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2.
Rev. Asoc. Méd. Argent ; 137(1): 19-34, mar. 2024. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1552860

ABSTRACT

Con motivo del Día Mundial de la Ciencia y la Tecnología, se realizó en la Casa Museo Bernardo Houssay un conversatorio en el que expertos biógrafos resaltaron algunos aspectos de la trayectoria profesional del Premio Nobel de Medicina de 1947, destacando su actividad como investigador en fisiología y sus cualidades humanas. Estos importantes estudiosos del tema compartieron sus conocimientos en un selecto auditorio. (AU)


On the occasion of World Science and Technology Day, a discussion was held at the Bernardo Houssay House Museum in which expert biographers highlighted some aspects of the professional career of the 1947 Nobel Prize in Medicine, highlighting his activity as a researcher in physiology and his human qualities. These important scholars of the subject shared their knowledge in a select audience. (AU)


Subject(s)
History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Physiology/history , Biomedical Research , Academies and Institutes/history , Argentina , History of Medicine , Nobel Prize
3.
Rev. Asoc. Méd. Argent ; 136(3): 14-22, sept. 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1553353

ABSTRACT

El presente artículo es una reseña biográfica de la vida del Dr. Christofredo Jakob, desde su formación en Alemania, las personalidades que acompañaron su desarrollo y las publicaciones científicas en suelo germano. Luego llegarían los inicios de su trabajo en la Argentina y los principales alcances de sus investigaciones. A través de esta reseña recorremos los comienzos del estudio sistemático del sistema nervioso en el país y recordamos el Día del Neurocientífico argentino. (AU)


This article is a biographical review of the life of Dr. Christofredo Jakob, from his training in Germany, the personalities who accompanied his development and the scientific publications on German soil. Then came the beginnings of his work in Argentina and the main achievements of his research. Through this review, we retrace the beginnings of the systematic study of the nervous system in the country and we remember the Day of the Argentine Neuroscientist. (AU)


Subject(s)
History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Physicians/history , Neurobiology , Neurosciences , Argentina , Biomedical Research , Germany
4.
Medisan ; 27(3)jun. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1514555

ABSTRACT

Durante estos años, condicionados por los efectos de una pandemia y la situación económica global, la incorporación oportuna de los resultados científico-técnicos es necesidad y responsabilidad de la comunidad científica. En este trabajo se expone una experiencia en la introducción de resultados científicos desde la formación doctoral, dirigida al área de la atención inicial al paciente con traumatismo maxilofacial. La importancia de esta práctica radica en los aportes social, científico y profesional y en la formación de recursos humanos para lograr la transformación y el mejoramiento de la realidad.


During these years, conditioned by the effects of a pandemic and the global economic situation, the opportune incorporation of the scientific technical results is necessity and responsibility of scientific community. An experience in the introduction of scientific results from the doctoral training, directed to the area of initial care to the patient with maxillofacial traumatism, is presented in this work. The importance of this practice resides in the social, scientific, professional contributions and in the formation of human resources to achieve the transformation and improvement of reality.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research , Algorithms , Clinical Protocols , Maxillofacial Injuries
5.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 17(2): 200-205, jun. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440345

ABSTRACT

La presión que existe hoy por publicar ha llevado a que muchos investigadores cometan malas conductas científicas, siendo el fraude la más grave de todas. Este ocurre en forma de fabricación, falsificación, plagio, problemas de autoría, manipulación de imágenes y publicaciones redundantes. El fraude científico se define como una tergiversación deliberada por parte de alguien que conoce la verdad. En la historia de la humanidad se han conocido importantes casos de fraude científico, dentro de ellos se pueden destacar: el hombre de Piltdown, caso Shinichi Fujimura, el escándalo de las vacunas, caso Pearce, el caso Yoshitaka Fujii, entre otros. Con el objetivo de neutralizar el fraude, se han desarrollado diferentes estrategias dirigidas a detectarlo, dentro de ellas encontramos: evaluación mediante pares evaluadores, programas de Conducta de Investigación Responsable (RCR), regulaciones que la misma comunidad científica realiza, donde encontramos la fundación PubPeer y el blog For Better Science. Del mismo modo, se han impuesto diferentes medidas para contrarrestar el fraude, tales como: transparencia de las presiones y oportunidades, disponibilidad pública de los datos que sustentan la hipótesis y denuncia pública de los fraudes científicos. El impacto de un fraude trae consecuencias importantes para la ciencia, estudiar a partir de información falsa o errónea conlleva a un gran retroceso en los avances científicos del mundo actual. Es responsabilidad de cada uno ser consciente de lo que se escribe y lo que se lee, ya que como se sabe, esa es la única manera de combatirlo. Como investigadores somos responsables de actuar éticamente en nuestras investigaciones y tener conocimiento de las medidas que existen hoy para detectar y combatir el fraude científico.


