MG and MR did not elicit any signs of skin damage, regarding the formation of erythema, the barrier function disruption and negative interference in the stratum corneum hydration. Oily dispersions containing M0, MG or MR, isolated or combined with benzophenone-3 or octyl methoxycinnamate, suggested that the microspheres, at a 5.0% w/w, had no additional chemical or physical photoprotective effect in vitro. Crosslinking with RUT had occurred, but in a lower degree than GTA. Microspheres had not improved sun protection parameters, although, non-treated gelatin interfered positively with the SPF for both UV filters. The in vivo studies demonstrated that these materials had very good skin compatibility.


Subject(s)
Rutin/adverse effects , Glutaral/adverse effects , Gelatin/analysis , Microspheres , Sunscreening Agents , Biological Products/pharmacology , Cosmetics/classification
12.
Acta cir. bras ; 31(6): 389-395, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-785020

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To investigate the potential efficacy of beractant (Survanta(r)) and Seprafilm(r) on the prevention of postoperative adhesions. METHODS: Forty Wistar-albino female rats were used. The rats were randomly allocated into four groups of 10 rats each as control group (CG), beractant group (BG), Seprafilm(r) group (SG), and combined group (COG). All rats underwent cecal abrasion via midline laparotomy. Before abdominal closure, isotonic saline, beractant, Seprafilm, and combined agents were intraperitoneally administered. Adhesions were classified macroscopically with Canbaz Scoring System on postoperative day 10. Ceacum was resected for histopathological assessment. RESULTS: Macroscopic adhesion scores were significantly lower in BG, SG, and COG than CG (p<0.05); (45%, 15%, 25%, and 15%; respectively). Histopathological assessment revealed a reduced inflammation and fibrosis score in the study groups than CG (p<0.05). In BG, adhesion development, inflammation and fibrosis scores were lower than SG; however, it was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Intra-abdominal application of beractant is significantly effective for the prevention of adhesion formation with no adverse effect by covering the whole peritoneal mesothelium with excellent gliding properties in a rat model. The combination of both agents is also effective in reducing adhesion formation, however, not superior to single beractant application.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Biological Products/pharmacology , Cecal Diseases/prevention & control , Cecum/drug effects , Hyaluronic Acid/pharmacology , Peritoneum/drug effects , Peritoneum/pathology , Postoperative Care/instrumentation , Fibrosis , Random Allocation , Cecum/surgery , Cecum/pathology , Tissue Adhesions/pathology , Tissue Adhesions/prevention & control , Rats, Wistar , Models, Animal , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Inflammation/pathology , Inflammation/prevention & control
13.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 277-286, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-174623

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the molecular responses of various genes and proteins related to disc degeneration upon treatment with cytokines that affect disc-cell proliferation and phenotype in living human intervertebral discs (IVDs). Responsiveness to these cytokines according to the degree of disc degeneration was also evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The disc specimens were classified into two groups: group 1 (6 patients) showed mild degeneration of IVDs and group 2 (6 patients) exhibited severe degeneration of IVDs. Gene expression was analyzed after treatment with four cytokines: recombinant human bone morphogenic protein (rhBMP-2), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Molecular responses were assessed after exposure of cells from the IVD specimens to these cytokines via real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence staining. RESULTS: mRNA gene expression was significantly greater for aggrecan, type I collagen, type II collagen, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and Sox9 in group 1 than mRNA gene expression in group 2, when the samples were not treated with cytokines. Analysis of mRNA levels for these molecules after morphogen treatment revealed significant increases in both groups, which were much higher in group 1 than in group 2. The average number of IVD cells that were immunofluorescence stained positive for alkaline phosphatase increased after treatment with rhBMP-2 and TGF-beta in group 1. CONCLUSION: The biologic responsiveness to treatment of rhBMP-2, TGF-beta, TNF-alpha, and IL-1beta in the degenerative living human IVD can be different according to the degree of degeneration of the IVD.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aggrecans/genetics , Alkaline Phosphatase/genetics , Biological Products/pharmacology , Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2/pharmacology , Collagen Type I/genetics , Collagen Type II/genetics , Cytokines/pharmacology , Female , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Humans , Interleukin-1/pharmacology , Intervertebral Disc/drug effects , Intervertebral Disc Degeneration/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Osteocalcin/genetics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/pharmacology , SOX9 Transcription Factor/genetics , Transforming Growth Factor beta/pharmacology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology
14.
Braz. dent. j ; 25(3): 186-190, 07/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-722159

