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1.
Rev. cub. inf. cienc. salud ; 32(2): e1642, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341367

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de este trabajo fue implementar un modelo didáctico para formar competencias informacionales en estudiantes de la Ingeniería Bioinformática pertenecientes a la Universidad de las Ciencias Informáticas. Se realizó un estudio de caso en el que se aplicó la prueba no paramétrica Dócima de Wilcoxon, así como métodos, técnicas y procedimientos investigativos. Se obtuvo como resultado un modelo didáctico en la asignatura Ingeniería de Software, centrado en los proyectos de investigación que realizan los estudiantes en el Centro de Ingeniería Genética y Biotecnología. Se concluye que el modelo aplicado es adecuado al lograrse niveles de formación de competencias informacionales en estudiantes de Ingeniería en Bioinformática(AU)


The purpose of the study was to implement a didactic model for the development of information competencies in bioinformatics engineering students from the Information Sciences University. A case study was performed based on the Wilcoxon non-parametric test as well as other research methods, techniques and procedures. The result obtained was a didactic model for the Software Engineering course, centered on the research projects conducted by students at the Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, in Cuba. It is concluded that the model applied is appropriate, since Bioinformatics Engineering students achieve satisfactory information competence levels(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Research Design , Information Science/methods , Information Literacy , Biotechnology/methods
2.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 84(2): 163-169, Mar,-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153124

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical characteristics of coconut water and to analyze the use of coconut water solution for the conservation of human corneas. Methods: This was an experimental and controlled study performed at the Eye Bank of the General Hospital of Fortaleza. The coconut water-based solution was prepared at the Goat Seed Technology Laboratory of the Department of Veterinary Medicine of the State University of Ceará. Discarded corneas from the Eye Bank were divided into two groups for sequential experiments: G1, coconut water-based solution (experimental group), and G2, conservative treatment with OPTISOL GS® (control group). The osmolality of corneas in G1 was analyzed sequentially at 275, 300, 325, 345, 365, and 400 mOsm/L. The viability of the corneas was determined by specular microscopy and biomicroscopy on the first, third, and seventh days. Results: Corneas preserved in a solution of 365 and 345 mOsm/L had a transparency of 8 mm until the third day and had diffuse edema in the periphery, central folds, and partial epithelium loss until the seventh day. The 365-mOsm/L solution was associated with the worst results during follow-up. Corneas placed in Optisol-GS retained their original aspects. Conclusions: Coconut water-based preservative partially maintained corneal transparency and epithelial integrity, especially during the first three days of follow-up. The coconut water-based solutions used were not effective for use as preservatives in a human eye bank.(AU)


RESUMO Objetivos: As características físico-químicas e o baixo custo da água de coco foram fundamentais para o este estudo. Analisar o uso de solução a base de água de coco como meio de conservação de córneas humanas em banco de olhos. Métodos: Estudo experimental e controlado realizado no Banco de Olhos do Hospital Geral de Fortaleza. Utilizou-se solução à base de água de coco preparada no laboratório de Tecnologia de Sêmen de Caprinos do Departamento de Medicina Veterinária da Universidade Estadual do Ceará. Foram usadas córneas de descartes divididas em dois grupos: G1 (Conservante com água de coco) - grupo experimental e G2 (grupo Conservante com OPTISOL GS®) grupo controle, em experimentos sequenciais. A osmolaridade do G1 foi analisada sequencialmente com 275, 300, 325, 345, 365 e 400 mOsm/L. A viabilidade das córneas foram realizadas por microscopia especular e biomicroscopia nos 1º, 3º e 7º dias. Resultados: As córneas em solução de 365 e 345 mOsm/L apresentavam transparência nos 8mm centrais até o 3º dia, com edema em toda periferia, dobras centrais e edema 2+, com perda parcial do epitélio até 7º dia, sendo o de maior osmolaridade com melhor transparência durante o seguimento. Grupo com 275, 300 e 400 mOsm/L, córnea opaca, edema difuso, perda total do epitélio no 3º dia. As córneas em Optisol mantiveram seus aspectos. Conclusões: O conservante à base de água de coco manteve em parte a transparência corneana e a integridade epitelial, especialmente nos primeiros 3 dias de seguimento. A solução conservante com água de coco nas formulações utilizadas não se mostrou eficaz para o uso em banco de olhos humanos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Organ Preservation/methods , Biotechnology/methods , Organ Preservation Solutions/chemistry , Foods Containing Coconut , Eye Banks/organization & administration , Epidemiology, Experimental
3.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200401, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249212

