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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256425, 2024. tab, graf, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364525

ABSTRACT

Using inventory data, this study evaluates the species composition, growing stock volume (GSV), and biomass carbon (BMC) of the five major timber species in the sub-tropical, and temperate/sub-alpine regions of Pakistan. It was found that the stem density varies between 50 and 221 trees ha -1, with a mean of 142 trees ha-1 (13.68 million trees for entire forest area). Among the species, Pinus wallichiana showed a high species composition (27.80%) followed by Picea smithiana (24.64%). The GSV was found in the range of 67.81 to 425.94 m3 ha-1, with a total GSV value of 20.68 million m3 for the entire region. Similarly, The BMC ranged from 27.04 to 169.86 Mg ha-1, with a mean BMC value of 86.80 Mg ha-1. The total amount of stored carbon was found at 8.69 million tons for a total of 95842 ha of commercially managed forest. Furthermore, the correlation analysis between the basal area (BA) and GSV and BMC showed that BA is the best predictor of GSV and BMC. The findings provide insights to the policy makers and forest managers regarding the sustainable commercial forest management as well as forest carbon management in the recent global carbon management for climate change mitigation.


Usando dados de inventário, este estudo avaliou a composição de espécies, volume de estoque crescente (GSV) e carbono de biomassa (BMC) das cinco principais espécies madeireiras nas regiões subtropicais e temperadas/subalpinas do Paquistão. Constatou-se que a densidade do caule variou entre 50 e 221 árvores ha-1, com média de 142 árvores ha-1 (13,68 milhões de árvores para toda a área florestal). Entre as espécies, Pinus wallichiana apresentou alta composição de espécies (27,80%), seguida de Picea smithiana (24,64%). O GSV foi encontrado na faixa de 67,81 a 425,94 m3 ha-1, com um valor total de 20,68 milhões de m3 para toda a região. Da mesma forma, o BMC variou de 27,04 a 169,86 mg ha-1, com valor médio de 86,80 mg ha-1. A quantidade total de carbono armazenado foi de 8,69 milhões de toneladas para um total de 95.842 ha de floresta manejada comercialmente. Além disso, a análise de correlação entre área basal (BA), GSV e BMC mostrou que BA é o melhor preditor de GSV e BMC. As descobertas fornecem insights para os formuladores de políticas e gestores florestais sobre o manejo florestal comercial sustentável, bem como o manejo florestal de carbono no recente gerenciamento global de carbono para a mitigação das mudanças climáticas.


Subject(s)
Trees/growth & development , Carbon , Forests , Biomass
2.
Rev. biol. trop ; 70(1)dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1387712

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Los humedales se encuentran entre los ecosistemas más productivos, pero actualmente están siendo degradados o eliminados a un ritmo acelerado por múltiples actividades antrópicas. En la costa central de Perú, los humedales sufren incendios recurrentes, y los efectos poco estudiados incluyen el nivel de emisiones y el secuestro de carbono por quema. Objetivo: Estimar el carbono en la biomasa aérea afectada por el fuego y el carbono recuperado por la vegetación al cabo de un año. Métodos: Trabajamos en el humedal costero Los Pantanos de Villa (Lima, Perú) y comparamos áreas quemadas (32 cuadrantes, 1 m2) y no afectadas (33 cuadrantes). Resultados: La vegetación afectada fue predominantemente herbácea y dominada por Phragmites australis, Schoenoplectus americanus, Typha dominguensis y Cladium jamaicense. El incendio afectó 1 147.0 t de biomasa vegetal que almacenó 381.8 t de carbono, generando la emisión de 1 397.1 t de CO2 a la atmósfera. Al cabo de un año se había recuperado el 79 % de la cobertura vegetal, pero solo el 26 % de la biomasa vegetal viva y el 12.8 % del carbono contenido en la vegetación. Conclusiones: Los indicadores apropiados de la resiliencia de los humedales al fuego deben considerar que los humedales afectados por el fuego recuperan rápidamente la cobertura vegetal, pero no el almacenamiento de carbono y la biomasa vegetal.


Abstract Introduction: Wetlands are among the most productive ecosystems, but currently are being degraded or eliminated at accelerated rates by multiple anthropic activities. In the central coast of Peru, wetlands suffer recurring fires, and the little-studied effects include the level of emissions and carbon sequestration by burning. Objective: To estimate carbon in aerial biomass affected by fire, and carbon recovered by the vegetation after one year. Methods: We worked in Los Pantanos de Villa (Lima, Peru) coastal wetland and compared burnt (32 quadrants, 1 m2) and unaffected areas (33 quadrants). Results: The vegetation affected was predominantly herbaceous and dominated by Phragmites australis, Schoenoplectus americanus, Typha dominguensis and Cladium jamaicense. Fire affected 1 147.0 t of plant biomass that stored 381.8 t of carbon, generating the emission of 1 397.1 t of CO2 into the atmosphere. After one year, 79 % of the vegetation cover had recovered, but only 26 % of the plant biomass and 12.8 % of vegetation carbon. Conclusions: Appropriate indicators of wetland fire resilience should consider that fire-impacted wetland rapidly recovers plant cover, but not carbon storage and plant biomass.


