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1.
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 26(1cont): 152-166, jan.-jun. 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1437898

ABSTRACT

As leveduras são fungos de importância à medicina veterinária por causarem doenças infecciosas em diferentes hospedeiros animais. A presente revisão de literatura teve como objetivo relatar os principais testes bioquímicos capazes de auxiliar na identificação de fungos leveduriformes de interesse veterinário e zoonótico. Para o levantamento bibliográfico, foram consideradas 48 publicações científicas selecionadas na área e indexadas nas principais bases de dados, entre os anos de 1988 e 2020. Como resultados, observou-se que oito provas são as mais empregadas na rotina micológica. Devido à baixa variabilidade morfológica das espécies leveduriformes, testes bioquímicos complementares são fundamentais na rotina laboratorial. A análise do perfil bioquímico de leveduras contribui na determinação taxonômica dos fungos a partir de reações químicas, visto que o metabolismo varia de acordo com a espécie, resultando em metabólitos distintos, os quais podem ser avaliados por diferentes provas. Conclui-se que a identificação fenotípica das leveduras é imprescindível no diagnóstico, prognóstico, tratamento e controle de doenças fúngicas e contribui para a manutenção da saúde animal.(AU)


Yeasts are fungi of importance to veterinary medicine because they cause infectious diseases in different animal hosts. This literature review aimed to report the main biochemical tests capable of assisting in the identification of yeast-like fungi of veterinary and zoonotic interest. For the bibliographical survey, 48 selected scientific publications in the area and indexed in the main databases, between the years 1988 and 2020, were considered. As a result, it was observed that eight tests are the most used in the mycological routine. Due to the low morphological variability of yeast species, complementary biochemical tests are fundamental in the laboratory routine. The analysis of the biochemical profile of yeast contributes to the taxonomic determination of fungi based on chemical reactions, since the metabolism varies according to the species, resulting in different metabolites, which can be evaluated by different tests. It is concluded that the phenotypic identification of yeasts is essential in the diagnosis, prognosis, treatment and control of fungal diseases and contributes to the maintenance of animal health.(AU)


Las levaduras son hongos de importancia para la medicina veterinaria porque causan enfermedades infecciosas en diferentes animales huéspedes. Esta revisión de la literatura tuvo como objetivo informar las principales pruebas bioquímicas capaces de ayudar en la identificación de hongos tipo levadura de interés veterinario y zoonótico. Para el levantamiento bibliográfico se consideraron 48 publicaciones científicas seleccionadas en el área e indexadas en las principales bases de datos, entre los años 1988 y 2020. Como resultado se observó que ocho pruebas son las más utilizadas en la rutina micológica. Debido a la baja variabilidad morfológica de las especies de levaduras, las pruebas bioquímicas complementarias son fundamentales en la rutina del laboratorio. El análisis del perfil bioquímico de la levadura contribuye a la determinación taxonómica de los hongos en base a reacciones químicas, ya que el metabolismo varía según la especie, dando como resultado diferentes metabolitos, los cuales pueden ser evaluados mediante diferentes pruebas. Se concluye que la identificación fenotípica de levaduras es fundamental en el diagnóstico, pronóstico, tratamiento y control de enfermedades fúngicas y contribuye al mantenimiento de la salud animal.(AU)


Subject(s)
Yeasts/classification , Biochemical Phenomena , Biomarkers/analysis
2.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1523609

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Previous retrospective studies have demonstrated that the concentration of chemokine ligand CXCL13 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF-CXCL13) is a promising biomarker in the diagnosis of neurosyphilis and, additionally, in the monitoring of therapeutic efficacy. Objective: To describe three cases of patients with neurosyphilis (NS) treated at Hospital Universitário Gaffrée e Guinle, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with suspected active syphilis with neurological symptoms. Case report: Three patients from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were investigated for symptomatic NS. The concentration of CSF-CXCL13 was prospectively performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in all participants at baseline and in follow-up visits at 3 months after therapy. CSF-CXCL13 concentrations were significantly higher in all three patients with established NS. The CSF-CXCL13 concentrations decreased after 3 months of therapy compared to baseline in all cases reported. The added high concentration of CSF-CXCL13 plus CSF-TPHA reactivity above 1:40 titer agreed with the diagnosis of NS in 100% of the cases. Conclusion: In this case series, we present three cases of NS diagnosed using CXCL13 in CSF as a complementary test. These case series suggest that the clinical use of CSF-CXCL13 is useful as a supplementary biomarker for NS and for monitoring the effectiveness of NS therapy, especially in patients with nonreactive CSF-VDRL, excluding other neurologic diseases


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Cerebrospinal Fluid/chemistry , Chemokine CXCL13/analysis , Neurosyphilis/diagnosis , Biomarkers/analysis , Prospective Studies
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986862

ABSTRACT

Periprosthetic gout flare is a rare arthritic condition after total knee arthroplasty, but the symptoms of gout may have often been mistaken as acute periprosthetic infection given their similarity. Misdiagnosis as periprosthetic infection can lead to unnecessary surgery, long-term dependence on anti-biotics, and even malfunction of the involved knee joint. Here, we report a case study of a patient with immunodeficiency condition of long-term oral glucocorticoid and diabetes mellitus, who had undergone a knee replacement 8 weeks before. The initial symptoms of fever and joint pain together with the dysfunction of her right knee with elevated inflammatory markers, such as increased serum leukocytes, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and synovial cell counts led to a diagnosis of acute periprosthetic infection. Arthrocentesis and bacterial culture were performed preoperatively. According to the current Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS) criteria for diagnosis of periprosthetic infection, the case was classified as periprosthetic infection and a prosthesis retained debridement surgery was performed. However we got negative culture results in all the pre-operative and intro-operative samples. The symptoms as well as the laboratory inflammatory markers improved shortly after the debridement surgery until the 11th day when all the similar systemic and local symptoms recurred. With a remedial crystal analysis of synovial fluid from the patient, gouty flare was found to be the cause of acute arthritis finally. Accor-dingly, after anti-gout medications were administrated, the symptoms associated with acute arthritis gra- dually subsided, and there was no recurrence during a 24-month follow-up. This article described the cli-nical manifestation, diagnosis and differential diagnosis, treatment of a case of periprosthetic gout. Although relatively rare, gout should be considered as a differential diagnosis in suspected periprosthetic infection. Current criteria for periprosthetic infection can not exclude the diagnosis of periprosthetic gout flare, it is therefore imperative that the analysis of joint aspirate for crystals be conducted to determine the correct course of treatment, or unnecessary surgical procedure may be performed in periprosthetic gout case.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/methods , Gout/complications , Prosthesis-Related Infections/surgery , Symptom Flare Up , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Biomarkers/analysis
4.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 38-44, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969740