ABSTRACT

Abstract The cyanobacterial exopolysaccharides (EPSs) are considered as one of the important group of biopolymers having significant ecological, industrial, and biotechnological importance. Cyanobacteria are regarded as a very abundant source of structurally diverse, high molecular weight polysaccharides having variable composition and roles according to the organisms and the environmental conditions in which they are produced. Due to their structural complexity, versatility and valuable biological properties, they are now emerging as high-value compounds. They are possessing exceptional properties and thus are being widely explored for various applications like in food and pharmaceutical industries, in bioremediation for removal of heavy metals, for soil conditioning, as biopolymers, bioadhesives, and bioflocculants. However, poor understanding of their complex structural properties, lack of concrete information regarding the genes encoding the proteins involved in the EPS biosynthetic pathways, their process of production and about the associated factors controlling their structural stability, strongly limits their commercialization and applications in the various fields of biotechnology. Owing to the above context, the present review is aimed to organize the available information on applications of cyanobacterial EPSs in the field of biotechnology and to identify the research gaps for improved industrial utilization and commercialization of these biomaterials.


Subject(s)
Biodegradation, Environmental , Biotechnology/methods , Cyanobacteria , Polysaccharides
4.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200531, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249210

ABSTRACT

Abstract Microalgae research has attracted interest worldwide and in order to advance algal biotechnology in Brazil, government has been funding several projects. In the last 10 years, two main funds were provided by the National Council of Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) agency to researchers in Brazil, who study the potential uses of microalgae for biomass, bioproducts and biofuels production. These funded projects addressed aspects of algal strain identification, development of algal cultivation techniques, designing photobioreactors and raceway ponds, modeling harvesting and dewatering process, maximizing biomass and oil productivities, characterizing chemical composition with different extractions systems and determining physiochemical properties of biodiesel. This review presents the state of art of algal research conducted by Brazilian institutions. Special attention is given to the recent progress on microalgal cultivation, high-value products extracted from microalgae and potential biofuels production. This review may serve as a policy instrument for planning next steps for algal research in Brazil as well as for attracting attention from international researchers who work with microalgae and would like to pursue a future partnership on algal research with Brazilian research institutions.


Subject(s)
Biotechnology/methods , Biofuels , Microalgae , Photobioreactors
5.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 43: 1-7, Jan. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087465

ABSTRACT

Background: Biotechnological processes are part of modern industry as well as stricter environmental requirements. The need to reduce production costs and pollution demands for alternatives that involve the integral use of agro-industrial waste to produce bioactive compounds. The citrus industry generates large amounts of wastes due to the destruction of the fruits by microorganisms and insects together with the large amounts of orange waste generated during the production of juice and for sale fresh. The aim of this study was used orange wastes rich in polyphenolic compounds can be used as source carbon of Aspergillus fumigatus MUM 1603 to generate high added value compounds, for example, ellagic acid and other molecules of polyphenolic origin through submerged fermentation system. Results: The orange peel waste had a high concentration of polyphenols, 28% being condensed, 27% ellagitannins, 25% flavonoids and 20% gallotannins. The major polyphenolic compounds were catechin, EA and quercetin. The conditions, using an experimental design of central compounds, that allow the production of the maximum concentration of EA (18.68 mg/g) were found to be: temperature 30°C, inoculum 2 × 107 (spores/g) and orange peel polyphenols 6.2 (g/L). Conclusion: The submerged fermentation process is an effective methodology for the biotransformation of molecules present in orange waste to obtain high value-added as ellagic acid that can be used as powerful antioxidants, antibacterial and other applications.


