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1.
Rev. argent. neurocir ; 34(3): 209-215, sept. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas), BINACIS | ID: biblio-1120936

ABSTRACT

La Clasificación de Tumores del Sistema Nervioso Central de la OMS 2016 incorpora biomarcadores moleculares junto a las características histológicas clásicas, en un diagnóstico integrado, con el fin de definir distintas entidades de gliomas con la mayor precisión posible. Los estudios de perfiles moleculares en el genoma han revelado las alteraciones genéticas características y los perfiles epigenéticos asociados con diferentes tipos de gliomas. Estas características moleculares pueden usarse para refinar la clasificación del glioma, mejorar la predicción de los resultados obtenidos con los tratamientos actuales y futuros en los pacientes, y como guía de un tratamiento personalizado. Asimismo, tener una aproximación pronóstica en cada paciente. Este cambio de paradigma ha modificado la forma en que se diagnostica el glioma y sus implicancias en la práctica diaria en la indicación de los diferentes tratamientos al paciente. Aquí, sintéticamente, revisamos y destacamos los biomarcadores moleculares clínicamente relevantes. Intentamos dejar plasmado cómo los avances en la genética molecular de los gliomas pueden promover y allanar el camino hacia la medicina de precisión en neurooncología.


The Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System of the WHO 2016 incorporates molecular biomarkers together with the classical histological characteristics, in an integrated diagnosis, in order to define different glioma entities with the highest possible accuracy. Studies of molecular profiles in the genome have revealed characteristic genetic alterations and epigenetic profiles associated with different types of gliomas. These molecular characteristics can be used to refine the classification of gliomas, improve the prediction of the results obtained with current and future treatments in patients and as a guide for a personalized treatment. Also, have a prognostic approach in each patient. This paradigm shift has modified the way glioma is diagnosed and its implications in daily practice in the indication of different treatments to the patient. Here, synthetically, we review and highlight clinically relevant molecular biomarkers. We try to capture how advances in the molecular genetics of gliomas can promote and pave the way to precision medicine in neuro-oncology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Glioma , Biomarkers , Central Nervous System , Molecular Biology , Neoplasms
2.
Rev. ADM ; 77(2): 70-79, mar.-abr. 2020. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1100338

ABSTRACT

Las enfermedades autoinmunes tienen múltiples manifestaciones en estomatología, entre las más frecuentes se encuentra el liquen plano oral (LPO), se trata de una enfermedad crónica con manifestaciones clínicas en piel y mucosas. Se agrupa en dos formas anatomoclínicas, la de curso evolutivo benigno identificado como típico y la susceptible de transformación maligna, identificada como atípico. Histológicamente, la degeneración vacuolar del estrato basal del epitelio es el signo histomorfológico patognomónico seguido de apoptosis celular. La apoptosis es un evento esencial entre los fenómenos del ciclo celular, sucede con la finalidad de eliminar células dañadas o inútiles. De todas las proteínas implicadas las caspasas son los responsables de la ejecución de este mecanismo, especialmente la caspasa 3 por fragmentar y activar otras caspasas responsables de la proteólisis. El potencial de transformación maligna del LPO podría estar en relación con el fallo de este mecanismo de regulación del ciclo de las células epiteliales agredidas y la persistencia de células dañadas. El presente trabajo de investigación tuvo como objetivo analizar la presencia y proporción de apoptosis en las distintas variantes de LPO con técnicas histológicas de rutina y posterior aplicación de inmunohistoquímica, utilizando como marcador la caspasa 3. Se obtuvieron 20 biopsias de LPO de cinco variedades clínicas nueve variantes típicas (VT): cinco placa, cuatro reticulares y 11 variantes atípicas (VA): dos atróficos, seis erosivos, tres ampollares. El método de evaluación fue semicuantitativo, se consideró en función del porcentaje, se realizó un recuento celular de un total de 100 células en cinco campos de gran aumento considerando las siguientes categorías según ausencia, presencia leve (< 10%), moderada (10 ≤ 25%), intensa (25 ≤ 50%), no valorables. Se encontró una buena correlación de los cambios histológicos y el grado de expresión del marcador utilizado para poner en evidencia la apoptosis, sobre todo con las muestras de LPO de variante atípica. En los casos de las variantes atípicas de liquen observados en comparación con la tinción de rutina (H/E) se observó igualdad o una disminución en algunos casos del número de queratinocitos apoptóticos. En cuanto a las variantes clínicas consideradas «típicas¼ se observó que el recuento de células en apoptosis estaba significativamente elevado. Obtuvimos excelentes resultados con el inmunomarcador caspasa 3, el cual coincide con la literatura en su alta sensibilidad como recurso para cuantificar el número de apoptosis en estas lesiones orales (AU)


Autoimmune diseases have multiple manifestations in stomatology, among the most frequent is oral lichen planus (LPO), it is a chronic disease with clinical manifestations in skin and mucous membranes. It is grouped into two anatomoclinic forms, the benign evolutionary course identified as typical and susceptible to malignant transformation, identified as atypical. Histologically, vacuolar degeneration of the basal stratum of the epithelium is the pathognomonic histomorphological sign followed by cellular apoptosis. Apoptosis is an essential event among cell cycle phenomena, it happens in order to eliminate damaged or useless cells. Of all the proteins involved, caspases are responsible for the execution of this mechanism, especially caspase-3 for fragmenting and activating other caspases responsible for proteolysis. The potential for malignant transformation of the LPO could be related to the failure of this mechanism to regulate the cycle of attacked epithelial cells and the persistence of damaged cells. This research work aimed to analyze the presence and proportion of apoptosis in the different variants of LPO with routine histological techniques and subsequent application of immunohistochemistry, using caspase as a marker 3. 20 LPO biopsies from 5 clinical varieties were obtained 9 typical variants (VT): 5 plate, 4 reticular and 11 atypical variants (VA): 2 atrophic, 6 erosive, 3 ampoules. The evaluation method was semi-quantitative considering the percentage, making a cell count of a total of 100 cells, in five large-scale fields considering the following categories according to absence, mild presence (< 10%), moderate (10 ≤ 25%), intense (25 ≤ 50%), not valuable. We found a good correlation of histological changes and the degree of expression of the marker used to highlight apoptosis, especially with the atypical variant LPO samples. In the cases of atypical variants of lichen observed, compared with routine staining (H/E) we find equality or a decrease in some cases of the number of apoptotic keratinocytes. For clinical variants considered «typical¼ it was observed that the cell count in apoptosis was significantly increased. We obtained excellent results with the caspase 3 immunomarker coinciding with the literature of its high sensitivity as a resource to quantify the number of apoptosis in these oral lesions (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Biomarkers , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic , Apoptosis , Lichen Planus, Oral/immunology , Caspase 3 , Biopsy , Immunohistochemistry , Statistical Analysis
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(2): 461-471, abr. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1056463

