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1.
Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 853-855, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011061

ABSTRACT

Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) remains the most difficult-to-treat subtype in the world. Biologics have shown positive results, especially in reducing nasal polyp size and improving patient-reported outcomes. The development of biologics has the potential to fulfill the unmet medical needs of treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Rhinitis/drug therapy , Nasal Polyps/drug therapy , Sinusitis/drug therapy , Cytokines , Chronic Disease
2.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 803-811, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010992

ABSTRACT

Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infections caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) continue to pose a significant global public health challenge. Currently, the approved treatments for CHB are limited to interferon and nucleos(t)ide analogs, both of which have their limitations, and achieving a complete cure remains an elusive goal. Therefore, the identification of new therapeutic targets and the development of novel antiviral strategies are of utmost importance. Natural products (NPs) constitute a class of substances known for their diverse chemical structures, wide-ranging biological activities, and low toxicity profiles. They have shown promise as potential candidates for combating various diseases, with a substantial number demonstrating anti-HBV properties. This comprehensive review focuses on the current applications of NPs in the fight against HBV and provides a summary of their antiviral mechanisms, considering their impact on the viral life cycle and host hepatocytes. By offering insights into the world of anti-HBV NPs, this review aims to furnish valuable information to support the future development of antiviral drugs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Hepatocytes
3.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 3-18, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971661

ABSTRACT

Type I interferon (IFN) is considered as a bridge between innate and adaptive immunity. Proper activation or inhibition of type I IFN signaling is essential for host defense against pathogen invasion, tumor cell proliferation, and overactive immune responses. Due to intricate and diverse chemical structures, natural products and their derivatives have become an invaluable source inspiring innovative drug discovery. In addition, some natural products have been applied in clinical practice for infection, cancer, and autoimmunity over thousands of years and their promising curative effects and safety have been well-accepted. However, whether these natural products are primarily targeting type I IFN signaling and specific molecular targets involved are not fully elucidated. In the current review, we thoroughly summarize recent advances in the pharmacology researches of natural products for their type I IFN activity, including both agonism/activation and antagonism/inhibition, and their potential application as therapies. Furthermore, the source and chemical nature of natural products with type I IFN activity are highlighted and their specific molecular targets in the type I IFN pathway and mode of action are classified. In conclusion, natural products possessing type I IFN activity represent promising therapeutic strategies and have a bright prospect in the treatment of infection, cancer, and autoimmune diseases.


Subject(s)
Biological Products/therapeutic use , Immunity, Innate , Signal Transduction , Interferon Type I/metabolism
4.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 268-276, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971261

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the value of reconstruction of pelvic floor with biological products to prevent and treat empty pelvic syndrome after pelvic exenteration (PE) for locally advanced or recurrent rectal cancer. Methods: This was a descriptive study of data of 56 patients with locally advanced or locally recurrent rectal cancer without or with limited extra-pelvic metastases who had undergone PE and pelvic floor reconstruction using basement membrane biologic products to separate the abdominal and pelvic cavities in the Department of Anorectal Surgery of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Naval Military Medical University from November 2021 to May 2022. The extent of surgery was divided into two categories: mainly inside the pelvis (41 patients) and including pelvic wall resection (15 patients). In all procedures, basement membrane biologic products were used to reconstruct the pelvic floor and separate the abdominal and pelvic cavities. The procedures included a transperitoneal approach, in which biologic products were used to cover the retroperitoneal defect and the pelvic entrance from the Treitz ligament to the sacral promontory and sutured to the lateral peritoneum, the peritoneal margin of the retained organs in the anterior pelvis, or the pubic arch and pubic symphysis; and a sacrococcygeal approach in which biologic products were used to reconstruct the defect in the pelvic muscle-sacral plane. Variables assessed included patients' baseline information (including sex, age, history of preoperative radiotherapy, recurrence or primary, and extra-pelvic metastases), surgery-related variables (including extent of organ resection, operative time, intraoperative bleeding, and tissue restoration), post-operative recovery (time to recovery of bowel function and time to recovery from empty pelvic syndrome), complications, and findings on follow-up. Postoperative complications were graded using the Clavien-Dindo classification. Results: The median age of the 41 patients whose surgery was mainly inside the pelvis was 57 (31-82) years. The patients comprised 25 men and 16 women. Of these 41 patients, 23 had locally advanced disease and 18 had locally recurrent disease; 32 had a history of chemotherapy/immunotherapy/targeted therapy and 24 of radiation therapy. Among these patients, the median operative time, median intraoperative bleeding, median time to recovery of bowel function, and median time to resolution of empty pelvic syndrome were 440 (240-1020) minutes, 650 (200-4000) ml, 3 (1-9) days, and 14 (5-105) days, respectively. As for postoperative complications, 37 patients had Clavien-Dindo < grade III and four had ≥ grade III complications. One patient died of multiple organ failure 7 days after surgery, two underwent second surgeries because of massive bleeding from their pelvic floor wounds, and one was successfully resuscitated from respiratory failure. In contrast, the median age of the 15 patients whose procedure included combined pelvic and pelvic wall resection was 61 (43-76) years, they comprised eight men and seven women, four had locally advanced disease and 11 had locally recurrent disease. All had a history of chemotherapy/ immunotherapy and 13 had a history of radiation therapy. The median operative time, median intraoperative bleeding, median time to recovery of bowel function, and median time to relief of empty pelvic syndrome were 600 (360-960) minutes, 1600 (400-4000) ml, 3 (2-7) days, and 68 (7-120) days, respectively, in this subgroup of patients. Twelve of these patients had Clavien-Dindo < grade III and three had ≥ grade III postoperative complications. Follow-up was until 31 October 2022 or death; the median follow-up time was 9 (5-12) months. One patient in this group died 3 months after surgery because of rapid tumor progression. The remaining 54 patients have survived to date and no local recurrences have been detected at the surgical site. Conclusion: The use of basement membrane biologic products for pelvic floor reconstruction and separation of the abdominal and pelvic cavities during PE for locally advanced or recurrent rectal cancer is safe, effective, and feasible. It improves the perioperative safety of PE and warrants more implementation.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pelvic Exenteration , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Pelvic Floor/pathology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/surgery , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
5.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 499-515, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982720