The pressure to publish today has led many researchers to commit scientific misconduct, fraud being the most serious of all. This occurs in the form of fabrication, falsification, plagiarism, authorship problems, image manipulation, and redundant posting. Scientific fraud is defined as deliberate misrepresentation by someone who knows the truth. In the history of humanity, important cases of scientific fraud have been known, among them the following can be highlighted: the Piltdown man, the Shinichi Fujimura case, the vaccine scandal, the Pearce case, the Yoshitaka Fujii case, among others. In order to neutralize fraud, different strategies have been developed to detect it, among them we find: evaluation by peer reviewers, Responsible Research Conduct (RCR) programs, regulations that the scientific community itself carries out, where we find the PubPeer Foundation and the For Better Science blog. Similarly, different measures have been imposed to counteract fraud, such as: transparency of pressures and opportunities, public availability of the data that support the hypothesis, and public denunciation of scientific fraud. The impact of a fraud has important consequences for science, studying from false or wrong information leads to a great setback in scientific advances in the world today. It is the responsibility of each one to be aware of what is written and what is read, since as is known, that is the only way to combat it. As researchers we are responsible for acting ethically in our research and being aware of the measures that exist today to detect and combat scientific fraud.


Subject(s)
Scientific Misconduct , Biomedical Research , Authorship , Plagiarism , Fraud
7.
Rev. estomatol. Hered ; 33(1): 56-61, ene. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1441867

ABSTRACT

La investigación científica en Odontología es la herramienta clave para generar conocimiento y resolver problemas que conduzcan al desarrollo exponencial y progreso tecnológico de la profesión. A su vez, e indispensable el estudio epidemiológico y etiopatogénico de las enfermedades estomatológicas, factores de riesgo y manifestaciones orales relacionadas a la salud sistémica, para implementar estrategias sanitarias y establecer un adecuado manejo multidisciplinario. La odontología basada en evidencia (OBE) exige al profesional realizar una práctica informada, responsable, actualizada y soportada en una sólida base científica para la toma de decisiones y garantizar resultados altamente predecibles. La mayoría de los estudios clínicos en Odontología se realizan bajo el enfoque cuantitativo utilizando los diseños epidemiológicos; por lo que es necesario identificar la ruta ideal para resolver cada problema científico, la presente revisión comprende las bases metodológicas de investigación en Odontología, la clasificación de tipos de estudio y una perspectiva futura de investigación.


Scientific research in Dentistry is the key tool to generate knowledge and solve problems that lead to the exponential development and technological progress of the profession. At the same time, the epidemiological and etiopathogenic study of stomatological diseases, risk factors and oral manifestations related to systemic health is essential to implement health strategies and establish adequate multidisciplinary management. Evidence-based dentistry (OBE) requires the professional to carry out an informed, responsible, up-to-date practice supported by a solid scientific basis for decision-making and to guarantee highly predictable results. Most of the clinical studies in Dentistry are carried out under a quantitative approach using epidemiological designs; Therefore, it is necessary to identify the ideal route to solve each scientific problem. This review includes the methodological bases of research in Dentistry, the classification of study types and a future research perspective.


Subject(s)
Humans , Oral Medicine , Biomedical Research , Evidence-Based Practice , Education, Dental , Observational Studies as Topic
8.
JEMDSA (Online) ; 28(1): 14-17, 2023. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1427770