ABSTRACT

This experiment was designed to study the administration of normal doses of one of recent antimalarial drug and coadministration of vitamin E on the kidney tissue. A total twenty-four adult male albino rats were used and divided into four groups: the first one served as a control, the second received artemether orally for three days consecutively. The rats of the third and fourth groups received the same dose of artemether concomitantly with 50 and 100 mg/kg vitamin E orally daily for 2 weeks. After the last dose, the rats were sacrificed and the kidney tissues with blood samples obtained and processed for light, electron microscopic and biochemical analysis. Histologically, artemether treated kidneys showed atrophied glomeruli with widened urinary space and kidney tubules were degenerated with disturbed contour and some vacuoles inside it. Ultrastructurally, the glomeruli of this group showed hypertrophic endothelial cells, irregularity of its basement membrane, disrupted foot processes and filtration slits. The kidney tubule cells showed loss of basal infoldings, cytoplasmic vacuolation, polymorphic damaged swollen mitochondria a loss of its microvilli towards its capillary lumen. Artemether plus vitamin E of the rat kidney groups showed improvement of morphological changes compared to the changes seen in artemether alone. These data were confirmed by biochemical findings with marked improvement of blood urea and creatinine levels and increase of anti-oxidant enzyme activities of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in the vitamin E treated groups. The results of this study revealed that vitamins E can improve the adverse changes of artemether of rat renal tissue.


Este proyecto fue diseñado para estudiar la administración de dosis normales de uno de los medicamentos antipalúdicos y de la administración de vitamina E en el tejido renal. Se utilizaron 24 ratas albinas machos adultas divididas en cuatro grupos: el primero sirvió como control, el segundo recibió arteméter por vía oral durante tres días consecutivos. Las ratas del tercer y cuarto grupos recibieron la misma dosis de arteméter concomitantemente con 50 y 100 mg / kg de vitamina E por vía oral diariamente durante 2 semanas. Después de la última dosis, las ratas fueron sacrificadas y se obtuvo el tejido renal de cada muestra los cuales fueron procesados para análisis con microscopías de luz y electrónica, además de exámenes bioquímicos. Histológicamente, los riñones tratados con arteméter mostraron atrofia glomerular con espacio urinario ensanchado y túbulos renales degenerados con contorno alterado y algunas vacuolas en su interior. Ultraestructuralmente, los glomérulos de este grupo mostraron células endoteliales hipertróficas, irregularidad de su membrana basal, procesos alterados del pie y hendiduras de filtración. Las células del túbulo renal mostraron pérdida de inflexiones basales, vacuolación citoplasmática, mitocondrias dañadas y pérdida de sus microvellosidades hacia la luz capilar. Arteméter más vitamina E en los grupos de riñón de rata mostraron una mejora de los cambios morfológicos, en comparación con los cambios observados en arteméter solamente. Estos datos fueron confirmados por hallazgos bioquímicos con una marcada mejoría de los niveles de urea y creatinina en sangre y un aumento de las actividades enzimáticas antioxidantes de la glutatión peroxidasa y la superóxido dismutasa en los grupos tratados con vitamina E. Los resultados de este estudio revelaron que la vitamina E puede mejorar los cambios adversos del arteméter del tejido renal de la rata.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Vitamin E/pharmacology , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Artemether/toxicity , Vitamin E/administration & dosage , Microscopy, Electron , Biomarkers/analysis , Rats, Wistar , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/ultrastructure , Antimalarials/toxicity
4.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 14(1): 35-40, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1089807

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Currently, the most likely hypotheses as the cause of Alzheimer's disease are deposition of amyloid beta peptide in the cerebral cortex and hyperphosphorylation of Tau protein. The diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease is based on the exclusion of other diseases, behavioral assessments, and blood and imaging tests. Biotechnology has created interesting perspectives for the early detection of Alzheimer's disease through blood analysis, with special attention to platelets, hemoglobin and vitamin B12. Objective: To evaluate the concentrations of platelets, hemoglobin and vitamin B12 in the blood of older adults with and without dementia of Alzheimer's disease. Methods: A case-control study involving 120 individuals was conducted, seeking to establish a correlation between changes in platelet, hemoglobin and vitamin B12 concentrations in patients with confirmed AD and in individuals in the inclusion group without AD. The study met the established ethical requirements. Results: Hemoglobin and platelet levels were statistically lower in patients with AD. The biochemical evaluation in AD patient and healthy groups for vitamin B12 showed a decrease in the levels of this compound in patients with AD. Conclusion: We demonstrated the feasibility of the use of blood biomarkers as predictive markers for the diagnosis of AD.


RESUMO Atualmente, as hipóteses mais prováveis como causa da doença de Alzheimer são a deposição do peptídeo beta amiloide no córtex cerebral e a hiperfosforilação da proteína Tau. O diagnóstico da doença de Alzheimer baseia-se na exclusão de outras doenças, avaliações comportamentais e exames de imagem e sangue. A biotecnologia criou perspectivas interessantes para a detecção precoce da doença de Alzheimer, pela análise sanguínea, com atenção especial às plaquetas, hemoglobina e vitamina B12. Objetivo: Avaliar as concentrações de plaquetas, hemoglobina e vitamina B12 no sangue de idosos com e sem demência de Alzheimer. Métodos: O estudo de caso-controle envolveu 120 indivíduos, buscando correlação entre mudanças nas concentrações de plaquetas, hemoglobina e vitamina B12 em pacientes com DA confirmada e indivíduos do grupo de inclusão, sem DA. Resultados: Os níveis de hemoglobina e plaquetas são estatisticamente mais baixos em pacientes com DA. A avaliação bioquímica em pacientes com DA e grupos saudáveis para vitamina B12 mostrou uma diminuição nos níveis deste composto em pacientes com DA. Conclusão: Demonstramos a viabilidade do uso de biomarcadores sanguíneos como marcadores preditivos para o diagnóstico de DA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Vitamin B 12 , Blood Platelets , Hemoglobins , Biomarkers , Dementia , Alzheimer Disease
5.
Rev. salud pública Parag ; 10(1): [P74-P79], mar. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas), BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1087935

ABSTRACT

Las enfermedades cardiovasculares constituyen la principal causa de mortalidad y morbilidad en el mundo actualmente, lo que obliga a la realización de los continuos avances en las estrategias diagnóstico precoz y tratamiento con el fin de mejorar el pronóstico y disminuir la mortalidad. Sin duda esto abre las puertas al campo de la investigación y en los últimos años aparecen los llamados biomarcadores séricos y entre ellos los microARN (miARN) que juegan un papel fundamental tanto en el desarrollo y como en la regulación del sistema cardiovascular. Los microARN tienen un tamaño de 19-25 nucleótidos, son el grupo de ARN de pequeño tamaño que ha atraído mayor atención durante los últimos años. Hasta la fecha, se han identificado aproximadamente unos 2500 miARN en el genoma humano. Los miARN desempeñan un papel en la regulación de diversos procesos biológicos, como la embriogénesis, la proliferación y diferenciación celular, la apoptosis o la tumorogénesis. En el sistema cardiovascular, los miARN controlan el crecimiento y la contractilidad de los cardiomiocitos, el desarrollo y mantenimiento del ritmo cardíaco, la formación de la placa arterioesclerótica, el metabolismo de los lípidos y la angiogénesis. Además están vinculados en la fisiopatología de varias enfermedades cardiovasculares, fundamentalmente la insuficiencia cardiaca, el infarto de miocardio, la enfermedad coronaria, la ateroesclerosis, y las cardiomiopatías de diversas etiologías, de allí que su determinación en la circulación podría ser de utilidad en la práctica clínica como potencial biomarcador diagnóstico y pronóstico de las enfermedades cardiovasculares. Palabras clave: Micro RNA; Enfermedades cardiovasculares; Biomarcadores séricos.


Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of mortality and morbidity in the world today, which forces the continuous progress in early diagnosis and treatment strategies in order to improve the prognosis and decrease mortality. Undoubtedly this opens the doors to the field of research and in recent years there are the so-called serum biomarkers and among them microRNAs (miRNAs) that play a fundamental role both in the development and in the regulation of the cardiovascular system. The microRNAs are 19 to 25 nucleotides in size, they are the small group of RNA that has attracted the most attention in recent years. To date, approximately 2,500 miRNAs have been identified in the human genome. The miRNAs play a role in the regulation of various biological processes, such as embryogenesis, cell proliferation and differentiation, apoptosis or oncogenesis. In the cardiovascular system, miRNAs control the growth and contractility of cardiomyocytes, the development and maintenance of heart rhythm, the formation of atherosclerotic plaque, lipid metabolism and angiogenesis. They are also linked in the pathophysiology of several cardiovascular diseases, mainly heart failure, myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis, and cardiomyopathies of various etiologies, hence their determination in circulation could be useful in clinical practice as a potential biomarker in the diagnosis and prognosis of cardiovascular diseases. Keywords: Micro RNA; Cardiovascular diseases; Serum biomarkers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biomarkers , Cardiovascular Abnormalities , MicroRNAs , RNA , Cardiovascular Abnormalities/etiology , Heart Failure , Myocardial Infarction
6.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(1): 48-55, Feb. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1056396

ABSTRACT

This research was designed to investigate the potential protective effect of vitamin C supplementation against hepatocyte ultrastructural alterations induced by artemether (antimalarial drug) administration. Twenty-four adult male albino rats were used in this study and were divided into four groups (n=6). Group I served as a control and rats in group II administrated artemether (4 mg/kg B.W) orally for three consecutive days. Group III administered artemether plus a low dose of vitamin C (2.86 mg/kg/l water) while group IV received artemether plusa high dose of vitamin C (8.56 mg/kg). At the end of the experimental period (14 days), the harvested liver tissues were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and blood samples were assayed for biomarkers of liver injury and oxidative stress. Artemether significantly (p<0.05) augmented biomarkers of liver injury such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and oxidative stress such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), Glutathione Peroxidase (GPX), and caused degeneration and damage of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and disrupted mitochondria. The blood sinusoids were also damaged with distortion of their canaliculi. Administration of vitamin C showed improvement of liver biomarkers, and liver parenchyma, especially in a high dose of vitamin C.We concludes that vitamin C is a partial protective agent against artemether-induced liver injury.


Esta investigación fue diseñada para investigar el posible efecto protector de la vitamina C contra las alteraciones ultraestructurales de los hepatocitos, inducidas por la administración de arteméter (medicamento antipalúdico). En el estudio se utilizaron 24 ratas albinas macho adultas y se dividieron en cuatro grupos (n = 6). El grupo I fue designado como control y las ratas en el grupo II se adminstró Arteméter (4 mg / kg de peso corporal) por vía oral durante tres días consecutivos. En el grupo III se administró arteméter, además de una dosis baja de vitamina C (2,86 mg / kg / l de agua) mientras que el grupo IV recibió arteméter más una dosis alta de vitamina C (8,56 mg / kg). Al final del período experimental (14 días), los tejidos hepáticos recolectados se examinaron por microscopía electrónica de transmisión (MET), y las muestras de sangre se analizaron en busca de biomarcadores de daño hepático y estrés oxidativo. El arteméter aumentó significativamente (p <0,05) los biomarcadores de daño hepático como alanina aminotransferasa (ALT), aspartato aminotransferasa (AST) y estrés oxidativo como superóxido dismutasa (SOD), glutatión peroxidasa (GPX) y causó degeneración y daño de la retículo endoplásmico rugoso y mitocondrias alteradas. Los sinusoides sanguíneos también fueron dañados con la distorsión de sus canalículos. La administración de vitamina C mostró una mejoría de los biomarcadores hepáticos y el parénquima hepático, especialmente en una dosis alta de vitamina C. Concluimos que la vitamina C es un agente protector parcial contra la lesión hepática inducida por arteméter.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury, Chronic/drug therapy , Artemether/toxicity , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis , Biomarkers , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Hepatocytes/drug effects , Hepatocytes/ultrastructure , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Disease Models, Animal , Hepatoprotector Drugs , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/pathology , Glutathione Peroxidase/analysis
7.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(1): 61-68, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1056398

ABSTRACT

Fruit purees can be added to diet as alternative sources of bioactive compounds for the prevention and/or improvement of the complications of metabolic syndrome. In this work we evaluated the effect of the intake of low-fat diets enriched with fruit purees (guava-strawberry, guava-blackberry, guava-soursop, guava-passion fruit) on the body weight and biochemical markers in metabolic syndrome analogy (MSA)-induced rats. The rats (n=6 for each treatment) were induced with a high fat diet and were injected with streptozotocin, one dose every week for 4 consecutive weeks after fasting overnight, then healthy rats were fed with standard diet and MS rats were fed with standard diet plus each of the fruit puree, for 4 weeks. As novel findings, the diet enriched with fruit purees was associated with a reduction in body weight (~13-21 %) and a control in the metabolism of glucose by decreasing plasma glucose (~5963 %). Also, there was a reduction in the total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, low-density lipoproteins, and low enzymatic activities of alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and γ-glutamyl transferase, useful metabolites in the control of inflammatory processes in the liver. A notable improvement in the liver morphology was observed indicating that the treatments had a hepatoprotective effect. The diet enriched with guava-blackberry puree caused the best results on most biochemical markers of MS rats. Therefore, diets enriched with fruit purees can be an alternative for MS individuals for the control and improvement of the complications caused by this syndrome.