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the predictive value of glycosylated hemoglobin A1c/apolipoprotein A-1 (HbA1c/ApoA-1) ratio for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods: The present study is a retrospective cohort study. ACS patients who were hospitalized and underwent coronary angiography at Beijing Hospital from March 2017 to March 2019 were enrolled. Baseline information such as sex, age, previous history, Gensini score, HbA1c and ApoA-1 were analyzed. Patients were divided into two groups according to presence or absence of MACEs and the difference on HbA1c/ApoA-1 ratio was compared between the two groups. According to the tertiles of HbA1c/ApoA-1 levels, patients were divided into high (5.87-16.12), medium (4.50-5.83) and low (2.11-4.48) HbA1c/ApoA-1 groups. Cox proportional risk model was used to evaluate the differences in MACEs and all-cause mortality among the three groups. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to compare the differences of MACEs between the various HbA1c/ApoA-1 groups. Results: A total of 366 ACS patients were included in this study. The mean age of the patients was (65.9±10.3) years. There were 59 MACEs and 10 all-cause deaths during the mean of (22.3±4.4) months follow-up. After adjusting for age, systolic blood pressure, history of diabetes and Gensini score, the incidence of MACEs was 2.45 times higher in the high HbA1c/ApoA-1 group than in the low HbA1c/ApoA-1 group (95%CI 1.16-5.18, P=0.019). There was no significant difference in all-cause mortality between the high and low HbA1c/ApoA-1 groups (P=1.000). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that patients in the high HbA1c/ApoA-1 group had the highest risk of MACEs, while patients in the low HbA1c/ApoA-1 group had the lowest risk of MACEs (P<0.01). Spearman rank correlation analysis showed that HbA1/ApoA-1 ratio was positively correlated with Gensini score in ACS patients (r=0.274, P<0.01). Conclusion: High HbA1c/ApoA-1 ratio was an independent risk factor for MACEs in ACS patients. Patients with high HbA1c/ApoA-1 ratio had more severe coronary artery disease lesions. HbA1c/ApoA-1 ratio may be used as a potential risk stratification biomarker for ACS patients, it might be useful for the early identification of high-risk population and for predicting the incidence of MACEs among ACS patients.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Middle Aged , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnosis , Apolipoprotein A-I/analysis , Biomarkers/analysis , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Predictive Value of Tests
5.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2023. 83 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1437610

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular diseases involve hyperlipidemia, inflammation and oxidative stress. Although this relationship is well established, only biomarkers associated with hyperlipidemia and inflammation are currently in clinical practice for diagnosis and evaluation of patient treatment. Our hypothesis is that oxidative stress biomarkers may be an independent risk factor and may assist in cardiovascular risk stratification and contribute to improving current scores. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate which are the biomarkers and methodologies were used in clinical studies in humans with different health conditions. With the results obtained in the first part, we selected studies conducted in healthy individuals and in individuals under primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention in order to evaluate the most frequent biomarkers, the results obtained according to the individual's profile and the methodology used, and correlate with different health conditions. We observed that malondialdehyde (MDA) was the most frequent lipid biomarker of oxidative stress applied in the studies, but it presented significant variability in the results and a weak correlation with clinical outcomes. The result of this study demonstrates the importance of carrying out a multicentric study to validate the MDA values in individuals with different health conditions and the standardization of the methodology based on high performance liquid chromatographyy (HPLC)


As doenças cardiovasculares envolvem hiperlipidemia, inflamação e estresse oxidativo. Embora essa relação esteja bem estabelecida, apenas biomarcadores associados à hiperlipidemia e inflamação são atuais na prática clínica para diagnóstico e avaliação do tratamento do paciente. Nossa hipótese é que biomarcadores de estresse oxidativo podem ser um fator de risco independente e podem auxiliar na estratificação de risco cardiovascular e contribuir para melhorar os escores atuais. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi investigar primeiramente quais são os biomarcadores e metodologias utilizados nos estudos clínicos em humanos em diferentes condições de saúde. Com os resultados obtidos na primeira etapa, selecionamos os estudos conduzidos em indivíduos saudáveis e em prevenção cardiovascular primária e secundária a fim de avaliar os biomarcadores mais utilizados, os resultados obtidos conforme o perfil do indivíduo e a metodologia utilizada e finalmente correlacionar com as diferentes condições de saúde. Observamos que o malondialdeído (MDA) foi o biomarcador lipídico de estresse oxidativo mais frequente nos estudos, porém apresentou importante variabilidade nos resultados e fraca correlação com desfechos clínicos. O resultado desse estudo demonstra a importância da realização de um estudo multicentrico para validação dos valores de MDA nos diferentes perfis de indivíduos e a padronização metodológica baseada na cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC)


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/analysis , Oxidative Stress , Patients/classification , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Atherosclerosis/pathology
6.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 16(1): 10-16, 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1438514

ABSTRACT

La diabetes mellitus tipo 1 (DM1) es una enfermedad autoinmune que genera dependencia exógena de insulina de forma permanente, presenta inflamación subclínica crónica lo que conlleva a una elevación de marcadores de inflamación como factor de necrosis tumoral alfa (TNF-α), proteína C reactiva (PCR) e interleuquina 6 (IL-6). OBJETIVO: determinar la relación entre el IMC sobre los marcadores de inflamación y el control metabólico en niños y jóvenes con DM1 entre 5 a 15 años de edad. METODOLOGÍA: Se realizó un estudio clínico, observacional, exploratorio. A partir de La recolección de datos de fichas clínicas y muestras de sangre en el Instituto de Investigaciones Materno Infantil (IDIMI) del Hospital San Borja Arriarán de la Universidad de Chile. Clasificación del estado nutricional utilizando datos registrados en ficha clínica. Marcadores de inflamación por medio de ELISA, hemoglobina glicosilada mediante métodos estándares. El análisis estadístico incluyó correlaciones mediante test de Spearman y diferencia de medias mediante test de Kruskal-Wallis seguido de post hoc Dunns. RESULTADOS: Un 30% de los pacientes con DM1 presentaron malnutrición por exceso. Al analizar la relación entre los niveles de marcadores inflamatorios y Hb glicosilada se observó la existencia de asociacion positiva entre usPCR y HbA1c (r= 0,30; p=0,0352) y entre IL-6 y HbA1c (r= - 0,038; p=0,0352). CONCLUSIONES: este estudio describe una posible asociación entre parámetros clásicos de inflamación con la hemoglobina glicosilada en las categorias de sobrepeso y obesidad en pacientes con DM1.


Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that generates permanent exogenous insulin dependence, accompanied by chronic subclinical inflammation that leads to an elevation of inflammation markers such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between BMI on markers of inflammation and metabolic control in children and young people with T1D between 5 and 15 years of age. METHODOLOGY: A clinical, observational and exploratory study was carried out, based on the collection of data from clinical records and blood samples of children and adolescents with DM1 at the Instituto de Investigaciones Materno Infantil (IDIMI) of the Hospital San Borja Arriarán of the Universidad de Chile. Nutritional status, levels of inflammation markers and glycosylated hemoglobin were determined by standardized methods. Statistical analysis included correlations by Spearman test and mean difference by Kruskal-Wallis test followed by post hoc Dunns test. RESULTS: A total of 56 patients with T1D were analyzed, 30% of whom presented excess malnutrition. Those children or adolescents with obesity presented significantly higher usPCR levels compared to underweight patients or patients at risk of malnutrition (p=0.039). In addition, HbA1c levels were determined which were negatively associated with usPCR (r= 0.30; p=0.0352) and IL-6 (r= - 0.038; p=0.0352) levels. CONCLUSIONS: This study points out that nutritional status is associated with usPCR levels, in agreement with what is described in the literature and shows a possible association between classical parameters of inflammation with glycosylated hemoglobin in children and adolescents with nutritional diagnosis of overweight or obesity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Biomarkers/analysis , Body Mass Index , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/metabolism , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Nutritional Status , Interleukin-6/analysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Statistics, Nonparametric , Inflammation
7.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 29(spe1): e2022_0199, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394846

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction Nowadays, more people are concerned with physical exercise and swimming competitions, as a major sporting event, have become a focus of attention. Such competitions require special attention to their athletes and the use of computational algorithms assists in this task. Objective To design and validate an algorithm to evaluate changes in vital capacity and blood markers of athletes after swimming matches based on combined learning. Methods The data integration algorithm was used to analyze changes in vital capacity and blood acid after combined learning swimming competition, followed by the construction of an information system model to calculate and process this algorithm. Results Comparative experiments show that the neural network algorithm can reduce the calculation time from the original initial time. In the latest tests carried out in about 10 seconds, this has greatly reduced the total calculation time. Conclusion According to the model requirements of the designed algorithm, practical help has been demonstrated by building a computational model. The algorithm can be optimized and selected according to the calculation model according to the reality of the application. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment outcomes.


RESUMO Introdução Atualmente, mais pessoas preocupam-se com o exercício físico e as competições de natação, como evento esportivo de destaque, tornou-se foco de atenção. Tais competições exigem atenção especial aos seus atletas e o uso de algoritmos computacionais auxiliam nessa tarefa. Objetivo Projetar e validar um algoritmo para avaliação das alterações da capacidade vital e marcadores sanguíneos dos atletas após os jogos de natação baseados no aprendizado combinado. Métodos O algoritmo de integração de dados foi usado para analisar as mudanças de capacidade vital e ácido sanguíneo após competição de natação de aprendizado combinado, seguido à construção de um modelo de sistema de informação para calcular e processar esse algoritmo. Resultados Experiências comparativas mostram que o algoritmo de rede neural pode reduzir o tempo de cálculo a partir do tempo inicial original. Nos últimos testes levados à cabo em cerca de 10 segundos, isto reduziu muito o tempo total de cálculo. Conclusão De acordo com os requisitos do modelo do algoritmo projetado, foi demonstrada a ajuda prática pela construção de um modelo computacional. O algoritmo pode ser otimizado e selecionado de acordo com o modelo de cálculo, segundo a realidade da aplicação. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos - investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


RESUMEN Introducción Hoy en día, cada vez más personas se preocupan por el ejercicio físico y las competiciones de natación, como evento deportivo destacado, se han convertido en un foco de atención. Estas competiciones requieren una atención especial para sus atletas y el uso de algoritmos computacionales ayuda en esta tarea. Objetivo Diseñar y validar un algoritmo para evaluar los cambios en la capacidad vital y los marcadores sanguíneos de los atletas después de los partidos de natación basado en el aprendizaje combinado. Métodos Se utilizó el algoritmo de integración de datos para analizar los cambios de la capacidad vital y la acidez de la sangre tras la competición de natación de aprendizaje combinado, seguido de la construcción de un modelo de sistema de información para calcular y procesar este algoritmo. Resultados Los experimentos comparativos muestran que el algoritmo de la red neuronal puede reducir el tiempo de cálculo con respecto al tiempo inicial. En las últimas pruebas realizadas en unos 10 segundos, esto redujo en gran medida el tiempo total de cálculo. Conclusión De acuerdo con los requisitos del modelo del algoritmo diseñado, se ha demostrado la ayuda práctica mediante la construcción de un modelo computacional. El algoritmo puede optimizarse y seleccionarse según el modelo de cálculo en función de la realidad de la aplicación. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos - investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Swimming/physiology , Algorithms , Biomarkers/analysis , Deep Learning , Athletic Performance/physiology , Athletes
8.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e23146, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1505838

ABSTRACT

Abstract The article explores the significance of biomarkers in clinical research and the advantages of utilizing artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) in the discovery process. Biomarkers provide a more comprehensive understanding of disease progression and response to therapy compared to traditional indicators. AI and ML offer a new approach to biomarker discovery, leveraging large amounts of data to identify patterns and optimize existing biomarkers. Additionally, the article touches on the emergence of digital biomarkers, which use technology to assess an individual's physiological and behavioural states, and the importance of properly processing omics and multi-omics data for efficient handling by computer systems. However, the article acknowledges the challenges posed by AI/ML in the identification of biomarkers, including potential biases in the data and the need for diversity in data representation. To address these challenges, the article suggests the importance of regulation and diversity in the development of AI/ML algorithms.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence/classification , Biomarkers/analysis , Machine Learning/classification , Algorithms , Multiomics/instrumentation
9.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 29: e2022_0318, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407661

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Athletes' physical conditioning is closely related to the type of sport dedicated, training levels, intrinsic conditions of the athletes, type of load, and recovery status after exercise training. There is ample documentation on the physical conditioning of volleyball athletes in normal situations, but the literature is lacking in surveys during competition periods. Objective: To explore the physical conditioning through analysis of body biomarkers in volleyball athletes in competition. Methods: Before and after the summer training, fasting urine and blood samples were collected from five female volleyball players. Biomarkers involving white blood cells, red blood cells, hemoglobin, etc., were detected, recorded, and the data were statistically analyzed. After the general analysis of the sample, a case study of two elite female athletes was conducted. Results: The urea nitrogen value of athlete A decreased from 7.62mmol/L to 4.91mmol/L, and the urea nitrogen value of athlete B decreased from 6.91mmol/L to 6.57mmol/L; the urea nitrogen values of both athletes showed a downward trend. Athlete A's physical function status decreased significantly after summer training, while Athlete B's physical function status improved slightly. Conclusion: During the summer training period, it is necessary to perform continuous index measurements on the athletes to increase the timeliness of the data, which is conducive to in-depth analysis of the athletes' fitness status. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment outcomes.