Subject(s)
Waste Management , Citrus sinensis/chemistry , Ellagic Acid , Aspergillus fumigatus , Waste Products/analysis , Flavonoids/analysis , Biotechnology/methods , Hydrolyzable Tannins/analysis , Fermentation , Polyphenols/analysis , Phytochemicals
6.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(2): e8749, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055490

ABSTRACT

For a long time, vaccines have been the main mode of defense and protection against several bacterial, viral, and parasitic diseases. However, the process of production and purification makes them expensive and unaffordable to many developing nations. An edible vaccine is when the antigen is expressed in the edible part of the plant. This reduces the cost of production of the vaccine because of ease of culturing. In this article, various types of edible vaccines that include algal and probiotics in addition to plants are discussed. Various diseases against which research has been carried out are also reviewed. This article focused on the conception of edible vaccines highlighting the various ways by which vaccines can be delivered.


Subject(s)
Humans , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Vaccines, Edible/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Edible/immunology , Vaccines, Edible/chemistry , Biotechnology/methods , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics
7.
Physis (Rio J.) ; 30(1): e300105, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101313

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este artigo parte de uma discussão internacional sobre a intransmissibilidade do vírus HIV, quando a pessoa soropositiva está em tratamento e com carga viral indetectável. Trata-se de um dos resultados da pesquisa qualitativa sobre sociabilidades de jovens vivendo com HIV, com ênfase nos novos discursos/práticas biomédicos e seu impacto nas relações afetivo-sexuais desses/as jovens. Durante os meses de março a novembro de 2017, houve a interação com pessoas vivendo com HIV/Aids (PVHA), com idade entre 18 e 30 anos, e médicos/as infectologistas de um Serviço de Assistência Especializada em Salvador-BA. Para além das mudanças significativas em relação ao HIV, decorrentes dos avanços atuais das biotecnologias, colocamos em pauta algumas controvérsias em torno da intransmissibilidade do vírus do ponto de vista de quatro médicos/as infectologistas. Realizamos entrevistas abertas e a leitura exploratória das narrativas, identificando temas, questões e atores que se deslocavam nos relatos em torno da condição de indetectável. Discutimos que a carga viral indetectável aparece como um assunto delicado/controverso nos consultórios médicos, atualizando a posição de PVHA como potencialmente perigosas, podendo reincidir em práticas sexuais desprotegidas ou "relaxar" no cuidado consigo e com o outro. São narrativas que suscitam questões éticas fundamentais na relação de cuidado, tais como o direito à informação na perspectiva da saúde como um direito humano.


Abstract This article is based on an international discussion on HIV non-transmissibility when the HIV-positive person is under treatment and has an undetectable viral load. This is one of the results of research on the sociability of young people living with HIV, with emphasis on new biomedical discourses/practices and their impact on the affective-sexual relationships of young people. From March to November of 2017, the researchers interacted with people living with HIV (PLHIV), aged between 18 and 30 years, and infectologists in a Specialized Service in Salvador-BA, Brazil. Beyond significant changes in relation to HIV due to advances in biotechnology, the study focused on some controversies surrounding the non-transmissibility of the virus from the viewpoint of four infectologists. Open interviews and exploratory reading of the narratives were conducted, identifying themes, issues and actors that moved in the reports on the condition of undetectable. The article argues that undetectable viral load appears as a sensitive/controversial subject in medical offices, updating the PLHIV's position as potentially dangerous that may engage in unprotected sexual practices or "relax" in mutual care. Such narratives raise fundamental ethical issues in care relations, such as the right to information from the perspective of health as a human right.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Self Care , HIV Infections/transmission , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/transmission , Viral Load , Infectious Disease Medicine , Interpersonal Relations , Biotechnology/methods , Brazil , Qualitative Research , Unsafe Sex , Empathy/ethics , Health Communication
8.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190151, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132269