ABSTRACT

Natural products exhibit substantial impacts in the field of anti-hypoxic traetment. Hypoxia can cause altitude sickness and other negative effect on the body. Headache, coma, exhaustion, vomiting and, in severe cases, death are some of the clinical signs. Currently, hypoxia is no longer just a concern in plateau regions; it is also one of the issues that can not be ignored by urban residents. This review covered polysaccharides, alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, peptides and traditional Chinese compound prescriptions as natural products to protect against hypoxia. The active ingredients, effectiveness and mechanisms were discussed. The related anti-hypoxic mechanisms involve increasing the hemoglobin (HB) content, glycogen content and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content, removing excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS), reducing lipid peroxidation, regulating the levels of related enzymes in cells, protecting the structural and functional integrity of the mitochondria and regulating the expression of apoptosis-related genes. These comprehensive summaries are beneficial to anti-hypoxic research and provide useful information for the development of anti-hypoxic products.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Hypoxia/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Alkaloids
6.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 42(4): 231-239, dic. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1424871

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Un nuevo brote de coronavirus surgió en 2019 en Wuhan, China, causando conmoción en el sistema sanitario de todo el mundo; el Comité Internacional de Taxonomía de Virus lo denominó SARS-CoV-2, agente causante de la enfermedad COVID-19.El espectro de gravedad de la enfermedad es muy amplio: la mayoría de los pacientes no presentan gravedad, pero otros pueden desarrollar neumonías, y la insuficiencia respiratoria aguda es la causa más frecuente de mortalidad. Objetivo: analizar y desarrollar las distintas alternativas terapéuticas aportadas por la Biotecnología para tratar los síntomas de aquellos pacientes con COVID-19. Metodología: se realizó una revisión de la bibliografía disponible, a partir de enero de 2020 en PubMed, acerca de los tratamientos que se encuentran aún en ensayos clínicos y aquellos que cuentan con aprobación bajo uso de emergencia para la enfermedad COVID-19. También se realizaron búsquedas a través de Google y Google Académico para publicaciones de organismos de Salud en referencia a políticas de salud establecidas para la terapéutica durante dicha pandemia. Resultados: este trabajo aborda las nuevas alternativas terapéuticas para COVID-19 derivadas de la Biotecnología, que se encuentran tanto en uso como en etapas de ensayos clínicos comprendidos dentro del segmento de los biofármacos y las bioterapias. Se incluye un breve resumen del estatus regulatorio de entidades de salud, el mecanismo de acción de dichas terapias y características generales de cada uno. Se incluyen novedosas bioterapias que se empezaron a implementar para afrontar la pandemia. Conclusiones: la pandemia de coronavirus está poniendo a prueba el sistema sanitario internacional, para brindar soluciones tanto desde el diagnóstico y prevención como para el tratamiento de la población a fin de disminuir la mortalidad. Esto incluyó, obviamente también, al área de la Biotecnología aplicada a la salud, que ha aportado en los tres aspectos mencionados; el presente trabajo se centra en las respuestas de tipo terapéutico que ha brindado y que están comercializadas o en fases clínicas. (AU)


INTRODUCTION: A new coronavirus outbreak emerged in 2019 in Wuhan, China, causing a shock to the healthcare system around the world; the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses named it SARS-CoV- 2, the infectious agent of the COVID-19 disease. The spectrum of severity of the disease is very wide, most patients are not serious, but others can develop pneumonia, with acute respiratory failure being the most frequent cause of mortality. Objective: to analyze and develop the different therapeutic alternatives provided by Biotechnology dedicated to Health, to treat the symptoms of those COVID-19 patients who require it, and thus reduce mortality.Methodology: a review of the available literature from January 2020 in PubMed of the treatments that are still in clinical trials and those that have been approved under emergency use for the disease COVID-19 was performed. Searches were also carried out through Google and Google Scholar for publications of Health organizations in reference to health policies established for therapeutics during the mentioned pandemic. Results: this work addresses the new therapeutic alternatives derived from Biotechnology, which are both in use and in stages of clinical trials, to treat patients who developed COVID-19 included within the segment of biopharmaceuticals and biotherapies. A brief summary of the regulatory status of health entities, the mechanism of action of said therapies and general characteristics of each one is included. Innovative biotherapies that began to be implemented to face the pandemic are included. Conclusions: The coronavirus pandemic has driven the international health system to the test, to provide solutions both from the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of the population to reduce the mortality of patients. This obviously also included the area of Biotechnology applied to health, which has contributed in the three aspects mentioned. The present work focuses on the therapeutic responses that it has provided and that are commercialized or in clinical phases. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Biological Therapy/methods , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biological Therapy/classification , Biological Therapy/standards , Biotechnology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/drug effects , Immunomodulating Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Serotherapy , Horses , Immune Sera/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use
7.
Rev. cub. inf. cienc. salud ; 33: e2158, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408136