RESUMO Introdução: O condicionamento físico dos atletas está intimamente relacionado ao tipo de esporte dedicado, níveis de treinamento, condições intrínsecas das atletas, tipo de carga e status de recuperação após o treinamento dos exercícios. Há vasta documentação sobre o condicionamento físico dos atletas de vôlei em situações normais, porém a literatura deixa a desejar nos levantamentos durante o período de competições. Objetivo: Explorar o condicionamento físico através de análise de biomarcadores corporais nos atletas de vôlei em competição. Métodos: Antes e depois do período de treinamento de verão, foram coletadas amostras de urina e sangue, em jejum, de cinco jogadoras de vôlei feminino. Biomarcadores envolvendo glóbulos brancos, glóbulos vermelhos, hemoglobina, etc. foram detectados, registrados, e os dados foram analisados estatisticamente. Após a análise geral da amostra, foi realizado um estudo de caso de duas atletas de elite. Resultados: O valor de nitrogênio de ureia da atleta A diminuiu de 7,62mmol/L para 4,91mmol/L, e o valor do nitrogênio de ureia da atleta B diminuiu de 6,91mmol/L para 6,57mmol/L, os valores de nitrogênio da ureia de ambas as atletas apresentaram tendência de queda. O estado de função física da atleta A diminuiu significativamente após os treinos de verão, enquanto o estado de função física da atleta B melhorou ligeiramente. Conclusão: Durante o período de treinamento de verão, é necessário realizar uma medição contínua do índice sobre os atletas para aumentar a pontualidade dos dados, o que é propício à análise aprofundada do estado de condicionamento físico das atletas. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos - investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


RESUMEN Introducción: El acondicionamiento físico de los deportistas está íntimamente relacionado con el tipo de deporte al que se dedican, los niveles de entrenamiento, las condiciones intrínsecas de los deportistas, el tipo de carga y el estado de recuperación tras los ejercicios de entrenamiento. Existe una amplia documentación sobre el acondicionamiento físico de los deportistas de voleibol en situaciones normales, pero la literatura deja mucho que desear en los estudios durante el periodo de competiciones. Objetivo: Explorar la condición física mediante el análisis de biomarcadores corporales en atletas de voleibol en competición. Métodos: Antes y después del periodo de entrenamiento de verano, se recogieron muestras de orina y sangre en ayunas de cinco jugadoras de voleibol. Se detectaron y registraron los biomarcadores relativos a los glóbulos blancos, los glóbulos rojos, la hemoglobina, etc., y los datos se analizaron estadísticamente. Tras el análisis general de la muestra, se realizó un estudio de casos de dos atletas de élite. Resultados: El valor de nitrógeno ureico del atleta A disminuyó de 7.62mmol/L a 4.91mmol/L, y el valor de nitrógeno ureico del atleta B disminuyó de 6.91mmol/L a 6.57mmol/L, los valores de nitrógeno ureico de ambos atletas mostraron una tendencia a la baja. El estado de la función física del atleta A disminuyó significativamente después del entrenamiento de verano, mientras que el estado de la función física del atleta B mejoró ligeramente. Conclusión: Durante el período de entrenamiento de verano, es necesario realizar mediciones continuas de los índices en los atletas para aumentar la puntualidad de los datos, lo que favorece el análisis en profundidad del estado de forma física de los atletas.Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos - investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Biomarkers/analysis , Volleyball , Athletes , Physical Conditioning, Human
10.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e20052, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1429959

ABSTRACT

Abstract The pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is complex. Few studies in Brazilian population have addressed cell phenotypes associated with immunological responses and their associations with SLE activity. The aim of this study is to investigate cell phenotypes associated to SLE diagnosis, treatment and activity. Twenty-eight SLE female patients (17 inactive, 11 active) and 10 healthy women were included in this study. Markers of natural killer (Nk), T and B cells in peripheral blood were evaluated by flow cytometry. Nkt cells were decreased only in SLE active patients. Activated CD4+, regulatory T FoxP3+ and B cells were decreased in both active and inactive SLE patients, compared to control group. The data corroborate the disruption of immune regulatory response in SLE patients and suggest phenotipic changes as possible biomarkers of SLE activity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Flow Cytometry/methods , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/pathology , Patients/classification , Biomarkers/analysis , Natural Killer T-Cells
11.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 23: e220077, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1529117

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To identify the clinicopathological correlation of E-cadherin expression in metastatic and non-metastatic oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Material and Methods: A total of 90 paraffin-embedded tissue sections of OSCC were retrieved from the registry. The total selected samples were 45 cases each from the primary lesions of metastatic and non-metastatic OSCC. One section was subjected to routine Hematoxylin and eosin stain and another to immunohistochemical analysis for E-cadherin expression. Results: A non-significant (p˃0.05) increased expression is seen in the non-metastatic group compared to the metastatic group, with predominantly membrane as the staining site in either group. However, the expression of E-cadherin did not reveal any statistically significant association with independent variables such as age, gender, and adverse habits of the patients (p>0.05). On the other hand, with respect to the histological differentiation of OSCC, a significant association (p<0.001) was observed with the well-differentiated type of metastatic OSCC. Conclusion: E-cadherin was useful to some extent in predicting regional metastasis. However, further studies using a panel of biomarkers with increased sample size may help us understand the process involved in metastasis.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Biomarkers/analysis , Cadherins , Cell Adhesion/immunology , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/pathology , Immunohistochemistry/methods , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods
12.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 38(2): 81-87, jun. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407773

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: El aumento de la concentración de dímero-D en pacientes COVID-19 se ha asociado a mayor gravedad y peor pronóstico; sin embargo, su rol en predecir el diagnóstico de tromboembolismo pulmonar (TEP), aún es incierto. Objetivo: Evaluar la utilidad del dímero-D plasmático en el diagnóstico de TEP en pacientes con COVID-19. Pacientes y Métodos: Estudio observacional analítico. Se incluyó a pacientes COVID-19 que tenían una angiotomografía computada de tórax (AngioTAC). Se registraron datos clínicos, niveles plasmáticos de dímero-D de ingreso y previo al momento de realizar la AngioTAC. Se identificó la presencia o ausencia de TEP. Resultados: Se incluyeron 163 pacientes; 37(23%) presentaron TEP. Al comparar la serie de pacientes con TEP versus sin TEP, no se encontraron diferencias significativas en características clínicas, ni mortalidad. Hubo diferencias significativas en el nivel plasmático del dímero-D previo a realizar la AngioTAC (3.929 versus 1.912 μg/L; p = 0,005). El área bajo la curva ROC del dímero-D para TEPfue de 0,65. El mejor punto de corte del dímero-D fue de 2.000 μg/L, con una baja sensibilidad y valor predictivo positivo. El valor de corte con el mejor valor predictivo negativo (VPN)fue de 900 μg/L (96%), el cual fue mejor que la estrategia de corte de dímero D ajustado por edad (VPN 90%). Conclusión: La capacidad discriminativa del dímero D para diagnosticar TEP fue baja. En cambio, el dímero D mantiene un alto valor predictivo negativo para descartar TEP, el cual es mayor al valor descrito clásicamente en los pacientes no COVID.