Subject(s)
Biomass , Wildfires , Wetlands , Peru
3.
Rev. biol. trop ; 70(1)dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1387700

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Tradicionalmente, los estudios de escarabajos coprófagos en los bosques secos tropicales (BST) del Caribe colombiano han aplicado metodologías diseñadas para zonas húmedas y andinas del país, lo cual podría estar incidiendo en el rendimiento y la eficiencia del muestreo. Objetivo: Con el fin de aportar a esta discusión, se analizó cómo la cantidad de cebo y el tiempo de operación de la trampa de caída inciden en la efectividad de captura de escarabajos coprófagos en un fragmento de BST en La Reserva Campesina la Flecha, San Jacinto, Colombia. Métodos: Para la captura de los escarabajos, se utilizó trampas de caída, cebadas con tres cantidades diferentes de atrayente: pequeño (34.6 g), mediano (53.8 g) y grande (114.9 g), las cuales permanecieron activas en campo durante 48 h. Cuatro muestreos fueron realizados entre marzo y septiembre de 2015, abarcando por igual la época seca y de lluvia. Resultados: Se registró un total de 4 563 individuos, agrupados en 10 géneros y 27 especies de escarabajos coprófagos. Los mayores valores de riqueza, abundancia y biomasa se presentaron en el cebo grande, a las 48 h, durante la época de lluvias. Sin embargo, el tiempo de operación de la trampa no tuvo efecto en la estimación de la riqueza, abundancia y biomasa de escarabajos independientemente de los tamaños de cebo. Los tres órdenes de la diversidad ( 0 D, 1 D y 2 D), presentaron valores similares entre las cantidades de cebo durante la época de lluvia, pero en la época seca, los cebos de mayor tamaño presentaron los valores de diversidad más altos. Por su parte con el cebo de mayor tamaño se capturó significativamente más riqueza, abundancia y biomasa de escarabajos de cuerpo pequeño y grande siendo esta situación más notaria durante la época seca. Conclusiones: Los resultados de este trabajo evidencian que para el estudio de los ensamblajes de escarabajos en el BST la utilización de un cebo de mayor tamaño contribuye a una mejor estimación de riqueza, abundancia, diversidad y biomasa, sobre todo durante la época seca, cuando las condiciones ambientales propician que los cebos pierdan su atractividad con mayor rapidez.


Abstract Introduction: Typically, research on dung beetles in the Tropical Dry Forests (TDF) of Colombian Caribbean region, have applied methodologies designed for wet or Andean areas of the country, which could be influencing the performance and efficiency of sampling. Objective: In order to contribute to this discussion, we analyzed how the bait amount and pitfall trap operating time influence the collection effectiveness of dung beetles in a TDF fragment at Reserva Campesina La Flecha, San Jacinto, Colombia. Methods: For the collection of beetles, we utilized pitfall traps baited with three different amounts of attractants: small (34.6 g), medium (53.8 g), and large (114.9 g), which remained active in the field for 48 h., 4 samplings between March and September 2015 were carried out, covering both, dry and rainy seasons. Results: A total of 4 563 individuals were recorded, grouped into 10 genera and 27 species of dung beetles. The highest values of richness, abundance and biomass were registered in the large bait, at 48 h, during the rainy season. However, the trap operating time had no effect on the estimation of beetles' richness, abundance, and biomass, regardless of bait sizes. The three diversity orders ( 0 D, 1 D y 2 D) showed similar values between the bait amounts during rainy season, but in the dry season, the largest baits displayed the highest diversity values. On the other hand, with the largest bait, significantly more richness, abundance, and biomass of small and large body beetles were registered, especially during the dry season. Conclusions: The results of this research show that, for the study of beetles' assemblages in the BST, the use of a larger bait contributes to a better estimate of richness, abundance, diversity and biomass, especially during the dry season, when environmental conditions promote a more rapidly loss of baits attractiveness.


Subject(s)
Animals , Coleoptera , Biomass , Sampling Studies
4.
Santa Tecla, La Libertad; ITCA Editores; 20220100. 54 p. ilus.^c28 cm., tab..
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1400061

ABSTRACT

En el beneficiado del cacao se producen una gran cantidad de residuos, las mazorcas generalmente son desechadas dentro de los mismos cultivos y genera problemáticas como la proliferación de insectos y microorganismos patógenos. De estos desechos las cáscaras son las de mayor relevancia. La Escuela de Ingeniería Química de ITCA-FEPADE evaluó añadirle valor a este subproducto, incorporando desechos de cáscara de cacao en la formulación de un sustrato para el cultivo de plántulas de hortalizas. El objetivo de esta investigación fue obtener un sustrato orgánico que sirva de soporte material y nutritivo a partir de cáscaras de cacao criollo. La biomasa vegetal se caracterizó teniendo en cuenta parámetros como el porcentaje de humedad, pH, porcentaje de cenizas, contenido de potasio, nitrógeno y fósforo. Se ejecutaron pruebas comparativas de formulación del sustrato, siembra, cultivo y crecimiento de las plántulas de hortalizas de tomate y pepino, obteniendo como resultado la fórmula óptima de un sustrato y abono orgánico y el mejor medio de desarrollo. De los resultados obtenidos se concluye que, a partir de un adecuado procesamiento y aprovechamiento de las cáscaras de cacao, se puede transformar este desecho en un producto biomaterial alternativo que genera una opción de bioprospección agroindustrial.


In the cacao beneficiation, a large amount of waste is produced, generally, the cacao pods are discarded within the same crops and generate problems such as the proliferation of insects and pathogenic microorganisms. The shell are the most relevant this waste. In Escuela de Ingeniería Química of ITCA-FEPADE the incorporation of cacao shell waste in the formulation of a substrate for growing vegetables was evaluated because the giving benefit to these by-products. The objective of this research was to obtain a substrate that serves as material and nutritional support for vegetable seedlings, from creole cacao shells. The vegetal biomass was characterized taking into account parameters such as moisture percentage, pH, ash percentage, potassium, nitrogen and phosphorus content. Subsequently, comparative tests of formulation, planting and growth of vegetable tomato and cucumber seedlings were carry out, obtaining as result, the optimal formula for the substrate and the best development environment. It concludes that, through an adequate processing and use of the cacao shell, it is possible to transform a waste into an alternative biomaterial product that generates an agro industrial bioprospecting option.


