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1.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(supl.3): 2-5, set. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040540

ABSTRACT

La fenilcetonuria, también conocida como PKU, es el error congénito más frecuente del metabolismo de los aminoácidos. La forma grave o PKU clásica no tratada, causa una discapacidad intelectual, aunque los programas de detección en el período neonatal, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento evitan la aparición de los síntomas. A pesar de un diagnóstico y tratamiento temprano hemos observado cierta neurotoxicidad en los pacientes con PKU tratados. Analizamos los demás factores implicados, aparte de la toxicidad por las elevadas concentraciones cerebrales de fenilalanina (Phe), se revisan los defectos de síntesis de neurotransmisores, las alteración de la mielinización cerebral, el efecto de la elevación de Phe en los procesos de transporte y distribución de los aminoácidos neutros con una síntesis anómala de proteínas cerebrales, la deficiencia plasmática y cerebral de tirosina, la neurotoxicidad de los metabolitos de Phe, el defecto de la biosíntesis del colesterol o el aumento del estrés oxidativo. Las alteraciones de la sustancia blanca en los pacientes con PKU tienen un papel importante en las manifestaciones neurológicas. El tratamiento de la PKU es para toda la vida y se basa en la reducción del aporte de alimentos que contienen Phe combinado con la administración de una fórmula especial, o en el tratamiento con tetrahidrobiopterina (BH4). Se analizan nuevas opciones terapéuticas.


Phenylketonuria, also known as PKU, is the most frequent congenital inborn error of metabolism. The severe form or classic PKU untreated causes intellectual disability, although with the early detection programs in the neonatal period, diagnosis and treatment prevent the appearance of the symptoms. Despite early diagnosis and treatment we have observed some neurotoxicity in treated PKU patients. We analyzed the factors involved apart from the toxicity due to the high cerebral concentrations of phenylalanine (Phe), the defects of synthesis of neurotransmitters, the alteration of cerebral myelination, the effect of the elevation of Phe in the processes of transport and distribution of neutral amino acids with an abnormal synthesis of brain proteins, plasma and cerebral tyrosine deficiency, the neurotoxicity of Phe metabolites, the defect of cholesterol biosynthesis or the increase of oxidative stress. White matter alterations in early treated PKU patients have an important role in neurological manifestations. The treatment of PKU is for life and is based on the reduction of foods containing Phe combined with the administration of a special formula or tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) treatment. New therapeutic options will be analyzed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Phenylalanine/adverse effects , Phenylketonurias/diagnosis , Phenylketonurias/therapy , Tyrosine/metabolism , Neurons/pathology , Phenylketonurias/physiopathology , Biopterin/analogs & derivatives , Early Diagnosis , Diet Therapy
2.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 143-155, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777067

ABSTRACT

Most attempts at rational development of new analgesics have failed, in part because chronic pain involves multiple processes that remain poorly understood. To improve translational success, one strategy is to select novel targets for which there is proof of clinical relevance, either genetically through heritable traits, or pharmacologically. Such an approach by definition yields targets with high clinical validity. The biology of these targets can be elucidated in animal models before returning to the patients with a refined therapeutic. For optimal treatment, having biomarkers of drug action available is also a plus. Here we describe a case study in rational drug design: the use of controlled inhibition of peripheral tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) synthesis to reduce abnormal chronic pain states without altering nociceptive-protective pain. Initially identified in a population of patients with low back pain, the association between BH4 production and chronic pain has been confirmed in more than 12 independent cohorts, through a common haplotype (present in 25% of Caucasians) of the rate-limiting enzyme for BH4 synthesis, GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GCH1). Genetic tools in mice have demonstrated that both injured sensory neurons and activated macrophages engage increased BH4 synthesis to cause chronic pain. GCH1 is an obligate enzyme for de novo BH4 production. Therefore, inhibiting GCH1 activity eliminates all BH4 production, affecting the synthesis of multiple neurotransmitters and signaling molecules and interfering with physiological function. In contrast, targeting the last enzyme of the BH4 synthesis pathway, sepiapterin reductase (SPR), allows reduction of pathological BH4 production without completely blocking physiological BH4 synthesis. Systemic SPR inhibition in mice has not revealed any safety concerns to date, and available genetic and pharmacologic data suggest similar responses in humans. Finally, because it is present in vivo only when SPR is inhibited, sepiapterin serves as a reliable biomarker of target engagement, allowing potential quantification of drug efficacy. The emerging development of therapeutics that target BH4 synthesis to treat chronic pain illustrates the power of combining human and mouse genetics: human genetic studies for clinical selection of relevant targets, coupled with causality studies in mice, allowing the rational engineering of new analgesics.