ABSTRACT

Abstract A comprehensive comparison of the main fermentation parameters, productivity, yield and final L-lactic acid concentration, obtained through batch, fed-batch and continuous cultivations using Lactobacillus casei CCDM 198 and a model cultivation medium was carried out. Using this data, a pulse-feed fed-batch process was established for testing chicken feather hydrolysate as a replacement for all complex nitrogen sources (yeast and beef extracts and peptone) in the medium. As comparably high values of productivity (about 4.0 g/L/h) and yield (about 98 %) were reached under all cultivation conditions, the maximum final L-lactic acid concentration (116.5 g/L), as achieved through pulse-feed fed-batch fermentation, was chosen as the most important criterion for process selection. Fed-batch cultivation with chicken feather hydrolysate as both a complex nitrogen source and a neutralizing agent for maintaining constant culture pH yielded half the concentration of L-lactic acid compared to the model medium. We demonstrate here that chicken feather hydrolysate has potential for use in the production of L-lactic acid but its utilization requires further optimization


Subject(s)
Animals , Lactic Acid/metabolism , Fermentation , Lactobacillus casei/growth & development , Biotechnology/methods , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Biomass , Bioreactors , Hydrolysis
9.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19180621, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055419

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Feather meal conversion through submerged cultivations with Bacillus strains (CL33A, CL14) yielded proteases and protein hydrolysates. After 4-day (CL33A) and 10-day (CL14) cultivations, protease activities reached 461 U/mL; hydrolysates presented antioxidant (radicals-scavenging, 57-77%; Fe2+-chelation, 14-28%; Fe3+-reduction) and antidiabetic (dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibition, 49-52%) potentials. The obtained bioproducts present prospective commercial/industrial applications.


Subject(s)
Bacillus , Biotechnology/methods , Hypoglycemic Agents , Antioxidants , Biodegradation, Environmental
10.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 146(7): 890-898, jul. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-961475

ABSTRACT

Many new discoveries in Life Sciences cannot be translated into products, services or new applications to improve human health. Translational medicine, defined as "from bench to bedside", refers to the transfer of results or new knowledge achieved in the laboratory into health innovation. We aim to review the state of art of translational medicine, its relationship with innovation processes and the different perspectives to consider. Finally, we contextualize the situation of Research and Development (R&D) in Chile and the main issues of the biotechnology market in the country.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biotechnology/trends , Translational Medical Research/trends , Biotechnology/methods , Chile , Technology Transfer , Translational Medical Research/methods
11.
Biol. Res ; 51: 37, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983949

ABSTRACT

To date, many industrial processes are performed using chemical compounds, which are harmful to nature. An alternative to overcome this problem is biocatalysis, which uses whole cells or enzymes to carry out chemical reactions in an environmentally friendly manner. Enzymes can be used as biocatalyst in food and feed, pharmaceutical, textile, detergent and beverage industries, among others. Since industrial processes require harsh reaction conditions to be performed, these enzymes must possess several characteristics that make them suitable for this purpose. Currently the best option is to use enzymes from extremophilic microorganisms, particularly archaea because of their special characteristics, such as stability to elevated temperatures, extremes of pH, organic solvents, and high ionic strength. Extremozymes, are being used in biotechnological industry and improved through modern technologies, such as protein engineering for best performance. Despite the wide distribution of archaea, exist only few reports about these microorganisms isolated from Antarctica and very little is known about thermophilic or hyperthermophilic archaeal enzymes particularly from Antarctica. This review summarizes current knowledge of archaeal enzymes with biotechnological applications, including two extremozymes from Antarctic archaea with potential industrial use, which are being studied in our laboratory. Both enzymes have been discovered through conventional screening and genome sequencing, respectively.