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to analyse the world scientific production on antifungals from plants indexed in the Scopus database (2000-2020), highlighting the Cuban scientific production on this topic as a case study. Scopus raw data based on antifungal and plants hits were cleaned using the OpenRefine tool to eliminate similar and duplicate results. Cleaned data was processed using VOSviewer software for keyword-based bibliometric analysis. The 5000 most common words from the Corpus of Contemporary American English were excluded. A co-occurrence analysis was performed taking into account only authors keywords and using the complete count method. 24 084 documents were identified, of which 85.8percent were original articles and 9.6percent were reviews. The most productive journals were Journals of Ethnopharmacology, Natural Product Research and Fitoterapia. The annual scientific production was uniform with a linear growth. The thematic structure according to the co-occurrence network indicates that the most frequent terms were essential oils, antioxidant, medicinal plants, Candida albicans and flavonoids. In the case of Cuba, of the 64 publications on the subject, 90.6percent were original articles and 6.3percent were reviews. The Cuban magazines with the highest production were Revista Cubana de Plantas Medicinales and Biotecnología Aplicada. The most frequent terms according to the co-occurrence network in Cuban publications were Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, plant leaf, antimicrobial activity, medicinal plants and flavonoids. These results prove that the global scientific community as well as the Cuban scientist are interested on the topic, further demonstrating that plants could become a reliable source of antifungal drugs(AU)


El objetivo del presente estudio fue analizar la producción científica mundial sobre antifúngicos de plantas recogida en la base de datos Scopus (2000-2020), con atención a la producción científica cubana como caso/estudio. Los datos resultantes de la búsqueda por coincidencia de las palabras antifungal y plants se filtraron con la herramienta OpenRefine, que eliminó resultados similares y duplicados. Se empleó el programa VOSviewer para el análisis bibliométrico basado en palabras claves, que excluyó las 5000 más comunes del Corpus of Contemporary American English. Se realizó un análisis de coocurrencia que consideró las palabras clave definidas por los autores en cada artículo a través del método de conteo completo. Se identificaron 24 084 documentos, de los cuales un 85,8 por ciento resultaron artículos originales y un 9,6 por ciento, artículos de revisión. Las revistas más productivas fueron Journals of Ethnopharmacology, Natural Product Research y Fitoterapia. La producción científica anual fue uniforme, con un crecimiento lineal. La red de coocurrencia indicó que los términos más frecuentes fueron aceites esenciales, antioxidante, plantas medicinales, Candida albicans y flavonoides. En Cuba, de las 64 publicaciones sobre el tema, el 90,6 por ciento resultaron ser artículos originales y 6,3 por ciento, artículos de revisión. Las revistas cubanas con mayor producción fueron Revista Cubana de Plantas Medicinales y Biotecnología Aplicada. Los términos más frecuentes en las publicaciones cubanas fueron Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, hojas de plantas, actividad antimicrobiana, plantas medicinales y flavonoides. Estos resultados demuestran que, tanto la comunidad científica mundial como la cubana, manifiestan creciente interés en el tema, lo cual evidencia el potencial de las plantas como fuente confiable de medicamentos antifúngicos(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Bibliometrics , Cuba , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
8.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 58(3): e3639, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347435

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Studies suggested that phytochemical products are considered potential solutions to smear layer removal due to their biological safety in cleaning root canal systems, lower toxicity, lower irritant effect and antimicrobial effect. Objective: The aim of the present study was to perform a systematic review to evaluate smear layer removal of root canal systems by different natural product solutions. Methods: systematic review. Search of the literature was performed on Pubmed, Scopus, Cochrane, Web of Science, Scielo and Google Scholar according the PRISMA protocol. Studies were included if they performed the experiments of smear layer removal on extracted permanent human teeth. Articles published in any language without restriction of year of publication were included in this review. The risk of bias assessment in the included studies was evaluated using the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Checklist for Quasi-Experimental Studies. The search strategy resulted in the retrieval of 6221 publications. After the eligibility criteria application, 8 articles were selected for analysis. Results: It was observed that some natural products solutions showed effects on smear layer removal, especially on coronal third. The phytochemical products such as Salvadora persica, chamomile alcohol extract and grape seed extract demonstrated good potential of smear layer removal, however, its effectiveness and clinical applicability are still unclear. Conclusions: Although the limitations of this study, it is possible to highlight those phytochemical products such as Salvadora persica, chamomile alcohol extract and grape seed extract that demonstrated good potential on SL removal(AU)


Introducción: Los productos fitoquímicos se consideran soluciones potenciales para la eliminación del barro dentinario debido a su seguridad biológica en la limpieza del sistema de conductos radiculares, menor toxicidad, menor efecto irritante y efecto antimicrobiano. Objetivo: Evaluar la eliminación del barro dentinario de los sistemas de conductos radiculares mediante diferentes soluciones de productos naturales. Métodos: La búsqueda de la literatura se realizó en Pubmed, Scopus, Cochrane, Web of Science, SciELO y Google Scholar, según el protocolo PRISMA. Los estudios se incluyeron si realizaron los experimentos de eliminación del barro dentinario en dientes humanos permanentes extraídos. En esta revisión se incluyeron artículos publicados en cualquier idioma, sin restricción de año de publicación. La evaluación del riesgo de sesgo en los estudios incluidos se evaluó mediante la lista de verificación de evaluación crítica del Instituto Joanna Briggs para estudios cuasiexperimentales. La estrategia de búsqueda resultó en la recuperación de 6221 publicaciones. Después de la aplicación de los criterios de elegibilidad, se seleccionaron 8 artículos para su análisis. Resultados: Se observó que algunas soluciones de productos naturales mostraron efectos sobre la eliminación del barro dentinario, especialmente en el tercio coronal. Los productos fitoquímicos como salvadora pérsica, extracto de alcohol de manzanilla y extracto de semilla de uva demostraron un buen potencial de eliminación del barro dentinario; sin embargo, su efectividad y aplicabilidad clínica aún no están claras. Conclusiones: A pesar de las limitaciones de este estudio, es posible destacar aquellos productos fitoquímicos como salvadora pérsica, extracto de alcohol de manzanilla y extracto de semilla de uva demostraron buen potencial de eliminación del barro dentinario(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Root Canal Irrigants/adverse effects , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Smear Layer , Phytochemicals/therapeutic use , Review Literature as Topic , Databases, Bibliographic , Grape Seed Extract/administration & dosage
9.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 58(3): e3525, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347437