Introduction: Increased D-dimer concentration in COVID-19 patients has been associated with greater severity and worse prognosis; however its role in predicting the diagnosis of pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE), is still uncertain. Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of plasma D-dimer in the diagnosis of PTE in patients with COVID-19. Method: Analytical observational study. COVID-19 patients who had a chest computed tomography angiography (CTA) were included. Clinical data, Ddimer plasma levels on admission and prior to CTA were recorded. The presence or absence of PTE was identified. Results: 163 patients were included, 37 (23%) presented PTE. After comparing the series of patients with PTE versus the series without PTE, no significant differences were found in clinical characteristics or mortality. There were significant differences in the plasma level of D-dimer prior to performing CTA (3,929 μg/L versus. 1,912 μg/L; p = 0.005). The area under the D-dimer ROC curve for PTEprediction was 0.65. The best D-dimer cutoffpoint was 2.000μg/L, with a low sensitivity and positivepredictive value. The cutoff value with the best negativepredictive value (NPV) was 900 μg/L (96%), which was better than the age-adjusted D-dimer cutoff strategy (NPV 90%). Conclusion: The discriminative ability of D-dimer to diagnose PTE was low. In contrast, D-dimer maintains a high negative predictive value to rule out PTE, which is higher than the value classically described in non-COVID patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , COVID-19/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Biomarkers/analysis , Predictive Value of Tests , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Computed Tomography Angiography
13.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 11(3): 1-12, jun. 30, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1427927

ABSTRACT

Objetive: To evaluate the correlation between salivary biomarkers (the salivary antioxidant ability, salivary level of polyphenols, and other antioxidants) with plaque-induced gingivitis exacerbated by pregnancy in pregnant and nonpregnant women. Material and Methods: For this observational study, medical records, dental examinations, and analyses of saliva samples were carried out in pregnant and nonpregnant women. A p-value of <0.05 was considered significant. Results: The pregnant women (n =17) exhibited a lower antioxidant capacity (p-value=0.0041), higher levels of polyphenols, gingival index, bleeding on probing, and subjects consuming mineral-enriched products (p-value from <0.0001 to 0.0466), and unchanged levels of phosphotungstic acid reactive substances, proteins, oral hygienic habits, plaque index and probing depth (p-value from 0.0683 to 0.8358), in comparison with the nonpregnant women (n=9). Also, a positive correlation between the gingival index and salivary polyphenol content was observed (r-value = 0.4087, p-value = 0.0202). Conclusion: The salivary polyphenols correlate with plaque-induced gingivitis exacerbated by pregnancy, suggesting a deficiency of salivary antioxidant protection.


Objetivo: Evaluar la correlación entre los biomarcadores salivales (la capacidad antioxidante salival, el nivel salival de polifenoles y otros antioxidantes) con la gingivitis inducida por placa exacerbada por el embarazo en mujeres embarazadas y no embarazadas. Material y Métodos: Para este estudio observacional, se realizaron registros médicos, exámenes dentales y análisis de muestras de saliva en mujeres embarazadas y no embarazadas. Se consideró significativo un valor de p<0,05. Resultados: Las gestantes (n=17) presentaron menor capacidad antioxidante (p=0,0041), mayores niveles de polifenoles, índice gingival, sangrado al sondaje y los sujetos que consumían productos enriquecidos con minerales (p<0,0001 a p<0,0466), y no hubo diferencias en los niveles de sustancias reactivas al ácido fosfotúngstico, proteínas, hábitos de higiene bucal, índice de placa y profundidad de sondaje (p=0,0683 a 0,8358), en comparación con las mujeres no embarazadas (n=19). Además, se observó una correlación positiva entre el índice gingival y elcontenido de polifenoles salivales (r = 0,4087, p= 0,0202). Conclusión: Los polifenoles salivales se correlacionan con la gingivitis inducida por placa y exacerbada por el embarazo, lo que sugiere una deficiencia de protección antioxidante salival.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Saliva/immunology , Biomarkers/analysis , Gingivitis/immunology , Polyphenols , Antioxidants
14.
Odovtos (En línea) ; 24(1)abr. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1386576

ABSTRACT

Abstract Periodontitis is a low-grade inflammatory disease caused by a subgingival dysbiotic microbiota. Multiple studies have determined the higher prevalence of tooth loss and poor oral hygiene in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the periodontal diagnosis, periodontal bacteria or mediators has not been measured to date. Aim: To determine the periodontal status, the pro-inflammatory mediators, Porphyromonas gingivalis load, and Apoliporpotein E (ApoE) in patients with AD. A complete dental examination was performed on 30 patients, and cognitive status was determined by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Subgingival microbiota and GCF samples were then taken from all patients from the deepest sites. Total DNA was isolated from the microbiota samples for the quantification of the 16S ribosomal subunit. Pro-inflammatory mediators and ApoE were quantified from the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). Patients with AD had periodontitis stage III-IV in 80%, a higher concentration of pro-inflammatory and ApoE mediators, and a higher P. gingivalis load compared to healthy subjects. The pro-inflammatory mediators, P. gingivalis load had a negative correlation with the MoCA test scores. Finally, a ROC curve was performed to assess the specificity and sensitivity of ApoE levels, detecting an area of 84.9%. In AD patients, we found a more severe periodontitis, a higher levels of pro-inflammatory mediators, and higher bacterial load. In addition, there is an increase in ApoE that allows to clearly determine patients with health, periodontitis and periodontitis and AD.


