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1.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 19(3): e200147, 2021. tab, graf, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1340241

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated fish beta diversity in six headwater creeks located in the area affected by the largest ornamental aquaculture center implemented in the Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. We sampled fish assemblages in 2017 and 2018 to investigate changes in assemblage structure (species richness and beta diversity), comparing these data with the historic species pool. We recorded 60 fish species, of which 16 were native and 44 non-native with 19 translocated, and 25 exotic. The exotics Poecilia reticulata, Xiphophorus maculatus, X. variatus, Danio rerio, and Misgurnus anguillicaudatus were the most widely distributed in the headwater creeks. The Contamination Index showed that most creeks had high proportional contamination by exotic species (above 60%). Beta diversity increased from historical to contemporary periods in all creeks due to the introduction and differential colonization pressure of several non-native translocated and exotic species, indicating biotic differentiation. Temperature and number of ponds were the main preditors of change in beta diversity in the headwater creeks during the contemporary period. In summary, we observed that invaders have induced substantial changes to fish communities under influence of environmental filters. Our results support the hipothesis that aquaculture is a main driver of fish non-native fish introduction and native biodiversity loss in the Neotropics.(AU)


Este estudo avaliou a diversidade beta de peixes em seis riachos de cabeceira localizados em uma área afetada pelo maior centro de aqüicultura ornamental do Brasil, localizado em Minas Gerais. Amostramos assembleias de peixes em 2017 e 2018 para investigar mudanças na estrutura (riqueza de espécies e diversidade beta), comparando esses dados com tendências históricas de composição de comunidades. Registramos 60 espécies de peixes, sendo 16 nativos e 44 não nativos: 19 translocados e 25 exóticos. Os exóticos Poecilia reticulata, Xiphophorus maculatus, X. variatus, Danio rerio e Misgurnus anguillicaudatus foram os mais distribuídos nos riachos. O Índice de Contaminação mostrou que a maioria dos riachos apresentou alta contaminação proporcional por espécies exóticas (acima de 60%). A diversidade beta aumentou do período histórico para o contemporâneo em todos os riachos devido à introdução e pressão de colonização de várias espécies não-nativas translocadas e exóticas, indicando diferenciação biótica. Temperatura da água e número de tanques de piscicultura foram os principais fatores de mudança na diversidade beta dos riachos no período contemporâneo. Os não-nativos induziram mudanças em nível de comunidades e sob influência de variáveis ambientais. Os resultados mostram que a aquicultura é um dos principais vetores da introdução de peixes não-nativos e perda de biodiversidade nativa nos Neotrópicos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Aquaculture , Biota , Fishes , Rivers , Introduced Species
2.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 19(3): e200143, 2021. tab, graf, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1340227

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the fish composition and ecological attributes of the ichthyofauna collected in a limnological zone of the Taquaruçu Reservoir, lower Paranapanema River. Information about the fish community was updated when compared to the previous study (2006). Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) showed differences in species composition between periods and community weighted means (CWMs) exhibited changes in functional composition over time. Four functional indices were used in the principal coordinate analysis (PcoA) to measure changes in the functional space of species, whereas functional β-diversity inspected differences in the traits composition between the periods. 1,203 individuals were sampled of 43 species, being 16 non-native and 14 new records. Compared to 2006, 27 species were absent, most of them native to Loricariidae and Anostomidae, while Curimatidae and Pimelodidae decreased in abundance. Functional indexes showed a reduction in functional diversity, whereas new species records exhibited functional redundancy. It might have occurred a simplification of the fish community over time, excluding the migratory and specialists species such as the herbivores and detritivores. Accordingly, we concluded that the ichthyofauna of the Taquaruçu Reservoir might have been undergoing a process towards biotic homogenization.(AU)


Avaliamos a composição de peixes e atributos ecológicos da ictiofauna coletada em uma zona limnológica do reservatório de Taquaruçu, baixo rio Paranapanema. As informações sobre a comunidade de peixes foram atualizadas quando comparadas ao estudo anterior (2006). O escalonamento multidimensional não métrico (NMDS) mostrou diferenças na composição de espécies entre os períodos, e as médias ponderadas da comunidade (CWMs) exibiram mudanças na composição funcional ao longo do tempo. Quatro índices funcionais foram utilizados na análise de coordenadas principais (PcoA) para medir as mudanças no espaço funcional das espécies, enquanto a β-diversidade funcional inspecionou diferenças na composição de traços entre os períodos. Foram amostrados 1,203 indivíduos de 43 espécies, sendo 16 não-nativas e 14 novos registros. Em comparação com 2006, 27 espécies estavam ausentes, a maioria nativa de Loricariidae e Anostomidae, enquanto Curimatidae e Pimelodidae diminuíram em abundância. Os índices funcionais mostraram redução na diversidade funcional, enquanto novos registros de espécies exibiram redundância funcional. Pode ter ocorrido uma simplificação da comunidade de peixes ao longo do tempo, excluindo as espécies migradoras e especialistas como os herbívoros e detritívoros. Dessa forma, concluímos que a ictiofauna do reservatório de Taquaruçu pode estar sofrendo um processo de homogeneização biótica.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Biodiversity , Biota , Fishes/classification
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(4): 722-734, Nov. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001488

ABSTRACT

Abstract Small hydroelectric power plants (SHP) have been considered as an alternative for the generation of electricity with reduced environmental impacts. Nevertheless, no studies have addressed changes in a particular kind of river macrohabitat commonly affected by SHPs, the knickzones. This study aimed to assess the impact of a SHP construction on the aquatic macroinvertebrate fauna associated with two basaltic knickzones located in Sapucaí-Mirim River, Southeast Brazil. The first, considered as a functional knickzone, follows the natural dynamics of the river flow and preserves the original rock substrate. The second, considered as non-functional knickzone, was permanently flooded after the SHP construction and the consolidated rock substrate was changed by fine sediment. Sampling was carried out in two seasonal periods and the data were analysed through multivariate analysis. It was observed differences in composition and structure of the macroinvertebrates community between the knickzones and periods. The functional knickzone exhibited a much higher richness, 72 taxa compared to 44 in the non-functional, as well as a large number of exclusive taxa (38, being only nine exclusive to the non-functional). Diversity, equitability and density mean values were also higher in the functional knickzone. The limnological parameters varied significantly between dry and rainy seasons but not between the distinct knickzones. This kind of macrohabitats and its potential role for the rivers biodiversity is practically unknown. In the scenery of fast SHP expansion, further studies and protection measures are necessary.