Los purés de frutas se pueden agregar a la dieta como fuentes alternativas de compuestos bioactivos para la prevención y / o mejora de las complicaciones del síndrome metabólico. En este trabajo evaluamos el efecto de la ingesta de dietas bajas en grasas, enriquecidas con purés de frutas (guayaba-fresa, guayaba-mora, guayaba-guanábana, guayaba-maracuyá) sobre el peso corporal y los marcadores bioquímicos en el síndrome metabólico (SM) inducido en ratas. Las ratas (n = 6 para cada tratamiento) fueron inducidas con una dieta alta en grasas y se les inyectó estreptozotocina, una dosis cada semana durante 4 semanas consecutivas después de ayunar durante la noche. Luego, las ratas sanas fueron alimentadas con una dieta estándar; y las ratas con SM fueron alimentadas con dieta estándar más cada uno de los purés de frutas, durante 4 semanas. Como hallazgos novedosos, la dieta enriquecida con purés de frutas se asoció con una reducción en el peso corporal (~ 13-21 %) y un control en el metabolismo de la glucosa al disminuir la glucosa en plasma (~ 59-63 %). Además, hubo una reducción en el colesterol total, triacilgliceroles, lipoproteínas de baja densidad, y bajas actividades enzimáticas de alanina aminotransferasa, fosfatasa alcalina y gama-glutamil transferasa, metabolitos útiles en el control de los procesos inflamatorios en el hígado. Se observó una mejora notable en la morfología del hígado, lo que indica que los tratamientos tuvieron un efecto hepatoprotector. La dieta enriquecida con puré de guayaba y mora causó los mejores resultados en la mayoría de los marcadores bioquímicos de las ratas con SM. Por lo tanto, las dietas enriquecidas con purés de frutas pueden ser una alternativa para las personas con SM, para el control y la mejora de las complicaciones causadas por este síndrome.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Diet, Fat-Restricted , Metabolic Syndrome , Fruit , Liver/drug effects , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Body Weight/drug effects , Biomarkers , Albumins/analysis , Disease Models, Animal , Alkaline Phosphatase/analysis , Hepatoprotector Drugs , Transaminases/analysis , Lipids/analysis , Liver/chemistry
8.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(1): 83-90, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1056402

ABSTRACT

We sought to determine whether the combined polyphenolic compounds, resveratrol and quercetin can substantially protect against modulation of hepatic biomarkers of apoptosis and survival, p53-Bax axis and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) in an animal model of acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury via the association of oxidative stress and interleukin-11 (IL-11). The model group of rats received a single dose of acetaminophen (2 g/kg), whereas the protective group of rats was pre-treated for 7 days with combined doses of resveratrol (30 mg/kg) and quercetin (50 mg/kg) before being given a single dose of acetaminophen. All rats were then sacrificed 24 hours post acetaminophen ingestion. Acetaminophen overdose induced acute liver injury as demonstrated by profound liver parenchymal damage and increased levels of the liver injury enzymes, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Acetaminophen significantly (p<0.05) modulated malondialdehyde (MDA), p53, apoptosis regulator Bax, Bcl-2, IL-11, interleukin-6 (IL-6), ALT, AST, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), which were significantly protected by resveratrol plus quercetin. We further demonstrated a significant (p<0.01) correlation between IL-11 scoring and the levels of p53, Bax, Bcl-2, and MDA. Thus, resveratrol plus quercetin effectively protect against acetaminophen-induced apoptosis, which is associated with the inhibition of oxidative stress and IL-11.


En el estudio se intentó determinar si los compuestos polifenólicos combinados, el resveratrol y la quercetina pueden proteger sustancialmente contra la modulación de los biomarcadores hepáticos de apoptosis y supervivencia, el eje p53-Bax y el linfoma de células B 2 (Bcl-2) en un modelo animal de lesión hepática aguda inducida por acetaminofén, a través de la asociación del estrés oxidativo y la interleucina-11 (IL-11). El grupo modelo de ratas recibió una dosis única de acetaminofén (2 g / kg), mientras que el grupo protector de ratas fue tratado durante 7 días con dosis combinadas de resveratrol (30 mg / kg) y quercetina (50 mg / kg) antes de recibir una dosis única de acetaminofén. Todas los animales fueron sacrificados 24 horas después de la ingestión de acetaminofén. La sobredosis de acetaminofén indujo una lesión hepática aguda, como se observó en el daño profundo del parénquima hepático y el aumento de los niveles de las enzimas en la lesión hepática, alanina aminotransferasa (ALT) y aspartato aminotransferasa (AST). Acetaminofén moduló significativamente (p <0.05) malondialdehído (MDA), p53, regulador de apoptosis Bax, Bcl2, IL-11, interleucina-6 (IL-6), ALT, AST, superóxido dismutasa (SOD) y glutatión peroxidasa ( GPx), los que se encontraron significativamente protegidos por el resveratrol y quercetina. Además se determinó una correlación significativa (p <0.01) entre la puntuación de IL-11 y los niveles de p53, Bax, Bcl-2 y MDA. En conclusión, el resveratrol más la quercetina protegen de manera efectiva contra la apoptosis inducida por acetaminofén, asociada con la inhibición del estrés oxidativo y la IL-11.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Quercetin/administration & dosage , Apoptosis/drug effects , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury, Chronic/pathology , Resveratrol/administration & dosage , Acetaminophen/toxicity , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Quercetin/pharmacology , Aspartate Aminotransferases/analysis , Biomarkers , Interleukin-1 , Oxidative Stress , Alanine Transaminase/analysis , Disease Models, Animal , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/enzymology , Resveratrol/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology
9.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(1): 230-234, Feb. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1056427

ABSTRACT

The hypotheses currently considered the most likely causes of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are amyloid beta peptide deposition in the cerebral cortex and hyperphosphorylation of the Tau protein, with the consequent formation of neurofibrillary tangles. In clinical practice, although not accurate, AD diagnosis is based on the exclusion of other diseases, behavioural assessments and complementary examinations, such as imaging and blood tests. Advances in the field of biotechnology have created exciting prospects for the early detection of AD via biomarker assessment, which is considered a safer and more efficient procedure. Molecules recognised as biomarkers can be expressed in some body fluids, including cerebrospinal fluid, saliva and blood. The presence of amyloid beta peptide and Tau can be confirmed in saliva, which is also an easily and non-invasively collectable material with an accessible cost. The objective was evaluate the concentrations of the t-Tau protein and Ab42 peptide in the saliva of elderly individuals with and without dementia of the AD type Method: The objective of this case-control study, involving a total of 120 individuals, was to analyse whether a correlation exists between variations in the concentrations of the t-Tau and Ab42 biomarkers in the saliva of patients with confirmed AD and individuals in the inclusion group but without AD . We found that t-Tau expression in AD patients is significantly lower than that in individuals without AD, whereas the salivary concentration of Ab42 is higher in patients with AD but not significantly different from that of the group without AD. Conclusion: Thus, we demonstrate the feasibility of using salivary biomarkers as predictive markers for diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.