Subject(s)
Analgesics , Therapeutic Uses , Animals , Biopterin , Metabolism , Chronic Pain , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Discovery , GTP Cyclohydrolase , Genetics , Metabolism , Humans , Rodentia , Signal Transduction , Genetics
3.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2733-2740, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-230893

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor of nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) for the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO). BH4 therapy can reverse the disease-related redox disequilibrium observed with BH4 deficiency. However, whether BH4 exerts a protective effect against radiation-induced damage to cardiomyocytes remains unknown.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Clonogenic assays were performed to determine the effects of X-ray on H9c2 cells with or without BH4 treatment. The contents of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in H9c2 cells were measured to investigate oxidative stress levels. The cell cycle undergoing radiation with or without BH4 treatment was detected using flow cytometry. The expression levels of proteins in the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT)/P53 signaling pathway, inducible NOS (iNOS), and endothelial NOS (eNOS) were examined using Western blotting.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>X-ray radiation significantly inhibited the growth of H9c2 cells in a dose-dependent manner, whereas BH4 treatment significantly reduced the X-ray radiation-induced growth inhibition (control group vs. X-ray groups, respectively, P< 0.01). X-ray radiation induced LDH release, apoptosis, and G0/G1 peak accumulation, significantly increasing the level of MDA and the production of NO, and decreased the level of SOD (control group vs. X-ray groups, respectively, P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). By contrast, BH4 treatment can significantly reverse these processes (BH4 treatment groups vs. X-ray groups, P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). BH4 reversed the X-ray radiation-induced expression alterations of apoptosis-related molecules, including B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 associated X protein, and caspase-3, and molecules of the PI3K/Akt/P53 signaling pathway. BH4 enhanced the production of NO in 2 Gy and 4 Gy radiated groups by upregulating eNOS protein expression and downregulating iNOS protein expression.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>BH4 treatment can protect against X-ray-induced cardiomyocyte injury, possibly by recoupling eNOS rather than iNOS. BH4 treatment also decreased oxidative stress in radiated H9c2 cells.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants , Metabolism , Apoptosis , Biopterin , Pharmacology , Cell Cycle , Cell Line , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac , Cell Biology , Radiation Effects , Rats , Signal Transduction
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-112007

ABSTRACT

Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor in NO synthesis by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) enzymes. It has been previously suggested that reduced intrahepatic BH4 results in a decrease in intrahepatic NO and contributes to increased hepatic vascular resistance and portal pressure in animal models of cirrhosis. The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between BH4 and portal hypertension (PHT). One hundred ninety-three consecutive patients with chronic liver disease were included in the study. Liver biopsy, measurement of BH4 and hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) were performed. Hepatic fibrosis was classified using the Laennec fibrosis scoring system. BH4 levels were determined in homogenized liver tissues of patients using a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between BH4 and HVPG, grade of hepatic fibrosis, clinical stage of cirrhosis, Child-Pugh class. A positive relationship between HVPG and hepatic fibrosis grade, clinical stage of cirrhosis and Child-Pugh class was observed. However, the BH4 level showed no significant correlation with HVPG or clinical features of cirrhosis. BH4 concentration in liver tissue has little relation to the severity of portal hypertension in patients with chronic liver disease.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Biopterin/analogs & derivatives , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chronic Disease , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Female , Hepatic Veins/physiology , Humans , Hypertension, Portal/complications , Liver/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnostic imaging , Liver Diseases/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Portal Pressure , Regression Analysis , Severity of Illness Index
5.
Brasília; CONITEC; ago. 2013. tab.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-836912

