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1.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 19(3): e210004, 2021. tab, graf, mapas
Article in English | ID: biblio-1340242

ABSTRACT

Body size influences the effect of individuals and assemblages on ecosystem functioning and defines how they respond to ecosystem changes. We evaluated how body size structure of fish assemblages and functional groups respond to human modifications at catchment, riparian and local scales in 40 streams of the Pampa grasslands, southern Brazil. To describe body size structure, we calculated the mean, coefficient of variation, skewness, and kurtosis, using individual biomass data for the entire fish assemblages and separately by functional group. The results suggested that body size response depends on body size metrics, functional group, and the spatial scale of land use. From 11 functional groups, only five showed a clear response to land use. In general, most functional groups had a higher concentration of small sizes (left-skewed) in response to increased land use measured at distinct spatial scales (local, riparian, and catchment), and a greater concentration of sizes in a narrow and central distribution (higher kurtosis). However, the responses were complex and varied between the functional groups. We conclude that considering ecomorphological and trophic features separately by functional group and assessing multiple body size metrics contributed greatly to detecting the influence of land use on fish body size.(AU)


O tamanho corporal influencia o efeito de indivíduos e assembleias no funcionamento dos ecossistemas e define como estes respondem à alterações ambientais. Investigamos como a estrutura do tamanho corporal de assembleias e grupos funcionais de peixes responde ao uso da terra quantificado em três escalas espaciais (sub-bacia, ripária e local), em 40 riachos do Pampa, sul do Brasil. Para tanto, calculamos média, coeficiente de variação, assimetria e kurtose usando biomassa individual em nível de assembleia e grupo funcional. As respostas do tamanho corporal dependeram da métrica utilizada, do grupo funcional e da escala de uso da terra. Entre os 11 grupos funcionais identificados, apenas cinco mostraram uma resposta clara ao uso da terra. Em geral, a maioria dos grupos mostrou uma assimetria na distribuição em favor de menores tamanhos corporais e uma concentração de tamanhos em uma distribuição estreita e central (alta kurtose) em resposta ao uso da terra quantificado nas três escalas espaciais. Entretanto, as respostas foram complexas e variaram entre grupos funcionais. A consideração de atributos ecomorfológicos e tróficos separadamente por grupo funcional e a avaliação de múltiplas métricas contribuem de forma importante para detectar a influência do uso da terra no tamanho corporal de peixes.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Biomass , Rivers , Fishes/anatomy & histology , Body Composition , Agriculture
2.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 19(3): e210041, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-1340233

ABSTRACT

The introduction of non-native predators is a matter of great concern, but their impacts on ecosystem functions remain poorly understood. We investigated how changes in fish diversity following the invasion of Cichla kelberi affected ecosystem functions generated by fish populations. Fish assemblages were sampled in macrophyte patches in a Neotropical impoundment over a 5-year period, before and after the introduction of the predator. We assigned seven ecosystem functions (26 trait-states) to each fish species, and examined how these functions behaved after the invasion. We collected 577 fish belonging to 25 species. Species richness, fish biomass and main species declined significantly over periods. The biomass of ecosystem functions changed significantly over time, and most trait-states declined. Few trait-states were lost, but all functions had at least one trait-state reduced by more than 85%. A null model analysis showed that changes in functions were not driven by species identities, while species richness correlated positively with total biomass and with most functions, suggesting that the loss of taxa and biomass drove observed changes in ecosystem functions. Our study provided evidence that community disassembly associated with the invasion of C. kelberi translated to the decline of several ecosystem functions, affecting energy mobilization and transference.(AU)


A introdução de predadores não-nativos tem gerado grande preocupação, mas seus impactos sobre a geração de funções ecossistêmicas permanecem pouco investigados. O presente estudo investigou como mudanças na diversidade de peixes, associadas com a invasão de Cichla kelberi, afetaram funções ecossistêmicas geradas por populações de peixes. As assembleias de peixes foram amostradas em bancos de macrófitas em um grande reservatório Neotropical durante um período de cinco anos, antes e depois da introdução do predador. Um conjunto de funções ecossistêmicas (26 trait-states) foi atribuído a cada espécie de peixe, e examinamos como as funções se comportaram depois da invasão. Foram coletados 577 peixes pertencentes a 25 espécies. Registramos declínio significativo da riqueza de espécies, biomassa total e biomassa das principais espécies ao longo dos períodos. A biomassa das funções ecossistêmicas mudou significativamente ao longo do tempo, e a maioria dos trait-states declinou. Poucos trait-states foram perdidos, mas todas as funções tiveram pelo menos um trait-state reduzido em mais de 85%. Uma análise de modelos nulos mostrou que as mudanças nas funções não foram impulsionadas pela identidade das espécies, enquanto que a riqueza de espécies correlacionou positivamente com a biomassa total e com a maioria das funções, sugerindo que a perda de espécies e biomassa impulsionou as mudanças observadas nas funções ecossistêmicas. Nosso estudo apresenta evidências de que a desestruturação da comunidade, associada com a invasão de C. kelberi, se traduziu no declínio de várias funções ecossistêmicas, afetando a mobilização e transferência de energia.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Perciformes/growth & development , Ecosystem , Food Chain , Water Reservoirs , Biomass
3.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1058-1069, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878614

ABSTRACT

The efficient production of lignocellulolytic enzyme systems is an important support for large-scale biorefinery of plant biomass. On-site production of lignocellulolytic enzymes could increase the economic benefits of the process by lowering the cost of enzyme usage. Penicillium species are commonly found lignocellulose-degrading fungi in nature, and have been used for industrial production of cellulase preparations due to their abilities to secrete complete and well-balanced lignocellulolytic enzyme systems. Here, we introduce the reported Penicillium species for cellulase production, summarize the characteristics of their enzymes, and describe the strategies of strain engineering for improving the production and performance of lignocellulolytic enzymes. We also review the progress in fermentation process optimization regarding the on-site production of lignocellulolytic enzymes using Penicillium species, and suggest prospect of future work from the perspective of building a "sugar platform" for the biorefinery of lignocellulosic biomass.