Las hipótesis consideradas actualmente como las causas más probables de la enfermedad de Alzheimer (EA) son la deposición de péptido beta amiloide en la corteza cerebral y la hiperfosforilación de la proteína Tau, con la consiguiente formación de ovillos neurofibrilares. En la práctica clínica, aunque no es precisa, el diagnóstico de la EA se basa en la exclusión de otras enfermedades, evaluaciones de comportamiento y exámenes complementarios, como imágenes y análisis de sangre. Los avances en el campo de la biotecnología han creado interesantes perspectivas para la detección temprana de la EA a través de la evaluación de biomarcadores, que se considera un procedimiento más seguro y más eficiente. Las moléculas reconocidas como biomarcadores se pueden expresar en algunos fluidos corporales, incluidos el líquido cerebroespinal, la saliva y la sangre. La presencia del péptido beta amiloide (AB) y la proteína Tau (t-Tau) se puede confirmar en la saliva, que también es un material fácil y no invasivo de recolección con un costo accesible. El objetivo fue evaluar las concentraciones de la proteína t-Tau y el péptido Ab42 en la saliva de las personas de edad avanzada con y sin demencia del tipo de tipo EA. El estudio de casos y controles, se realizó en un total de 120 personas, para analizar si existe una correlación entre las variaciones en las concentraciones de los biomarcadores t-Tau y Ab42 en la saliva de pacientes con EA confirmada e individuos en el grupo de inclusión pero sin AD. Encontramos que la expresión de t-Tau en pacientes con EA es significativamente menor que en individuos sin EA, mientras que la concentración salival de Ab42 es mayor en pacientes con EA pero no significativamente diferente de la del grupo sin la enfermedad . Por lo tanto, se demuestra la viabilidad del uso de biomarcadores salivales como marcadores predictivos para el diagnóstico de la enfermedad de Alzheimer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism , tau Proteins/metabolism , Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , Alzheimer Disease/pathology , Saliva/metabolism , Saliva/chemistry , Biomarkers/analysis , Biomarkers/metabolism , Amyloid beta-Peptides/analysis , tau Proteins/analysis
10.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(1): 4-10, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1088773

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective The aim of this study was to investigate polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and to explore the relationship between body fat percentage and metabolic markers. Subjects and methods Sedentary women were assigned to PCOS (N = 60) and CONTROL (N = 60) groups. Each group was subdivided into three subgroups according to body fat percentage (22-27%, 27-32% and 32-37%). The protocol consisted of assessments of glucose, insulin, androgens, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), leptin, adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Results The PCOS subgroups showed higher concentrations of androgens, LH and 17-OHP. Leptin showed direct relationship with increased body fat percentage, whereas adiponectin showed the inverse effect. However, both were unaffected by PCOS. TNF-α and IL-6 were higher in PCOS women and showed a direct relationship with increased body fat percentage. Glucose showed direct relationship with body fat percentage, whereas insulin presented higher values in PCOS women and direct relationship with increased body fat percentage. Conclusions Our findings indicate that PCOS and body fat percentage directly influence concentrations of insulin, TNF-α and IL-6, whereas leptin and adiponectin are influenced only by the increase in body fat percentage in these women. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2020;64(1):4-10


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Biomarkers/blood , Adipose Tissue/anatomy & histology , Metabolic Diseases/blood , Insulin Resistance , Luteinizing Hormone/blood , Body Mass Index , Case-Control Studies , Interleukin-6/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone/blood , Leptin/blood , Adiponectin/blood , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/blood , Glucose/analysis , Androgens/blood , Insulin/blood
11.
Arch. med ; 20(1): 23-32, 2020-01-18.
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1053178

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: el objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar los niveles plasmáticos de IL-1ß como biomarcador de sepsis bacteriana en pacientes de una clínica de la ciudad de Cali. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio prospectivo en 62 pacientes con sepsis y 20 adultos sanos como control, empleando la técnica de ELISA para medir los niveles plasmáticos de las citocinas. Un análisis de regresión logística se utilizó para estimar Odds Ratio (OR), expresado con su 95% intervalos de confianza (IC del 95%) para el resultado de la sepsis en relación a los niveles de IL-1ß. La prueba de Chi-cuadrado y la U de Mann-Whitney se emplearon cuando correspondió, valores de p<0,05, fueron considerados significativos y se empleó el paquete estadístico SPSS. Vs 23.00. Resultados: la edad promedio de los pacientes fue de 53 años y de estancia en la UCI de 7,00 días, 59,7% de ellos eran hombres. El foco pulmonar (43,5%), la hipertensión arterial (41,9%) y bacterias Gram negativas (59,7%) fueron los más prevalentes con una mortalidad del 16,1%. Los altos niveles de IL-1ß se asoció al desarrollo de choque séptico (OR=28,050; IC95%5,512-142,740;p<0,05) y con padecer insuficiencia respiratoria (OR=9,009;IC95%:0,013-0,941; p<0,05). Conclusión: este estudio evidenció niveles plasmáticos significativamente altos de la IL-1ß durante las primeras 48 horas en pacientes con choque séptico. Los altos niveles de esta citosina se relacionaron con mayor riesgo de desarrollo de choque séptico..(AU)


Objective: the objective of the present study was to evaluate plasma levels of IL-1ß were evaluated as a biomarker of bacterial sepsis in patients from a clinic in the city of Cali. Materials and methods: a prospective study was conducted a prospective study in 62 patients with sepsis and 20 healthy adults as control, using the ELISA test to measure plasma levels of cytokines. The analysis of the odds ratio (OR), expressed with its 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the outcome of sepsis in relation to the levels of IL-1ß. The Chi-square test and the Mann-Whitney U test will be applied when appropriate, the p values <0.05, and the statistical data of the SPSS statistical package. Vs 23.00. Results: the average age of the patients were 53 years and they were in the ICU of 7.00 days, 59.7% of them were men. The pulmonary focus (43.5%), arterial hypertension (41.9%) and Gram negative bacteria (59.7%) were the most prevalent with a mortality of 16.1%. The high levels of IL-1ß were associated with the development of septic shock (OR = 28,050, 95% CI 5,512-142,740, p<0.05) and with respiratory failure (OR = 9,009, 95% CI: 0.013-0.941, p<0.05. Conclusion: this study evidenced significantly high levels of IL-1ß during the first 48 hours in patients with septic shock. High levels of this cytokine were associated with increased risk of septic shock development..(AU)


Subject(s)
Shock, Septic , Biomarkers , Sepsis
12.
Arch. med ; 20(1): 11-22, 2020-01-18.
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1053172