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El blanqueamiento dental interno forma parte de la práctica odontológica desde hace varias décadas, pero se han descrito riesgos biológicos de los cuales no existe mucha evidencia. Objetivo: Describir los riesgos biológicos provocados por el blanqueamiento dental interno en dientes no vitales. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión sistemática exploratoria en la base de datos bibliográfica PubMed empleando operadores booleanos y palabras clave que aparecen recogidas en los Descriptores en Ciencias de la Salud. Las variables estudiadas fueron: autor principal, título, año de publicación, tipo de artículo, revista donde se publicaron los artículos y riesgo biológico del blanqueamiento interno descrito. Se filtraron y procesaron los resultados en una base de datos y se analizaron los textos completos para evaluar su calidad y que estos cumplieran los criterios de inclusión y exclusión. Resultados: Fueron incluidos en el estudio 14 artículos, todos por investigaciones originales o revisiones sistemáticas. El 64,3 por ciento de los artículos proyectaba los hallazgos hacia la presencia de reabsorciones cervicales externas posterior al blanqueamiento dental interno. El resto no aportó evidencia alguna de riesgos biológicos luego del tratamiento descrito. Conclusiones: Más de la mitad de los artículos incluidos en el estudio concluyeron que la reabsorción cervical externa es el principal riesgo biológico que trae consigo el tratamiento blanqueador interno de dientes no vitales, apoyados por un factor desencadenante de historial de traumatismos dentarios que propician la aparición de estas afectaciones(AU)


Introduction: Internal tooth whitening has been a component of dental practice for several decades, but biological risks have been described about which not much evidence is available. Objective: Describe the biological risks posed by internal tooth whitening in nonvital teeth. Methods: An exploratory systematic review was conducted in the bibliographic database PubMed using Boolean operators and key words obtained from Health Sciences Descriptors. The variables analyzed were main author, title, year of publication, article type, journal where the articles were published and biological risk of the internal tooth whitening procedure described. Results were filtered and processed in a database and full texts were analyzed for quality and compliance with the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: A total 14 articles were included in the study, all of which were either original studies or systematic reviews. In 64.3 percent of the articles, findings had to do with the presence of external cervical resorption after internal tooth whitening. The remaining articles did not contribute any evidence of biological risks after the treatment described. Conclusions: More than half of the articles included in the study concluded that external cervical resorption is the main biological risk posed by internal whitening of nonvital teeth, supported by the triggering factor of a history of dental trauma leading to the occurrence of these disorders(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Tooth Bleaching/methods , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Hazardous Substances , Review Literature as Topic , Databases, Bibliographic , PubMed
10.
Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 32(1): e247, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289390

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La Spirulina platensis es una cianobacteria planctónica filamentosa, que contiene un espectro natural de mezclas de pigmentos de caroteno, xantofila y ficocianina, con actividad antioxidante y la posibilidad de inducir un mejor control de la glucemia en las personas con diabetes mellitus. Objetivo: Describir los efectos del uso del producto logrado a partir de la bacteria Spirulina platensis en el paciente con diabetes mellitus. Método: Se utilizaron como buscadores de información científica a PubMed, SciELO, Google y Google Académico. Las palabras claves utilizadas fueron: espirulina, Spirulina platensis, Arthrospira platensis, diabetes mellitus y control metabólico. Se evaluaron artículos de revisión, de investigación y páginas web que, en general, tenían menos de 10 años de publicados en idioma español, portugués e inglés, cuyos títulos estaban relacionados con el tema de estudio. Se obtuvieron 70 referencias bibliográficas, de las cuales 49 se citaron en el presente artículo. Conclusiones: La espirulina tiene varios efectos benéficos que permiten su uso como coadyuvante en la prevención y tratamiento de la diabetes mellitus. Es un nutriente con bondades nutraceúticas y funcionales, con potente actividad antioxidante, que incide en un mejor control glucémico y puede ser útil en el manejo de las posibles complicaciones y comorbilidades que acompañan a la diabetes mellitus. Su uso conlleva la posibilidad de algunas reacciones adversas, sobre todo de tipo digestivas, aunque no son frecuentes si se emplean las dosis recomendadas; en general, es considerada un producto seguro(AU)


Introduction: Spirulina platensis is a plankton filamentous cyanobacteria that has a natural spectrum of carotene, xanthophyll and phycocyanin pigments´mix, with antioxidant activity and the possibility of inducing a better control of glycemia in patients with diabetes mellitus. Objective: Describe the effects of the use in patients with diabetes mellitus of a product made from Spirulina platensis bacteria. Method: There were used as scientific information searchers: PubMed, SciELO, Google and Google Scholar. The keywords used were: Spirulina, Spirulina platensis, Arthrospira platensis, diabetes mellitus and metabolic control. There were assessed review articles, research articles and web pages, that in general had less than 10 years of being published in Spanish, Portuguese or English language, and whose titles were related with the studied topic. 70 bibliographic references were collected, and 49 of them were quoted in this article. Conclusions: Spirulina has different beneficial effects that allow its use as coadjuvant agent in the prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus. It is a nutrient with functional and nutraceutical mildness, with a powerful antioxidant activity which has incidence in a better glycemic control and can be useful in the management of possible complications and comorbidities that accompany diabetes mellitus. Its use entails the possible adverse reactions, mainly digestive ones; although they are not frequent if the recommended doses are used. In general terms, it is considered a safe product(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Dietary Supplements/adverse effects , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Spirulina , Review Literature as Topic , Databases, Bibliographic
11.
Rev. chil. dermatol ; 37(1): 12-19, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1400777