Subject(s)
Biomass , Cellulase/metabolism , Fermentation , Fungi/metabolism , Lignin/metabolism , Penicillium
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878539

ABSTRACT

Lignocellulose can be hydrolyzed by cellulase into fermentable sugars to produce hydrogen, ethanol, butanol and other biofuels with added value. Pretreatment is a critical step in biomass conversion, but also generates inhibitors with negative impacts on subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. Hence, pretreatment and detoxification methods are the basis of efficient biomass conversion. Commonly used pretreatment methods of lignocellulose are chemical and physic-chemical processes. Here, we introduce different inhibitors and their inhibitory mechanisms, and summarize various detoxification methods. Moreover, we propose research directions for detoxification of inhibitors generated during lignocellulose pretreatment.


Subject(s)
Biofuels , Biomass , Fermentation , Hydrolysis , Lignin/metabolism
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880321

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Household air pollution from biomass fuels burning in traditional cookstoves currently appeared as one of the most serious threats to public health with a recent burden estimate of 2.6 million premature deaths every year worldwide, ranking highest among environmental risk factors and one of the major risk factors of any type globally. Improved cookstove interventions have been widely practiced as potential solutions. However, studies on the effect of improved cookstove interventions are limited and heterogeneous which suggested the need for further research.@*METHODS@#A cluster randomized controlled trial study was conducted to assess the effect of biomass-fuelled improved cookstove intervention on the concentration of household air pollution compared with the continuation of an open burning traditional cookstove. A total of 36 clusters were randomly allocated to both arms at a 1:1 ratio, and improved cookstove intervention was delivered to all households allocated into the treatment arm. All households in the included clusters were biomass fuel users and relatively homogenous in terms of basic socio-demographic and cooking-related characteristics. Household air pollution was determined by measuring the concentration of indoor fine particulate, and the effect of the intervention was estimated using the Generalized Estimating Equation.@*RESULTS@#A total of 2031 household was enrolled in the study across 36 randomly selected clusters in both arms, among which data were obtained from a total of 1977 households for at least one follow-up visit which establishes the intention-to-treat population dataset for analysis. The improved cookstove intervention significantly reduces the concentration of household air pollution by about 343 μg/m@*CONCLUSIONS@#The biomass-fuelled improved cookstove intervention significantly reduces the concentration of household air pollution compared to the traditional method. This suggests that the implementation of these cookstove technologies may be necessary to achieve household air pollution exposure reductions.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#The trial project was retrospectively registered on August 2, 2018, at the clinical trials.gov registry database ( https://clinicaltrials.gov/ ) with the NCT03612362 registration identifier number.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution, Indoor/prevention & control , Biomass , Cluster Analysis , Cooking/methods , Ethiopia
6.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64(spe): e21200658, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285569

ABSTRACT

Abstract Food supplements have been increasingly investigated. Probiotics have several benefits for human and animal health and selenium (Se) is widely recommended against oxidative stress. In this context, the aim of this study was to develop a low-cost bioprocess to produce a functional food product comprising both probiotic and Se accumulation. Yeast cells of Saccharomyces boulardii CCT 4308 were cultivated using sugarcane molasses as substrate. Optimization studies were performed to evaluate the best medium composition for biomass production and Se-accumulation in batch and fed-batch systems. Optimized conditions were defined with a medium composed of 150 g L-1 sugarcane molasses and 12 g L-1 yeast extract, with feeding of 100 g L-1 sugarcane molasses and 100 μg mL-1 of Se incorporation after 4 h and 10 h of fermentation, respectively, during 48 h in STR (stirred tank reactor). Best biomass production reached 14.52 g L-1 with 3.20 mg Se g-1 biomass at 12 h. Process optimization led to 4.82-fold increase in biomass production compared to initial condition. A final Se-enriched S. boulardii CCT 4308 biomass was obtained, which is comparable to commercial products. An alternative probiotic yeast biomass was efficiently produced as a new food-form of Se supplement in a sustainable process using an inexpensive agro-industrial residue.


Subject(s)
Selenium , Molasses , Biomass , Probiotics , Saccharomyces boulardii
7.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200397, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285557

ABSTRACT

HIGHLIGHTS Brachiaria brizantha proved to be a promising biomass for ethanol production. Fermentation was not impaired by the inhibitors furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural.