Subject(s)
Waste Products , Cacao , Composting/methods , Research , Biomass , Seedlings
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1307-1321, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927782

ABSTRACT

Tetrapyrrole compounds are a class of compounds with important functions. They exist in living organisms and have been widely used in agriculture, food, medicine, and other fields. The cumbersome process and high cost of chemical synthesis, as well as the shortcomings of unstable quality of animal and plant extraction methods, greatly hampered the industrial production and applications of tetrapyrrole compounds. In recent years, the rapid development of synthetic biology has provided new tools for microorganisms to efficiently synthesize tetrapyrrole compounds from renewable biomass resources. This article summarizes various strategies for the biosynthesis of tetrapyrrole compounds, discusses methods to improve its biosynthesis efficiency and future prospects, with the aim to facilitate the research on biosynthesis of tetrapyrrole compounds.


Subject(s)
Biomass , Plants/genetics , Synthetic Biology , Tetrapyrroles
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1267-1294, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927780

ABSTRACT

This article summarized the reviews and research articles published in Chinese Journal of Biotechnology in the field of biomanufacturing in 2021. The article covered major chassis cells such as Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Corynebacterium glutamicum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, filamentous fungi, non-model bacteria and non-conventional yeasts. Moreover, this article summarized the advances in the production of amino acids, organic acids, vitamins, higher alcohols, natural compounds (terpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids), antibiotics, enzymes and enzyme-catalyzed products, biopolymers, as well as the utilization of biomass and one-carbon materials. The key technologies used in the construction of cell factories, such as regulation, evolution, and high-throughput screening, were also included. This article may help the readers better understand the R & D trend in biomanufacturing driven by engineered microbes.


Subject(s)
Biomass , Biotechnology , Corynebacterium glutamicum/metabolism , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Metabolic Engineering , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics
7.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 518-530, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927725

ABSTRACT

Intense utilization and mining of fossil fuels for energy production have resulted in environmental pollution and climate change. Compared to fossil fuels, microalgae is considered as a promising candidate for biodiesel production due to its fast growth rate, high lipid content and no occupying arable land. However, monocultural microalgae bear high cost of harvesting, and are prone to contamination, making them incompetent compared with traditional renewable energy sources. Co-culture system induces self-flocculation, which may reduce the cost of microalgae harvesting and the possibility of contamination. In addition, the productivity of lipid and high-value by-products are higher in co-culture system. Therefore, co-culture system represents an economic, energy saving, and efficient technology. This review aims to highlight the advances in the co-culture system, including the mechanisms of interactions between microalgae and other microorganisms, the factors affecting the lipid production of co-culture, and the potential applications of co-culture system. Finally, the prospects and challenges to algal co-culture systems were also discussed.


Subject(s)
Biofuels , Biomass , Coculture Techniques , Flocculation , Microalgae
8.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(10): e20210282, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1375115

ABSTRACT

Photoassimilate partition and allocation among plant organs varies throughout their development and is also influenced by factors inherent to the genotype and the environment. Nodulation in the soybean-diazotrophic bacteria interaction is more effective than in the bean-diazotrophic bacteria interaction. This investigation studied growth and photoassimilate partitioning throughout the bean and soybean cycles and inferred how much it could affect the nodulation of the roots. For this purpose, an experiment with two treatments was carried out, soybean (cultivar BRS GO - 7760 - RR) and bean (cultivar BRS Estilo), with four replications, conducted in pots and entirely randomized. The seeds were inoculated with commercial rhizobia specific for bean and soybean LeguMax® (Novozymes-Turfal). Plants were analyzed throughout their cycles based on leaf area and dry mass of all organs, including nodules. Mathematical models were fitted to the data and based on them, the instantaneous physiological indicators of growth were estimated, and the percentages of photoassimilate partition among organs were evaluated. Crop growth rate, relative growth rates, net assimilation rate as well as net photosynthesis rate had higher values in soybean compared to bean, following the pattern of leaf area and total dry mass. For both species, the highest rates occurred at the beginning of the cycle, decreasing with age. Unlike the bean, soybean has a high capacity to supply photosynthates to all of its organs throughout its entire cycle, favoring the maintenance of nodule growth and explaining its greater capacity for nitrogen assimilation.


Durante o desenvolvimento das plantas a partição e alocação de fotoassimilados variam entre os seus órgãos, e dependem de fatores inerentes ao genótipo e ao meio ambiente. A nodulação é mais efetiva na interação soja-bactéria diazotrófica do que na interação feijão-bactéria diazotrófica. Esta pesquisa tem como objetivo estudar o crescimento e a partição de fotoassimilados ao longo dos ciclos do feijão e da soja e inferir o quanto isso pode afetar a nodulação das raízes. Para tanto, foi instalado um experimento com dois tratamentos, soja (cultivar BRS GO - 7760 - RR) e feijão comum (cultivar BRS Estilo), com quatro repetições, conduzido em vasos e inteiramente ao acaso. As sementes foram inoculadas com inoculantes comerciais específicos para feijão e soja LeguMax® (Novozymes-Turfal). Plantas foram coletadas ao longo de seus ciclos e medidas as áreas foliares e as massas secas de todos os órgãos, incluindo nódulos. Modelos matemáticos foram ajustados aos dados e, com base neles, foram estimados os indicadores fisiológicos instantâneos do crescimento e, também, foram avaliadas as porcentagens de partição de fotoassimilados entre os órgãos. A taxa de crescimento das culturas (CGR), as taxas de crescimento relativo (RGR), a taxa líquida de assimilação (NAR) e a taxa líquida de fotossíntese (Pn) apresentaram maiores valores na soja em relação ao feijoeiro. Para ambas as culturas as maiores taxas ocorreram no início do ciclo, decrescendo ao longo do ciclo cultural. Diferentemente do feijoeiro a soja tem alta capacidade de suprir de fotoassimilados a todos os seus órgãos ao longo de todo o seu ciclo, o que favorece o maior crescimento dos seus nódulos, justificando a sua maior capacidade na captura do N2 atmosférico.