ABSTRACT

Background: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) remains an important cause of hospitalisation and death in people with diabetes mellitus (DM) living in low- and middle-income countries. The clinical profile of patients with DKA varies, and maybe contributory to the outcomes observed globally. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics of people with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) seen at a clinic in The Gambia during a one-and-a-half-year period. Methods: This was a retrospective chart review that included people with DM who were seen from June 2017 to December 2018 at the Medical Research Council the Gambia at London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. Biodata, anthropometric and admissions data were extracted for all patients from the electronic medical records system. Data were analysed for differences in clinical and biochemical characteristics on admission for DKA. Results: In total, 23 out of 103 admissions for people with DM were for a diagnosis of DKA during the study period. Sixteen of those included were females and the mean age of all patients was 35 ± 13 years. Two people had type 1 DM and 15 people were categorised as type 2 DM. DM was diagnosed for the first time during admission for DKA for 12 people and 6 people had confirmed sepsis. There were no significant differences in age at diagnosis of DM or biochemical characteristics. Conclusion: DKA was a common indication for admission for people with DM in the Medical Research Council the Gambia at London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and the majority of patients with DKA had type 2 DM. Further studies are needed to describe DKA in this setting more accurately.


Subject(s)
Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Sepsis , Biomedical Research , Diabetes Mellitus , Diagnosis , Schools , Methods
9.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 445-449, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981290

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the current status of Chinese medical researchers' knowledge regarding the ethical norms of the research involving humans or laboratory animals,and provide reference for further improving the ethics review norms. Methods The questionnaire method was employed to survey the applicants for the 2019 projects supported by the Department of Medical Sciences,National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) about their knowledge of ethical requirements.Furthermore,the ethical supervision of the NSFC and affiliations at the project application and implementation stages was analyzed. Results The survey showed that 29.9% medical researchers were familiar with NSFC's ethical requirements for research involving human or laboratory animals.During the project application stage,59.0% affiliations adopted the simplified review method.Regarding the ethical supervison,95.5% medical researchers believed that the affiliations should fulfill the ethical supervision obligations and take relevant measures during the project implementation period.In addition,55.0% medical researchers fully agreed to discuss with the review experts about the ethical issues involved in the project. Conclusions The NSFC should establish rules and regulations to improve institutional management responsibilities and institutionalize the training about research ethics to comprehensively strengthening the training.Taking the management of research project ethics as a starting point,the NSFC should form a multi-party linkage between project funding and management and establish an accountability mechanism for ethics management.Furthermore,the NSFC should double the endeavors at the review of ethical issues during expert review and process management and attach importance to the research,judgment,and prevention of ethical risks.


Subject(s)
Humans , Foundations , Biomedical Research , China , Natural Science Disciplines
10.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 130-137, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971378

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Clinical research plays a vital role in disease research and population health. The public is the main source of clinical research volunteers. Understanding the public's cognition of clinical research plays a decisive role in the development of clinical research. This study aims to understand the Chinese public's cognition for clinical research and the influencing factors.@*METHODS@#The questionnaire based on Chinese-translated Public Awareness of Research for Therapeutic Advancements through Knowledge and Empowerment (PARTAKE) was used to investigate the public's cognition for clinical research.@*RESULTS@#Of the 2 513 valid respondents, 91.84% had heard of "clinical research", 91.76% of the respondents believed that clinical research was beneficial to society, 65.90% were willing to participate in clinical research, 87.50% believed that confidentiality was a very important thing, 73.70% believed that their personal information had been protected when participating in clinical research, and, 46.40% did not know whether volunteers participating in clinical research could receive adequate compensation. Educational levels, employment status, and annual income impacted in public perceptions of willingness to participate in clinical research, especially in privacy protection, informed consent, whether clinical research is intended for society, compensation for clinical research, and safety of clinical research (all P<0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The Chinese public's cognition level for clinical research is acceptable, but there is still a lot of room for improvement in privacy protection, informed consent, and compensation. By designing a reasonable knowledge training program for clinical research and using the multimedia, improving access to the relevant knowledge, more public will know about clinical research recruitment information, which is of great significance for the development of clinical research in China.


Subject(s)
Humans , China , East Asian People , Educational Status , Surveys and Questionnaires , Public Opinion , Knowledge , Biomedical Research
11.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 96-100, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970958