Resumen La periodontitis es una enfermedad crónica no transmisible que se caracteriza por generar una inflamación sistémica de bajo grado causada por una microbiota disbiótica subgingival. Múltiples estudios han determinado la mayor prevalencia de pérdida de dientes y mala higiene bucal en pacientes con enfermedad de Alzheimer (EA). Sin embargo, el diagnóstico periodontal, bacterias periodontales o mediadores pro-inflamatorio no se ha medido hasta la fecha. Determinar el estado periodontal, los mediadores pro-inflamatorios, la carga de Porphyromonas gingivalis y la apoliporpoteína E (ApoE) en pacientes con EA. Se realizó un examen odontológico completo en 30 pacientes y el estado cognitivo se determinó mediante la Evaluación Cognitiva de Montreal (MoCA). Luego, se tomaron muestras de microbiota subgingival y FCG de todos los pacientes de los sitios más profundos. Se aisló el DNA total de las muestras de microbiota para la cuantificación de la subunidad ribosómica 16S. Los mediadores pro-inflamatorios y la ApoE se cuantificaron a partir del líquido crevicular gingival (GCF). Los pacientes con EA tenían periodontitis en estadio III-IV en 80%, una mayor concentración de mediadores pro-inflamatorios y ApoE, y una mayor carga de P. gingivalis en comparación con los sujetos sanos. Los mediadores pro-inflamatorios y la carga de P. gingivalis tuvieron una correlación negativa con las puntuaciones de la prueba MoCA. Finalmente, se realizó una curva ROC para evaluar la especificidad y sensibilidad de los niveles de ApoE, detectando un área del 84,9%. En los pacientes con EA encontramos una periodontitis más severa, mayores niveles de mediadores pro-inflamatorios y mayor carga bacteriana. Además, un aumento de ApoE que permite determinar claramente a los pacientes con salud, periodontitis y periodontitis y EA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biomarkers/analysis , Gingival Crevicular Fluid , Alzheimer Disease , Chronic Periodontitis
15.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 38(1): 20-25, mar. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388168

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Las Vasculitis Asociadas a Anticuerpos Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos (VAA) son infrecuentes, pero de amplio espectro de presentación. Si bien el consenso de clasificación de Chapel Hill del año 2012, sigue vigente, la tendencia actual es clasificarlas de acuerdo al marcador inmunológico: anti-Proteinasa 3 (PR3) o anti-mieloperoxidasa (MPO). Las manifestaciones pulmonares clásicas son la hemorragia alveolar y los nódulos pulmonares. En los últimos 10 años se ha descrito la enfermedad pulmonar difusa (EPD). Los estudios epidemiológicos son escasos, y suelen representar en su mayoría poblaciones norteamericanas o europeas. El objetivo es describir las características del compromiso pulmonar al debut en VAA en un centro universitario. PACIENTES Y MÉTODO: De un total de 190 pacientes con diagnóstico de VAA se incluyeron 170 en seguimiento en nuestro centro. Se revisaron aspectos clínicos, demográficos, laboratorio e imagenológicos de los pacientes incluidos. RESULTADOS: De los 170 pacientes, 112 (65,88%) presentaron compromiso pulmonar. 106 (94,64%) de los pacientes fueron anticuerpos anti citoplasma de neutrófilos (ANCA) positivos; de estos, 56 (53,27%) MPO (+) y 39 (36,45%) PR-3 (+). Un tercio de los pacientes de ambos grupos presentó hemorragia alveolar. En los pacientes MPO (+) predomina la EPD (53,5%) y en PR-3 (+) los nódulos pulmonares (69,23%). Destaca la baja frecuencia de patología obstructiva asociada. CONCLUSIONES: El compromiso pulmonar en las VAA es prevalente y heterogéneo. En nuestra serie, destaca la frecuencia de EPD en VAA MPO (+), lo que releva la importancia del estudio con ANCA en paciente con diagnóstico y seguimiento por EPD.


INTRODUCTION: Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies (ANCA) associated vasculitis (AAV) are uncommon, but of broad spectrum of presentation. Although the 2012 Chapel Hill classification consensus remains valid, the current trend is to classify them according to the immunological marker: anti-Proteinase 3 antibody (PR-3) or anti-Myeloperoxidase antibody (MPO). The classic pulmonary manifestations are alveolar hemorrhage and pulmonary nodules. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) has been described in the last 10 years. Epidemiological studies are scarce, and they usually represent mostly North American or European populations. The objective is to describe the characteristics of lung involvement upon debut in AAV in a university center. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Of a total of 190 patients diagnosed with AAV, 170 were included in follow-up at our center. Clinical, demographic, laboratory and imaging aspects of the included patients were reviewed. RESULTS: Of the 170 patients, 112 (65.88%) had lung involvement. 106 (94.64%) of the patients were ANCA (+); of these, 56 (53.27%) MPO (+) and 39 (36.45%) PR-3 (+). One third of the patients in both groups had alveolar hemorrhage. In MPO (+) patients, ILD predominates (53.5%) and in PR-3 (+) pulmonary nodules (69.23%). The low frequency of associated obstructive pathology stands out. CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary manifestations in AAVs are frequent and heterogeneous. Locally, the association of ILD and AAV MPO (+) stands out, which highlights the importance of ANCA study in patients with diagnosis and follow-up by ILD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/etiology , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/complications , Biomarkers/analysis , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/epidemiology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnostic imaging , Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/classification , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/epidemiology , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/diagnostic imaging , Inflammation/etiology , Antibodies/analysis
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928173

ABSTRACT

Based on the previous research results of our group and literature research, the chemical components, mechanisms, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics of Zingiberis Rhizoma Carbonisata were summarized to determine the quality markers(Q-markers) of Zingiberis Rhizoma Carbonisata and Zingiberis Rhizoma. Our research group has clarified the differential components of Zingiberis Rhizoma Carbonisata and Zingiberis Rhizoma, the meridian-warming hemostatic effect of Zingiberis Rhizoma Carbonisata, the related targets and pathways of the effect, the endogenous biomarkers of Zingiberis Rhizoma Carbonisata, and the hemodynamic processes of Zingiberis Rhizoma Carbonisata and Zingiberis Rhizoma. Moreover, based on high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry(HPLC-DAD-ESIMS), a method for determining the content of Q-mar-kers was established. In conclusion, the study finally determined that gingerone, 6-shogaol, and diacetyl-6-gingerol were the Q-mar-kers of Zingiberis Rhizoma Carbonisata decoction pieces, and 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, and 10-gingerol were Q-markers of Zingiberis Rhizoma decoction pieces. The result is expected to provide a reference for the establishment of quality standards for Zingiberis Rhizoma Carbonisata decoction pieces and Zingiberis Rhizoma decoction pieces.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Ginger , Mass Spectrometry , Plant Extracts , Rhizome/chemistry
17.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 157 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1380998