Resumo Atualmente, a instalação de pequenas centrais hidrelétricas (PCHs) tem sido a alternativa mais visada quando a questão é suprir a demanda energética, considerando-se os menores impactos ambientais possíveis. Contudo, são escassos os trabalhos que avaliam as alterações causadas por esses empreendimentos, principalmente no que se diz respeito a um tipo de macro-habitat de rios, os pedrais. Assim, este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o impacto da construção de uma PCH na fauna de macroinvertebrados aquáticos associada a dois pedrais basálticos, localizados no rio Sapucaí-Mirim, no Sudeste do Brasil. O primeiro, considerado como um pedral funcional, segue a dinâmica natural do fluxo do rio e possui o substrato rochoso original. O segundo, considerado como pedral não funcional, foi permanentemente inundado após a construção da PCH e o substrato consolidado foi alterado por sedimentos finos. A amostragem foi realizada em dois períodos sazonais e os dados foram analisados através de análise multivariada. Foram observadas diferenças na composição e estrutura da comunidade de macroinvertebrados entre os pedrais e períodos. O pedral funcional apresentou uma riqueza muito maior, 72 táxons em comparação com 44 no não funcional, bem como um grande número de táxons exclusivos (38, sendo apenas nove exclusivos do não-funcional). Os valores médios da diversidade, equitabilidade e densidade também foram maiores no pedral funcional. Os parâmetros limnológicos variaram significativamente entre as estações seca e chuvosa, mas não entre os diferentes pedrais. Este tipo de macro-habitat e seu potencial papel para a biodiversidade dos rios são praticamente desconhecidos. Assim, mais estudos e medidas de proteção são necessários, principalmente diante do atual cenário de rápida expansão das PCHs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Power Plants , Biota/physiology , Rain , Seasons , Brazil/epidemiology , Limnology/methods , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Rivers , Floods , Ecological Parameter Monitoring/methods , Invertebrates/classification , Invertebrates/physiology
4.
Acta amaz ; 49(3): 221-231, jul. - set. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1119052

ABSTRACT

The introduction of nonnative species is one of the main threats to freshwater ecosystems. Although omnivory and intraguild predation are common in those systems, little is known about the effects of introduced omnivorous fish on pelagic and littoral communities. This study tested predictions of food-web theory regarding the effects of omnivorous fish introduction on previously fishless lakes in the Amazonian uplands of Serra dos Carajás, Pará, Brazil. The trophic structure of two similar lakes, one with and the other without the introduced omnivorous fish Astyanax bimaculatus, was compared using a data series of biotic variables collected from both lakes twice a year from 2010 to 2013. Zooplankton was more abundant in the lake with fish, and the zooplankton composition differed between lakes. Phytoplankton richness and chlorophyll-a were higher in the lake with the introduced fish than in the fishless lake regardless of phosphorus limitation. For the benthic macroinvertebrate communities, species richness and biomass were higher in the fishless lake. Our results also indicate that A. bimaculatus has the potential to link pelagic and littoral habitats through nutrient cycling. The differences observed between the studied lakes are consistent with predictions from food-web theory regarding the effects of multichain omnivorous fish on trophic dynamics. Despite limitations regarding replication at the ecosystem level, it is possible to infer from our findings that the introduction of an omnivorous fish might have changed lake overall functioning. (AU)


Subject(s)
Introduced Species , Biota , Fishes , Fresh Water
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(3): 495-504, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001457

ABSTRACT

Abstract Forest edges typically exhibit higher luminosity and lower humidity than the forest interior, resulting in an abiotic gradient. However, the degree of abiotic difference can be affected from the type of the matrix, influencing the selection of species. We compared the floristic and phytosociological structure of understory communities of ferns and lycophytes of the edge and interior of three forest sites influenced by different types of surrounding matrices (natural field, Pinus plantation, and cultivation of crops). In the region of Araucaria Forest, in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, twelve 10 × 10 m plots were selected at the edge and interior of each site, totaling 72 plots and to evaluate the phytosociological contrast, using as a parameter coverage and species richness per plot to evaluate this contrast. We recorded a total of 38 species in the studied areas, distributed in 15 families. The results show that the edge effect acts at different intensities in the analyzed sites. In the site with unnatural matrix, the composition was more homogeneous both in the edges and in the interiors and presented lower richness, showing a more pronounced and deep impact. Already in the site with natural matrix surroundings, although the border also presents low richness, the interior was about 3x richer. Based on our results, we concluded that fern conservation efforts should focus on fragments of Araucaria Forest inserted in the natural field, because the conversion of natural field into Pinus planting and cultivation of crops decreases ferns species both in the edges and forest interiors of the studied fragments, besides altering the phytosociological structure leading the communities to simplification.