Subject(s)
Photosynthesis , Soybeans/growth & development , Biomass , Phaseolus/growth & development , Root Nodules, Plant
9.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(2): e20210068, 2022. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1286060

ABSTRACT

This research valorized Pachira aquatica Aubl.'s fruit shells (PAS) through its energetic characterization and flash pyrolysis for biofuels or chemicals production. The characterization was performed through proximate and ultimate analysis, bulk density, higher heating value (HHV), hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin content, thermogravimetric analysis and absorption spectra in the infrared region obtained by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy technique (FTIR). The analytical flash pyrolysis was performed at 500°C in a Py-5200 HP-R coupled to a gas chromatograph (Py-GC/MS). The PAS biomass presents potential for thermochemical energy conversion processes due to its low moisture and ash content, 76.90% of volatile matter, bulk density of 252.6 kg/m3 and HHV of 16.24 MJ/kg. Flash pyrolysis products are mostly phenols or light organic acids derived from the decomposition of polysaccharides. Results confirmed the potential of PAS to produce bio-phenolics, such as 4-methoxyphenol which is an important active ingredient for skin depigmentation used in drugs and cosmetics, and as phenolic extract that can be used as a precursor to resins, applications that convert this forest waste into bio products for industry into a green circular economy.


Este trabalho teve como objetivo a valorização das cascas dos frutos da Pachira aquatica Aubl. (PAC) através da sua caracterização energética e pirólise flash para produção de biocombustíveis ou produtos químicos. A caracterização foi realizada através de análises imediata e final, densidade aparente, poder calorífico superior (PCS), conteúdos de hemicelulose, celulose e lignina, análise termogravimétrica e espectros de absorção na região do infravermelho obtidos pela técnica de espectroscopia no infravermelho com transformada de Fourier (FTIR). A pirólise flash analítica foi realizada a 500 °C em equipamento Py-5200 HP-R acoplado a um cromatógrafo à gás (Py-GC/MS). A biomassa das PAC apresenta potencial para processos de conversão termoquímica de energia devido ao seu baixo teor de umidade e cinzas, além de 76,90% de materiais voláteis, densidade aparente de 252,6 kg/m3 e PCS igual a 16,24 MJ / kg. Os produtos da pirólise rápida são principalmente fenóis ou ácidos orgânicos leves derivados da decomposição de polissacarídeos. Os resultados confirmam o potencial das PAC para produzir bio-fenólicos, como o 4-metoxifenol que é um importante ingrediente ativo para despigmentação da pele usado em medicamentos e cosméticos, e como extrato fenólico que pode ser usado como precursor de resinas. Estas aplicações convertem esses resíduos florestais em produtos biológicos para a indústria em uma economia circular verde.


Subject(s)
Pyrolysis , Biomass , Bombacaceae , Fruit/chemistry , Lignin , Polysaccharides , Biofuels
10.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(2): e20201104, 2022. tab, graf, ilus, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1286050

ABSTRACT

Continued unsustainable exploitation of natural resources promotes environmental degradation and threatens the preservation of dry forests around the world. This situation exposes the fragility and the necessity to study landscape transformations. In addition, it is necessary to consider the biomass quantity and to establish strategies to monitor natural and anthropic disturbances. Thus, this research analyzed the relationship between vegetation index and the estimated biomass using allometric equations in different Brazilian caatinga forest areas from satellite images. This procedure is performed by estimating the biomass from 9 dry tropical forest fragments using allometric equations. Area delimitations were obtained from the Embrapa collection of dendrometric data collected in the period between 2011 and 2012. Spectral variables were obtained from the orthorectified images of the RapidEye satellite. The aboveground biomass ranged from 6.88 to 123.82 Mg.ha-1. SAVI values were L = 1 and L = 0.5, while NDVI and EVI ranged from 0.1835 to 0.4294, 0.2197 to 0.5019, 0.3622 to 0.7584, and 0.0987 to 0.3169, respectively. Relationships among the estimated biomass and the vegetation indexes were moderate, with correlation coefficients (Rs) varying between 0.64 and 0.58. The best adjusted equation was the SAVI equation, for which the coefficient of determination was R² = 0.50, R2aj = 0.49, RMSE = 17.18 Mg.ha-1 and mean absolute error of prediction (MAE) = 14.07 Mg.ha-1, confirming the importance of the Savi index in estimating the caatinga aboveground biomass.


A exploração contínua e insustentável dos recursos naturais promove a degradação ambiental e ameaça a conservação das florestas secas no mundo. Essa situação expõe a fragilidade e a necessidade de estudar as transformações da paisagem. É necessário considerar o quantitativo de biomassa e o estabelecimento de estratégias para monitorar distúrbios naturais e antrópicos. Assim, este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar a relação entre o índice de vegetação e a biomassa estimada por meio de equações alométricas em diferentes áreas da caatinga brasileira a partir de imagens de satélite. Este procedimento é realizado estimando-se a biomassa de nove fragmentos de floresta tropical seca com o uso em equações alométricas. As delimitações das áreas foram obtidas da coleção da Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária, a partir dos dados dendrométricos coletados no período entre 2011 e 2012. As variáveis espectrais foram obtidas a partir das imagens ortorretificadas do satélite RapidEye. A biomassa acima do solo variou de 6,88 a 123,82 Mg.ha-1. Os valores de SAVI para os coeficientes L = 1 e L = 0,5, NDVI e EVI variaram de 0,1835 a 0,4294, 0,2197 a 0,5019, 0,3622 a 0,7584 e 0,0987 a 0,3169, respectivamente. As relações entre a biomassa estimada e os índices de vegetação foram moderadas, com coeficiente de correlação (rs) variando entre 0,64 e 0,58. A equação mais bem ajustada foi a Equação do SAVI, com coeficiente de determinação foi R² = 0,50, R2aj = 0.49, RMSE = 17.18 Mg.ha-1 e erro médio absoluto de predição (MAE) = 14.07 Mg.ha-1, confirmando a importância do índice SAVI na estimativa da biomassa aérea da Caatinga.