ABSTRACT

Objective: to evaluate the correlation between a group of conventional biomarkers of cardiovascular risk with the Castelli-I and Castelli-II indices, and TG/HDL-C ratio in patients assigned to a program of cardiovascular risk for users of the clinical laboratory service of an institution that provides health services in the southwest of the Colombia.Materials and Methods: retrospective, descriptive multivariate exploratory study, carried out in 2 126 patients. Some sociodemographic variables were analyzed, as well as glucose and lipid profile. The Castelli-I and Castelli-II indices, and TG/HDL-C ratio were calculated. The correlation among the variables was evaluated through a matrix of correlations, the correlation index and the Bartlett's Test of Sphericity. The analysis ended with a study of main components, which allowed to identify how the variables studied were grouped into components that characterized the population. Results: the average age was 56 ± 11 years; 68.7% were women; 48% hypercholesterolemic and 49% hypertriglyceridemic; 22% with alterations in glucose. Total cholesterol correlated positively with LDL-C and triglycerides negatively with HDL-C. Two components characterized the population, one related to cardiovascular risk and the other to lipid alterations. Conclusions: conventional biomarkers reveal high prevalences in dyslipidemias, in contrast to atherogenic indices. The results highlight the importance of considering the evaluation of these indices in primary care and the need to strengthen the measurement systems of clinical laboratories for the reliability of the data on which decisions are made for the management of these patients..(AU)


Objetivo: evaluar la correlación entre un grupo de biomarcadores convencionales de riesgo cardiovascular con los índices de Castelli-I, Castelli-II y TG/cHDL en pacientes de riesgo cardiovascular usuarios del servicio de laboratorio clínico de una institución prestadora de servicios de salud del suroccidente de Colombia. Materiales y Métodos: estudio retrospectivo, descriptivo multivariado exploratorio, llevado a cabo en 2 126 pacientes. Se analizaron algunas variables sociodemográficas, glucosa y perfil lipídico. Se calcularon los índices de Castelli I/II y el índice de TG/cHDL. La correlación entre las variables se evaluó a través de una matriz de correlaciones, el índice de correlación y el Test de Esfericidad de Bartlet. El análisis finalizó con un estudio de componentes principales que permitió identificar como se agrupaban las variables estudiadas en componentes que caracterizaban a la población. Resultados: la edad promedio fue de 56±11 años, 68,7% fueron mujeres; 48% ipercolesterolemicos y 49% hipertrigliceridemicos; 22% con alteraciones en la glucosa. El colesterol total correlacionó positivamente con cLDL y los triglicéridos negativamente con cHDL. Dos componentes caracterizaron la población, uno relacionado con el riesgo cardiovascular y otro con las alteraciones lipídicas. Conclusiones: los biomarcadores convencionales develan altas prevalencias en las dislipidemias en contraste con los índices aterogénicos. Los resultados resaltan la importancia de considerar la evaluación de estos índices en atención primaria y la necesidad de fortalecer los sistemas de medición de los laboratorios clínicos para la confiabilidad de los datos sobre los cuales se toman decisiones en el manejo de estos pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biomarkers , Cardiovascular Diseases
13.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(1): 72-76, Jan. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas), VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1091652

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the enzymatic activity of plasma cholinesterase in Chelonia mydas marine turtles belonging to two populations, according to their capture sites, under the absence and probable influence of anthropic effects. A total of 74 animals were used and later divided into two groups, based on the capture site. Blood samples were collected from all captured animals, which were then released into the sea at the site of capture. A descriptive statistical analysis of the plasma cholinesterase activity values and an analysis comparing these values based on the capture site were performed. Samples of heparinized plasma from animals captured at the two different sites were analyzed. Plasma cholinesterase activity ranged from 121 to 248U/L, with a mean and standard deviation of 186.1±30.68U/L. When comparing plasma cholinesterase activity values in individuals based on the capture site, a significant difference was observed. Establishing reference values for different sea turtle populations is necessary to interpret future sampling results and to allow sea turtles to be used as sentinels of ecosystem health. Future studies are needed to evaluate other populations and the activity of plasma cholinesterase in juvenile marine turtles, in relation to environmental contamination.(AU)


O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a atividade enzimática da colinesterase plasmática em tartarugas marinhas da espécie Chelonia mydas em duas populações de acordo com o local de captura, sob ausência e provável influência de efeito antrópico. Foi utilizado um total de 74 animais e posteriormente divididos em dois grupos de acordo com o local de captura. Foram coletadas amostras de sangue de todos os animais capturados e em seguida liberados ao mar no mesmo local. Foi realizada uma análise estatística descritiva dos valores da atividade plasmática de colinesterase do total de animais e análise comparando os valores de acordo com o local de captura. Foram analisadas amostras de plasma heparinizado de animais capturados em dois locais distintos. Os valores da atividade plasmática de colinesterase variaram de 121 a 248U/L, com média e desvio padrão de 186.1±30.7U/L. Quando comparados os valores de atividade plasmática da colinesterase nos indivíduos de acordo com o local de captura, foi observada diferença significativa. O estabelecimento de valores de referência para diferentes populações de tartarugas marinhas são necessários para interpretar os futuros resultados amostrais e permitir que as tartarugas marinhas sejam usadas como sentinelas da saúde do ecossistema. Estudos futuros são necessários para avaliar outras populações e a atividade da colinesterase plasmática de tartarugas marinhas juvenis em relação à contaminação ambiental.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Turtles/blood , Cholinesterases/analysis , Biomarkers , Environmental Biomarkers
14.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(1): 215-223, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas), VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1088940

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the metabolic response of native lambs fed Tifton 85 hay (Cynodon dactylon) or Maniçoba hay (Manihot pseudoglaziovii) associated with spineless cactus (Nopalea cochenillifera Salm Dyck). Sixteen Morada Nova lambs were used, with a mean initial weight of 19.36±1.48kg, distributed in a randomized block design, with two treatments and eight replications. Dry matter intake was higher for lambs fed Maniçoba hay compared to Tifton hay, while the body weight at slaughter was not influenced by diets. Regarding the blood metabolites, only the serum concentration of urea was influenced, with higher value observed in the lambs that fed the diet containing Tifton hay. When analyzing blood biomarkers, in the different biweekly collections, a linear increase in the blood concentration of urea, glucose, fructosamine, alkaline phosphatase and sodium was observed, as well as a quadratic effect for serum potassium. The other blood metabolites were not influenced in function of the collection days. The replacement of Tifton 85 hay for Maniçoba hay does not cause negative changes in the dynamics of different biomarkers and presents itself as a promising forage resource.(AU)


O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resposta metabólica de cordeiros nativos alimentados com feno de capim-tifton 85 (Cynodon dactylon) ou feno de maniçoba (Manihot pseudoglaziovii) associados à palma forrageira (Nopalea cochenillifera Salm Dyck). Foram utilizados 16 cordeiros Morada Nova, com peso inicial médio de 19,36±1,48kg, distribuídos em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com dois tratamentos e oito repetições. O consumo de matéria seca foi maior nos cordeiros alimentados com feno de maniçoba em comparação ao feno de tifton, enquanto o peso corporal ao abate não foi influenciado pelas dietas. Em relação aos metabólitos sanguíneos, apenas a concentração sérica de ureia foi influenciada, com maior valor observado nos cordeiros que ingeriram a dieta contendo feno de capim-tifton. Quando foi realizada a análise dos biomarcadores sanguíneos nas diferentes coletas quinzenais, foi observado aumento linear nas concentrações sanguíneas de ureia, glicose, frutosamina, fosfatase alcalina e sódio, e efeito quadrático para o potássio sérico. Os demais metabólitos sanguíneos não foram influenciados em função dos dias de coleta. A substituição do feno de tifton 85 por feno de maniçoba influencia positivamente o metabolismo de cordeiros sem causar alterações na dinâmica dos diferentes biomarcadores e se apresenta como um promissor recurso forrageiro.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Sheep/metabolism , Biomarkers , Manihot , Cactaceae , Cynodon
15.
Rev. gaúch. enferm ; 41(spe): e20190095, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas), BDENF | ID: biblio-1093864