Resumo Bordas florestais tipicamente exibem maior luminosidade e menor umidade que o interior florestal, resultando em um gradiente abiótico. Entretanto, o grau de diferença abiótica pode ser afetado a partir do tipo da matriz, influenciando a seleção de espécies. Comparamos a composição florística e a estrutura fitossociológica das comunidades de samambaias e licófitas na borda e interior de três sítios influenciados por diferentes matrizes (campo natural, plantio de Pinus e cultivo de olerícolas). Na região de Floresta com Araucária no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, foram sorteadas doze parcelas de 10 × 10 m na borda e no interior de cada sítio, totalizando 72 parcelas para avaliar o contraste fitossociológico, utilizando como parâmetro cobertura e riqueza das espécies por parcela para avaliar esse contraste. Registramos um total de 38 espécies nas áreas estudadas, distribuídas em 15 famílias. Os resultados mostraram que o efeito de borda atua em intensidades distintas nos sítios analisados. Nos sítios com matriz antropizada, a composição foi mais homogênea tanto nas bordas, quanto nos interiores e apresentou menor riqueza, demonstrando impacto mais pronunciado e profundo. Já no sítio com matriz de entorno natural, apesar da borda também apresentar baixa riqueza, o interior foi cerca de 3x mais rico. Sugerimos que os esforços de conservação de samambaias e licófitas em fragmentos com araucária, devem se concentrar em sítios inseridos em campo natural, pois, a conversão destes em plantio de Pinus e cultivo de olerícolas, diminui a diversidade dessas plantas, tanto nas bordas quanto nos interiores da floresta, além de alterar a estrutura fitossociológica levando as comunidades à simplificação.


Subject(s)
Forests , Ferns , Lycopodiaceae , Biota , Brazil
6.
Intestinal Research ; : 419-426, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764148

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Recently, a number of studies have reported that the gut microbiota could contribute to human conditions, including obesity, inflammation, cancer development, and behavior. We hypothesized that the composition and distribution of gut microbiota are different according to stool frequency, and attempted to identify the association between gut microbiota and stool frequency. METHODS: We collected fecal samples from healthy individuals divided into 3 groups according to stool frequency: group 1, a small number of defecation (≤2 times/wk); group 2, normal defecation (1 time/day or 1 time/2 day); and group 3, a large number of defecation (≥2–3 times/day). We evaluated the composition and distribution of the gut microbiota in each group via 16S rRNA-based taxonomic profiling of the fecal samples. RESULTS: Fecal samples were collected from a total of 60 individuals (31 men and 29 women, aged 34.1±5.88 years), and each group comprised 20 individuals. The microbial richness of group 1 was significantly higher than that of group 3 and tended to decrease with increasing number of defecation (P<0.05). The biological community composition was fairly different according to the number of defecation, and Bacteroidetes to Firmicutes ratio was higher in group 1 than in the other groups. Moreover, we found specific strains at the family and genus levels in groups 1 and 3. CONCLUSIONS: Bacteroidetes to Firmicutes ratio and the abundance of Bifidobacterium were different according to the stool frequency, and specific bacteria were identified in the subjects with large and small numbers of defecation, respectively. These findings suggest that stool frequency might be associated with the richness and community composition of the gut microbiota.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Bacteroidetes , Bifidobacterium , Biota , Defecation , Feces , Female , Firmicutes , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Inflammation , Male , Obesity
7.
Mycobiology ; : 154-164, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760544

ABSTRACT

Four strains of Penicillium and Talaromyces species are described and illustrated in an inventory of fungal species belonging to Eurotiales. The strains, CNUFC-DDS17-1, CNUFC-DDS27-1, CNUFC-PTM72-1, and CNUFC-YJW3-31, were isolated from soil and freshwater samples from South Korea. Based on their morphological characteristics and sequence analyses by the combined β-tubulin and calmodulin gene, the CNUFC-DDS17-1, CNUFC-DDS27-1, CNUFC-PTM72-1, and CNUFC-YJW3-31 isolates were identified as Penicillium pasqualense, Penicillium sanguifluum, Talaromyces apiculatus, and Talaromyces liani, respectively. The designated strains were found to represent a previously undescribed species of Korean fungal biota. In this study, detailed morphological descriptions and phylogenetic relationships of these species are provided.


Subject(s)
Biota , Calmodulin , Eurotiales , Fresh Water , Korea , Penicillium , Sequence Analysis , Soil , Talaromyces
8.
Rev. biol. trop ; 66(4): 1569-1579, oct.-dic. 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003347

ABSTRACT

Resumen El incremento del aporte de sedimentos desde tierra derivado del desarrollo costero y urbanización ha producido efectos adversos en la estructura y función de los arrecifes coralinos. El objetivo de este estudio fue conocer la magnitud de disturbios por aportes excesivos de sedimentos en la comunidad íctica de arrecifes coralinos de las bahías Maguey y Violín del Parque Nacional Huatulco (México). Los muestreos de peces se realizaron antes y después de disturbios ocasionados por aportes de sedimentos asociados a obras de desarrollo costero. Como indicadores de cambios en las comunidades de peces se utilizaron el número de especies, diversidad, equidad y dominancia antes y después de la perturbación. El análisis se realizó mediante pruebas de comparación de medias, análisis de similitud (ANOSIM) y análisis de porcentaje de similitud (SIMPER). En ambas localidades, se observó, que, excepto la dominancia, la diversidad, equidad, abundancia y número de especies fueron mayores previos a la perturbación. En Maguey se observaron diferencias significativas en la equidad y dominancia (U=28, p=0.0401; U=24, p=0.0472), así como en la composición de especies y la abundancia (ANOSIM=0.35, p=0.009). El análisis de porcentaje de similitud (SIMPER) indicó que posterior a la perturbación, el 46 % de especies presentaron una disminución en su abundancia, destacó la ausencia de Prionurus laticlavius, así como el decremento en la abundancia de: P. punctatus, Cirrhitichthys oxycephalus, Microspathodon dorsalis, Lutjanus novemfaciatus y Stegates acapulcoensis. La inadecuada planeación y ejecución de proyectos de desarrollo costero que propiciaron aporte excesivo de sedimentos al mar determinaron cambios negativos en las comunidades coralinas de Maguey y Violín, cuyo efecto fue observado en la composición de especies, abundancia, equidad y dominancia de la comunidad de peces de Maguey.(AU)