Subject(s)
Forests , Decision Support Techniques , Biomass , Renewable Energy , Semi-Arid Zone , Remote Sensing Technology
11.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 112 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378572

ABSTRACT

A cana-de-açúcar e a cana energia são plantas intercruzáveis que compõe o complexo Saccharum. Estas plantas são fonte de biomassa para produção de açúcar, biocombustíveis, eletricidade, entre outros, e utilizam a energia assimilada pela fotossíntese de forma contrastante, ainda que ambas resultem em alta produtividade. O relógio biológico é um mecanismo molecular que gera informações sobre a hora do dia em conjunto com estímulos ambientais, adaptando respostas fisiológicas em prol de otimizar o desenvolvimento dos organismos em um ambiente cíclico, processo que regula cerca de 64% dos genes de cana-deaçúcar no campo. Em organismos sésseis como as plantas, o recorrente processo de produção de energia apenas durante o período luminoso, gera ritmos de metabólitos que influenciam na atividade de enzimas quinases que assim funcionam como sensores do estado energético, em vias conservadas nos eucariotos. Porém, pouco se sabe a respeito de como estes sinais são percebidos a nível transcricional, principalmente em plantas cultiváveis. Para elucidar como estas vias atuam em conjunto em plantas do complexo Saccharum, medimos o nível de transcrição de componentes do relógio biológico, de subunidades que compõe o complexo TOR, e da subunidade catalítica de SnRK1, KIN10. Medimos o desempenho do relógio biológico das variedades através da quantificação de amido em quatro pontos temporais, para obter uma dinâmica de produção e consumo, processo que é regulado pelo relógio biológico e tem genes com perfil de expressão rítmicos em cana de-açúcar. Curiosamente, uma das quatro variedades onde identificamos provável perfil rítmico de consumo de amido é a S.officinarum SP80-3280, cana-de-açúcar utilizada anteriormente para estudos de relógio biológico. Os nove acessos foram divididos em dois grupos com base em sua partição de carbono contrastante. HF (high fiber) com mais fibras e perfilho e grupo HS (high sucrose), com maior armazenamento de açúcares e amido que HF, em todos os horários de coleta, e com baixa produção de fibras. Estes grupos não diferem em expressão dos componentes de relógio biológico, no entanto, HS tem maior transcrição de uma subunidade do complexo TOR, em apenas um dos horários analisados (ZT12). Em conjunto, a expressão dos componentes do relógio biológico divide os acessos entre os que possuem altos níveis de transcrição de ScLHY, no ZT03, e os que possuem maior transcrição dos genes PRR59, 73 e 95, no ZT12, grupos com contrastante partição de carbono. A transcrição dos sensores energéticos se correlaciona no começo da noite em acessos de HS e Krakatau e, no começo da manhã, em acessos de HF e IN84-105, sem agrupar as variedades por espécie ou destino de carbono. Este trabalho sugere que há diferentes níveis de correlação entre a transcrição dos genes mensurados e as contrastantes partições de carbono das plantas do complexo Saccharu


Sugarcane and Energycane are intercrossable plants that make up the Saccharum complex. These plants are a source of biomass, sugar, biofuels, electricity among others, and even though they use the energy assimilated by photosynthesis in a contrasting way, both results in high productivity. The biological clock is a molecular mechanism that generates information about the time of day in conjunction with environmental stimuli, adapting physiological responses to optimize the development of organisms in a cyclic environment, a process that regulates about 64% of sugarcane genes in field-grown plants. In organisms such as plants, the recurrent process of energy production that happens only during the luminous period generates rhythmicity that may influence the activity of kinase enzymes, thus giving an energy sensor property for then. However, little is known about how these signs are perceived at the transcriptional level, especially in crops and monocots. To elucidate how these pathways act together in plants of the Saccharum complex, we measured the transcription level of the daytime loop of the biological clock, subunits that make up the TOR complex, and the catalytic subunit of SnRK1, KIN10. We measured starch content in four time points, to obtain a dynamic of production and consumption, a process that is regulated by the biological clock and has genes with a rhythmic expression profile in sugarcane. Interestingly, one of the four varieties where we could identify a probable rhythmic profile of starch consumption is a sugarcane SP80-3280 (S. officinarum), that have been used for biological clock studies. The nine genotypes were divided into two groups based on their contrasting carbon partition. HF (high fiber) with more fiber and tiller and group HS (high sucrose), with higher sugar and starch storage than HF, but with lower fiber production. These groups do not differ in expression of biological clock components; however, HS has a higher transcription of a subunit of the TOR complex, in only one of the analyzed times (ZT12). Together, the expression of components of the biological clock divides the genotypes between those with higher levels of ScLHY in ZT03 and those with more transcripts of PRR59, 73 and 95 genes in ZT12, groups that also have contrasting carbon partition. The transcription of TOR complex correlates in the early evening in HS and KRAKATAU, but in the morning, in HF and IN84-105, with no clear correlation with the C destination preferences. This work suggests that there are different levels of correlation between the transcription of biological clock and energy sensors component genes and the contrasting carbon partitions of plants from the Saccharum complex


Subject(s)
Plants/adverse effects , Biological Clocks , Saccharum/adverse effects , Energy Metabolism , Phosphotransferases , Sucrose , Biomass , Growth and Development , Efficiency/classification , Sugars/classification
12.
Rev. biol. trop ; 69(4)dic. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1387692