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of toothpastes containing natural extracts, chlorhexidine or triclosan. The effectiveness of toothpastes containing natural extracts (Parodontax(r)), 0.12% chlorhexidine (Cariax(r)), 0.3% triclosan (Sanogil(r)) or fluoride (Sorriso(r), control) was evaluated against yeasts, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using the disk diffusion method. Water was used as a control. Disks impregnated with the toothpastes were placed in Petri dishes containing culture media inoculated with 23 indicative microorganisms by the pour plate method. After incubation, the inhibition growth halos were measured and statistical analyses (α=0.05) were performed. The results indicated that all formulations, except for conventional toothpaste (Sorriso(r)), showed antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria and yeasts. The toothpaste containing natural extracts (Parodontax(r)) was the only product able to inhibit the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The toothpastes containing chlorhexidine, triclosan or natural extracts presented antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria and yeasts.


Resumo: O objetivo deste estudo in vitro foi avaliar o efeito antimicrobiano de dentifrícios contendo extratos naturais, clorexidina ou triclosan. A efetividade dos dentifrícios contendo extratos naturais (Parodontax(r)), 0,12% de clorexidina (Cariax(r)), 0,3% de triclosan (Sanogil(r)) ou flúor (Sorriso(r), controle) foi avaliada contra leveduras, bactérias Gram-positivas e Gram-negativas utilizando o método de difusão em disco. A água foi utilizada como um controle. Discos impregnados com os dentifrícios foram colocados em placas de Petri contendo meio de cultura inoculados com 23 microrganismos indicadores pelo método "pour plate". Após a incubação, os halos de inibição do crescimento foram medidos e as análises estatísticas (=0,05) foram realizadas. Os resultados indicaram que todas as formulações, com exceção do dentifrício convencional (Sorriso(r)), apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana contra bactérias Gram-positivas e leveduras. O dentifrício contendo extratos naturais (Parodontax(r)) foi o único produto capaz de inibir o crescimento de Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Os dentifrícios contendo clorexidina, triclosan ou extratos naturais apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana contra bactérias Gram-positivas e leveduras.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Biological Products/pharmacology , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Toothpastes , Triclosan/pharmacology , In Vitro Techniques , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
15.
Biol. Res ; 47: 1-6, 2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-710933