Abstract Coastal development and urbanization have increased the sediments that are washed from the land surface, producing adverse effects on the structure and functioning of coral reefs. The objective of this study was to identify the degree to which excessive sediments have disturbed the fish community in the coral reefs in the Maguey and Violin bays, located in the Huatulco National Park (Mexico). Fish samples were collected before and after disturbances produced by sediments associated with coastal development projects. Indicators of changes in the fish communities included the number and diversity of species as well as equity and dominance before and after the disturbances. The analysis was performed through means comparison tests, similarity analysis (ANOSIM) and similarity percentage analysis (SIMPER). In both locations, it was observed that the diversity, evenness, abundance and number of species were higher prior to the disturbance, but not for dominance, which shows an inverse pattern. In Maguey, significant differences in evenness and dominance were observed (U = 28, p = 0.0401; U = 24, p = 0.0472), as well as in species composition and abundance (ANOSIM = 0.35, p = 0.009). The similarity percentage analysis (SIMPER) indicated that after the disturbance, more than 46 % of the species showed decreases in average abundance, highlighting the absence of Prionurus laticlavius, as well as the decrease in abundance of: P. punctatus, Cirrhitichthys oxycephalus, Microspathodon dorsalis, Lutjanus novemfaciatus and Stegates acapulcoensis. Inadequate planning and implementation of coastal development projects that contribute to the discharge of excessive sediments into the sea were determinants of negative changes in the coral communities in Maguey and Violin, whose effects could be seen in the composition of the species and the abundance, equity, and dominance of the fish community in Maguey.(AU)


Subject(s)
Biodegradation, Environmental , Coasts , Environment , Biota , Fishes , Mexico
9.
Rev. biol. trop ; 66(3): 1118-1134, jul.-sep. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-977371

ABSTRACT

Abstract The family Chironomidae (Diptera) is the most widely distributed, most diverse, and often the most abundant of all families of benthic macroinvertebrates in aquatic ecosystems, including estuaries and other coastal marine ecosystems. Chironomid assemblages are likely to provide a useful measure of biotic integrity in estuaries of Costa Rica, which lack an intensive estuarine bioassessment tool to support environmental monitoring and regulatory programs. We characterized the taxonomic composition of Chironomidae, tested a Chironomidae Index of Biotic Integrity (CIBI) developed from extrinsic pollution tolerance values for its efficacy in evaluating the surface water quality and physical habitat, and made recommendations for increasing the sensitivity of the CIBI to detect differing degrees of stress across a range of estuaries in Costa Rica. Specifically, we selected nine estuaries within six different watersheds across a land use gradient located on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica and collected Chironomidae surface-floating pupal exuviae (SFPE) samples biannually for two consecutive years (July 2012, Jan. 2013, July 2013, Jan. 2014). We identified 228 morphospecies and 70 genera from 17 071 Chironomidae pupal exuviae collected from nine estuaries, which ranked in the following order from lowest to highest biotic integrity based on CIBI scores: Estero Negro, Laguna Cuatro, Laguna Jalova, Laguna del Tortuguero, Río Parismina, Laguna Barra del Colorado, Río Pacuare, Río Bananito, and Río Estrella. The CIBI successfully differentiated between estuaries with poor versus good biotic integrity, indicating that CIBI could be used to evaluate the surface water quality and physical habitat of Costa Rican estuaries. We recommend that future studies refine our approach by developing regionally accurate genus and corresponding species-level tolerance values to improve the sensitivity of the CIBI for biological monitoring of Costa Rican estuaries. Rev. Biol. Trop. 66(3): 1118-1134. Epub 2018 September 01.


Resumen La familia Chironomidae (Diptera) es la más ampliamente distribuida, más diversa y a menudo, la más abundante de todas las familias de macroinvertebrados bentónicos en ecosistemas acuáticos, incluyendo estuarios y otros ecosistemas marinos. Probablemente, los ensambles de quironómidos proporcionen una medida útil de integridad biótica en estuarios de Costa Rica, los cuales carecen de una herramienta de evaluación biológica que respalde programas de monitoreo ambiental y programas regulatorios. Caracterizamos la composición taxonómica de Chironomidae, probamos un Índice de Integridad Biótica de Chironomidae (CIBI) desarrollado a partir de valores de tolerancia de contaminación extrínseca, por su eficacia en evaluar la calidad de la superficie del agua y el hábitat físico. Además, realizamos recomendaciones para incrementar la sensibilidad del CIBI para detectar diferentes grados de estrés en un rango de estuarios en Costa Rica. Específicamente, seleccionamos nueve estuarios dentro de seis cuencas diferentes a lo largo de un gradiente de uso de suelo en la costa Caribe de Costa Rica y recolectamos muestras de las exuvias pupales que flotan en la superficie (SFPE) por dos años consecutivos (Julio 2012, Enero 2013, Julio 2013, Enero 2014). Identificamos 228 morfoespecies y 70 géneros de 17 071 exuvias de pupas de Chironomidae recolectadas en nueve estuarios, los cuales se clasificaron en el siguiente orden de menor a mayor integridad biótica basado en los valores del CIBI: Estero Negro, Laguna Cuatro, Laguna Jalova, Laguna del Tortuguero, Río Parismina, Laguna Barra del Colorado, Río Pacuare, Río Bananito, y Río Estrella. El CIBI diferenció eficazmente entre estuarios con integridad biótica pobre versus buena, indicando que el CIBI puede ser usado para evaluar la calidad de la superficie del agua y el hábitat físico de estuarios de Costa Rica. Recomendamos que estudios futuros refinen nuestro planteamiento desarrollando valores de tolerancia de géneros precisos regionalmente y niveles correspondientes de especies para mejorar la sensibilidad del CIBI para el monitoreo de estuarios de Costa Rica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Benthic Fauna/analysis , Chironomidae/classification , Chironomidae/physiology , Ecosystem , Estuaries , Costa Rica , Biota
10.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(2): 248-257, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889237