Subject(s)
Biotechnology/methods , Archaea/enzymology , Enzymes/classification , Enzymes/chemistry , Extreme Environments , Biocatalysis
12.
Clinics ; 73(supl.1): e482s, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952842

ABSTRACT

This review will discuss the contributions of marine natural molecules, a source only recently found to have pharmaceutical prospects, to the development of anticancer drugs. Of the seven clinically utilized compounds with a marine origin, four are used for the treatment of cancer. The development of these drugs has afforded valuable knowledge and crucial insights to meet the most common challenges in this endeavor, such as toxicity and supply. In this context, the development of these compounds will be discussed herein to illustrate, with successful examples provided by cytarabine, trabectedin, eribulin and brentuximab vedotin, the steps involved in this process as well as the scientific advances and technological innovation potential associated with developing a new drug from marine resources.


Subject(s)
Biotechnology/methods , Aquatic Organisms/chemistry , Drug Development/methods , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Oceans and Seas , Immunoconjugates/therapeutic use , Immunoconjugates/pharmacology , Immunoconjugates/chemistry , Cytarabine/chemistry , Drug Discovery , Trabectedin/chemistry , Furans/chemistry , Brentuximab Vedotin , Ketones/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry
13.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(2): 275-285, April.-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839373

ABSTRACT

Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the production of flavor compounds from olive mill waste by microbial fermentation of Rhizopus oryzae and Candida tropicalis. Olive mill waste fermentations were performed in shake and bioreactor cultures. Production of flavor compounds from olive mill waste was followed by Gas Chromatography–Mass spectrometry, Gas chromatography- olfactometry and Spectrum Sensory Analysis ®. As a result, 1.73-log and 3.23-log cfu/mL increases were observed in the microbial populations of R. oryzae and C. tropicalis during shake cultures, respectively. C. tropicalis can produce a higher concentration of d-limonene from olive mill waste than R. oryzae in shake cultures. The concentration of d-limonene was determined as 185.56 and 249.54 µg/kg in the fermented olive mill waste by R. oryzae and C. tropicalis in shake cultures respectively. In contrast, R. oryzae can produce a higher concentration of d-limonene (87.73 µg/kg) d-limonene than C. tropicalis (11.95 µg/kg) in bioreactor cultures. Based on sensory analysis, unripe olive, wet towel, sweet aromatic, fermented aromas were determined at high intensity in olive mill waste fermented with R. oryzae meanwhile olive mill waste fermented with C. tropicalis had only a high intensity of unripe olive and oily aroma.


Subject(s)
Rhizopus/metabolism , Candida tropicalis/metabolism , Olea/metabolism , Flavoring Agents/metabolism , Industrial Waste , Terpenes/metabolism , Biotechnology/methods , Colony Count, Microbial , Cyclohexenes/metabolism , Fermentation , Olfactometry , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
14.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 25: 39-42, ene. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008418

ABSTRACT

Background: Invert sugar is used greatly in food and pharmaceutical industries. This paper describes scaling-up batch conditions for sucrose inversion catalyzed by the recombinant Pichia pastoris BfrA4X whole cells expressing Thermotoga maritima invertase entrapped in calcium alginate beads. For the first time, we describe the application of a kinetic model to predict the fractional conversion expected during sucrose hydrolysis reaction in both, a model and a prototype bioreactor with 0.5- and 5-L working volume, respectively. Results: Different scaled-up criteria used to operate the 0.5-L bioreactor were analyzed to explore the invert sugar large scale production. After model inversion studies, a 5-L scaled-up reaction system was performed in a 7-L stirred reactor. Both scaled-up criteria, immobilized biocatalyst dosage and stirring speed, were analyzed in each type of bioreactors and the collected data were used to ensure an efficient scale-up of this biocatalyst. Conclusions: To date, there is not enough information to describe the large-scale production of invert sugar using different scaled-up criteria such as dose of immobilized biocatalyst and stirring speed effect on mass transfer. The present study results constitute a valuable tool to successfully carry out this type of high-scale operation for industrial purposes.