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the characteristics of scientific papers in the field of global liver diseases published by Chinese scholars that were retracted for diverse reasons from the Retraction Watch database, so as to provide a reference to publishing-related papers. Methods: The Retraction Watch database was retrieved for retracted papers in the field of global liver disease published by Chinese scholars from March 1, 2008 to January 28, 2021. The regional distribution, source journals, reasons for retraction, publication and retraction times, and others were analyzed. Results: A total of 101 retracted papers that were distributed across 21 provinces/cities were retrieved. Zhejiang area (n = 17) had the most retracted papers, followed by Shanghai (n = 14), and Beijing (n = 11). The vast majority were research papers (n = 95). The journal PLoS One had the highest number of retracted papers. In terms of time distribution, 2019 (n = 36) had the most retracted papers. 23 papers, accounting for 8.3% of all retractions, were retracted owing to journal or publisher concerns. Liver cancer (34%), liver transplantation (16%), hepatitis (14%), and others were the main areas of retracted papers. Conclusion: Chinese scholars have a large number of retracted articles in the field of global liver diseases. A journal or publisher chooses to retract a manuscript after investigating and discovering more flawed problems, which, however, require further support, revision, and supervision from the editorial and academic circles.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biomedical Research , China , Liver Diseases , Scientific Misconduct
12.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 851-854, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985572

ABSTRACT

The efficacy of HPV vaccine in preventing cervical cancer has been demonstrated in numerous clinical trials and clinical uses. The follow-up after clinical trials usually last for 5-6 years to evaluate the long-term efficacy, and a series of long-term follow-up studies have been conducted in some regions. The literature retrieval of HPV vaccine long term efficiency research both at home and abroad indicated that the protective efficacy of the vaccine against vaccine-type-related cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 and above is higher than 90%.


Subject(s)
Humans , Papillomaviridae , Biomedical Research , Papillomavirus Vaccines
13.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 1075-1081, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985518

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to analyze the research hotspots and development trends in the field of pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy in China from 2013 to 2022. Based on China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, China Science and Technology Journal Database, China Biology Medicine disc, Web of Science core collection and PubMed database, the related literatures in the field of pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy in China from 2013 to 2022, were retrieved to establish the database, and the VOSviewer software was used for bibliometric analysis. A total of 1 664 Chinese and 2 149 English literatures are included in this study. The scientific research results from 2013 to 2022 have shown an overall increasing trend. The research hotspots in the field of pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy in China are mainly concentrated in Podocytes, Oxidative stress, Inflammation, Renal fibrosis, Urine protein, etc. The frontier hotspots in this field include Biomarkers, Nrf2, Gut microbiota, NLRP3 inflammasome, Apoptosis, MicroRNA, etc. Through visual analysis, the research hotspots and frontier trends of the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy in China can be visually presented, and then provide new ideas and directions for the further in-depth research on the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Apoptosis , Asian People , China/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Nephropathies/etiology , MicroRNAs , Biomedical Research/trends
14.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5681-5689, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008766

ABSTRACT

Circadian rhythm refers to the daily rhythmic variations in an organism. The irregular lifestyles of modern humans have led to a high incidence of chronic diseases, highlighting an inseparable relationship between disrupted circadian rhythm and disease development. TCM has long discussed rhythmic variations, with records dating back to the Yellow Emperor's Inner Canon(Huang Di Nei Jing), which laid a rich theoretical foundation for the research on circadian rhythm. Modern medical research has provided a more comprehensive explanation of its molecular mechanisms. This article integrated the current understanding of circadian rhythm in both Chinese and western medicine, emphasizing the crucial relationship between rhythm regulation and disease treatment. By highlighting the interdisciplinary nature of the two fields, it offers new directions for exploring the field of chronomedicine.


Subject(s)
Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Acupuncture Therapy , Circadian Rhythm , Biomedical Research , Polygonatum
16.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1444284

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to systematically investigate and review studies on the concept of vulnerability associated with the health of the older population. Articles were selected, filtered, and analyzed following the steps recommended by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Screening and data extraction were performed independently by 2 reviewers using templates developed by the authors. Data extracted included specific details about population, interest, and context. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they: 1) were cross-sectional or prospective, 2) involved community-dwellers aged ≥ 60 years, 3) were published in the last 10 years, and 4) had as a concept vulnerability associated with the health of the older population. A total of 833 studies were identified and screened, 26 of which were included. Most included studies addressed vulnerability in older adults as an individual aspect, whether biological or psychological. The remaining studies reported vulnerability as affecting socio-environmental, health care system, and multifactorial aspects. Therefore, the concept of "vulnerability in older people" was not properly defined in the biomedical scientific community. When we return to the guiding question of this review, we can conclude that the conditions of vulnerability of older people are being treated broadly and diversely, producing different methodological strategies. The systematic review was conducted in the United States National Library of Medicine (PubMed), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS), and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) databases between August and December 2020 and updated in September 2022, with registration number CRD42022361649