ABSTRACT

Fenilcetonúria (FNC) é uma doença genética, autossômica recessiva, causada por mutações no gene localizado no cromossomo 12q22-q24, o qual codifica a enzima hepática fenilalanina-hidroxilase (FAH). Sua ausência ou deficiência impede a conversão hepática de fenilalanina (FAL), um dos aminoácidos essenciais e mais comuns do organismo, em tirosina, causando acúmulo de FAL no sangue e em outros tecidos. O aumento de fenilalanina no sangue em 98% dos casos é devido a mutações na codificação genética para a enzima fenilalanina-hidroxilase, enquanto 2% são devidos a defeitos no metabolismo da tetrahidrobiopterina (BH4), que é um cofator essencial para a atividade da fenilalanina-hidroxilase. A principal característica da doença não tratada é retardo mental, com piora durante a fase de desenvolvimento do cérebro e que se estabilizaria com a maturação completa deste órgão. O quociente de inteligência (QI) mede a extensão deste retardo e varia de leve a gravemente prejudicado. A HFA não tratada resulta em progressivo retardo mental, com QI < 50. A piora está relacionada aos níveis sanguíneos de FAL. Caso a doença seja diagnosticada logo após o nascimento e o paciente for mantido em dieta restrita em FAL, os sintomas podem ser prevenidos e a criança pode ter desenvolvimento e expectativa de vidas normais. Nesse sentido, o rastreamento no Brasil é realizado pelo teste do pezinho, cuja necessidade consta no Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente, e está regulamentado pela portaria que estabeleceu o Programa Nacional de Triagem Neonatal para diagnóstico precoce de fenilcetonúria. No Protocolo Clínico e Diretrizes Terapêuticas do Ministério da Saúde para Fenilcetonúria foram incluídos os pacientes com níveis de FAL≥ 10mg/dl (600 µmol/l) em dieta normal 1,14 e todos os que apresentarem níveis de FAL entre 8 e 10 mg/dl persistentes (pelo menos em 3 dosagens consecutivas, semanais, em dieta normal). Dieta restrita em FAL é eficaz em reduzir os níveis sanguíneos de FAL e melhorar o QI e o prognóstico neuropsicológico dos pacientes com HFA. O tratamento deve ser iniciado tão cedo quanto possível, idealmente até o 10º dia de vida. O aleitamento materno deve ser encorajado e associado ao uso de fórmula isenta de FAL. Os níveis de FAL devem ser diminuídos rapidamente. Além da dieta, o tratamento clínico recomendado pelo PCDT do Ministério da Saúde para o controle metabólico dos pacientes é a utilização de fórmulas alimentares especiais. As fórmulas são medicamentos que devem conter as quantidades recomendadas de vitaminas e sais minerais adequadas à faixa etária do paciente. Sapropterina é uma forma sintética oral de BH4 (BH4 supplementation sapropterin dihydrochloride). Há relatos de casos de pessoas com FCN que apresentaram boa resposta após o uso de doses farmacológicas de BH4, com redução dos níveis de FAL. Todos tinham mutação no gene FAH. Pessoas com resposta ao BH4 são identificadas inicialmente por um teste com teste de tolerância a BH4. Resposta positiva é considerada como uma redução de 30% ou mais na concentração de FAL, 24 horas após a administração de BH4. A variação na intensidade da resposta é independente da gravidade da FCN, da dose de BH4 empregada no teste de tolerância, duração do teste e genótipo. Pessoas com mesmo genótipo mostram respostas diferentes. Há poucos resultados de uso de longa duração de BH4 que mostram que pode haver relaxamento da restrição dietética sem efeitos adversos. A maioria dos indivíduos dos estudos apresentava doença moderada ou leve. A Secretaria-Executiva da CONITEC realizou busca na literatura por artigos científicos, com o objetivo de localizar a melhor evidência científica disponível sobre o tema. A CONITEC em sua 14ª reunião ordinária realizada no dia 04 de abril de 2013, recomendou a não incorporação no SUS da sapropterina para o tratamento de hiperfenilalaninemia (HFA) com deficiência em tetrahidrobiopterina (BH4). Considerou-se que os estudos, a maioria de baixa qualidade metodológica, não conseguiram comprovar a superioridade do tratamento, principalmente no que diz respeito à ausência de dados específicos para o subgrupo com deficiência de BH4. Os membros da CONITEC presentes na 15ª reunião do plenário do dia 09/05/2013 deliberaram, por unanimidade, por não recomendar a sapropterina para o tratamento de hiperfenilalaninemia (HFA) com deficiência em tetrahidrobiopterina (BH4). A Portaria nº 34, de 6 de agosto de 2013 - Torna pública a decisão de não incorporar o medicamento sapropterina no tratamento da hiperfenilalaninemia com deficiência de BH4 no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS).


Subject(s)
Humans , Biopterin/analogs & derivatives , Phenylalanine Hydroxylase/deficiency , Phenylketonurias/therapy , Biopterin , Brazil , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Unified Health System
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-58793

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: PET scanning with fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) is a non-invasive method that measures regional glucose metabolic rate. Phenylalanine (Phe) and its metabolites appear to impair several aspects of brain energy metabolism. 1) To evaluate brain glucose metabolism with FDG-PET imaging in phenylketonuria (PKU) patients before and 4 months after sapropterin therapy; 2) to evaluate neurodevelopmental changes, blood Phe levels and dietary Phe tolerance before and after sapropterin therapy; 3) to generate pilot data to assess the feasibility of evaluating brain glucose metabolism with FDG-PET imaging and to explore potential trends resulting from the administration of sapropterin therapy. METHODS: We enrolled 5 subjects, ranged in age from 22 years to 51 years, with PKU. Subjects underwent FDG-PET brain imaging, blood tests for Phe and tyrosine levels, and neurocognitive evaluations before and 4 months after sapropterin therapy (20 mg/kg/day). All subjects' Phe and tyrosine levels were monitored once a week during the study. Subjects kept 3 day diet records that allow calculation of Phe intake. RESULTS: None of the subjects responded to sapropterin therapy based on 30% decrease in blood Phe level. The data show that glucose metabolism appeared depressed in the cerebellum and left parietal cortex while it was increased in the frontal and anterior cingulate cortices in all five subjects. In response to sapropterin therapy, relative glucose metabolism showed significant increases in left Broca's and right superior lateral temporal cortices. Interestingly, there was corresponding enhanced performance in a phonemic fluency test performed during pre- and postneurocognitive evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: Further studies with a larger sample size are needed to confirm the above changes in both sapropterin non-responsive and responsive PKU patients.