ABSTRACT

Abstract In this study for the first-time microbial communities in the caves located in the mountain range of Hindu Kush were evaluated. The samples were analyzed using culture-independent (16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing) and culture-dependent methods. The amplicon sequencing results revealed a broad taxonomic diversity, including 21 phyla and 20 candidate phyla. Proteobacteria were dominant in both caves, followed by Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia, Planctomycetes, and the archaeal phylum Euryarchaeota. Representative operational taxonomic units from Koat Maqbari Ghaar and Smasse-Rawo Ghaar were grouped into 235 and 445 different genera, respectively. Comparative analysis of the cultured bacterial isolates revealed distinct bacterial taxonomic profiles in the studied caves dominated by Proteobacteria in Koat Maqbari Ghaar and Firmicutes in Smasse-Rawo Ghaar. Majority of those isolates were associated with the genera Pseudomonas and Bacillus. Thirty strains among the identified isolates from both caves showed antimicrobial activity. Overall, the present study gave insight into the great bacterial taxonomic diversity and antimicrobial potential of the isolates from the previously uncharacterized caves located in the world's highest mountains range in the Indian sub-continent.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacteria/classification , Environmental Microbiology , Biota , Antibiosis , Pakistan , Phylogeny , Bacteria/growth & development , Bacteria/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Cluster Analysis , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Euryarchaeota/isolation & purification , Euryarchaeota/classification , Euryarchaeota/growth & development , Euryarchaeota/genetics , DNA, Archaeal/genetics , DNA, Archaeal/chemistry , Metagenomics
11.
Hanyang Medical Reviews ; : 80-84, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715034

ABSTRACT

The microbiome, which has been defined as ‘the ecological community of commensal, symbiotic and pathogenic microorganisms that share our body space, may be distinguished from the microbiota as it includes the collective genomes. An increasing level of evidence reveals that the human microbiome plays a major role in health. For this reason, it is often referred to as the ‘forgotten organ.’ All surfaces of the human body that are exposed to the environment are colonized, including skin, respiratory system, urogenital tract and gastrointestinal (GI) tract, totaling at least 100 trillion microbial cells. The known roles of the GI microbiome include metabolic functions, synthesis functions, and immune roles. Recent studies indicate that the human gut microbiome plays a significant role in health and disease. Dysbiosis, defined as a pathological imbalance in a microbial community, is becoming increasingly appreciated as a ‘central environmental factor’ that is both associated with complex phenotypes and affected by host genetics, diet, and antibiotic use. More recently, a link has been established between the dysmetabolism of bile acids (BAs) in the gut and the gut-liver axis, and this relationship with the microbiome has been highlighted. This review summarizes the microbiome of the hepatobiliary system and how microbiome is related to diseases of the liver and biliary tract.


Subject(s)
Bile Acids and Salts , Biliary Tract , Biota , Colon , Diet , Dysbiosis , Gallbladder , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Genetics , Genome , Human Body , Humans , Liver , Microbiota , Pancreas , Phenotype , Respiratory System , Skin
12.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(2): 246-250, April.-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839375

ABSTRACT

Abstract Shenqu is a fermented product that is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to treat indigestion; however, the microbial strains in the fermentation process are still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate microbial diversity in Shenqu using different fermentation time periods. DGGE (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) profiles indicated that a strain of Pediococcus acidilactici (band 9) is the predominant bacteria during fermentation and that the predominant fungi were uncultured Rhizopus, Aspergillus oryzae, and Rhizopus oryzae. In addition, pathogenic bacteria, such as Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Erwinia billingiae, and Pantoea vagan were detected in Shenqu. DGGE analysis showed that bacterial and fungal diversity declined over the course of fermentation. This determination of the predominant bacterial and fungal strains responsible for fermentation may contribute to further Shenqu research, such as optimization of the fermentation process.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/classification , Plant Extracts/metabolism , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis , Biota , Fungi/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Fermentation , Fungi/genetics
13.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(2): 342-351, April.-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839370

ABSTRACT

Abstract We aimed to verify the changes in the microbial community during bioremediation of gasoline-contaminated soil. Microbial inoculants were produced from successive additions of gasoline to municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) previously fertilized with nitrogen-phosphorous. To obtain Inoculant A, fertilized MSWC was amended with gasoline every 3 days during 18 days. Inoculant B received the same application, but at every 6 days. Inoculant C included MSWC fertilized with N–P, but no gasoline. The inoculants were applied to gasoline-contaminated soil at 10, 30, or 50 g/kg. Mineralization of gasoline hydrocarbons in soil was evaluated by respirometric analysis. The viability of the inoculants was evaluated after 103 days of storage under refrigeration or room temperature. The relative proportions of microbial groups in the inoculants and soil were evaluated by FAME. The dose of 50 g/kg of inoculants A and B led to the largest CO2 emission from soil. CO2 emissions in treatments with inoculant C were inversely proportional to the dose of inoculant. Heterotrophic bacterial counts were greater in soil treated with inoculants A and B. The application of inoculants decreased the proportion of actinobacteria and increased of Gram-negative bacteria. Decline in the density of heterotrophic bacteria in inoculants occurred after storage. This reduction was bigger in inoculants stored at room temperature. The application of stored inoculants in gasoline-contaminated soil resulted in a CO2 emission twice bigger than that observed in uninoculated soil. We concluded that MSWC is an effective material for the production of microbial inoculants for the bioremediation of gasoline-contaminated soil.