Abstract Different lignocellulosic biomasses are found worldwide and each country has its own important industrial crop that can be converted into high-value products, such as ethanol. Therefore, evaluation of new biomasses to be used in biorefineries is important to decrease the dependence on non-renewable resources and to guarantee sustainable development. This work evaluated Brachiaria brizantha, a grass commonly used as animal forage, and the standard biomass for 2G-ethanol, sugarcane bagasse. The chemical compositions of both biomasses were determined and different times and temperature of acid pretreatment were tested. Morphological analysis via scanning electron microscopy showed more deconstructed fibers after harsher biomass pretreatments. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of pretreated Brachiaria brizantha presented higher efficiency than when using sugarcane bagasse as the carbon source. A biomass conversion of 46 % was achieved when Brachiaria brizantha grass was pretreated with 2% sulfuric acid for 60 minutes. Moreover, fermentation was not impaired by the inhibitors furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural. It was concluded that Brachiaria brizantha is a promising biomass for ethanol production.


Subject(s)
Biomass , Brachiaria/chemistry , Saccharum/chemistry , Ethanol , Microscopy, Electron/instrumentation
8.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200117, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285553

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study evaluated the effects of three chemical pretreatments of biomass sorghum (BS): dilute alkaline (PTA1 and PTA2), dilute acid (PTB1 and PTB2) and alkaline hydrogen peroxide (PTC1 and PTC2) in the enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol production. Among the six investigated conditions, the pretreatment with 7.36% H2O2 (PTC2) was the most efficient in the lignin removal and preservation of the polysaccharide fraction. After the enzymatic hydrolysis, increases in the glucose and xylose concentrations were observed in the pretreated BS hydrolysates, mainly in PTB1 and PTC1. All the hydrolysates obtained low concentrations of inhibitors. In the alcoholic fermentations with Pichia stiptis, the greatest ethanol yield was obtained in PTB1 hydrolysate (3.84 g L-1), corresponding to 16.15% of yield. The highest ethanol yield in PTB1 hydrolysate can be justified by the maximum concentration of xylose obtained in this hydrolysate, demonstrating the potential of P. stiptis in the fermentation of pentose to ethanol. The results indicated that biomass sorghum is an alternative lignocellulose source with potential for the production of second generation ethanol, opening up prospects for additional studies.


Subject(s)
Biomass , Ethanol , Chemical Phenomena , Hydrogen Peroxide , Metals, Alkali
9.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(6): 2238-2246, 01-11-2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1148295

ABSTRACT

Lentinus crinitus is a medicinal basidiomycete, little studied regarding the basic cultivation conditions, which is used in bioremediation and consumed by native Indians from the Brazilian Amazon. Also, it produces a fungal secondary metabolite panepoxydone that has been described as an essential regulator of the inflammatory and immune response. This study aimed to evaluate basic conditions of temperature, pH, and nitrogen concentration and source in the cultivation of L. crinitus mycelial biomass. In order to evaluate fungal growth temperature, 2% malt extract agar (MEA) medium, pH 5.5, was utilized from 19 to 40 °C. For pH, MEA had pH adjusted from 2 to 11 and cultivated at 28 °C. Urea or soybean meal was added to MEA to obtain final concentration from 0.5 and 16 g/L of nitrogen, pH of 5.5, cultivated at 28 °C. The best temperature growth varies from 31 to 34 ºC and the optimal one is 32.7º C, and the best pH ranges from 4.5 to 6.5 and the optimal one is 6.1. Protein or non-protein nitrogen concentration is inversely proportional to the mycelial biomass growth. Nitrogen concentrations of 2.0 g/L soybean meal and urea inhibit mycelial biomass growth in 11% and 12%, respectively, but high concentrations of 16.0 g/L nitrogen inhibit the growth in 46% and 95%, respectively. The fungus is robust and grows under extreme conditions of temperature and pH, but smaller adaptation with increasing nitrogen concentrations in the cultivation medium, mainly non-protein nitrogen.


Lentinus crinitus é um basidiomiceto medicinal consumido por índios nativos da Amazônia brasileira. Este fungo tem sido estudado quanto ao potencial de biorremediação de metais, mas ainda carece de estudos sobre às condições básicas de crescimento. L. crinitus produz panepoxidona - um metabólito secundário fúngico - descrito como regulador da resposta inflamatória e imune em células animais. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar as condições básicas de temperatura, pH e concentração e fonte de nitrogênio para o crescimento micelial de L. crinitus. O fungo foi crescido em meio agar extrato de malte a 2% (MEA), pH 5,5 e mantido entre 19 e 40 °C. Para a avaliação de pH o MEA teve o pH ajustado de 2 a 11 e o crescimento foi realizado a 28 °C. As fontes de nitrogênio estudadas foram a uréia e o farelo de soja adicionado ao MEA para obter entre 0,5 a 16 g/L de nitrogênio, pH de 5,5, cultivado a 28 ° C. A melhor faixa temperatura para o crescimento micelial foi de 31 a 34 ºC com ótimo a 32,7 º C; a melhor faixa de pH de 4,5 a 6,5 e com ótimo de 6,1. A concentração de nitrogênio proteico ou não proteico é inversamente proporcional ao crescimento do fungo. Concentrações de nitrogênio de 2,0 g/L reduzem o crescimento da biomassa micelial em 11% e 12%, respectivamente e meios com nitrogênio de 16,0 g/L reduzem o crescimento em 46% e 95%, respectivamente. O fungo é robusto e cresce sob condições extremas de temperatura e pH, mas menor adaptação em meios com alta concentração de nitrogênio, principalmente não proteico.