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several plants are reported to be produced various biological active compounds. Lichens from the extreme environments such as high altitude, high UV, drought and cold are believed to be synthesized unique types of secondary metabolites than the other one. Several human pathogenic bacteria and fungi have been muted into drug resistant strains. Various synthetic antioxidant compounds have posed carcinogenic effects. This phenomenon needs further research for new effective drugs of natural origin. This manuscript aimed to screen new source of biological active compounds from plants of subarctic origin. RESULTS: A total of 114 plant species, including 80 species of higher plants, 19 species of lichens and 15 species of mosses, were collected from Oymyakon region of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Russia (63˚20′N, 141˚42′E - 63˚15′N, 142˚27′E). Antimicrobial, DPPH free radical scavenging and brine shrimp (Artemia salina) toxicity of all crude extract were evaluated. The obtained result was analyzed and compared with commercial standards. A total of 28 species of higher plants showed very strong antioxidant activity (DPPH IC50, 0.45-5.0 µg/mL), 13 species showed strong activity (DPPH IC50, 5-10 µg/mL), 22 species showed moderate antioxidant activity (DPPH IC50,10-20 µg/mL) and 17 species showed weak antioxidant activity (DPPH IC50 more than 20 µg/mL). Similarly, 3 species of lichen showed strong antioxidant activity, one species showed moderate and 15 species showed weak DPPH reducing activity. In addition, 4 species of mosses showed moderate antioxidant activity and 11 species showed weak antioxidant activity. Similarly, extracts of 51 species of higher plants showed antimicrobial (AM) activity against Staphylococcus aureus and 2 species showed AM activity against Candida albicans. Similarly, 11 species of lichen showed AM activity against S. aureus and 3 species showed AM activity against Escherichia coli. One species of moss showed AM activity against S. aureus. And finally, one species of higher plant Rheum compactum and one species of lichen Flavocetraria cucullata showed the toxicity against Brine shrimp larvae in 100 µg/mL of concentration. CONCLUSION: The experimental results showed that subarctic plant species could be potential sources of various biologically active natural compounds.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Artemia/drug effects , Mitosporic Fungi/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/analysis , Antioxidants/analysis , Aspergillus niger/drug effects , Biological Products/pharmacology , Biphenyl Compounds/pharmacology , Candida albicans/drug effects , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Lichens/metabolism , Picrates/pharmacology , Russia , Rheum/chemistry , Rhododendron/chemistry , Rosaceae/chemistry , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Toxicity Tests
16.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(4): 1035-1041, Oct.-Dec. 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-705291

ABSTRACT

Millions of people and animals suffer from superficial infections caused by a group of highly specialized filamentous fungi, the dermatophytes, which only infect keratinized structures. With the appearance of AIDS, the incidence of dermatophytosis has increased. Current drug therapy used for these infections is often toxic, long-term, and expensive and has limited effectiveness; therefore, the discovery of new anti dermatophytic compounds is a necessity. Natural products have been the most productive source for new drug development. This paper provides a brief review of the current literature regarding the presence of dermatophytes in immunocompromised patients, drug resistance to conventional treatments and new anti dermatophytic treatments.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Biological Products/isolation & purification , Biological Products/pharmacology , Drug Discovery/trends , Tinea/drug therapy , Tinea/epidemiology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Arthrodermataceae/drug effects , Biological Products/therapeutic use
17.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2013 Sept; 51(9): 764-772
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-149381

ABSTRACT

Klebsiella pneumoniae, an important opportunistic pathogen, exists as a biofilm in persistent infections and in-dwelling medical devices. With the objective of identifying natural compounds inhibiting biofilm formation in K. pneumoniae, 35clinical isolates were screened,out of which 7 strong biofilm producers were identified. Six natural compounds were tested for their inhibitory effects on bacterial growth and biofilm formation by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum concentration for biofilm inhibition (MBIC) for each compound. The results show that reserpine followed by linoleic acid, were the most potent biofilm inhibitors. Reserpine, an efflux pump inhibitor was effective at biofilm inhibition at a concentration of 0.0156 mg/mL, 64-fold lower concentration than its MIC. Linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid was effective as a biofilm inhibitor at 0.0312 mg/mL, which is 32-fold lower than its MIC. Berberine, another plant derived antimicrobial, chitosan and eugenol had an MBIC value of 0.0635 mg/mL. Curcumin, a natural phenolic compound was effective at biofilm inhibition at a concentration of 0.25 mg/mL, which is 50 fold less than its MIC. Notably, the MIC and MBIC data on these 6 natural compounds was reproducible in all seven high biofilm forming isolates of K. pneumoniae. The present report is a comprehensive comparative analysis of the dose dependent inhibition of various natural compounds on biofilm formation in K. pneumoniae.