O objetivo da pesquisa é investigar e revisar sistematicamente estudos sobre o conceito de vulnerabilidade associado à saúde da população idosa. Os trabalhos foram selecionados, filtrados e analisados seguindo as etapas recomendadas pela The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guideline. A triagem e a extração de dados foram realizadas por dois revisores independentes usando modelos desenvolvidos pelos autores. A extração de dados incluiu detalhes específicos da população; interesse; contexto. Consideraram-se artigos que: 1) fossem estudos transversais ou prospectivos, 2) envolvessem idosos da comunidade (≥ 60 anos), 3) fossem dos últimos dez anos; tivessem como conceito a vulnerabilidade associada à saúde da população idosa. O total de 833 estudos foi identificado e triado, e 26 deles foram incluídos. A maioria dos estudos incluídos verificou a vulnerabilidade do idoso no aspecto individual, seja biológico, seja psicológico. Em contrapartida, o restante dos estudos acredita que a vulnerabilidade atinja o aspecto socioambiental, sistema de saúde e multifatorial. Sendo assim, conceito de "vulnerabilidade do idoso" não está devidamente definido na comunidade científica biomédica. Neste caso, retornando à questão norteadora desta revisão, conclui-se que as condições de vulnerabilidade do idoso estão sendo tratadas de maneira ampla e diversa, produzindo diferentes estratégias metodológicas. A revisão sistemática foi realizada nas bases de dados United States National Library of Medicine (PubMed), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (Lilacs) e Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), entre agosto e dezembro de 2020, com atualização em setembro de 2022, sob código CRD42022361649


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Health of the Elderly , Vulnerability Analysis , Biomedical Research/statistics & numerical data , Health Services for the Aged
18.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1526194

ABSTRACT

Introduction: promoting scientifi c research is one of the main functions of universities. Medical schools should not be an exception; deans should also have appropriate research experience that allows them to have a different perspective on the importance of research in undergraduate medicine. Aim: to determine the medical school dean's scientific production of the main universities by continent. Methods: an observational, analytical, and transversal study. We identify the medical school dean's scientific production of the 20 universities with the best position from South America, Central America, North America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Oceania, according to the Ranking Webometrics 2022, in the Scopus database. Results: 140 directors or deans of medicine were evaluated, of which 136 (97.1%) had published an article at least once in their life, 128 (91.4%) in the last fi ve years, 103 (73.6%) in the previous year, and 93 (66.4%) in the current year. The total number of published articles was 24.5 (Me=98), receiving a total of 1,251,766 citations (range 0 to 101,868), an Hindex 24 (range 0 to 140), and in collaboration with 154,711 coauthors. Conclusions: the medical school dean's scientific production from the main universities by continent was high, with notable differences between those who came from universities in Asia, North America, and Europe compared to Oceania, Africa, South America, and Central America


Introdução: promover a pesquisa científica é uma das principais funções das universidades. As escolas médicas não devem ser uma exceção. Os reitores também devem ter uma experiência de pesquisa adequada que lhes permita ter uma perspectiva diferente sobre a importância da pesquisa na graduação em medicina. Objetivo: determinar a produção científica dos reitores de medicina das principais universidades por continente. Métodos: estudo observacional, analítico e transversal. Identificamos a produção científica dos pró-reitores de medicina das 20 universidades com melhor posição da América do Sul, América Central, América do Norte, Europa, Ásia, África e Oceania, segundo o Ranking Webometrics 2022, na base Scopus. Resultados: foram avaliados 140 diretores ou reitores de medicina, dos quais 136 (97.1%) publicaram artigo pelo menos uma vez na vida, 128 (91.4%) nos últimos cinco anos, 103 (73.5%) no ano anterior, e 93 (66.4%) no ano corrente. O número total de artigos publicados foi de 24.5 (Me=98), recebendo um total de 1,251,766 citações (intervalo de 0 a 101.868), índice H = 24 (intervalo de 0 a 140) e em colaboração com 154,711 coautores. Conclusões: a produção científica dos reitores de medicina das principais universidades por continente foi alta, com diferenças notáveis entre aqueles que vieram de universidades da Ásia, América do Norte e Europa em comparação com Oceania, África, América do Sul e América Central


Subject(s)
Universities , Biomedical Research , Scientific and Technical Activities , Physician Executives
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