Subject(s)
Biomass , Lentinula , Axenic Culture , Micelles , Urea
10.
Vaccimonitor (La Habana, Print) ; 29(2)mayo.-ago. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1127511

ABSTRACT

Streptococcus pneumoniae es un patógeno oportunista que puede causar infecciones como otitis media, neumonía, sepsis y meningitis. Sin embargo, existen muchas limitaciones para el cultivo en zaranda de este microorganismo en los laboratorios de microbiología. Por esta razón, se realizó un estudio de la consistencia del cultivo en zaranda de Streptoccoccus pneumoniae 19A a escala de 40 L. Para esto se desarrolló previamente la curva de crecimiento patrón hasta las 5 h. Desde el pre-inóculo se inocularon 6 frascos de 100 mL, de los cuales se realizó la inoculación en botellones de 1 L y 5 L. En todos los casos, se determinó la pureza a partir de la tinción de Gram y el crecimiento bacteriano se monitoreó por el método de conteo de viables y la densidad óptica cada 1 h. Además, se evaluó el rendimiento del cultivo a partir de la cantidad de biomasa obtenida por peso húmedo. Cada proceso se llevó a cabo en condiciones iguales por triplicado. En los tres procesos se obtuvieron curvas de crecimiento similares, tanto por densidad óptica como por conteo de viables, alcanzando una viabilidad máxima de 109 UFC/mL en la última escala. Además, se obtuvieron rendimientos de biomasa de 11,62; 11,92 y 11,60 g/L, respectivamente. Estos resultados demuestran que la metodología utilizada ofrece una consistencia de este proceso, a pesar del alto volumen de cultivo en zaranda, lo cual no afectó la calidad de la biomasa, demostrado por la viabilidad final(AU)


Streptococcus pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause infections including otitis media, pneumonia, sepsis and meningitis. However, there are many limitations for the cultivation in shaker of this microorganism in microbiology laboratories. For this reason, a study of the consistency of the culture in shaker of Streptoccoccus pneumoniae 19A was carried out at a scale of 40 L. The pattern growth curve was made until 5 h, under our laboratory conditions and culture medium. From the pre-inoculum 6 bottles of 100 mL were inoculated, from which the scaling was accomplished to bottles of 1 L and 5 L. In all cases the purity was determined by Gram staining and the bacterial growth by viable counting method and the optical density were monitored every 1 h. In addition, the yield was evaluated from the determination of the amount of biomass obtained by wet weight. Each process has been made in equal conditions in triplicate. In the three processes, similar growth curves were obtained both by optical density and by viable counts, reaching a maximum viability of 109 CFU/mL on the last scale. In addition, biomass yields of 11.62, 11.92 and 11.60 g/L were obtained, respectively. These results demonstrate that the methodology used offers a high process consistency, despite the high volume of culture in rotational shaker, and did not affect the quality of the biomass, which could be demonstrated by the viable count(AU)


Subject(s)
Pneumococcal Infections , Biomass , Culture Media
11.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(3): 905-913, 01-05-2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146986

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the relationship among traits related to yield and nutritive value of alfalfa genotypes grown under deficit and full irrigation conditions. Seventy-seven alfalfa genotypes were evaluated in two different cuts, the first one with full irrigation, and the second, with water deficit. A randomized block design with three replications was used. The evaluated traits were vigor, plant height, dry matter biomass, stem-to-leaf ratio, dry matter percentage, leaf and stem protein contents, in vitro dry matter digestibility, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and lignin. Significant interaction between genotypes and environments was reported for vigor, plant height, and lignin. The correlation between traits and path analysis of dry matter biomass was performed for each cut, aiming to identify auxiliary traits for indirect selection. Water availability did not alter the phenotypic and genotypic correlations, only their magnitudes. Regardless of the environment, plant height is one of the most promising traits for the selection of alfalfa genotypes with higher dry matter biomass since it showed a high direct effect in the same sense of its phenotypic correlations. However, the coefficient of determination obtained by the model applied to full irrigation was higher than that of the water-deficit environment, indicating the importance of variables not included in this study in the determination of alfalfa dry matter biomass under dry conditions.


Este estudo objetivou avaliar a relação entre características relacionadas à produção e o valor nutritivo de genótipos de alfafa cultivados em condições de déficit e irrigação total. Setenta e sete genótipos de alfafa foram avaliados em dois cortes diferentes, o primeiro com irrigação total e o segundo com déficit hídrico. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com três repetições. As características avaliadas foram: vigor, altura de planta, biomassa de matéria seca, razão colmo-folha, porcentagem de matéria seca, teores foliar e foliar de proteína, digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca, fibra em detergente neutro, fibra em detergente ácido e lignina. Houve interação significativa entre genótipos e ambientes para vigor, altura de planta e lignina. A correlação entre características e análise de trilha da biomassa da matéria seca foi realizada para cada corte, visando identificar características auxiliares para a seleção indireta. A disponibilidade de água não alterou as correlações fenotípicas e genotípicas, apenas suas magnitudes. Independentemente do ambiente, a altura das plantas é um dos caracteres mais promissores para a seleção de genótipos de alfafa com maior biomassa de matéria seca, uma vez que apresentou alto efeito direto no mesmo sentido de suas correlações fenotípicas. Entretanto, o coeficiente de determinação obtido pelo modelo aplicado à irrigação total foi superior àquele do ambiente com déficit hídrico, indicando a importância de variáveis não incluídas neste estudo na determinação da biomassa de matéria seca de alfafa em condições secas.