Subject(s)
Biofilms/drug effects , Biological Products/pharmacology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/growth & development , Klebsiella pneumoniae/physiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
18.
Salvador; s.n; 2013. 68 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1000889

ABSTRACT

O câncer é uma doença caracterizada pelo processo proliferativo descontrolado de células transformadas. Devido à possibilidade de metástase, o melanoma cutâneo é considerado um dos cânceres mais agressivos. Produtos naturais derivados de plantas e outros organismos têm sido utilizados como fonte para o desenvolvimento de quimioterápicos empregados no tratamento de diversos tipos de câncer, inclusive do melanoma. A própolis é um produto natural produzido por abelhas a partir de exudatos de brotos e botões florais, e apresenta uma composição química complexa que influência sua atividade biológica. O presente trabalho propõe a investigação da atividade antineoplásica do extrato etanólico da própolis G6 baiana (EEPG6)...


Cancer is a disease process characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of transformed cells. Due to the possibility of metastasis, cutaneous melanoma is considered one of the most aggressive cancers. Natural products derived from plants and other organisms have been used as a source for the development of chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of various cancers, including melanoma. Propolis is a natural product produced by bees from exudates shoots and buds, and has a complex chemical composition that influence their biological activity. This study aims to investigate the anticancer activity of ethanol extract of G6 propolis from Bahia (EEPG6)...


Subject(s)
Melanoma/diagnosis , Melanoma/mortality , Melanoma/pathology , Biological Products/analysis , Biological Products/pharmacology , Biological Products/immunology , Propolis/analysis , Propolis/pharmacology
19.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 14(4): 700-711, 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-664024

ABSTRACT

Natural products have emerged as an effective and low-cost alternative for treating various diseases of the oral cavity. This study aimed to evaluate, through a systematic literature review, if there is scientific evidence ensuring the safe and effective use of natural product(s)-containing mouthwashes as adjunctive treatment of biofilm-induced gingivitis. Searches were conducted in the databases Medline, SciELO, LILACS and Cochrane Library, by using combinations of the key words gingivitis/natural products/phytotherapy/mouthwash, in English, Portuguese and Spanish. Studies published until September 2010 were considered. Four examiners analyzed independently: study design and phase, methodological quality (Jadad scale - JE), experimental product and its concentration, dosing interval and time of usage, as well as employed statistical analysis and clinical outcome of interest. From the 503 articles found, 08 were included in the final review as phase II, controlled, randomized and blind clinical trials, scoring 4 (25%) and 5 (75%) in JE. The main natural products assessed were: Azadirachta indica, Garcinia mangostana, Lippia sidoides, Salvadora persica and Sesamum indicum whose concentration, dosing interval, time of usage and adverse effects varied according to each study. The Plaque and Gingival Index were most employed, as well as α = 5% and paired t, Student's t, Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests. A total of 62.5% and 50% of the products significantly reduced supragingival biofilm and gingivitis, respectively. Mouthwashes containing the essential oil from the leaves of L. sidoides (1%) and the extract from the leaves of A. indica (25%) can be indicated as adjunctive treatment of biofilm-induced gingivitis.


Os produtos naturais têm surgido como alternativa eficaz e de baixo custo para o tratamento de várias doenças da cavidade oral. Objetivou-se avaliar, a partir de revisão sistemática da literatura, se há evidências científicas garantindo a utilização segura e eficaz de antissépticos bucais contendo produto(s) natural(is) como tratamento adjuvante da gengivite induzida por biofilme. Foram realizadas buscas nas bases de dados Medline, SciELO, LILACS e Cochrane Library, através de combinações usando as palavras-chave gengivite/produtos naturais/ fitoterápicos/bochechos, em Inglês, Português e Espanhol. Consideraram-se os estudos publicados até setembro de 2010. Quatro examinadores analisaram separadamente: desenho e fase do estudo, qualidade metodológica (escala de Jadad - EJ), produto experimental e a concentração, intervalo de administração e tempo de uso, bem como a análise estatística empregada e os resultados clínicos de interesse. Foram encontrados 503 artigos dos quais 08 foram incluídos na revisão final como sendo ensaios clínicos fase II, controlados, randomizados e cegos, marcando 4 (25%) e 5 (75%) na EJ. Os principais produtos naturais avaliados foram Azadirachta indica, Garcinia mangostana, Lippia sidoides, Salvadora persica e Sesamum indicum, cuja concentração, intervalo de administração, tempo de uso, e efeitos adversos, variaram de acordo com cada estudo. Índice de placa e Índice Gengival foram os mais utilizados, bem como α=5% e testes t-pareado, t-Student, Wilcoxon e Mann-Whitney. 62,5% e 50% dos produtos reduziram significativamente a presença de bioflme supragengival e gengivite, respectivamente. Os colutórios contendo o óleo essencial das folhas de L. sidoides (1%) e o extrato das folhas de A. indica (25%) podem ser indicados como tratamento adjuvante da gengivite induzida por biofilme.