Subject(s)
Biopterin , Brain , Cerebellum , Diet Records , Electrons , Energy Metabolism , Glucose , Hematologic Tests , Humans , Neuroimaging , Phenylalanine , Phenylketonurias , Pilot Projects , Positron-Emission Tomography , Sample Size , Tyrosine
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727484

ABSTRACT

Developing an animal model for a specific disease is very important in the understanding of the underlying mechanism of the disease and allows testing of newly developed new drugs before human application. However, which of the plethora of experimental animal species to use in model development can be perplexing. Administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is a very well known method to induce the symptoms of Parkinson's disease in mice. But, there is very limited information about the different sensitivities to MPTP among mouse strains. Here, we tested three different mouse strains (C57BL/6, Balb-C, and ICR) as a Parkinsonian model by repeated MPTP injections. In addition to behavioral analysis, endogenous levels of dopamine and tetrahydrobiopterin in mice brain regions, such as striatum, substantia nigra, and hippocampus were directly quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Repeated administrations of MPTP significantly affected the moving distances and rearing frequencies in all three mouse strains. The endogenous dopamine concentrations and expression levels of tyrosine hydroxylase were significantly decreased after the repeated injections, but tetrahydrobiopterin did not change in analyzed brain regions. However, susceptibilities of the mice to MPTP were differed based on the degree of behavioral change, dopamine concentration in brain regions, and expression levels of tyrosine hydroxylase, with C57BL/6 and Balb-C mice being more sensitive to the dopaminergic neuronal toxicity of MPTP than ICR mice.


Subject(s)
1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine , Animals , Biopterin , Brain , Dopamine , Dopaminergic Neurons , Hippocampus , Humans , Mass Spectrometry , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Models, Animal , Parkinson Disease , Substantia Nigra , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-358717

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the oxidative modification effect and its mechanism of low density lipoprotein (LDL) in hyperlipidemia (HL) rats after treating with tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Fifty four 8-week-old male Wistar rats were used, these 54 rats were randomly divided into control group, high fat diet group (HL group), high fat diet and injected BH4 group (HL + BH4 group), and 18 in each group. The BH4 levels of blood fats and blood serum and its metabolites, the aortic reactive oxygen species, the end product malondialdehyde (MDA) and the LDL oxidation level were all determined by killing 6 experimental rats in each group at the first 8, 16, and 24 weeks of age respectively.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Treating with BH4 after 8 and 16 weeks, there was no significant difference in serum lipids among three groups (P > 0. 05); but ROS and MDA decreased significantly (P < 0.01); compared with control and HL groups, the BH4 level of HL + BH4 group increased a lot (P < 0.01); compared with control group, the BH4 content reduced obviously in aortic homogenate of HL group (P < 0.01), but the total petrin levels (TB = BH4 + BH2 + B) had no significant difference (P > 0.05); the serum TBARS formation increased gradually with the increase of week-ages, but compared with HL group, the serum TBARS formation of HL + BH4 group reduced significantly (P < 0. 01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Treating with BH4 can reduced the LDL oxidation, the mechanism may be related to the correct of NOS uncoupling, the reduce of ROS generation and the decrease of LDL lipid peroxidation.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Biopterin , Therapeutic Uses , Hyperlipidemias , Blood , Drug Therapy , Lipid Peroxidation , Lipids , Blood , Lipoproteins, LDL , Metabolism , Male , Malondialdehyde , Metabolism , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Reactive Oxygen Species , Metabolism
9.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 87(3): 245-251, maio-jun. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-593191