Subject(s)
Biomass , Dehydration , Medicago sativa , Agricultural Irrigation
12.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 44: 58-59, Mar. 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087710

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Methanol can be effectively removed from air by biofiltration (Shareefdeen et al., 1993; Babbitt et al., 2009 [1,2]). However, formaldehyde is one of the first metabolic intermediates in the consumption of methanol in methylotrophic microorganisms (Negruta et al., 2010 [3]), and it can be released out of the cell constituting a secondary emission. RESULTS: The total removal of methanol was achieved up to input loads of 263 g m−3 h−1 and the maximum elimination capacity of the system was obtained at an empty bed residence times of 90 s and reached 330 g m−3 h−1 at an input methanol load of 414 g m−3 h−1 and 80% of removal efficiency. Formaldehyde was detected inside the biofilter when the input methanol load was above 212 g m−3 h−1 . Biomass in the filter bed was able to degrade the formaldehyde generated, but with the increase of the methanol input load, the unconsumed formaldehyde was released outside the biofilter. The maximum concentration registered at the output of the system was 3.98 g m−3 when the methanol load was 672 g m−3 h−1 in an empty bed residence times of 60 s. CONCLUSIONS: Formaldehyde is produced inside a biofilter when methanol is treated in a biofiltration system inoculated with Pichia pastoris. Biomass present in the reactor is capable of degrading the formaldehyde generated as the concentration of methanol decreases. However, high methanol loads can lead to the generation and release of formaldehyde into the environment.


Subject(s)
Pichia/chemistry , Methanol/chemistry , Formaldehyde/analysis , Volatilization , Biological Filters , Biomass , Bioreactors , Environment
13.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(2): 401-408, 01-03-2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146265

ABSTRACT

Toevaluate the biomass flow of two cultivars of Cynodon (Tifton 85 grass and vaquero grass) fertilized with increasing levels of nitrogen (N) (control ­ without nitrogen; 200; 400 and 600 mg dm-3) under greenhouse conditions, this study was carried out, in a completely randomized design, with factorial arrangement. Forages were examined during three regrowth cycles, with results presented as mean values of the cycles. In the analysis of the effect of nitrogen fertilization, the Tifton 85 grass showed an increasing response to nitrogen levels for the leaf elongation rate (LER). The vaquero grass had a quadractic response for the LER with increasing levels of N. As for the stem elongation rate, there was an increasing linear response in both grasses according to increasing levels of N. The leaf senescence rate (LSR) of the Tifton 85 grass has been enhanced by nitrogen fertilization. The vaquero grass revealed a quadractic response for this variable LSR with nitrogen fertilization, with a minimum value of 0.96 cm tiller-1 day-1 with nitrogen level of 42.5 mg dm-3. The phyllochron and the total number of leaves of both grasses have been influenced by nitrogen fertilization, with downward and upward linear responses, respectively, with increasing levels of nitrogen. For the final mean leaf length (MLL) of both forages, we verified an increasing response with increasing levels of nitrogen. Tifton 85 grass and vaquero grass presented similar LER in the absence of nitrogen, but higher values were observed for the fertilized Tifton 85 grass. The fertilization using nitrogen leads to positive responses of the biomass flow of Tifton 85 grass and vaquero grass under the conditions of the present study.


Objetivou-se avaliar o fluxo de biomassa de dois cultivares do gênero Cynodon (capim-Tifton 85 e capim-vaquero) adubados com doses crescentes de nitrogênio (N) (controle - sem nitrogênio; 200; 400 e 600 mg dm-3) em condições de casa de vegetação, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial. As forrageiras foram estudas durante três ciclos de rebrotação, com os resultados apresentados na média dos ciclos. No estudo do efeito da adubação nitrogenada, o capim-Tifton 85 apresentou para a taxa de alongamento foliar (TAlF) resposta crescente às doses de N. O capim-vaquero apresentou resposta quadrática para TAlF com o incremento das doses de N. Analisando-se a taxa de alongamento dos colmos, verificou-se resposta linear crescente para ambas as gramíneas com o aumento das doses de nitrogênio. A taxa de senescência foliar (TSF) do capim-Tifton 85 foi incrementada pela adubação nitrogenada. O capim-vaquero revelou para TSF resposta quadrática com a adubação nitrogenada, com valor mínimo de 0,96 cm perf-1 dia-1 na dose de nitrogênio de 42,5 mg dm-3. O filocrono e o número total de folhas do capim-Tifton 85 e do capim-vaquero foram influenciados pela adubação nitrogenada, revelando resposta linear decrescente e crescente, respectivamente, com o incremento nas doses de nitrogênio. Para o comprimento médio final das folhas (CMF) das duas forrageiras, constatou-se resposta crescente com a elevação nas doses de nitrogênio. Os capins-Tifton 85 e vaquero apresentaram TAlF semelhante na ausência de nitrogênio, porém para as plantas adubadas verificou-se valores superiores para o capim-Tifton 85. A adubação nitrogenada proporciona respostas positivas sobre o fluxo de biomassa dos capins-Tifton 85 e vaquero nas condições do presente estudo.