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Aim: To analyze the behavior of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) in the presence of defining characteristics (DCs) of the nursing diagnosis Excess fluid volume (00026) in patients hospitalized for acute decompensated heart failure. Methods: Cohort study of patients admitted with acute decompensated heart failure (September 2015 to September 2016) defined by Boston Criteria. Patients hospitalized for up to 36 h with BNP values ≥ 100 pg/ml were included; BNP values at baseline-final assessment were compared by Wilcoxon test, the number of DCs at baseline-final assessment was compared by paired t-test. Results: Sixty-four patients were included; there was a significant positive correlation between delta of BNP and the number of DCs present at initial clinical assessment. Conclusions: The behavior of BNP was correlated to the DCs indicating congestion. With clinical compensation, DCs and BNP decreased. The use of this biomarker may provide additional precision to the nursing assessment.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Analizar el comportamiento del péptido natriurético tipo B (BNP) en presencia de características definitorias (CD) del diagnóstico de enfermería Exceso de volumen de líquidos (00026) en pacientes hospitalizados por insuficiencia cardíaca aguda descompensada (ICAD). Métodos: Estudio de cohorte de pacientes ingresados ​​con ICAD (septiembre/2015 a septiembre/2016).Se incluyeron pacientes hospitalizados hasta 36 h con valores de BNP ≥ 100 pg / ml; Los valores de BNP en la evaluación inicial basal se compararon mediante la prueba de Wilcoxon, el número de CD en la evaluación inicial basal se comparó mediante el Test-T apareado. Resultados: Se incluyeron 64 pacientes; hubo una correlación positiva significativa entre el delta del BNP y las CD presentes en la evaluación clínica inicial. Conclusiones: El comportamiento del BNP se correlacionó con las CD que indican congestión. Con compensación clínica, las CD y el BNP disminuyeron. El uso del BNP puede proporcionar precisión adicional a la evaluación de enfermería.


RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar o comportamento do peptídeo natriurético tipo B (BNP) na presença de características definidoras (CDs) do diagnóstico de enfermagem Excesso de volume de líquidos (00026) em pacientes hospitalizados por insuficiência cardíaca descompensada. Métodos: Estudo de coorte com pacientes internados com insuficiência cardíaca descompensada (setembro-2015 a setembro-2016), definida pelos Critérios de Boston. Pacientes hospitalizados por mais de 36 horas, valor de BNP ≥ 100 pg/ml foram incluídos; valores de BNP basal-final foram comparados pelo teste Wilcoxon; as CDs no basal-final foram comparadas pelo teste t pareado. Resultados: Sessenta e quatro pacientes foram incluídos; houve correlação positiva significativa entre o delta de BNP com o número de CDs presentes na avaliação clínica inicial. Conclusões: O comportamento do BNP foi correlacionado com as CDs, indicando congestão. Com a compensação clínica, as CDs e a concentração de BNP diminuíram. O uso deste biomarcador pode fornecer precisão adicional à avaliação de enfermagem.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Water-Electrolyte Imbalance/diagnosis , Nursing Diagnosis , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Heart Failure/blood , Stroke Volume , Water-Electrolyte Imbalance/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Cohort Studies , Sample Size , Emergency Medical Services , Heart Failure/nursing , Heart Failure/physiopathology
16.
Rev. chil. salud pública ; 24(1): 30-39, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1121731

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Las infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS) se expresan con mayor frecuencia en poblaciones marginadas, como lo son los ciudadanos que se encuentran en situación de calle y con problemas de drogadicción. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Mediante un estudio de campo descriptivo retrospectivo, se determinó la prevalencia de las ITS que se detallan en los ciudadanos residentes de un Centro de Inclusión Social en Venezuela durante los años 2013 a 2018. Para ello, suero de 280 individuos fue analizado mediante la prueba ELISA de diferentes compañías biotecnológicas. RESULTADOS: 50 casos (17,8%) fueron reactivos a cualquiera de las enfermedades investigadas. El biomarcador de mayor prevalencia durante el lapso estudiado fue el antiHBc con 13,9% y las menores fueron HBsAg con 0,75%, VHC con 0,71% y Treponema pallidum con 2,85%, así como 2,14% para VIH. No se detectó ningun caso de HTLV. Del mismo modo, se observó una tasa de co-infección entre hepatitis B y VIH de 2,32%, entre hepatitis C y VIH de 1,5% y en dos años se consiguió co-infeccion de hepatitis B y Sífilis con 1,5% y 5,8% en el 2014 y 2018 respectivamente. DISCUSIÓN: Se encontró que los sujetos acogidos en el Centro de Inclusión Social son un grupo vulnerable a las ITS y las coinfecciones, por lo que deben llevarse a cabo campañas de preven-ción y pruebas de detección de estas enfermedades en dicha población.


INTRODUCTION: Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) are most frequently expressed in marginalized populations, such as as homeless individuals or those with substance abuse issues. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Through a retrospective descriptive study, the prevalence of various STDs was determined among residents of a Social Inclusion Center in Venezuela from 2013 to 2018. For this purpose, serum from 280 individuals were analyzed with ELISA tests from different biotech companies. RESULTS: 50 cases (17.86%) were sero-reactive to any of the STIs investigated. The most preva-lent biomarker during the study period studied was antiHBc (13.9%) and the lowest prevalen-ces were HBsAg with 0.75%, HCV with 0.71%, and Treponema pallidum with 2.85%, as well as 2.14% for HIV. No cases of HTLV were detected. Similarly, there was coinfection between hepatitis B and HIV in 2.32% of cases, between hepatitis C and HIV in 1.5%, and between syphillis and hepatitis in 1,5% and 5,8% of cases (in 2014 and 2018 respectively). DISCUSSION: Individuals in Centers for Social Inclusion are at risk of presenting STIs and co-infections; therefore, STI prevention campaigns and screenings should be conducted in this vulnerable group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Venezuela/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Biomarkers/analysis , Serotyping , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Vulnerable Populations , Coinfection , Hepatitis B/epidemiology
17.
Rev. chil. salud pública ; 24(1): 23-29, 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1121594