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Los bosques y sistemas agroforestales (SAF) suministran bienes y servicios ecosistémicos para la sociedad, tal como la mitigación del cambio climático. Objetivo: Se estimó el potencial de reducción de emisiones y captura de carbono en bosques y SAF con cacao de la subcuenca del río Munguidó, Colombia. Métodos: Se seleccionaron tres sistemas de uso del suelo (bosque primario, bosque secundario y SAF con cacao). Se establecieron 18 parcelas temporales de muestreo, seis por sistema, para medir los árboles (diámetro a la altura del pecho -dap ≥ 10 cm) y arbustos de cacao. Se cuantificó la biomasa aérea con ecuaciones alométricas y una fracción de carbono de 0.5. Se estimó la fijación de carbono en el bosque secundario y el SAF con cacao como la razón entre el carbono almacenado y su edad. La pérdida de carbono del bosque primario se estimó con base en la deforestación para Chocó y dicha subcuenca (0.6 y 0.3 %/año, respectivamente). Se realizó un análisis de varianza y comparación de medias LSD Fisher para determinar las diferencias en el almacenamiento y la fijación de carbono entre los usos. Resultados: El bosque primario almacenó más carbono que el bosque secundario y el SAF con cacao (190.1, 22.3 y 5.3 Mg/ha, respectivamente). La fijación de carbono del bosque secundario y el SAF con cacao no difirieron (2.23 vs 1.33 Mg/ha/año). En 20 años, el bosque primario presentaría una reducción de emisiones de 1.4-2.6 Tg CO2; y el bosque secundario y el SAF con cacao presentarían una captura de 100.8 y 30.7 Gg CO2, respectivamente. Conclusiones: En la subcuenca del río Munguidó es posible establecer proyectos para la reducción de emisiones en bosque primario y captura de carbono en bosques secundarios y SAF con cacao, con lo cual se podría emitir 1.4-2.6 millones de toneladas de CO2.


Abstract Introduction: Forests and agroforestry systems (AFS) provide ecosystem goods and services for society, such as climate change mitigation. Objective: The potential for emission reductions and carbon sequestration in forests and cocoa agroforestry systems in the Munguidó river sub-basin in Colombia was estimated. Methods: Three land use systems were selected (primary forest, secondary forest and AFS with cocoa). Eighteen temporary sampling plots were established, six per system, to measure trees (diameter at breast height -dbh ≥ 10 cm) and cocoa shrubs. Aboveground biomass was quantified with allometric equations and a carbon fraction of 0.5. Carbon fixation in secondary forest and AFS with cocoa was estimated as the ratio of carbon stored to its age. Carbon loss from primary forest was estimated based on deforestation for Chocó and that sub-basin (0.6 and 0.3 %/year, respectively). An analysis of variance and LSD Fisher mean comparison was performed to determine differences in carbon storage and carbon sequestration between uses. Results: Primary Forest stored more carbon than secondary forest and AFS with cocoa (190.1, 22.3 and 5.3 Mg/ha, respectively). The carbon fixation of secondary forest and AFS with cocoa did not differ (2.23 vs. 1.33 Mg/ha/year). In 20 years, the primary forest would present an emission reduction of 1.4-2.6 Tg CO2; and the secondary forest and the PFS with cocoa would present a sequestration of 100.8 and 30.7 Gg CO2, respectively. Conclusion: In the Munguidó river sub-basin, it is possible to establish projects for the reduction of emissions in primary forest and carbon sequestration in secondary forests and AFS with cocoa, which could emit 1.4-2.6 million tons of CO2.


Subject(s)
Forestry , Carbon Cycle , Cacao , Colombia , Biomass , Conservation of Natural Resources
13.
Rev. MVZ Córdoba ; 26(2): 4-13, mayo-ago. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347068

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo. Evaluar el crecimiento y la supervivencia de Cryphiops caementarius en cocultivo con Oreochromis niloticus a diferentes densidades. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizaron camarones machos (5.86 cm y 7.65 g) y alevines revertidos de tilapia (5.65 cm y 2.61 g). Se emplearon nueve acuarios (55 L). En cada acuario se instalaron seis recipientes donde se sembró un camarón por recipiente (32 camarones/m2) y en el agua restante se sembraron tilapias a 100, 200 y 300 alevines/m3. Se empleó alimento balanceado. La ración diaria para camarones fue del 6% y para tilapia fue del 5% de la biomasa total. El experimento duró 90 días. Resultados. En el camarón, la longitud (6.46 cm), peso (9.37 g), las ganancias porcentuales en longitud (10.01% a 10.45%) peso (19.24% a 25.41%), y la supervivencia (88.89% a 94.44%) fueron similares (p<0.05) entre tratamientos. El efecto del síndrome de muerte por muda es discutido. En tilapia, la longitud (9.25 cm), peso (12.90 g), tasa de crecimiento absoluto (0.040 cm/día; 0.114 g/día), tasa de crecimiento específica (0.55% longitud/día; 1.759% peso/día) y la ganancia porcentual (64.21%; 389.48%) fueron mayores (p<0.05) a 100 y 200 alevines/m3. La supervivencia de tilapia fue similar (86.11%) entre tratamientos. Conclusiones. El crecimiento y la supervivencia del camarón fueron afectados por el síndrome de muerte por muda, más no por la presencia de tilapia en el sistema. En cambio, mayor crecimiento de tilapia se obtuvo con 100 alevines/m3 y la supervivencia fue similar entre tratamientos.


ABSTRACT Objective. To evaluate the growth and survival of Cryphiops caementarius in coculture with Oreochromis niloticus at different densities. Materials and methods. Male prawns (5.86 cm and 7.65 g) and reverse tilapia fingerlings (5.65 cm and 2.61 g) were used. Nine aquariums (55 L) were used. Six containers were installed in each aquarium, where one prawn was stocked per container (32 prawn/m2), and in the remaining water, tilapia was stocked at densities of 100, 200 and 300 fish/m3. Balanced feed was used. The daily ration for prawns was 6% and for tilapia, it was 5% of the total biomass. The experiment lasted 90 days. Results. In prawns, the length (6.46 cm), weight (9.37 g), percentage gains in length (10.01% at 10.45%) weight (19.24% a 25.41%), and survival (88.89% to 94.44%) were similar (p<0.05) between treatments. The effect of molting death syndrome is discussed. In tilapia, the length (9.25 cm), weight (12.90 g), absolute growth rate (0.040 cm/day; 0.114 g/day), specific growth rate (0.55% length/day; 1.759% weight/day) and percentage gain (64.21%; 389.48%) were greater (p<0.05) at 100 and 200 fish/m3. Tilapia survival was similar (86.11%) between treatments. Conclusions. Prawn growth and survival were affected by molt death syndrome but not by the presence of tilapia in the system. In contrast, greater growth of tilapia was obtained with 100 fish/m3, although survival was similar between treatments.