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Identificar indivíduos responsivos à tetrahibrobiopterina (BH4) em uma amostra de pacientes brasileiros com hiperfenilalaninemia por deficiência de fenilalanina-hidroxilase (HPA-PAH). MÉTODOS: Estudo intervencional, amostragem por conveniência. Para serem incluídos no estudo, os pacientes deveriam: possuir diagnóstico bioquímico de HPA-PAH; ter idade > 7 anos; estar em tratamento dietético; e apresentar níveis de fenilalanina (Phe) > 6 mg/dL em todas as medidas realizadas no ano anterior à inclusão no estudo. Os níveis de Phe foram determinados por meio de espectrometria de massas in tandem no dia anterior (dia 1) e nos pontos de hora 0, 4 e 8 h (dia 2) e 24 h (dia 3) após ingestão de BH4. Os critérios utilizados para definir responsividade ao BH4 foram: critério 1-redução > 30 por cento de Phe após 8 h da administração de BH4; e critério 2-redução > 30 por cento de Phe após 24 h da administração. RESULTADOS: Dezoito pacientes foram incluídos no estudo (mediana de idade = 14 anos, sexo masculino = 12). Cinco pacientes foram responsivos ao BH4, sendo três (forma clássica: um; forma leve: dois) de acordo com ambos os critérios, e dois (forma clássica: um; forma não definida: um) de acordo com o critério 2. Os níveis de Phe plasmáticos do dia 1 não demonstraram variação nos pontos de hora (p = 0,523). Entretanto, quando comparamos os níveis de Phe nos pontos de hora dos dias 1 e 2, encontramos uma variação significativa (p = 0,006). A análise da associação genótipo-fenótipo confirmou o caráter multifatorial da responsividade ao BH4. CONCLUSÃO: Os nossos achados estão de acordo com a literatura e indicam que um número relevante de pacientes brasileiros com HPA-PAH é responsivo à BH4.


OBJECTIVE: To identify patients responsive to tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) in a sample of Brazilians with hyperphenylalaninemia due to phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency (HPA-PAH). METHODS: Interventional study, convenience sampling. The inclusion criteria were: diagnosis of HPA-PAH; age > 7 years; phenylalanine-restricted diet and phenylalanine (Phe) levels > 6 mg/dL in all blood tests 1 year before inclusion. Blood samples were obtained the day before (day 1) and at 0, 4, 8 (day 2) and 24 h (day 3) after BH4 intake. Phe levels were measured using tandem mass spectrometry. The criteria used to define responsiveness to BH4 were: criterion 1- Phe reduction > 30 percent 8 h after BH4 administration; criterion 2 - Phe reduction > 30 percent 24 h after BH4 administration. RESULTS: Eighteen patients were enrolled (median age, 14 years; 12 boys). Five patients were responsive to BH4, 3 according to both criteria (one classical PKU, two mild PKU); and two according to criterion 2 (one classical PKU; one indefinite PKU type). There were no differences between Phe serum levels on day 1 and at the other time points (p = 0.523). However, Phe levels on days 1 and 2 were significantly different (p = 0.006). The analysis of the phenotype-genotype association confirmed its multifactorial character. CONCLUSION: A relevant number of Brazilian patients with HPA-PAH are responsive to BH4, in agreement with other studies in the literature.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Female , Humans , Male , Biopterin/analogs & derivatives , Phenylalanine/blood , Phenylketonurias/drug therapy , Administration, Oral , Analysis of Variance , Biopterin/therapeutic use , Phenylketonurias/diet therapy , Phenylketonurias/genetics , Severity of Illness Index
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-351128

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the effect of the level of lipid peroxidation and biomechanical properties after chronic treating with tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) in thoracic aorta of hyperlipemia (HL) rats.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>HL rats were given BH4 chronically. The opening angle in the zero-stress state and the relationship between pressure and diameter (P-D) of mesenteric artery were measured by computer image 8, 16, and 24 week-old respectively.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Treating with BH4 chronically from 8 week-old in HL rats, there was a significant increase in the zero-stress state of opening angle of thoracic aorta. The P-D curve of mesenteric artery moved upward.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Treating with BH4 prevented the structure and function of artery from abnormal changing, and attenuated lipid peroxidation in HL rats.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Aorta, Thoracic , Metabolism , Biomechanical Phenomena , Biopterin , Therapeutic Uses , Hyperlipidemias , Drug Therapy , Lipid Peroxidation , Male , Rats , Rats, Wistar
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-27767

ABSTRACT

Oxidative damage is thought to be a major cause of the progression of dopamine (DA)rgic neurodegeneration as in Parkinson's disease. We have previously reported that tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), an endogenous molecule required for DA synthesis, exerts oxidative stress to DA-producing cells and facilitates the production of DA quinone. It is known that aconitase, present in both mitochondrial and cytosolic forms, act as an reactive oxygen species (ROS) sensor, and that their inactivation leads to further generation of ROS. In the present study we investigated whether the BH4-associated vulnerability of DA cells might involve aconitase. In DArgic cell line CATH.a, BH4 treatment caused reduction of activity of both mitochondrial and cytosolic aconitases, and this appeared to be due to direct inactivation of the pre-existing enzyme molecules. Although most of the activity reduced by BH4 was increased upon reactivation reaction under a reducing condition, the restoration was not complete, suggesting that irreversible and covalent modification has occurred. The aconitase inactivation was exacerbated in the presence of DA and attenuated in the presence of tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitor a-methyl-p-tyrosine, suggesting the involvement of DA. The degree of inactivation increased when the cells were treated with the quinone reductase inhibitor dicoumarol and decreased in the presence of quinone reductase inducer sulforaphane. Taken together, BH4 appeared to lead to both reversible and irreversible inactivation of aconitase and that this is facilitated by the presence of DA and accumulation of DA quinone.