ABSTRACT

Melanoma accounts for 3% of skin neoplasms and is the leading cause of death from skin disorders worldwide. The high mortality rate associated with this disease stems from the high capacity of melanoma patients to develop metastases and treatment relapse with inhibitors of the MAPK signaling pathway (such as BRAF inhibitors), commonly used in melanoma therapy. Thus, the investigation of genes involved in the mechanisms of melanoma development is essential for new and more effective therapeutic strategies. Hence, we describe in this thesis two projects involving the genes SIN3B and IRF4 as possible biomarkers for cutaneous melanoma. Initially, through bioinformatics analyses performed by our group, an upregulation of SIN3B was found in metastatic melanomas. This result together with the understanding of SIN3B role in regulating gene expression and oncogenic transformation, prompted us to describe in this thesis some mechanisms by which SIN3B may influence melanoma development. We then sought to characterize the gene function using SIN3B-deleted cells, generated by the CRISPR-Cas9 methodology. Initially, we observed increased SIN3B expression in BRAF-mutant metastatic melanomas, where we noted that the long splicing variant of the gene (NM_001297595.1) was effectively prevalent in melanomas. Subsequently, we designed gRNAs between the exons 2 and 3 of the human SIN3B gene and engineered three knockout clones and three control clones (containing empty lentiCRISPRv2 plasmid) from different melanoma cell lines (SKMEL28, A2058, and A375). Through functional analyses, it was observed that the absence of the gene did not interfere in the proliferation of tumor cells; however, it led to a decrease in invasive properties. These results were verified by Boyden chamber assays and transcriptome analysis (total RNA sequencing of deleted cells), where a decrease in migration and motility pathways was observed. Additionally, a screening of synthetically lethal genes with SIN3B was performed with a genome wide CRISPR library. These results showed that USP7 and STK11 genes, which belong to the FoxO signaling pathway, were essential in SIN3B-depleted melanoma cells. Finally, through a collaborative project with the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, previous large-scale sequencing analyses demonstrated that deletion of the IRF4 gene was lethal for melanoma cells. Accordingly, we performed IRF4 silencing in vitro and noticed that the lack of IRF4 promotes cell death and apoptosis, independently of MYC and MITF, known in the literature to be downstream targets of this gene. Therefore, these data suggest that IRF4 plays a vital role in melanoma cell survival. Taken together, both works herein described in this thesis demonstrate how CRISPR-Cas9 can be applied to study the functions and mechanisms of genes involved in melanoma progression, collectively helping in the development of more effective therapeutic strategies for this tumor


O melanoma representa 3% dos tipos de neoplasias cutâneas e é a maior causa das mortes por distúrbios de pele no mundo. A alta taxa de mortalidade associada à essa doença advém da alta capacidade de pacientes com melanoma desenvolverem metástases, e apresentarem recidiva após tratamento com inibidores da via de sinalização MAPK (como da proteína BRAF), comumente utilizados no tratamento de pacientes metastáticos. Assim, a investigação de genes envolvidos nos mecanismos de desenvolvimento do melanoma é primordial para novas estratégias terapêuticas mais efetivas. Dessa forma, descrevemos no presente trabalho dois projetos envolvendo os genes SIN3B e IRF4 como possíveis biomarcadores para melanoma cutâneo. Em análises prévias de bioinformática realizados pelo nosso grupo, SIN3B foi identificado tendo maior expressão em melanomas metastáticos. Além disso, diversos estudos mostraram que o gene está envolvido na regulação da expressão gênica e transformação oncogênica. Dessa forma, descrevemos nessa tese alguns mecanismos pelos quais SIN3B pode influenciar no desenvolvimento do melanoma, através da caracterização funcional de células SIN3B-deletadas pela metodologia CRISPR-Cas9. Inicialmente, observamos aumento na expressão de SIN3B em melanomas metastáticos BRAF-mutados, onde notamos que a variante de splicing longa do gene (NM_001297595.1), era efetivamente prevalente em melanomas. Assim, desenhamos sequências de RNA guias entre os éxons 2 e 3 do gene SIN3B humano e, obtivemos três clones knockout e outros três clones controle (contendo plasmídeo vazio) em diferentes linhagens de melanoma (SKMEL28, A2058 e A375), para caracterização funcional. Observou-se que a ausência do gene não interferiu na proliferação das células tumorais, contudo, acarretou na diminuição de processos invasivos. Esses resultados foram averiguados através de ensaios em câmara de Boyden e análises de transcriptoma (sequenciamento de RNA total das células deletadas), onde notou-se diminuição das vias de migração e motilidade. Adicionalmente, um rastreamento de genes sinteticamente letais com SIN3B foi realizado com uma biblioteca de CRISPR capaz de silenciar todo o genoma. Esses resultados mostraram que os genes USP7 e STK11, ambos pertencentes à via de sinalização de FoxO, são essenciais nas células SIN3B deletadas. Por fim, através de um projeto colaborativo com o Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, análises prévias de sequenciamento de larga escala demonstraram que a deleção do gene IRF4 era letal para células de melanoma. Dessa forma, realizamos o silenciamento de IRF4 in vitro e notamos que a ausência do gene promove morte celular e apoptose, independentemente de MYC e MITF, conhecidos na literatura por serem alvos downstream do gene. Portanto, esses dados sugerem que IRF4 tem um papel importante na sobrevivência de células de melanoma. Em conjunto, ambos trabalhos descritos nessa tese, demonstram como a metodologia CRISPR-Cas9 pode auxiliar no entendimento de processos importantes para a malignidade do melanoma e contribuir para estratégias terapêuticas mais efetivas para esse tumor


Subject(s)
Skin Neoplasms/complications , Methodology as a Subject , Melanoma/pathology , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neoplasms , Patients/classification , Skin , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Biomarkers/analysis , Gene Expression , Cell Survival , Sequence Analysis, RNA/instrumentation , Computational Biology/methods , Absenteeism , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats
18.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19332, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384002

ABSTRACT

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a blood cancer characterized by the accumulation of clonal B-lymphocytes. This study evaluated the mRNA gene expression of miR-15a, miR-16- 1, ZAP-70, and Ang-2 by qPCR, as well as the plasma levels of Bcl-2 by Elisa immunoassay, in CLL patients and healthy controls. Significant differences were observed when comparing patients and controls regarding miR-15a (p < 0.001), miR-16-1 (p < 0.001) mRNA, Ang-2 gene expression, and Bcl-2 plasma levels (p < 0.001). When stratified by risk, differences were maintained with a significantly reduced expression in high-risk patients. A positive correlation was observed between miR-15a and platelets (R2 = 0.340; p = 0.009) as well as between Bcl-2 and leukocytes (R2 = 0.310; p = 0.019). Conversely, negative correlations were observed between ZAP-70 and platelets (R2 = - 0.334; p = 0.011), between miR-15a and lymphocytes (R2 = - 0.376; p = 0.004), as well as between miR-16-and lymphocytes (R2 = - 0.515; p = 0.00004). The data suggest that a reduction in miR-15a and miR-16-1 expressions, in addition to an overexpression of Bcl-2, are associated with the reduction in apoptosis and, consequently, to a longer survival of lymphocytes, thus contributing to lymphocyte accumulation and aggravation of the disease. By contrast, Ang-2 expression was significantly higher in A than in B + C Binet groups. This context leads to the speculation that this biomarker should be investigated in more robust studies within populations with a still relevantly indolent form of the disease in an attempt to identify those patients with a greater potential for an aggravation of the disease