Subject(s)
Soil Microbiology , Soil Pollutants/metabolism , Gasoline , Carcinogens, Environmental/metabolism , Biota/drug effects , Biodegradation, Environmental , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , Bacterial Load , Hydrocarbons/analysis
14.
Mycobiology ; : 150-159, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729300

ABSTRACT

This study analyzed the distribution of endophytic fungi in 3 coastal environments with different climatic, geographical, and geological characteristics: the volcanic islands of Dokdo, the East Sea, and the West Sea of Korea. The isolated fungal endophytes were characterized and analyzed with respect to the characteristics of their host environments. For this purpose, we selected common native coastal halophyte communities from three regions. Molecular identification of the fungal endophytes showed clear differences among the sampling sites and halophyte host species. Isolates were also characterized by growth at specific salinities or pH gradients, with reference to previous geographical, geological, and climate studies. Unlike the East Sea or West Sea isolates, some Dokdo Islands isolates showed endurable traits with growth in high salinity, and many showed growth under extremely alkaline conditions. A smaller proportion of West Sea coast isolates tolerate compared to the East Sea or Dokdo Islands isolates. These results suggest that these unique fungal biota developed through a close interaction between the host halophyte and their environment, even within the same halophyte species. Therefore, this study proposes the application of specific fungal resources for restoring sand dunes and salt-damaged agricultural lands and industrialization of halophytic plants.


Subject(s)
Biota , Climate , Endophytes , Fungi , Islands , Korea , Proton-Motive Force , Salinity , Salt-Tolerant Plants
15.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 15(3): e170041, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | VETINDEX, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-895097

ABSTRACT

Considering the need for the Brazilian government to develop tools for environmental monitoring for biodiversity conservancy purposes in the national protected areas system, this paper focuses on determining reference site metrics (or baselines) for adapting the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) based on the fish assemblages in the Pantanal National Park (PNP). The habitats in the PNP were grouped into four categories: main rivers, corixos (channels connecting the floodplain), permanent bays, and temporary bays. Fish samplings were performed at 12 points during the dry season (Oct-Nov 2010 and 2011). 146 fish species were identified from the total 18,954 individuals collected with standardized fishing gear. There was no association between the structure of the fish assemblage and categories, suggesting a theory on homogeneity of habitats. The final IBIPNP consists of nine metrics, most of them were framed in excellent class, some in fair, and none in poor. There was no significant difference in IBIPNP scores between the two sampled years. This approach provides a direct application for wetland management purposes.(AU)


É iminente que o Brasil desenvolva ferramentas para monitorar o sistema de áreas protegidas do país, formado especialmente pelas Unidades de Conservação e tendo como foco a proteção efetiva da biodiversidade. Nesse contexto, esse trabalho discute métricas de referência (ou linhas de base) para compor um Índice de Integridade Biótica (IIB) baseado nas comunidades de peixes, tendo como área de estudo o Parque Nacional do Pantanal Matogrossense. Os hábitats encontrados no Parque foram agrupados em quatro estratos ambientais: rios, corixos (cursos d´água que se conectam à planície de inundação) e baías permanentes e temporárias. As coletas de peixes foram realizadas em 12 pontos amostrais durante o período seco (out/nov de 2010 e 2011). Foram identificadas 146 espécies de peixes, totalizando 18.954 exemplares coletados em amostragens padronizadas. Não houve associação entre a estrutura da comunidade e os estratos ambientais, sugerindo homogeneidade de hábitats. O IIB final foi composto por nove métricas, a maior parte alocada na classe excelente de integridade biótica, poucas na classe regular e nenhuma na classe pobre. Não houve diferença significativa no IIB entre os dois anos consecutivos. Esses resultados oferecem subsídios técnicos para a tomada de decisão sobre a gestão das áreas alagáveis no Pantanal brasileiro.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , /analysis , Conservation of Natural Resources/methods , Conservation of Water Resources/trends , Biota
16.
Rev. Fac. Odontol. Univ. Antioq ; 28(1): 179-202, July-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-957233

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The development of studies related to the human oral microbiome, as well as the applied sciences and techniques to investigate it, have helped reconsidering our understanding of tooth decay as an endogenous infection caused by a conglomerate of microorganisms. In addition to identifying the great diversity of microorganisms involved in carious processes, similar studies in healthy oral cavity have also been conducted, as well as analysis of the interactions between microorganisms and the host. The results are paving the way to implementing biotechnology strategies to interrupt the onset and progression of the disease, and in this sense probiotics are a promising tool. Probiotics are beneficial microorganisms that once in contact with the oral cavity modify the microbial interaction favoring homeostasis. A literature review was conducted using various databases (PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar), focusing on probiotics as a strategy for caries control, based on their function in the oral cavity; this includes some of the studies conducted so far as well as the description of features of the bacterial strains most commonly studied and the ones recently isolated. The article concludes by explaining the ideal features that bacterial strains should have to be efficient as probiotics in the oral cavity.