Subject(s)
Biomass , Cynodon , Nitrogen
14.
Semina cienc. biol. saude ; 41(1): 107-116, jan./jun.2020. Tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224595

ABSTRACT

A dieta hipercalórica é considerada fator de risco para o desenvolvimento de doenças cardiovasculares, sendo notado que os hábitos ocidentais possuem uma grande influência no desenvolvimento dessas enfermidades. A biomassa e a farinha de banana verde são alimentos que contém amido resistente; este constitui um tipo de carboidrato não digerível categorizado como prebiótico, com papel de regulação da glicemia. O principal objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito modulador dos alimentos supracitados em ratos Wistar alimentados com dieta de cafeteria. Foi possível observar uma grande diferença na composição centesimal e de amido resistente entre os dois prebióticos, sendo explicada pelo método de fabricação de cada um. Os grupos de intervenção contendo amido resistente proveniente da biomassa/farinha de banana verde demonstraram, no geral, um melhor perfil glicêmico, menor peso corporal e menor gordura corporal. O consumo alimentar com composição similar à dieta de cafeteria corriqueiramente pode levar a danos cardiometabólicos a longo prazo, contribuindo para o desenvolvimento de doenças crônicas. Observou-se também que as matrizes alimentares que contém amido resistente auxiliam no controle do ganho de peso corporal, prevenindo o acúmulo de tecido adiposo e intervindo no manejo dos níveis glicêmicos. Em suma, destaca-se que a implementação dos produtos da banana verde na alimentação pode ser de grande valia, considerando os efeitos positivos de seus componentes bioativos, ação prebiótica e a relação custo benefício desta matriz alimentar; porém, mais estudos científicos são necessários para confirmar as demais hipóteses que surgem com o tema (AU)


The hypercaloric diet is considered a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases, and it is noted that western habits have a great influence on the development of these diseases. Biomass and green banana flour are foods containing resistant starch; this is a type of non-digestible carbohydrate categorized as prebiotic, with the role of glycemia regulation. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the modulating effect of the aforementioned foods on Wistar rats fed with a cafeteria diet. It was possible to observe a great difference in the centesimal composition and resistant starch content between the two prebiotics, being explained by the manufacturing method of each one. Intervention groups containing resistant starch from biomass/green banana flour showed a better glycemic profile, lower body weight and lower body fat. Food consumption with composition similar to the cafeteria diet can lead to long-term cardiometabolic damage, contributing to the development of chronic diseases. It was also observed that food matrices containing resistant starch help to control body weight gain, preventing the accumulation of adipose tissue and intervening in the management of glycemic levels. In summary, the implementation of green banana products in food can be of great value, considering the positive effects of its bioactive components, prebiotic action and the cost-benefit ratio of this food matrix, but more scientific studies are needed to confirm the other hypotheses that arise with the theme (AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Starch , Blood Glucose , Biomass , Diet , Prebiotics , Rats, Wistar , Food/adverse effects
15.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(1): 152-160, jan./feb. 2020. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049228

ABSTRACT

The knowledge of gas exchanges in forage plants is essential for a better understanding of the process of forage biomass production in pasture. This study evaluated the gas exchange in massai grass fertilized with increasing levels of nitrogen fertilizer (control - without nitrogen fertilizer; 400; 800 and 1200 kg ha-1year-1) and under rotational grazing by sheep, in a completely randomized design with repeated measures in time. The rest period was approximately 1.5 new leaves per tiller, as determined in the pre-test at the beginning of the experiment, providing interval of 22; 18; 16 and 13 days for the levels 0.0 - control; 400; 800 and 1200 kg ha-1 year-1 nitrogen, respectively. The animals used to lower the sward height to the recommended residual height were sheep (½ Morada Nova x ½ undefined breed), placed in paddocks of 42.3 m2. As the animals grazed, the height of the sward was monitored with a ruler until the canopy reached the recommended residual height of approximately 15 cm, corresponding to the residual LAI of exit of the animals from the paddock at approximately 1.5, as determined in a pre-test to set up the experiment. The variables stomatal conductance, leaf photosynthesis rate, leaf carbon dioxide concentration, photosynthesis/transpiration ratio, chlorophyll relative index and nitrogen sufficiency index revealed a positive linear response to nitrogen fertilization. Nitrogen fertilization level at 1200 kg ha-1year-1 caused an increment of 92.3% in leaf photosynthesis rate in relation to the control. The leaf temperature and photosynthesis/conductance ratio were reduced with increasing nitrogen levels. The leaf transpiration showed a quadratic response with maximum point with increasing nitrogen levels. Nitrogen fertilization favor the gas exchange in massai grass up to the last level tested.


O conhecimento das trocas gasosas em plantas forrageiras é essencial para melhor entendimento de como ocorre o processo de produção de biomassa de forragem na pastagem. Objetivou-se avaliar as trocas gasosas no capim-massai submetido a crescentes doses de nitrogênio (controle - sem nitrogênio; 400; 800 e 1200 kg ha-1 ano-1) e sob lotação rotativa com ovinos, num delineamento inteiramente casualizado com medidas repetidas no tempo. O período de descanso adotado foi de aproximadamente 1,5 novas folhas por perfilho, conforme determinação em pré-ensaio quando do início da instalação do experimento, propiciando um intervalo de 22; 18; 16 e 13 dias para as doses 0,0 ­ controle; 400; 800 e 1200 kg ha-1 ano-1 de nitrogênio, respectivamente. Os animais utilizados para rebaixamento do pasto até a altura residual preconizada foram ovinos (½ Morada Nova x ½ SPRD), alocados em piquetes de 42,3 m2. À medida que os animais pastejavam, a altura do pasto foi monitorada com auxílio de uma régua, até que o dossel atingisse a altura residual preconizada de aproximadamente 15 cm, correspondendo ao IAF residual de saída dos animais do piquete de aproximadamente 1,5, conforme determinação em pré-ensaio para instalação do experimento. As variáveis: condutância estomática, taxa de fotossíntese foliar, concentração interna de CO2, relação fotossíntese/transpiração, índice relativo de clorofila e índice de suficiência de nitrogênio responderam de forma linear crescente ao incremento nas doses de nitrogênio. Verificou-se aumento de 92,3% na taxa de fotossíntese para a dose de N de 1200 kg ha-1 ano-1 em relação à ausência de nitrogênio. A temperatura da folha e a relação fotossíntese/condutância foram reduzidas com o aumento das doses de nitrogênio. A adubação nitrogenada proporcionou resposta quadrática com ponto de máximo sobre a taxa de transpiração foliar. A adubação nitrogenada favorece as trocas gasosas em capim-massai até a última dose estudada.