ABSTRACT

La dermatitis atópica (DA) es una condición inflamatoria crónica de la piel de etiología multifactorial. Buscando mejorar la respuesta clínica minimizando los efectos adversos y ampliar el arsenal terapéutico disponible, se ha dado pie al desarrollo de nuevos fármacos con resultados prometedores en la calidad de vida. Los inmunomoduladores sistémicos clásicos son considerados el tratamiento estándar en los casos de DA moderada a severa refractaria al tratamiento con corticoides tópicos. Estos se encasillan dentro de las denominadas moléculas pequeñas, junto con los inhibidores de Janus- en un efecto pleiotrópico en las citoquinas y por ende, no selectivo. Los medicamentos biológicos poseen ventajas frente a los inmunomoduladores clásicos, principalmente su mayor especificidad gracias a la similitud con las moléculas endógenas. Dupilumab se mantiene siendo el único fármaco biológico aprobado por la FDA para el tratamiento de la DA, con una seguridad a corto plazo demostrada. Algunas moléculas nuevas, como el tralokinumab y los inhibidores JAK, presentan resultados prometedores. De este grupo, abrocitinib pareciera posicionarse como una alternativa al menos similar que dupilumab. La creciente investigación de nuevas alternativas ha creado una revolución terapéutica para que nuestros pacientes puedan acceder a una mejor calidad de vida. No obstante, es difícil lograr comprender la efectividad y seguridad de cada uno de los tratamientos disponibles, por la falta de estudios comparativos. La siguiente revisión muestra las nuevas terapias biológicas y algunas moléculas pequeñas con evidencia para su uso en DA


Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the skin with a multifactorial etiology. Seeking to improve the clinical response by minimizing adverse effects and expanding the available therapeutic arsenal, the development of new drugs has led to promising results on quality of life. Classic systemic immunomodulators are considered the standard treatment in cases of moderate to severe AD refractory to treatment with topical corticosteroids. These are classified into molecules, along with Janus kinase inhibitors (JAKs). Small molecules act on intracellular targets, with the inconveniency of producing a pleiotropic effect on cytokines and, therefore, non-selective actions. Biologics have advantages over classical immunomodulators, mainly their greater specificity thanks to the similarity between endogenous molecules. Dupilumab remains the only biologic drug approved by the FDA for the treatment of AD, with demonstrated short-term safety. Some new molecules, such as tralokinumab and JAK inhibitors, have shown promising results. Of this group, abrocitinib seems to be positioned as an alternative at least similar to dupilumab. The current investigation of new alternatives has created a therapeutic revolution so that we can offer our patients a better quality of life. However, it is difficult to understand the efficacy and safety of each of the available treatments due to the lack of comparative studies. The following review shows the new biological therapies and small molecules with evidence for their use in DA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Dermatitis, Atopic/drug therapy , Dermatologic Agents/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal
12.
Clinics ; 76: e3015, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339711

ABSTRACT

Monoclonal antibodies or fusion proteins, defined as biological drugs, have modified the natural history of numerous immune-mediated disorders, allowing the development of therapies aimed at blocking the pathophysiological pathways of the disease, providing greater efficacy and safety than conventional treatment strategies. Virtually all therapeutic proteins elicit an immune response, producing anti-drug antibodies (ADAs) against hypervariable regions of immunoglobulins. Immunogenicity against biological drugs can alter their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, thereby reducing the efficacy of these drugs. In more severe cases, ADAs can neutralize the therapeutic effects of the drug or cause serious adverse effects, mainly hypersensitivity reactions. The prevalence of ADAs varies widely depending on the type of test used, occurrence of false-negative results, and non-specific binding to the drug, making it difficult to accurately assess their clinical impact. Concomitant use of immunosuppressors efficiently reduces the immunogenicity in a dose-dependent manner, either by decreasing the frequency of detectable ADAs or by delaying their appearance, thereby enhancing the effectiveness of biological therapies. Among the new therapeutic strategies for the management of psoriasis, biological agents have gained increasing importance in recent years as they interrupt key inflammation pathways involved in the physiopathology of the disease. Reports regarding ADA in new biologics are still scarce, but the most recent evidence tends to show little impact on the clinical response to the drug, even with prolonged treatment. It is therefore essential to standardize laboratory tests to determine the presence and titles of ADAs to establish their administration and management guidelines that allow the determination of the real clinical impact of these drugs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Psoriasis/drug therapy , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Psoriatic/drug therapy , Antibodies, Monoclonal
13.
Adv Rheumatol ; 61: 22, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248667