RESUMEN. El desarrollo de estudios relacionados con el microbioma oral humano, así como las ciencias y técnicas aplicadas para investigarlo, han permitido replantear el entendimiento de la caries como una infección endógena causada por un consorcio de microorganismos. Además de identificar la gran diversidad de microorganismos implicados en los procesos cariosos, también se han realizado estudios similares en cavidad oral sana, y análisis de las interacciones entre los microorganismos y el hospedador. Los resultados están abriendo paso a la viabilidad de implementar estrategias biotecnológicas que buscan interrumpir el inicio y la progresión de la enfermedad, y en este sentido los probióticos son una herramienta prometedora. Los probióticos son microorganismos benéficos que al entrar en contacto con la cavidad oral modifican la interacción microbiana a favor de una homeostasis. Utilizando diferentes bases de datos (PubMed, ScienceDirect y Google Académico) se realizó la revisión de literatura sobre los probióticos como una estrategia para el control de la caries, mediante el fundamento de su función en cavidad oral, así como algunos de los estudios realizados hasta el momento y la descripción de las características de las cepas bacterianas más estudiadas y las aisladas recientemente. El artículo concluye con la sustentación de las características ideales que deberían tener las cepas bacterianas para que sean eficientes como probióticos de cavidad oral.


Subject(s)
Dental Caries , Probiotics , Biota , Homeostasis
17.
Braz. j. biol ; 76(3): 774-781, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-785026

ABSTRACT

Abstract Among the natural enemies of insect pests in rice fields, parasitoids are especially notable. To better understand the space-time dynamics of these insects, the objectives of this study were to describe and compare groups of parasitoids in organic irrigated rice fields using two management approaches for levee vegetation, and to relate them to the phenological stages of rice cultivation (the seedling, vegetative, and reproductive stages). The samples were taken in a plantation located in Viamão, RS, Brazil. The total area of 18 ha was divided into two parts: a no-cut (NC) subarea in which the wild vegetation of the levees was maintained, and a cut (C) subarea in which the levee vegetation was cut monthly. In each subarea, four Malaise traps considered as pseudo-replicas were installed and remained in the field for 24 hours at each sampling location. Collections occurred twice a month from the beginning of cultivation (October 2012) until harvest (March 2013). A total of 3,184 Hymenoptera parasitoids were collected: 2,038 individuals in the NC subarea and 1,146 in the C subarea. We identified 458 morphospecies distributed in 24 families. Mymaridae was the most abundant and Eulophidae was the richest in both subareas. A total of 198 morphospecies was shared between the subareas, including Platygastridae, Eulophidae, and Mymaridae, which were the families with the highest number of shared species. The richness and abundance of parasitoids varied according to their phenological developmental stages, with peak abundance registering during the vegetative period. The Morisita index identified three groupings, indicating a similarity that was related to the three phases of rice growth and development: seedling, vegetative and post-harvest.


Resumo Entre os inimigos naturais de insetos pragas em campos de arroz, parasitoides são especialmente notáveis. Para melhor entender a dinâmica espaço-temporal destes insetos, os objetivos desse estudo foram descrever e comparar os grupos de parasitoides em campos de arroz orgânico irrigado utilizando duas abordagens de manejo da vegetação das taipas, e relacioná-los com os estádios fenológicos da cultura (plântula, vegetativo e reprodutivo). As amostragens foram realizadas em uma plantação localizada em Viamão, RS. A área total de 18 ha foi dividida em duas partes: uma subárea não roçada (NR) na qual a vegetação espontânea das taipas foi mantida, e uma roçada (R) subárea em que a vegetação das taipas foi roçada mensalmente. Em cada subárea, quatro armadilhas Malaise consideradas pseudo-réplicas foram instaladas e mantiveram-se no campo durante 24 horas, em cada local de amostragem. As coletas ocorreram duas vezes por mês, desde o início do cultivo (outubro de 2012) até a colheita (março de 2013). Um total de 3.184 himenópteros parasitoides foram coletados: 2.038 indivíduos na subárea NR e 1.146 na R. Foram identificadas 458 morfoespécies, distribuídas em 24 famílias. Mymaridae foi a mais abundante e Eulophidae a mais rica para ambas as subáreas. Um total de 198 morfoespécies foi compartilhado entre as subáreas, incluindo Platygastridae, Eulophidae e Mymaridae, que foram as famílias com o maior número de espécies compartilhadas. A riqueza e a abundância de parasitoides variou de acordo com as fases de desenvolvimento fenológico da cultura, com pico de abundância registrado no período vegetativo. O Índice de Morisita identificou três grupamentos indicando uma similaridade relacionada às fases da cultura, plântula, vegetativo e, na pós-colheita.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Oryza/growth & development , Oryza/parasitology , Biodiversity , Agricultural Irrigation , Hymenoptera/physiology , Brazil , Population Dynamics , Population Density , Food Chain , Biota
18.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(1): 73-84, Jan.-Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-775103

ABSTRACT

Abstract Wastewater from an anaerobic treatment plant at a slaughterhouse was analysed to determine the bacterial biodiversity present. Molecular analysis of the anaerobic sludge obtained from the treatment plant showed significant diversity, as 27 different phyla were identified. Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Thermotogae, Euryarchaeota (methanogens), and msbl6 (candidate division) were the dominant phyla of the anaerobic treatment plant and represented 21.7%, 18.5%, 11.5%, 9.4%, 8.9%, and 8.8% of the total bacteria identified, respectively. The dominant bacteria isolated were Clostridium, Bacteroides, Desulfobulbus, Desulfomicrobium, Desulfovibrio and Desulfotomaculum. Our results revealed the presence of new species, genera and families of microorganisms. The most interesting strains were characterised. Three new bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion of abattoir wastewater were published.