Subject(s)
Photosynthesis , Sheep , Biomass , Panicum , Nitrogen
16.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(1): 212-222, jan./feb. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049243

ABSTRACT

The conversion of biomass from agro-industrial residues into bioproducts is of great interest, especially to Brazil, where bioenergy has a huge potential for development. Enzymes involved in biodegradation of lignocellulosic biomass are those of the cellulase system, of which ß-glucosidase is a constituent. The production and characterization of ß-glucosidase by the thermophilic fungus Myceliophthora heterothallica by solid-state cultivation on different agro-industrial residues (sugarcane bagasse, sugarcane straw, wheat bran and a mixture of these three materials (1:1:1 w/w) was evaluated. Solid-state cultivation were conducted in 250 mL Erlenmeyer flasks, with 5 g of each substrate. Different culture parameters, such as supplementary nutrient solution to the substrate, supplementary nutrient solution pH, initial substrate moisture and fungus incubation temperature, were evaluated to establish conditions of higher enzyme production by the fungus The greatest production of enzymes occurred in a mixture of wheat bran, sugarcane bagasse and straw bagasse (1:1:1). The activity of ß-glucosidase was greater under the following conditions: nutrient solution composed of NH4NO3, MgSO4.7H2O and (NH4)2SO4 (0.1%), at pH 4.5 or 6.0, fungus incubation at 40°C or 45°C, initial moisture of substrate at 80%. Enzyme presented optimum pH at pH 5.0 and good pH stability. Best temperature was 65°C and enzyme showed 100% stability for 1h, up to 60°C. The use of agro-industrial residues provided good production of ß-glucosidase by fungus, with enzyme having the characteristics desirable from the industrial application.


A conversão da biomassa vegetal proveniente de resíduos agroindustriais em bioprodutos é de grande interesse, principalmente para o Brasil, onde a agroenergia possui grande potencial de desenvolvimento. Enzimas envolvidas na biodegradação da biomassa lignocelulósica fazem parte do grupo das celulases, no qual a 훽-glucosidase é um constituinte. O presente estudo avaliou a produção e caracterização de uma ß-glicosidase pelo fungo termofílico Myceliophthora heterothallica por cultivo em estado sólido de diferentes resíduos agroindustriais (bagaço de cana-de-açúcar, palha de cana-de-açúcar, farelo de trigo e em uma mistura dos três materiais (1:1: 1 p/p). O cultivo em estado sólido foi realizado em frascos Erlenmeyer de 250 mL, contendo 5 g de cada substrato. Diferentes parâmetros de cultivo, como solução nutriente suplementar ao substrato, pH da solução nutriente suplementar, umidade inicial do substrato e temperatura de incubação do fungo foram avaliados, visando estabelecer condições para maior produção da enzima pelo fungo. A maior produção da enzima ocorreu na mistura de farelo de trigo, e bagaço e palha de cana-de-açúcar (1:1:1). A atividade da ß-glicosidase foi maior nas seguintes condições: solução nutriente composta por NH4NO3, MgSO4.7H2O e (NH4)2SO4 (0,1%) com pH 4,5 e 6,0, temperatura de incubação do fungo a 40°C e 45°C, com umidade inicial do substrato em 80%. A enzima apresentou pH ótimo de 5,0, e boa estabilidade ao pH. A temperatura ótima foi de 65°C, e a enzima apresentou 100% de estabilidade por 1h, até 60°C. A utilização de resíduos agroindustriais proporcionou boa produção de ß-glicosidase pelo fungo, com a enzima apresentando características desejáveis para aplicação industrial.


Subject(s)
Biomass , Fungi , Glucosidases
17.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 18(2): e190076, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-1135389

ABSTRACT

Trophic structure of fish assemblages is one of the most sensitive indicators of changes in streams environments. Since it is crucial to understand the response of trophic groups to habitat alteration, our study aimed to address this research gap by assessing the influence of substrate composition, meso-habitat variability, and bank stability, on the richness, biomass, and number of individuals of carnivores, invertivores, omnivores, and herbivorous-detritivores. Using an electrofishing device, we sampled 13 Atlantic rainforest streams reaches in a degradation gradient, located in the upper Paranapanema river basin. Sample points were ranked using a physical habitat index. More pristine streams had high availability of twigs, trunks, rocks and boulders in the substrate, great meso-habitat variability, and the presence of roots, trunks, and rocks in the margins. Canonical correlations between habitat characteristics and trophic groups explained more than 90% of data variability. Richness and number of individuals of invertivores increased in more preserved stream reaches, while richness of carnivores and number of individuals of omnivores decreased. These results demonstrate that trophic structure varies according to level of degradation, and that invertivore richness represents the best indicator of fish trophic structure responses to physical habitat alterations in streams.(AU)