Subject(s)
Animals , Tilapia , Biomass , Coculture Techniques , Cichlids
14.
Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 5(1): 7-14, jan.mar.2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1398157

ABSTRACT

A associação positiva entre poluição atmosférica e COVID-19 tem sido confirmada por pesquisadores ao redor do mundo, sobretudo em localidades poluídas. A exposição de longo prazo à poluição atmosférica foi associada a maior gravidade da infecção pelo SARS-CoV-2. As medidas de afastamento social fizeram com que os níveis de poluentes atmosféricos caíssem de forma drástica. Além disso, a exposição à poluição intradomiciliar também foi relacionada à COVID-19. Os pobres, incluindo refugiados e trabalhadores migrantes que ficam em condições frágeis, são os mais vulneráveis. Como consequência da pandemia, muitas pessoas permanecem em ambientes fechados, sobretudo os indivíduos de risco (idosos, diabéticos, obesos, cardiopatas e pneumopatas crônicos). O isolamento domiciliar em ambiente com ventilação inadequada poderá determinar, nessas populações, outros problemas de saúde. A queima de biomassa e do tabaco no interior dos domicílios são fontes importantes de poluentes. Portanto, é essencial entender as consequências da relação entre a poluição intradomiciliar e a doença pandêmica COVID-19.


A positive association between air pollution and COVID-19 has been confirmed by researchers around the world, especially in polluted locations. Long-term exposure to air pollution was associated with greater severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Social withdrawal measures caused the levels of air pollutants to drop dramatically. In addition, exposure to indoor air pollution was also related to COVID-19. The poor, including refugees and migrant workers who are in fragile conditions, are the most vulnerable. As a consequence of the pandemic, many people remain indoors, especially at-risk individuals (older, diabetic, obese, cardiac, and chronic lung disease patients). Home isolation in an environment with inadequate ventilation may determine other health problems in these populations. Burning biomass and tobacco are important sources of household air pollutants. Therefore, it is essential to understand the consequences of the relationship between indoor air pollution and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tobacco , Air Pollution, Indoor , Environmental Pollution , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Patients , Ventilation , Residence Characteristics , Family Characteristics , Risk Factors , Biomass , Air Pollution , Environment
15.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(1): 202-209, Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153315

ABSTRACT

Abstract It was evaluated the effect of operational conditions in the production of Chlorella sp. after its selection from genus Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus sp., Nannochloris sp., Tetraselmis sp. and Dunaliella salina. Microalgae were inoculated in drinking water with addition of NPK fertilizer (N 24%, P 24%, K 18%), at a concentration of 0.5 g/L, agitation of 150 rpm, temperature 25 °C, light intensity of 1680 lumens at a color temperature of 6400K, without pH control for 8 days. The cellular concentrations obtained were 3.72x107 (Chlorella sp.), 1.36x107 (Scenedesmus sp.), 3.55x107 (Tetraselmis sp.), 5.74x107 (Nannochloris sp.) and 3.45x106 (Dunaliella salina), where the microalgae Chlorella sp., shows invasive capacity in drinking water cultivations. Applying the 2n-p fractional factorial design concept for the elemental composition of the microalgae and the cellular morphology, it was obtained 44.33% of C, 7.09% of H, 8.53% of N and 0.84% ​​of S for the Chlorella sp.


Resumo Foi avaliado o efeito das condições operacionais na produção de Chlorella sp. após a seleção do gênero Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus sp., Nannochloris sp., Tetraselmis sp. e Dunaliella salina. Microalgas foram inoculadas em água potável com adição de fertilizante NPK (N 24%, P 24% e K 18%), na concentração de 0,5 g/L, agitação de 150 rpm, temperatura de 25 °C, intensidade luminosa de 1.680 lúmens para uma temperatura de cor de 6.400 K, sem controle de pH por 8 dias. As concentrações celulares obtidas foram de 3,72 x 107 (Chlorella sp.), 1,36 x 107 (Scenedesmus sp.), 3,55 x 107 (Tetraselmis sp.), 5,74 x 107 (Nannochloris sp.) e 3,45 x 106 (Dunaliella salina), em que a microalga Chlorella sp. mostrou capacidade invasiva em cultivos de água potável. Aplicando o conceito de projeto fatorial fracionado 2n-p para a composição elementar da microalga e a morfologia celular, foram obtidos 44,33% de C, 7,09% de H, 8,53% de N e 0,84% de S para a Chlorella sp.


Subject(s)
Chlorella , Microalgae , Temperature , Biomass
16.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64(spe): e21200658, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285569

ABSTRACT

Abstract Food supplements have been increasingly investigated. Probiotics have several benefits for human and animal health and selenium (Se) is widely recommended against oxidative stress. In this context, the aim of this study was to develop a low-cost bioprocess to produce a functional food product comprising both probiotic and Se accumulation. Yeast cells of Saccharomyces boulardii CCT 4308 were cultivated using sugarcane molasses as substrate. Optimization studies were performed to evaluate the best medium composition for biomass production and Se-accumulation in batch and fed-batch systems. Optimized conditions were defined with a medium composed of 150 g L-1 sugarcane molasses and 12 g L-1 yeast extract, with feeding of 100 g L-1 sugarcane molasses and 100 μg mL-1 of Se incorporation after 4 h and 10 h of fermentation, respectively, during 48 h in STR (stirred tank reactor). Best biomass production reached 14.52 g L-1 with 3.20 mg Se g-1 biomass at 12 h. Process optimization led to 4.82-fold increase in biomass production compared to initial condition. A final Se-enriched S. boulardii CCT 4308 biomass was obtained, which is comparable to commercial products. An alternative probiotic yeast biomass was efficiently produced as a new food-form of Se supplement in a sustainable process using an inexpensive agro-industrial residue.