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation consequent to immunosuppressive therapy is an increasingly prevalent problem with serious clinical implications. Treatment with biologic agents conduces to the loss of protective antibody to HBV surface antigen (anti-HBs), which significantly increases the risk of HBV reactivation. Hence, we investigated the risk factors for losing anti-HBs in patients with rheumatic diseases and HBV surface antigen negative/anti-HBs positive (HBsAg-/anti-HBs+) serostatus during treatment with biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Methods: Using a nested case-control design, we prospectively enrolled patients with rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis/psoriasis, or juvenile idiopathic arthritis, who were treated with biologic DMARDs at Changhua Christian Hospital, Taiwan, from January 2013 to June 2019 and had HBsAg-/anti-HBs+ serostatus; the analytic sample excluded all patients with HBsAg+ or anti-HBs- serostatus. Anti-HBs titers were monitored 6-monthly and cases were defined as anti-HBs < 10 mIU/ml during follow-up. Cases were matched one- to-all with controls with anti-HBs ≥ 10 mIU/ml on the same ascertainment date and equivalent durations of biologic DMARDs treatment (control patients could be resampled and could also become cases during follow-up). Between-group characteristics were compared and risk factors for anti-HBs loss were investigated by conditional logistic regression analyses. Results: Among 294 eligible patients, 23 cases were matched with 311 controls. The incidence of anti-HBs loss was ∼ 2.7%/person-year during biologic DMARDs treatment. Besides lower baseline anti-HBs titer (risk ratio 0.93, 95% CI 0.89-0.97), cases were significantly more likely than controls to have diabetes mellitus (risk ratio 4.76, 95% CI 1.48-15.30) and chronic kidney disease (risk ratio 14.00, 95% CI 2.22-88.23) in univariate analysis. Risk factors remaining significantly associated with anti-HBs loss in multivariate analysis were lower baseline anti-HBs titer (adjusted risk ratio 0.93, 95% CI 0.88-0.97) and chronic kidney disease (adjusted risk ratio 45.68, 95% CI 2.39-871.5). Conclusions: Besides lower baseline anti-HBs titer, chronic kidney disease also strongly predicts future anti-HBs negativity in patients with HBsAg-/anti-HBs+ serostatus who receive biologic DMARDs to treat rheumatic diseases. Patients with low anti-HBs titer (≤ 100 mIU/ml) and/or chronic kidney disease should be monitored during biologic DMARDs therapy, to enable timely prophylaxis to preempt potential HBV reactivation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biological Products , Hepatitis B virus , Rheumatic Diseases , Antirheumatic Agents , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Case-Control Studies , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Rheumatic Diseases/blood , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/blood
14.
Vaccimonitor (La Habana, Print) ; 29(1)ene.-abr. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1094635

ABSTRACT

En este trabajo se presenta la aplicación del Análisis de Componentes Principales, mediante el programa THE UNSCRAMBLER versión 8.0, a los datos registrados en un período de 2 años en la etapa de purificación de una planta de producción de Eritropoyetina Humana Recombinante que está basada en varios pasos cromatográficos, de forma similar a los procesos de purificación de proteínas recombinantes que se utilizan como vacunas preventivas o terapéuticas. Se logró reducir dimensionalidad al obtenerse dos componentes principales que explican el 81 por ciento de la varianza de 18 variables originales relacionadas con cuatro pasos cromatográficos. Como resultado se llegó a definir cuáles son las variables que mayor aporte tienen a la variabilidad del proceso en la etapa de purificación, permitiendo extraer información útil para lograr un mayor entendimiento del proceso y enriquecer las estrategias de control en la planta. Dichos resultados corroboraron experiencias prácticas de especialistas de la planta y permitieron dar recomendaciones a considerar en el plan de verificación continuada del proceso como proponer cinco variables como controles de proceso y tener en cuenta que el rendimiento del segundo paso cromatográfico es el más influyente de los rendimientos considerados en la variabilidad(AU)


This paper presents the application of the Principal Component Analysis, using the program THE UNSCRAMBLER version 8.0, to the data recorded during two years in the purification stage of a Recombinant Human Erythropoietin plant that is based on several chromatographic steps, similar to the purification process of recombinant proteins that are used as preventive or therapeutic vaccines. Dimensionality was reduced by obtaining two main components that explain 81 percent of the variance of 18 original variables related to four chromatographic steps. As a result, it was possible to define which variables have the greatest contribution to the variability of the process in the purification stage, allowing to extract useful information to achieve a greater understanding of the process and enrich the control strategies in the plant. These results corroborated practical experiences of plant specialists and allowed for recommendations to be considered in the continuous verification plan of the process, such as proposing three variables as process controls and taking into account that the performance of the second step is the most influential of the performances considered in the variability(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Chromatography/methods , Principal Component Analysis/methods , Reference Drugs , Biopharmaceutics
15.
Rev. chil. reumatol ; 36(2): 54-60, 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1282387

ABSTRACT

Las terapias biológicas son una herramienta terapéutica fundamental en cierto grupo de pacientes, sin embargo, su seguridad en el embarazo y lactancia no está aún dilucidada. El objetivo de esta revisión es actualizar los conocimientos y recomendaciones respecto al uso de fármacos biológicos durante el embarazo y lactancia. En relación al embarazo, las recomendaciones actuales sugieren que los anti TNF se podrían continuar o mantener hasta el segundo trimestre del embarazo. La terapia anti CD20 (Rituximab) y otros biológicos se recomiendan suspender en el embarazo. Durante la lactancia, se puede iniciar o continuar cualquier terapia biológica. En la primera mitad del embarazo se pueden utilizar algunos biológicos con relativo buen perfil de seguridad y en la lactancia la evidencia sugiere que no producirían mayor riesgo en el niño. Sería ideal contar con estudios randomizados controlados, pero esto podría generar un dilema ético.