Subject(s)
Pichia/metabolism , Sucrose/metabolism , Biotechnology/methods , Pichia/cytology , Sucrose/chemistry , Kinetics , Bioreactors , Thermotoga maritima/enzymology , Alginates , Enzymes, Immobilized , Biocatalysis , Hydrolysis
15.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(1): 1-9, Jan.-Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-775132

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study was conducted to isolate an acid-producing, alkaliphilic bacterium to reduce the alkalinity of cement industry waste (cement kiln dust). Gram-positive isolate KG1 grew well at pH values of 6–12, temperatures of 28–50 °C, and NaCl concentrations of 0–16% and thus was further screened for its potential to reduce the pH of an alkaline medium. Phenotypic characteristics of the KG1 isolate were consistent with those of the genus Bacillus, and the highest level of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity was found with Bacillus halodurans strain DSM 497 (94.7%). On the basis of its phenotypic characteristics and genotypic distinctiveness from other phylogenetic neighbors belonging to alkaliphilic Bacillus species, the isolated strain was designated B. halodurans strain KG1, with GenBank accession number JQ307184 (= NCIM 5439). Isolate KG1 reduced the alkalinity (by 83.64%) and the chloride content (by 86.96%) of cement kiln dust and showed a potential to be used in the cement industry for a variety of applications.


Subject(s)
Bacillus/growth & development , Bacillus/metabolism , Biotechnology/methods , Industrial Waste , Waste Management/methods , Bacterial Typing Techniques , Bacillus/classification , Bacillus/isolation & purification , Cluster Analysis , Construction Materials , DNA, Bacterial/chemistry , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny , /genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Sodium Chloride/metabolism , Temperature
16.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(2): 323-335, Apr-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-749727

ABSTRACT

To achieve economically competitive biological hydrogen production, it is crucial to consider inexpensive materials such as lignocellulosic substrate residues derived from agroindustrial activities. It is possible to use (1) lignocellulosic materials without any type of pretreatment, (2) lignocellulosic materials after a pretreatment step, and (3) lignocellulosic materials hydrolysates originating from a pretreatment step followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. According to the current literature data on fermentative H2 production presented in this review, thermophilic conditions produce H2 in yields approximately 75% higher than those obtained in mesophilic conditions using untreated lignocellulosic substrates. The average H2 production from pretreated material is 3.17 ± 1.79 mmol of H2/g of substrate, which is approximately 50% higher compared with the average yield achieved using untreated materials (2.17 ± 1.84 mmol of H2/g of substrate). Biological pretreatment affords the highest average yield 4.54 ± 1.78 mmol of H2/g of substrate compared with the acid and basic pretreatment - average yields of 2.94 ± 1.85 and 2.41 ± 1.52 mmol of H2/g of substrate, respectively. The average H2 yield from hydrolysates, obtained from a pretreatment step and enzymatic hydrolysis (3.78 ± 1.92 mmol of H2/g), was lower compared with the yield of substrates pretreated by biological methods only, demonstrating that it is important to avoid the formation of inhibitors generated by chemical pretreatments. Based on this review, exploring other microorganisms and optimizing the pretreatment and hydrolysis conditions can make the use of lignocellulosic substrates a sustainable way to produce H2.


Subject(s)
Hydrogen/metabolism , Lignin/metabolism , Agriculture , Biotransformation , Biotechnology/methods , Fermentation , Industrial Waste
17.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(2): 337-346, Apr-Jun/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-749736

ABSTRACT

Proteases hydrolyze the peptide bonds of proteins into peptides and amino acids, being found in all living organisms, and are essential for cell growth and differentiation. Proteolytic enzymes have potential application in a wide number of industrial processes such as food, laundry detergent and pharmaceutical. Proteases from microbial sources have dominated applications in industrial sectors. Fungal proteases are used for hydrolyzing protein and other components of soy beans and wheat in soy sauce production. Proteases can be produced in large quantities in a short time by established methods of fermentation. The parameters such as variation in C/N ratio, presence of some sugars, besides several other physical factors are important in the development of fermentation process. Proteases of fungal origin can be produced cost effectively, have an advantage faster production, the ease with which the enzymes can be modified and mycelium can be easily removed by filtration. The production of proteases has been carried out using submerged fermentation, but conditions in solid state fermentation lead to several potential advantages for the production of fungal enzymes. This review focuses on the production of fungal proteases, their distribution, structural-functional aspects, physical and chemical parameters, and the use of these enzymes in industrial applications.