Subject(s)
Abattoirs , Biota , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Waste Water/microbiology , Anaerobiosis
19.
São Paulo; s.n; 2016. 103 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-871006

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A microbiota intestinal possui grande diversidade de bactérias, predominantemente dos filos Bacteroidetes e Firmicutes, com múltiplas funções. A alimentação pode alterar sua composição e função. Alto teor de gordura saturada altera a permeabilidade intestinal, eleva os lipopolissacarídeos e predispõe à inflamação subclínica crônica. Dieta rica em fibras, como a vegetariana, induz elevação de ácidos graxos de cadeia curta e benefícios metabólicos. Objetivos: Para analisar a composição da microbiota intestinal de adventistas com diferentes hábitos alimentares e associá-los à inflamação subclínica e resistência à insulina, esta tese incluiu: 1) revisão dos mecanismos que associam a alimentação à microbiota intestinal e ao risco cardiometabólico; 2) verificação da composição da microbiota intestinal segundo diferentes hábitos alimentares e de associações com biomarcadores de doenças cardiometabólicas; 3) avaliação da associação entre a abundância de Akkermansia muciniphila e o metabolismo da glicose; 4) análise da presença de enterótipos e de associações com características clínicas. Métodos: Este estudo transversal incluiu 295 adventistas estratificados segundo hábitos alimentares (vegetariano estrito, ovo-lacto-vegetariano e onívoro). Foram avaliadas associações com dados clínicos, bioquímicos e inflamatórios. O perfil da microbiota foi obtido por sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA


Introduction: The gut microbiota has great bacterial diversity, predominantly of the phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, with multiple functions. Diet can alter their composition and function. High amount of saturated fat alters intestinal permeability, raises the lipopolysaccharides and predisposes to low-grade inflammation. High-fiber diet, such as the vegetarian, induces the elevation of short-chain fatty acids and metabolic benefits. Objectives: To analyze the composition of gut microbiota of Adventists with diverse dietary patterns and associate them to the low grade inflammation and insulin resistance this thesis included: 1) review of underlying mechanisms of the association of diet, gut microbiota composition and cardiometabolic risk; 2) analysis of the gut microbiota composition according to different dietary patterns and associations with biomarkers of cardiometabolic diseases; 3) evaluation of the association between the Akkermansia muciniphila abundance and glucose metabolism; 4) analysis of the presence of enterotypes and associations with clinical characteristics. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 295 Adventists stratified according to dietary patterns (strict vegetarian, lacto-ovo-vegetarian and omnivore). Their associations with clinical, biochemical and inflammatory data were evaluated. The microbiota profile was obtained by sequencing 16S rRNA genes


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Adiposity , Biota/immunology , Feeding Behavior , Inflammation , Insulin Resistance , Cross-Sectional Studies
20.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 47(4): 350-359, dic. 2015. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-843141

ABSTRACT

Con el objeto de caracterizar las poblaciones fúngicas, en particular las especies potencialmente micotoxigénicas, que pueden contaminar los granos de maíz almacenados en silos bolsa con un contenido de humedad superior al recomendado como seguro, se evaluaron 270 muestras extraídas al inicio, a los 90 días y al final de un período de almacenamiento de 5 meses. En dichas muestras se cuantificó e identificó la biota fúngica y se determinó la contaminación con fumonisinas y aflatoxinas. Asimismo, se evaluó el efecto de factores extrínsecos (ambiente), intrínsecos (granos) y tecnológicos (ubicación de los granos en el perfil del silo bolsa) sobre las poblaciones totales y micotoxigénicas. El pH de los granos y el nivel de O2 se redujeron significativamente a los 5 meses, mientras que la concentración de CO2 se incrementó en igual período. Los recuentos totales de la micobiota fueron significativamente mayores en los granos ubicados en el estrato superior del silo bolsa. Se identificaron especies micotoxigénicas de Fusarium, Aspergillus, Penicillium y Eurotium. La frecuencia de aislamiento de Fusarium verticillioides se redujo al final del almacenamiento y Aspergillus flavus solo se aisló en el inicio del almacenamiento. Los recuentos de Penicillium spp. y Eurotium spp. se incrementaron al final del almacenamiento. El 100 % de las muestras presentaron contaminación con fumonisinas, con niveles máximos de 5,707 mg/kg, mientras que las aflatoxinas contaminaron el 40 % de las muestras con niveles máximos de 0,0008 mg/kg. Las condiciones ambientales y de sustrato generadas durante el almacenamiento produjeron cambios en la composición de las poblaciones fúngicas y limitaron el desarrollo de hongos micotoxigénicos y la producción de micotoxinas.


In order to determine the behavior of mycotoxin-producing fungal populations linked with silobags stored corn grains with a moisture content greater at the recommended as safe, 270 samples taken in three times (beginning, 90 days, final) over a five month period of storage were evaluated. The fungal biota was quantified and identified and the contamination with fumonisin and aflatoxin was determined. Extrinsic factors (environment), intrinsic factors (grains) and technological factors (location of the grains in the profile of silobag) were taken into account to evaluate the presence and quantity of total and mycotoxigenic fungal populations. The pH of grains and O2 levels were significantly reduced after five months, while CO2 concentration increased in the same period. The total counts of mycobiota were significantly higher in grains located in the top layer of silobag. Mycotoxigenic species of Fusarium, Aspergillus, Penicillium and Eurotium were identified. The frequency of isolation of Fusarium verticillioides decreased at the end of storage and Aspergillus flavus was isolated only at the beginning of storage. The counts of the Penicillium spp. and Eurotium spp. were increased at the end of storage. Fumonisin contamination was found in all the samples (100 %) with maximum levels of 5.707 mg/kg whereas aflatoxin contaminated only 40 % with maximum levels of 0.0008 mg/kg. The environmental and substrate conditions generated during the storage limited the development of mycotoxigenic fungi and mycotoxin production.


Subject(s)
Zea mays , Aflatoxins/isolation & purification , Aflatoxins/adverse effects , Fumonisins/isolation & purification , Fumonisins/adverse effects , Mycotoxins/isolation & purification , Penicillium/isolation & purification , Aspergillus/isolation & purification , Biotic Factors/analysis , Eurotium/isolation & purification , Biota , Fusarium/isolation & purification , Mycotoxins/adverse effects
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