Subject(s)
Mouthwashes/analysis , Biofilms/classification , Biological Products/pharmacology , Gingivitis/pathology
20.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 47(2): 279-287, Apr.-June 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-595816

ABSTRACT

Extracts from natural products, especially microorganisms, have served as a valuable source of diverse molecules in many drug discovery efforts and led to the discovery of several important drugs. Identification of microbial strains having promising biological activities and purifying the bio-molecules responsible for the activities, have led to the discovery of many bioactive molecules. Extracellular, as well as intracellular, extracts of the metabolites of thirty-six bacterial and twenty-four fungal isolates, grown under unusual conditions such as high temperature, high salt and low sugar concentrations, were in vitro tested for their cytotoxic potential on various cancer cell lines. The extracts were screened on HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines to study the cytotoxic potential. Nuclear staining and flow cytometric studies were carried out to assess the potential of the extracts in arresting the cell cycle. The crude ethylacetate extract of isolate F-21 showed promising results by MTT assay with IC50 as low as 20.37±0.36 µg/mL on HeLa, and 44.75±0.81 µg/mL on MCF-7 cells, comparable with Cisplatin. The isolate F-21 was identified as Aspergillus sp. Promising results were also obtained with B-2C and B-4E strains. Morphological studies, biochemical tests and preliminary chemical investigation of the extracts were also carried out.


Extratos de produtos naturais, especialmente de microrganismos, constituíram-se em fonte valiosa de diversas moléculas em muitas descobertas de fármacos e levaram à descoberta de fármacos importantes. A identificação de espécies microbianas que apresentam atividade biológica e a purificação de biomoléculas responsáveis pelas atividades levou à descoberta de muitas moléculas bioativas. Extratos extracelulares tanto quanto intracelulares de metabólitos de 36 isolados de bactérias e 24 isolados de fungos, que cresceram sob condições não usuais, como alta temperatura, alta concentração de sal e baixa concentração de açúcar, foram testados in vitro quanto ao seu potencial citotóxico em várias linhagens de câncer. Os extratos foram ensaiados em células HeLa e MCF-7 para o estudo do potencial citotóxico. A coloração nuclear e os estudos de citometria de fluxo foram realizados para avaliar o potencial dos extratos em bloquear o ciclo celular. O extrato bruto em acetato de etila do isolado F-21 mostrou resultados promissores no ensaio de MTT, com IC50 de 20,37±0,36 µg/mL em células HeLa e 44,.75±0,81 µg/mL em células MCF-7, comparativamente à cisplatina. O isolado F-21 foi identificado como Aspergillus sp. Resultados promissores foram obtidos com cepas B-2C e B-4E. Realizaram-se, também, estudos morfológicos, testes bioquímicos e investigação química preliminar dos extratos.


Subject(s)
Anticarcinogenic Agents/analysis , Anticarcinogenic Agents/isolation & purification , Ecosystem , In Vitro Techniques , Biological Products/pharmacology , Biological Products/chemistry , Structure-Activity Relationship , Cytotoxins/pharmacology , Cytotoxins/chemistry , Flow Cytometry , Photoreceptors, Microbial
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