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Biomarkers/analysis , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/pathology , ZAP-70 Protein-Tyrosine Kinase/analysis , Patients , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/instrumentation , Gene Expression , Apoptosis
19.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 205 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1379336

ABSTRACT

Dentre os subtipos de câncer de mama, o triplo negativo (TNBC) é o que apresenta as maiores taxas de mortalidade, sendo, portanto, considerado um enorme desafio para a clínica. O uso de moléculas como marcadores tumorais vem auxiliando o clínico no diagnóstico, no prognóstico e, até mesmo, no tratamento do TNBC, sendo essenciais na redução de suas altas taxa de mortalidade. No entanto, um pequeno grupo de marcadores tumorais são validados na prática clínica, estimulando à busca por novos alvos, e sua caracterização funcional, como forma de se entender a Biologia desta doença. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho é caracterizar funcionalmente o gene codificador de proteína CD14 e o gene não codificador de proteína LINC01133 em linhagens celulares humanas de TNBC, no intuito de descobrir o papel destas moléculas na progressão tumoral. Na primeira parte deste trabalho, analisou-se a expressão do CD14 frente à um painel de linhagens celulares que representam os diferentes subtipos dos tumores mamários. O CD14 exibiu elevados níveis de expressão nas linhagens nãotumorigênicas MCF10A e MCF12A e baixos níveis na linhagem triplo negativa Hs578T. A partir destes resultados, o CD14 foi superexpresso na linhagem Hs578T. Ensaios de caracterização funcional mostraram que a superexpressão do CD14 reduziu a capacidade migratória e invasiva das células, efeito que foi hipoteticamente relacionado ao aumento da expressão da E-caderina. No entanto, observou-se aumento no potencial tumorigênico, levando-nos a sugerir seu envolvimento num possível mecanismo utilizado pelas células para compensar a significativa redução do potencial migratório e invasivo. Os resultados obtidos indicam que o nível basal de expressão do CD14 observado na linhagem Hs578T é importante, podendo contribuir para a desenvolvimento primário do tumor, atuando como um oncogene. Na segunda parte deste trabalho, analisou-se a expressão de 10 RNAs longos não codificadores (lncRNAs), frente ao mesmo painel de linhagens descritoanteriormente. Dentre estes, o lncRNA LINC01133 exibiu baixos níveis de expressão nas linhagens não-tumorigênicas MCF10A e MCF12A e elevados níveis na linhagem triplo negativa Hs578T, sendo, então, escolhido como alvo de estudo. A partir destes resultados, decidimos superexpressar, de forma indutível, o LINC01133 na linhagem MCF10A e nocautear este gene, via sistema CRISPR/Cas9, na linhagem Hs578T. Ensaios de caracterização funcional mostraram que a superexpressão do LINC01133 na linhagem MCF10A reduziu a proliferação celular e inibiu o crescimento de colônias dependente de ancoragem, mas, em contrapartida, aumentou o crescimento de colônias independente de ancoragem e a capacidade migratória e invasiva destas células. No entanto, sugerimos que isto não seja suficiente para tornar estas células tumorigênicas e metastáticas. Por outro lado, o nocauteamento do LINC01133 na linhagem triplo negativa Hs578T aumentou de forma considerável todos os parâmetros de malignidade analisados. Baseado nos dados obtidos, sugerimos que o elevado nível de expressão do LINC01133 na linhagem Hs578T é importante na regulação negativa de processos relacionados com a progressão tumoral, atuando com um supressor tumoral. Os dados obtidos em nosso estudo contribuem para o enriquecimento de informações relacionadas à Biologia do TNBC, auxiliando, desta forma, no desenvolvimento de potenciais protocolos clínicos e terapêuticos utilizandos estes biomarcadores


Among the breast cancer subtypes, the triple negative (TNBC) displays the highest mortality rates, being, therefore, considered a major challenge for the clinic. The use of molecules as tumor markers has helped clinicians in the diagnosis, prognosis and even in treatment of TNBC, being essential in reducing its high mortality rate. However, a small group of tumor markers is validated in clinical practice, stimulating the search for new targets, and their functional characterization, as a way to understand the biology of this disease. Thus, the aim of this work is to functionally characterize the CD14 protein-coding gene and the non-protein-coding LINC01133 gene in human TNBC cell lines, in order to probe into the role of these molecules in tumor progression. In the first part of this work, the expression of CD14 was analyzed in a panel of cell lines that represent the different subtypes of breast tumors. High expression levels of CD14 were observed in the non-tumorigenic MCF10A and MCF12A lineages and low levels in the triple negative Hs578T lineage. Based on these results, CD14 was overexpressed in the Hs578T lineage. Functional characterization assays showed that CD14 overexpression reduced the migratory and invasive capacity of cells, an effect that was hypothetically related to increased E-cadherin expression. However, increased in the tumorigenic potential was observed, leading us to suggest its involvement in a possible mechanism used by cells to compensate for the significant reduction in the migratory and invasive potential. The results obtained indicate that CD14 expression basal level observed in the Hs578T lineage may be important to contribute to the primary development of tumor, thus acting as an oncogene. In the second part of this work, the expression of 10 long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) was analyzed against the same lineage panel described above. Among these, the LINC01133 lncRNA exhibited low expression levels in the non-tumorigenic MCF10A and MCF12A lineages and high levels in the triple negative Hs578T lineage, being, then, chosen as a target for this study. Based on these results, we decided toinducibly overexpress LINC01133 in the MCF10A lineage and knockout this gene, via the CRISPR/Cas9 system, in the Hs578T lineage. Functional characterization assays showed that overexpression of LINC01133 in the MCF10A lineage reduced cell proliferation and inhibited anchorage-dependent colony growth, but, on the other hand, increased anchorage-independent colony growth and the migratory and invasive capacity of these cells. However, we suggest that this is not sufficient to render these cells tumorigenic and metastatic. On the other hand, the knockout of LINC01133 in the triple negative Hs578T lineage considerably increased all the analyzed malignancy parameters. Based on the results obtained, we suggest that the high expression level of LINC01133 in the Hs578T lineage is important for down-regulation of processes related to tumor progression, acting as a tumor suppressor. The data obtained in our study contribute to the enrichment of information related to TNBC Biology, thus assisting in the development of potential clinical and therapeutic protocols using these biomarkers


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/analysis , Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis , Cells/chemistry , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Cell Line , Growth and Development
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