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Las desigualdades socioeconómicas y territoriales se relacionan con la salud de la población santiaguina; sin embargo, los mecanismos causales que generan las inequidades en salud no están del todo claros. En este trabajo, se cuantifica el estrés de individuos viviendo en diferentes comunas, y se lo discute como causa y consecuencia de procesos vinculados con inequidades en salud. EL OBJETIVO era relacionar el Índice de Calidad de Vida Urbana (ICVU) de la comuna de residencia de individuos en Santiago de Chile con las concentraciones de cortisol en pelo (CCP), un biomarcador de los niveles de estrés fisiológico crónico. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Se exploró la relación entre CCP y la edad, el sexo y el ICVU de la comuna de residencia en 80 estudiantes de educación superior en Santiago de Chile. RESULTADOS: No se encontraron correlaciones significativas entre CCP y la edad o el sexo de los participantes. Se encontró una correlación significativa entre CCP y los valores del ICVU de la comuna de residencia, además de encontrar diferencias significativas entre CCP y los distintos rangos de ICVU (Superior, Promedio e Inferior).DISCUSIÓN: Los resultados sugieren considerar las diferencias individuales de CCP como resultado de desigualdades socio-territoriales y también como posible causa de inequidades en salud. Se recomienda incluir el rol del estrés en las políticas públicas de salud, ampliando las redes de apoyo y prevención de estrés en los sectores con bajo ICVU.


INTRODUCTION: Socioeconomic and urban inequalities are associated with health in Santiago; nonetheless, the causal mechanisms underlying health inequalities are not entirely clear. This article quantifies the stress of individuals living in different municipalities and discusses its role as cause and consequence in the generation of health inequalities. THE OBJECTIVE of this study was to determine the relationship between the Urban Quality of Life Index (UQoLI) of individuals' municipality of residence in Santiago, Chile with their hair cortisol concentrations (HCC), a biomarker of chronic physiological stress.MATERIALS AND METHODS: The relationship of HCC with age, sex and UQoLI was explored in a sample of 80 university students in Santiago, Chile. RESULTS: No significant correlations were found between HCC and age and sex. A significant correlation was found between HCC and UQoLI, and significant differences were found be-tween HCC at different levels of UQoLI (High, Average, and Low).DISCUSSION: Results suggest that HCC differences could be considered a result of urban in-equalities, as well as a possible cause of health inequalities. The role of stress should be inclu-ded in public health policies, to expand support networks and prevent stress, especially among people living in areas with low urban quality of life.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Quality of Life , Stress, Physiological , Hydrocortisone/analysis , Hair/chemistry , Urban Population , Biomarkers/analysis , Chile/epidemiology , Residence Characteristics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Status Disparities , Social Inequity
18.
South African Journal of Child Health ; 14(2), p.62-65, tab., 2020
Article in English | AIM (Africa) | ID: afr-201931

ABSTRACT

Background. HIV infection can lead to the development of HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) with the majority of patients progressing to end-stage kidney disease. Previous studies have recognised basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) as a biomarker for HIVAN, since significant levels of bFGF low-affinity receptors have been found in the kidneys of HIV-infected children.Objective. To assess the association between bFGF and kidney disease in the development of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) in HIV-positive and negative children.Methods. The study group consisted of 31 children; HIVAN (n=11) and idiopathic FSGS (n=20). The control group consisted of both HIV-positive (n=20) and HIV-negative (n=20) children with no kidney disease. Serum samples from all patients in both the study and control groups were analysed for bFGF.Results. The concentration of bFGF was higher, in comparison with idiopathic FSGS children, in HIVAN children (p=0.0167). There was also a significant elevation of serum bFGF levels in children with HIVAN when compared with HIV-positive (p=0.0288) and HIV-negative (p=0.0043) control groups.Conclusion. This study demonstrated statistically significant differences between bFGF levels in children with HIVAN and a control group, although it failed to distinguish significant differences in bFGF levels between HIVAN and idiopathic FSGS children.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Glomerulonephritis , HIV , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Biomarkers , Child , Africa
19.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-762474

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The ability of urinary biomarkers to complement established clinical risk prediction models for postoperative adverse kidney events is unclear. We assessed the effect of urinary biomarkers linked to suspected pathogenesis of cardiac surgery-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) on the performance of the Cleveland Score, a risk assessment model for postoperative adverse kidney events. METHODS: This pilot study included 100 patients who underwent open-heart surgery. We determined improvements to the Cleveland Score when adding urinary biomarkers measured using clinical laboratory platforms (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [NGAL], interleukin-6) and those in the preclinical stage (hepcidin-25, midkine, alpha-1 microglobulin), all sampled immediately post-surgery. The primary endpoint was major adverse kidney events (MAKE), and the secondary endpoint was AKI. We performed ROC curve analysis, assessed baseline model performance (odds ratios [OR], 95% CI), and carried out statistical reclassification analyses to assess model improvement. RESULTS: NGAL (OR [95% CI] per 20 concentration-units wherever applicable): (1.07 [1.01–1.14]), Interleukin-6 (1.51 [1.01–2.26]), midkine (1.01 [1.00–1.02]), 1-hepcidin-25 (1.08 [1.00–1.17]), and NGAL/hepcidin-ratio (2.91 [1.30–6.49]) were independent predictors of MAKE and AKI (1.38 [1.03–1.85], 1.08 [1.01–1.15], 1.01 [1.00–1.02], 1.09 [1.01–1.18], and 3.45 [1.54–7.72]). Category-free net reclassification improvement identified interleukin-6 as a model-improving biomarker for MAKE and NGAL for AKI. However, only NGAL/hepcidin-25 improved model performance for event- and event-free patients for MAKE and AKI. CONCLUSIONS: NGAL and interleukin-6 measured immediately post cardiac surgery may complement the Cleveland Score. The combination of biomarkers with hepcidin-25 may further improve diagnostic discrimination.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Biomarkers , Complement System Proteins , Discrimination, Psychological , Hepcidins , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Kidney , Lipocalins , Pilot Projects , Risk Assessment , ROC Curve , Thoracic Surgery
20.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-820815

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is pathologically characterized by a long progressive phase of neuronal changes, including accumulation of extracellular amyloid-β (Aβ) and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, before the onset of observable symptoms. Many efforts have been made to develop a blood-based diagnostic method for AD by incorporating Aβ and tau as plasma biomarkers. As blood tests have the advantages of being highly accessible and low cost, clinical implementation of AD blood tests would provide preventative screening to presymptomatic individuals, facilitating early identification of AD patients and, thus, treatment development in clinical research. However, the low concentration of AD biomarkers in the plasma has posed difficulties for accurate detection, hindering the development of a reliable blood test. In this review, we introduce three AD blood test technologies emerging in South Korea, which have distinctive methods of heightening detection sensitivity of specific plasma biomarkers. We discuss in detail the multimer detection system, the self-standard analysis of Aβ biomarkers quantified by interdigitated microelectrodes, and a biomarker ratio analysis comprising Aβ and tau.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Biomarkers , Diagnosis , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Hematologic Tests , Humans , Korea , Mass Screening , Methods , Microelectrodes , Neurofibrillary Tangles , Neurons , Plasma , tau Proteins
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