Biological therapies are a fundamental therapeutic tool in a certain group of patients. However, the safety of these drugs during pregnancy and lactation remains unclear. Current recommendations regarding anti TNF use during pregnancy suggest these could be maintained until the second trimester of pregnancy. Anti CD20 therapy (Rituximab) and other biologics should not be used in pregnancy. Patients can safely initiate or continue to use biological therapy during lactation. Some biologicals are relatively safe to use during pregnancy and recent studies show that they can be used during lactation without being a major threat to the child. It would be ideal to have randomized controlled studies, but this could create an ethical dilemma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Biological Therapy , Lactation , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/therapeutic use , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use
16.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(5): 466-481, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283634

ABSTRACT

Neurodegeneration is a progressive loss of neurons both structurally and functionally causing neuronal cell death ultimately leading to development of various neurodegenerative diseases. Due to poor pharmacokinetic profile of neurotrophins, there still remains a challenge in their neurotrophic therapy where plants, bacteria and fungi, as natural products, could act as promising candidates against various neurological disorders by modulating the neurotrophic activity. Therefore, these natural products that mimic neurotrophins, could develop novel therapeutic approaches to herbal drug that can ameliorate neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and other associated neurological disorders. Taking into account the failure of strategies involving single neurotrophins for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, we propose a combination of small molecules of natural products that may work synergistically to restore neuronal functions, minimize side effects and target multiple pathways for a more effective treatment.


La neurodegeneración es una pérdida progresiva de neuronas, tanto estructural como funcional, que causa la muerte neuronal, lo que conduce al desarrollo de diversas enfermedades neurodegenerativas. Debido al pobre perfil farmacocinético de las neurotrofinas, existe un desafío en su terapia neurotrófica donde plantas, bacterias y hongos, como productos naturales, podrían actuar como candidatos contra diversos trastornos neurológicos al modular la actividad neurotrófica. Estos productos naturales que asemejan a las neurotrofinas podrían desarrollar enfoques terapéuticos novedosos como medicamentos a base de hierbas que pueden mejorar enfermedades neurodegenerativas como: Parkinson, Alzheimer y otros trastornos neurológicos asociados. Teniendo en cuenta el fracaso de las estrategias terapéuticas de neurotrofinas para las enfermedades neurodegenerativas, proponemos una combinación de pequeñas moléculas de productos naturales que pueden funcionar sinérgicamente para restaurar las funciones neuronales, minimizar los efectos secundarios y apuntar a múltiples vías para un tratamiento más efectivo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , Neurodegenerative Diseases/drug therapy , Parkinson Disease/drug therapy , Signal Transduction , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy
17.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5840-5865, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878847

ABSTRACT

Pain is a complex, unpleasant feeling and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, and manifests itself in certain autonomous psychological and behavioral responses. The commonly used opioid and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory analgesics(NSAIDs) may cause adverse reactions to the kidney, liver, cardiovascular or gastrointestinal system and cause problems of drug abuse. Therefore, it is necessary to study new analgesic drugs with less side effects and significant analgesic effects. A variety of natural products derived from terrestrial plants, microorganisms, marine organisms and fungi have been an important source of clinical medicines and provide an inexhaustible resource for the development and innovation of modern medicines. Therefore, this paper mainly reviews the natural non-alkaloids with analgesic activity in order to provide reference for the research and development of analgesic drugs derived from natural products.


Subject(s)
Humans , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Pain/drug therapy
18.
Clin. biomed. res ; 40(1): 1-6, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104373

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Registries of spondyloarthritis (SpA) patients' follow-up provided evidence that tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi) increase the incidence of active tuberculosis infection (TB). However, most of these registries are from low burden TB areas. Few studies evaluated the safety of biologic agents in TB endemic areas. This study compares the TB incidence rate (TB IR) in anti-TNF-naïve and anti-TNF-experienced subjects with SpA in a high TB incidence setting.Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, medical records from patients attending a SpA clinic during 13 years (2004 to 2016) in a university hospital were reviewed. The TB IR was calculated and expressed as number of events per 105 patients/year; the incidence rate ratio (IRR) associated with the use of TNFi was calculated.Results: A total of 277 patients, 173 anti-TNF-naïve and 104 anti-TNF-experienced subjects, were evaluated; 35.7% (N = 35) of patients who were prescribed an anti-TNF drug were diagnosed with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Total follow-up time (person-years) was 1667.8 for anti-TNF-naïve and 394.9 for anti-TNF-experienced patients. TB IR (95% CI) was 299.8 (37.4-562.2) for anti-TNF naïve and 1012.9 (25.3-2000.5) for anti-TNF experienced subjects. The IRR associated with the use of TNFi was 10.4 (2.3- 47.9).Conclusions: In this high TB incidence setting, SpA patients exposed to anti-TNF therapy had a higher incidence of TB compared to anti-TNF-naïve subjects, although the TB incidence in the control group was significant.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Tuberculosis/chemically induced , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Biological Products/adverse effects , Antirheumatic Agents/adverse effects , Spondylarthritis/drug therapy , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/adverse effects , Spondylitis, Ankylosing/drug therapy , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Psoriatic/drug therapy , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Endemic Diseases , Latent Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/therapeutic use
19.
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(4): 157-164, jun 2019. tab
Article in English | BINACIS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1026675