Subject(s)
Aconitate Hydratase , Benzoquinones , Biopterin , Cell Line , Cytosol , Dicumarol , Dopamine , NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase (Quinone) , Oxidative Stress , Parkinson Disease , Reactive Oxygen Species , Thiocyanates , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727802

ABSTRACT

Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), an essential cofactor for nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, is known to play important roles in modulating both NO and superoxide production during vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. However, the role of BH4 in functions of vascular smooth muscle cells is not fully known. In this study, we tested the effects of BH4 and dihydrobiopterin (BH2), a BH4 precursor, on migration and proliferation in response to platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) in rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs). Cell migration and proliferation were measured using a Boyden chamber and a 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation assay, respectively, and these results were confirmed with an ex vivo aortic sprout assay. Cell viability was examined by 2,3-bis [2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide assays. BH4 and BH2 decreased PDGF-BB-induced cell migration and proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition of cell migration and proliferation by BH4 and BH2 was not affected by pretreatment with N G-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, a NOS inhibitor. Moreover, the sprout outgrowth formation of aortic rings induced by PDGF-BB was inhibited by BH4 and BH2. Cell viability was not inhibited by BH4 and BH2 treatment. The present results suggest that BH4 and BH2 may inhibit PDGF-stimulated RASMC migration and proliferation via the NOS-independent pathway. Therefore, BH4 and its derivative could be useful for the development of a candidate molecule with an NO-independent anti-atherosclerotic function.


Subject(s)
Animals , Atherosclerosis , Biopterin , Bromodeoxyuridine , Cell Movement , Cell Survival , Muscle, Smooth , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-sis , Rats , Superoxides , Vascular Diseases
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-242676

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the development of differential diagnosis of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) deficiency among patients with hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA) in provinces or cities of China and to investigate the incidence of BH4 deficiency.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Of the thirteen hundreds and ninety-two patients with HPA received, the differential diagnosis for BH4 deficiency during 1993 - 2007 were enrolled in this study. Of which, 591 patients came from outpatient and 801 patients' samples from other provinces or cities were sent to author's laboratory to investigate the case number of differential diagnosis for BH4 deficiency in provinces or cities of China according to the data from both outpatient case histories and laboratory as to investigating the development of differential diagnosis in the whole country. To discuss the diagnostic criteria for BH4 deficiency was according to the results of urinary pterin analysis, determination of dihydropteridine reductase (DHPR) activity and the tetrahydrobiopterin loading test as well as to get the incidence of BH4 deficiency and find some provinces or cities with higher incidence of BH4 deficiency in China.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>(1) The number of HPA patients, who were performed by urinary pterin analysis and the determination of DHPR activity, were remarkably increased in last three years (2005 - 2007). The patient numbers of both urinary pterin analysis and DHPR activity determination were 217 and 198 respectively in 2005. And in 2007 they increased to 511 and 458, which was about 2.3 times than that in 2005. The patients came from 29 provinces or cities in 2007. (2) The urinary biopterin and biopterin percent were key marks for diagnosis of 6-pyruvoyl tetrahydropterin synthase (PTPS) deficiency. The less than 5% [(1.41 +/- 1.10)%] biopterin percent and very low biopterin level [(0.14 +/- 0.17) mmol/mol Cr] were found in 96.83% (61/63) patients with PTPS deficiency in this study. The blood phenylalanine level was remarkably decreased to normal range at 2 - 6 hours after BH4 loading test. The very low DHPR activity was a final diagnostic mark for DHPR deficiency. The very low DHPR activities of 0.27 nmol/(min x 5 mm disc) (6.11% - 7.00% of normal controls) were found in two patients with DHPR deficiency in this study. (3) The incidences of PTPS deficiency and DHPR deficiency among 1392 patients with hyperphenylalaninemia were 8.41% (117/1392) and 0.18% (2/1108) respectively. About 67.23% (80/119) patients with BH4 deficiency came from the south of Yangtze liver. The 80% (8/10) provinces or cities with higher incidence of BH4 deficiency are located in eastern and southern China. The incidence of PTPS deficiency among patients with HPA and normal newborns was 10.81% (8/74) and 0.007 per thousand (8/1,121,429) respectively in Shanghai, China according to data from neonatal screening.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The awareness of differential diagnosis for BH4 deficiency from clinic pediatricians has been increased in most provinces or cities of China in last three years, but it should be more strengthened.</p>


Subject(s)
Biopterin , China , Epidemiology , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Incidence , Infant, Newborn , Neonatal Screening , Phenylketonurias , Diagnosis , Epidemiology
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-356263