Subject(s)
Selenium , Molasses , Biomass , Probiotics , Saccharomyces boulardii
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921625

ABSTRACT

With the advantages of extensive sources, easy collection, renewability, high yield, carbon circulation, low pollution, and so on, Chinese medicinal solid waste can be converted into clean gas by pyrolysis and gasification, which is then able to serve for industrial production. This is of great practical significance in the context of energy shortage and for solid waste recycling in China. This paper reviews the research progress on biomass gasification principle, gasification medium, and reactor in gasification technology of Chinese medicinal solid waste in recent years. Meanwhile, based on the summary of related research, the defects and improvement measures regarding raw materials, gasification agents, by-products, and reactors were discussed, which provides direction for further development in the gasification technology of Chinese medicinal solid waste in the future.


Subject(s)
Biomass , China , Pyrolysis , Solid Waste , Technology
18.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3108-3128, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921410

ABSTRACT

Lignin valorization for fuels and value-added products is essential to enhance the profitability and sustainability of biorefineries. Due to the complex and heterogeneous structure of lignin, technical barriers hinder the implementation of economic lignin utilization. Here, we summarize the major challenges facing lignin valorization processes. Different pretreatment methods, especially emerging combinatorial pretreatment approaches for isolating and tailoring lignin are introduced. To overcome the heterogeneity of lignin structure and improve lignin processability, advances in fractionation approaches including organosolv extraction, membrane technology, and gradient precipitation are analyzed and presented. Furthermore, progress in lignin valorization by thermochemical and biological conversion coupling with pretreatment and fractionation are systematically reviewed. Finally, we discuss advanced strategies and perspectives for future research involving biomass pretreatment, lignin fractionation and conversion processes.


Subject(s)
Biomass , Lignin
19.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2845-2855, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887847

ABSTRACT

Production of biofuels such as ethanol from non-grain crops may contribute to alleviating the global energy crisis and reducing the potential threat to food security. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) is a commercial crop with high biomass yield. Breeding of starch-rich tobacco plants may provide alternative raw materials for the production of fuel ethanol. We cloned the small subunit gene NtSSU of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (NtAGPase), which controls starch biosynthesis in tobacco, and constructed a plant expression vector pCAMBIA1303-NtSSU. The NtSSU gene was overexpressed in tobacco upon Agrobacterium-mediated leaf disc transformation. Phenotypic analysis showed that overexpression of NtSSU gene promoted the accumulation of starch in tobacco leaves, and the content of starch in tobacco leaves increased from 17.5% to 41.7%. The growth rate and biomass yield of the transgenic tobacco with NtSSU gene were also significantly increased. The results revealed that overexpression of NtSSU gene could effectively redirect more photosynthesis carbon flux into starch biosynthesis pathway, which led to an increased biomass yield but did not generate negative effects on other agronomic traits. Therefore, NtSSU gene can be used as an excellent target gene in plant breeding to enrich starch accumulation in vegetative organs to develop new germplasm dedicated to fuel ethanol production.


Subject(s)
Biomass , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Plant Breeding , Plant Leaves/genetics , Plants, Genetically Modified/metabolism , Starch , Tobacco/metabolism
20.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 19(3): e210004, 2021. tab, graf, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1340242

ABSTRACT

Body size influences the effect of individuals and assemblages on ecosystem functioning and defines how they respond to ecosystem changes. We evaluated how body size structure of fish assemblages and functional groups respond to human modifications at catchment, riparian and local scales in 40 streams of the Pampa grasslands, southern Brazil. To describe body size structure, we calculated the mean, coefficient of variation, skewness, and kurtosis, using individual biomass data for the entire fish assemblages and separately by functional group. The results suggested that body size response depends on body size metrics, functional group, and the spatial scale of land use. From 11 functional groups, only five showed a clear response to land use. In general, most functional groups had a higher concentration of small sizes (left-skewed) in response to increased land use measured at distinct spatial scales (local, riparian, and catchment), and a greater concentration of sizes in a narrow and central distribution (higher kurtosis). However, the responses were complex and varied between the functional groups. We conclude that considering ecomorphological and trophic features separately by functional group and assessing multiple body size metrics contributed greatly to detecting the influence of land use on fish body size.(AU)


O tamanho corporal influencia o efeito de indivíduos e assembleias no funcionamento dos ecossistemas e define como estes respondem à alterações ambientais. Investigamos como a estrutura do tamanho corporal de assembleias e grupos funcionais de peixes responde ao uso da terra quantificado em três escalas espaciais (sub-bacia, ripária e local), em 40 riachos do Pampa, sul do Brasil. Para tanto, calculamos média, coeficiente de variação, assimetria e kurtose usando biomassa individual em nível de assembleia e grupo funcional. As respostas do tamanho corporal dependeram da métrica utilizada, do grupo funcional e da escala de uso da terra. Entre os 11 grupos funcionais identificados, apenas cinco mostraram uma resposta clara ao uso da terra. Em geral, a maioria dos grupos mostrou uma assimetria na distribuição em favor de menores tamanhos corporais e uma concentração de tamanhos em uma distribuição estreita e central (alta kurtose) em resposta ao uso da terra quantificado nas três escalas espaciais. Entretanto, as respostas foram complexas e variaram entre grupos funcionais. A consideração de atributos ecomorfológicos e tróficos separadamente por grupo funcional e a avaliação de múltiplas métricas contribuem de forma importante para detectar a influência do uso da terra no tamanho corporal de peixes.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Biomass , Rivers , Fishes/anatomy & histology , Body Composition , Agriculture
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