A estrutura trófica da assembleia de peixes é um dos indicadores mais sensíveis a alterações ambientais em riachos. Considerando a relevância de entender a resposta de grupos tróficos à alteração ambiental, este estudo buscou preencher esta lacuna científica avaliando a influência da composição do substrato, variabilidade de meso-hábitats e estabilidade das margens sobre riqueza, biomassa e número de indivíduos de peixes carnívoros, invertívoros, onívoros e herbívoros-detritívoros. Amostramos com pesca elétrica 13 trechos de riachos de Mata Atlântica com estado de conservação variável, localizados na parte superior da bacia do alto rio Paranapanema. Os pontos amostrais foram ranqueados pelo índice de hábitat fisico. Riachos mais presevados apresentaram mais galhos, troncos, matacões e blocos no substrato, maior variabilidade de meso-hábitats e maior quantidade de raízes, troncos e rochas nas margens. As correlações canônicas explicaram mais de 90% da variabilidade dos dados. A riqueza e o número de indivíduos de invertívoros aumentaram em riachos mais preservados, enquanto que a riqueza de carnívoros e o número de indivíduos onívoros diminuíram. Estes resultados demonstram que a estrutura trófica varia em resposta ao nível de preservação, e que a riqueza de invertívoros é o melhor indicador de respostas da estrutura trófica às alterações do hábitat em riachos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Substrates for Biological Treatment/analysis , Ecosystem , Trophic Levels/analysis , Fishes , Carnivora , Biomass
18.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1150-1161, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826863

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to establish a novel technology using microalgae for NO₃⁻ removal from high concentration wastewater and conversion to algal proteins. The effects of cultivation modes and illumination modes on the biomass yield, NO₃⁻ assimilation rate and algal protein yield were first investigated in shaking flasks for mixotrophic cultivation of Chlorella pyrenoidosa, and subsequently the scale-up verification in 5-L photo fermenter was successfully conducted. Fed-batch cultivation without medium recycling was the best cultivation mode in shaking flask system, in which the highest biomass yield (35.95 g/L), the average NO₃⁻ assimilation rate (2.06 g/(L·d)) and algal protein content (up to 42.44% of dry weight) were achieved. By using a staged increase of light intensity as illumination modes, the specific growth rate of cells could be significantly promoted to the highest (0.65 d⁻¹). After a 128-hour continuous cultivation in a 5-L photo fermenter, the highest biomass yield and the average NO₃⁻ assimilation rate were reached to 66.22 g/L and 4.38 g/(L·d) respectively, with the highest algal protein content at 47.13% of dry weight. Our study could provide a photo fermentation technology of microalgae for highly efficient treatment of waste industrial nitric acid and/or high concentration nitrate wastewater. This microalgae-based bioconversion process could coproduce protein-rich microalgal biomass, which facilitates the resource utilization of these type wastewater by trash-to-treasure conversion.


Subject(s)
Algal Proteins , Biomass , Chlorella , Nitrates , Metabolism , Nitrogen , Metabolism , Waste Water , Chemistry , Water Purification , Methods
19.
Asia Pacific Allergy ; (4): 11-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785454

ABSTRACT

Air pollution, climate change, and reduced biodiversity are major threats to human health with detrimental effects on a variety of chronic noncommunicable diseases in particular respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. The extent of air pollution both outdoor and indoor air pollution and climate change including global warming is increasing-to alarming proportions particularly in the developing world especially rapidly industrializing countries worldwide. In recent years, Asia has experienced rapid economic growth and a deteriorating environment and increase in allergic diseases to epidemic proportions. Air pollutant levels in many Asian countries especially in China and India are substantially higher than are those in developed countries. Moreover, industrial, traffic-related, and household biomass combustion, indoor pollutants from chemicals and tobacco are major sources of air pollutants, with increasing burden on respiratory allergies. Here we highlight the major components of outdoor and indoor air pollutants and their impacts on respiratory allergies associated with asthma and allergic rhinitis in the Asia-Pacific region. With Asia-Pacific comprising more than half of the world's population there is an urgent need to increase public awareness, highlight targets for interventions, public advocacy and a call to action to policy makers to implement policy changes towards reducing air pollution with interventions at a population-based level.


Subject(s)
Administrative Personnel , Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Air Pollution, Indoor , Allergy and Immunology , Asia , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Asthma , Biodiversity , Biomass , Cardiovascular Diseases , China , Climate Change , Climate , Consumer Advocacy , Developed Countries , Economic Development , Family Characteristics , Global Warming , Humans , Hypersensitivity , India , Rhinitis, Allergic , Tobacco
20.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 861-867, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826890

ABSTRACT

Lignocellulose is a major biomass resource for the production of biofuel ethanol. Due to its abundance, environmental friendliness and renewability, the utilization of lignocellulose is promising to solve energy shortage. Surfactant can effectively promote the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose. By discussing the influence and mechanism of different surfactants on the enzymatic hydrolysis, we provide references for finding appropriate surfactants in enzymatic hydrolysis process.


Subject(s)
Biofuels , Biomass , Hydrolysis , Lignin , Metabolism , Sugars , Metabolism , Surface-Active Agents , Pharmacology
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