ABSTRACT

<p><b>AIM</b>To explore the effect of remodeling and biomechanical properties after chronic treating with tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) in spontaneously hypertensive rats.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The spontaneously hypertensive rat(SHR) were given with BH4 chronically. The opening angle in the zero-stress state , wall-to-lumen area ratios (W/L) of thoracic aorta and the relationship between pressure and diameter (P-D) of mesenteric artery were measured by computer image analysis in 4, 16, and 26 week-old respectively.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Treating with BH4 chronically from 4 weeks-old in SHR, there was a significant decrease in morphometric parameters of the thoracic aorta and an increase in the zero-stress state of opening angle of elastic artery. The P-D curve of mesenteric artery moved upward.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Treating with BH4 prevented the structure and function of artery from abnormal changing, including to attenuate the resistant vascular hypertrophy and recover the vascular elasticity and expansibility.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Arteries , Arteriolosclerosis , Biomechanical Phenomena , Biopterin , Therapeutic Uses , Hypertension , Drug Therapy , Male , Nitric Oxide Synthase , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Inbred SHR
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-144214

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of dexamethasone (DEX) on the production of nitric oxide (NO) and its enzymatic synthetic pathway in cultured human trabecular meshwork (HTM) cells. METHODS: Primarily cultured HTM cells were exposed to 0, 10, 100, 1000 nM of DEX for 3 days. In addition, 100 micrometer sepiapterin, 100 micrometer ascorbic acid, and 10 micrometer methotrexate were co-exposed to DEX. The cellular survival and nitrite production rates were assessed by MTT assay and Griess assay, respectively. RESULTS: DEX did not significantly affect the survival of cultured HTM cells. DEX decreased the NO production in a dose-dependent manner. With co-exposure of DEX, ascorbic acid nullified the DEX-induced decrease of NO production. Sepiapterin and methotrexate did not affect DEX-induced decrease of NO production. CONCLUSIONS: DEX decreased NO production in HTM cells and the de novo pathway of tetrahydrobiopterin may be involved. This decrease may raise intraocular pressure by decreasing trabecular outflow.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid , Biopterin , Dexamethasone , Humans , Intraocular Pressure , Methotrexate , Nitric Oxide , Pterins , Trabecular Meshwork
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-144207

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of dexamethasone (DEX) on the production of nitric oxide (NO) and its enzymatic synthetic pathway in cultured human trabecular meshwork (HTM) cells. METHODS: Primarily cultured HTM cells were exposed to 0, 10, 100, 1000 nM of DEX for 3 days. In addition, 100 micrometer sepiapterin, 100 micrometer ascorbic acid, and 10 micrometer methotrexate were co-exposed to DEX. The cellular survival and nitrite production rates were assessed by MTT assay and Griess assay, respectively. RESULTS: DEX did not significantly affect the survival of cultured HTM cells. DEX decreased the NO production in a dose-dependent manner. With co-exposure of DEX, ascorbic acid nullified the DEX-induced decrease of NO production. Sepiapterin and methotrexate did not affect DEX-induced decrease of NO production. CONCLUSIONS: DEX decreased NO production in HTM cells and the de novo pathway of tetrahydrobiopterin may be involved. This decrease may raise intraocular pressure by decreasing trabecular outflow.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid , Biopterin , Dexamethasone , Humans , Intraocular Pressure , Methotrexate , Nitric Oxide , Pterins , Trabecular Meshwork
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-15582

ABSTRACT

Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) deficiency is caused by mutations in genes encoding enzymes involved in the synthesis and regeneration of BH4. The condition is usually accompanied by hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA) and deficiency of neurotransmitter precursors L-dopa and 5-hydroxytryptophan. BH4 deficiency is much rarer than classical phenylketonuria. Dihydropteridine reductase (DHPR) deficiency, an autosomal recessive genetic disorder, is a cause of malignant hyperphenylalaninemia due to BH4 deficiency. When left untreated, DHPR deficiency leads to neurologic deterioration at the age of 4 or 5 months, including psychomotor retardation, tonicity disorders, drowsiness, irritability, abnormal movements, hyperthermia, hypersalivation, and difficulty swallowing. Treatment of DHPR deficiency should be initiated as early as possible with BH4 supplementation and replacement of the neurotransmitter precursors L-dopa and 5-hydroxytryptophan. We report the first case of DHPR deficiency in Korea, a child diagnosed at 9 years of age by genetic testing.