ABSTRACT

Aim of the study: clinical, immunological and morphological substantiation of the use of a dental stick with biopharmaceuticals in the complex therapy of inflammatory periodontal diseases. Research methods: leukocyte migration test, cytograms, the study of quantitative and qualitative content of spontaneously released mixed saliva, measurement of the total content of protein, the content of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and lysozyme in it. Clinical improvement of the periodontal tissues condition after treatment by 77% was registered. OHI-S (hygienic index), PI (periodontal disease index), PMA (papillary-marginal-alveolar index) were 7.5, 3.4, and 8.7 times lower, respectively, compared to the pre-treatment group. The depth of periodontal pockets decreased 2.6-3.4 times, the number of sessions per treatment course was reduced to 3-8 visits to the doctor. The amount of mixed saliva (in comparison with the initial data) increased 2.7 times, normal levels were restored and were 1.2 ml higher than control indicators. Protein levels, lysozyme and sIgA concentrations increased and exceeded the pre-treatment level 1.8 times and by 44.5%, respectively. Cytograms data revealed that the number of red blood cells (in one field of view) in the gingiva specimens in inflammatory periodontal diseases (IPD) patients was 2.3 times lower, count of leukocytes with signs of destruction was 13.4 lower and intact leukocyte count was 3.8 times lower. Lymphocyte count was 2 times lower, indicating that the inflammatory process in periodontal tissues was reduced as a re sult of the reduction of the microbial burden: staphylococci and actinomycetes were detected 3 times less often, diplococci ­ 3.5 times less often, filamentous bacteria and streptococci ­ 4 times less often, protists ­ 5 times less often, respectively. The number of cocci microcolonies was 2.7 times higher. The number of fibroblasts (in one field of view) increased threefold, the content of collagen filaments of the normally oriented structure increased 1.4 times, compared to the original data, which indicated the formation of favorable conditions for healing and reparative regeneration processes. The results of the study showed that the use of a dental stick during local IPD therapy is an effective way of correcting changes in clinical and laboratory indicators of local immunity and that dental stick is a promising new dosage form in practical periodontology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Periodontal Diseases/therapy , Periodontal Splints , Saliva/immunology , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Dental Implants , Cell Movement , Periodontal Index , Indicators (Statistics)
20.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2019. 75 p. graf, tab, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007560

ABSTRACT

Neste trabalho foram sintetizados complexos de cobre(II) com derivados imínicos da isatina, incluindo isatinas bromadas semelhantes a compostos encontrados em gastrópodes, a fim de compará-los com o composto já produzido e investigado [Cu(isaepy)], complexo de cobre(II) com base de Schiff feita a partir da isatina e 2-aminoetilpiridina. A isatina é um oxindol produzido em algumas plantas, também encontrado no tecido de mamíferos, com propriedades antitumorais naturais. Isatinas bromadas foram previamente constatadas como mais citotóxicas frente a células tumorais do que a isatina sem substituições. O objetivo principal foi verificar se a presença de bromo nos compostos análogos ao [Cu(isaepy)] levaria a um aumento da atividade antitumoral, assim como maior interação com DNA, alvo usual de metalofármacos. Depois de sintetizados, os compostos foram caracterizados por análise elementar (CHN), espectroscopia no infravermelho, espectroscopia UV/Vis e EPR. Foram feitos testes de citotoxicidade pelo método MTT com células de sarcoma uterino (MES-SA e MES-AS/Dx5, esta última resistente a doxorrubicina), adenocarcinoma cervical (HeLa) e células não cancerosas de fibroblasto humano P4. Adicionalmente, foram feitos testes de interação com DNA por UV/Vis e dicroísmo circular, além de testes de clivagem de DNA plasmidial. De modo geral, foi demonstrado que a simetria tetragonal em torno do cobre, determinada pelo EPR, é importante para a citotoxicidade dos complexos, que dessa forma podem se intercalar ao DNA e impedir sua replicação, por acabar distorcendo a hélice, e pela habilidade de realizarem clivagem oxidativa das fitas. [Cu(isaepy)] e seus análogos bromados demonstraram uma atividade citotóxica muito parecida, assim como grau de interação e clivagem com DNA. Conclui-se que, embora a presença de bromo nos análogos de [Cu(isaepy)] não levem a um aumento de atividade antitumoral, como observado em ligantes correlatos livres, nossos estudos apontam para diferentes fontes naturais (animal ou vegetal) para obtenção de precursores de novos compostos antitumorais


In the present work, copper(II) complexes were synthesized with isatin derived imine ligands, including brominated oxindoles similar to compounds found in gastropods, in order to compare their reactivity with that of [Cu(isaepy)], a Schiff base-copper(II) complex already investigated, obtained with the precursors isatin and 2-aminoethylpyridine. Isatin is a natural oxindole extracted from plants, and also found in mammal tissue, with antitumor properties. Brominated isatins were previously described as much more cytotoxic, towards tumor cells, than unsubstituted isatin. The aim of this work was to verify if the presence of brome in analogue [Cu(isaepy)] compounds would increase their antitumor activity, along with higher DNA interaction, an usual target for metallodrugs. The copper(II) complexes were synthesized and then characterized through elemental analyses (CHN), infrared, UV/Vis and EPR spectroscopies. Cytotoxicity tests were carried out using MTT assay with cells lines MES-SA e MES-SA/Dx5 (uterine sarcome, sensitive and resistent to doxorubicin), HeLa (cervical adenocarcinoma) and non-tumor cells, human fibroblast P4. Additionally, DNA interaction experiments were carried out through UV/Vis spectroscopy and circular dichroism, and at last, DNA cleavage experiments with the studied complexes. In general, it was shown that a tetragonal symmetry around copper, shown by EPR, is very important to the complexes toxicity, since in that way they are able to intercalate DNA, and prevent its replication, as a consequence of double helix distortion, and eventual oxidative cleavage. [Cu(isaepy)] and its brominated analogues demonstrated a very similar cytotoxicity towards cancer cells, as well as quite same level of DNA interaction and cleavage. Although the presence of brome did not increase significantly their antitumor activity, as verified with the free isatin derivatives, our studies pointed to different natural sources to obtain precursors for such new antitumor compounds


Subject(s)
DNA , Copper/adverse effects , Isatin/analysis , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Oxindoles/classification
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