Subject(s)
5-Hydroxytryptophan , Biopterin , Child , Deglutition , Dihydropteridine Reductase , Dyskinesias , Fever , Genetic Testing , Humans , Korea , Levodopa , Neurotransmitter Agents , Phenylketonurias , Regeneration , Sialorrhea , Sleep Stages
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-244456

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>A novel therapeutic strategy for phenylketonuria (PKU) has been initiated in Japan. Hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA) results from a phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) enzyme deficiency or a deficiency of its cofactor, tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4). BH4 can normalize blood phenylalanine levels in BH4 deficiency, but typically not in PKU. However, since 1999 it has been reported that many HPA patients (serum phenylalanine <20 mg/dL) showed a gradual decrease of serum phenylalanine levels after 24 hours from BH4 loading. The BH4 responsiveness seems to be regulated in mild PKU by PAH mutations, and affected by the BH4 dose and administration period.</p><p><b>METHODS AND RESULTS</b>In 2002 we formulated a provisional diagnostic criteria for patients with BH4-responsive PAH deficiency, and newly diagnosed 19 patients in 100 HPA cases between 2002 and 2006. The incidence in the recent 5 years for BH4-responsive mild PKU among patients with PAH deficiency was 25 %.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>A total of 31 patients was detected in the past 10 years, and the incidence detected using the provisional diagnostic criteria had increased to 25% among PAH deficient patients. BH4 treatment for BH4-responsive mild PKU is a new and effective pharmacotherapy, which replaces or liberalises the phenylalanine-restricted diets for a considerable number of mild PKU patients.</p>


Subject(s)
Biopterin , Therapeutic Uses , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Japan , Phenylketonurias , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-298719

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the distribution character of the mutations of 6-pyruvoyl tetrahydropterin synthase (PTPS) gene and to provide effective basis for gene diagnosis of tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency (BH4D) in children with hyperphenylalaninemia.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Direct sequencing was performed for screening the PTPS gene mutations in 5 patients with clinically suspected BH4D and their parents. The nature of the novel mutations were deduced by the sequences alignment and the structural analysis of mutant protein. Artificial construct restriction site was used to detect the novel mutation in the control samples. The dates of urinary pterin analysis and BH4 loading test were retrospectively analyzed after gene analysis.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Four PTPS gene mutations (N52S, P87S, D96N, and L127F) were detected in our study. The genotypes of four PTPS deficiency patients were identified as N52S/L127F, P87S/D96N, N52S/D96N, and D96N/ -. As a novel mutation that has not been reported previously, the mutation L127F was not detected in 50 normal controls. This novel mutation L127F was inherited from the patient's mother, and this mutant site was highly conserved by sequences alignment and the protein structural analysis. Four of the five cases with hyperphenylalaninemia and suspicious BH4D, whose urinary biopterin percentage was lower than 2% , were diagnosed as PTPS deficiency during 5-20 months old. The remaining one case was excluded from BH4D.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The mutant characterization of PTPS gene was coincident with other early studies in Chinese. The novel mutation L127F was considered as a pathogenetic mutation and associated with severe clinical phenotype.</p>


Subject(s)
Asians , Genetics , Biopterin , Genetics , Child, Preschool , DNA Mutational Analysis , Methods , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Mutation , Genetics , Phenylketonurias , Genetics , Phosphorus-Oxygen Lyases , Genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-247350

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the incidence of various enzyme deficiency in tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) metabolism and the related gene mutation among the patients with motor disturbance and mental retardation.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>One hundred patients with unknown motor disturbance and mental retardation were referred to this study. All patients were performed by phenylalanine (Phe) and BH4 loading test, urinary pterin analysis and dihydropteridine reductase (DHPR) activity. Some patients received the dopa treatment for diagnosis of dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD). The analysis of GTP cyclohydrolase 1 gene (GCH1) mutation for DRD patients and the analysis of 6-pyruvoyl tetrahydropterin synthase (PTS) gene mutations for PTS deficient patients were done under the consent from their parents.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Seventy of 100 patients had normal basic blood Phe levels, six (6%) patients were diagnosed as DRD. Thirty patients had hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA), eight (8%) were diagnosed as PTS deficiency and 22(22%) were diagnosed as phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) deficiency. All patients had normal DHPR activity. The mutation IVS5+3insT of GCH1 was found in 2 patients with DRD. Seven kinds of PTS mutations were found in 8 patients with PTS deficiency, and 75% of the mutations were 259C-->T,286G-->A and 155A-->G.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Some patients with unknown motor disturbance and mental retardation may suffer from BH4 metabolism related diseases. Theses patients are necessary to be screened for such kind of diseases in order to confirm the diagnosis.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Biopterin , Metabolism , Child , Child, Preschool , Dihydropteridine Reductase , Genetics , Metabolism , Dystonia , Genetics , Metabolism , Female , GTP Cyclohydrolase , Genetics , Metabolism , Humans , Infant , Intellectual Disability , Genetics , Metabolism , Male , Mutation , Phenylalanine Hydroxylase , Genetics , Metabolism , Phosphorus-Oxygen Lyases , Genetics , Metabolism
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