Subject(s)
Biotechnology/methods , Fungi/enzymology , Peptide Hydrolases/isolation & purification , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism
18.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(1): 49-57, 05/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748247

ABSTRACT

Bauhinia forficata is native to South America and used with relative success in the folk medicine in Brazil. The diversity, antibacterial activity, and extracellular hydrolytic enzymes of endophytic fungi associated with this plant were studied. Plant samples, which included leaves, sepals, stems, and seeds, were used. Ninety-five endophytic fungal were isolated (18 from leaves, 22 from sepals, 46 from stems, and nine from seeds), comprising 28 species. The most frequently isolated species were Acremonium curvulum (9.5%), Aspergillus ochraceus (7.37%), Gibberella fujikuroi (10.53%), Myrothecium verrucaria (10.53%) and Trichoderma piluliferum (7.37%). Diversity and species richness were higher in stem tissues, and Sorensen’s index of similarity between the tissues was low. Eleven fungi showed antibacterial activity. Aspergillus ochraceus, Gibberella baccata, Penicillium commune, and P. glabrum were those with the greatest antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and/or Streptococcus pyogenes. Thirteen species showed proteolytic activity, particularly Phoma putaminum. Fourteen species were cellulase positive, particularly the Penicillium species and Myrmecridium schulzeri. All isolates tested were xylanase positive and 10 showed lipolytic activity, especially Penicillium glabrum. It is clear that the endophytic fungi from B. forficata have potential for the production of bioactive compounds and may be a source of new therapeutic agents for the effective treatment of diseases in humans, other animals, and plants. To our knowledge, this is the first study of endophytic fungi from different tissues of B. forficata and their biotechnological potential.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/metabolism , Biodiversity , Bauhinia/microbiology , Endophytes/classification , Fungi/metabolism , Hydrolases/metabolism , Plants, Medicinal/microbiology , Brazil , Bacteria/drug effects , Biological Products/metabolism , Biotechnology/methods , Endophytes/isolation & purification , Endophytes/metabolism , Fungi/classification , Fungi/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , South America , Technology, Pharmaceutical/methods
19.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(3): 892-901, July-Sept. 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-727018

ABSTRACT

In response to demand from industry for microorganisms with auspicious biotechnological potential, a worldwide interest has developed in bacteria and fungi isolation. Microorganisms of interesting metabolic properties include non-pathogenic bacteria of the genus Clostridium, particularly C. acetobutylicum, C. butyricum and C. pasteurianum. A well-known property of C. butyricum is their ability to produce butyric acid, as well as effectively convert glycerol to 1,3-propanediol (38.2 g/L). A conversion rate of 0.66 mol 1,3-propanediol/mol of glycerol has been obtained. Results of the studies described in the present paper broaden our knowledge of characteristic features of C. butyricum specific isolates in terms of their phylogenetic affiliation, fermentation capacity and antibacterial properties.


Subject(s)
Biotechnology/methods , Butyric Acid/metabolism , Clostridium butyricum/metabolism , Glycerol/metabolism , Industrial Microbiology , Propylene Glycols/metabolism , Biotransformation , Cluster Analysis , Clostridium butyricum/classification , Clostridium butyricum/growth & development , Clostridium butyricum/isolation & purification , DNA, Bacterial/chemistry , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Phylogeny , /genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA
20.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Jul; 52(7): 748-754
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153755

ABSTRACT

The two commercially important apple rootstocks i.e., MM106 and B9 were micropropagated using a liquid culture system. Three different strengths of 0.8% agar solidified PGR free basal MS medium were first tested to optimize the culture media for both the rootstocks. Full strength medium (MS0) supported maximum in vitro growth, multiplication, rooting and survival under field conditions as opposed to quarter and half strength media. When three different volumes of liquid MS0 were tested, highest in vitro growth, multiplication, rooting and also survival under field conditions were achieved in 20 mL liquid MS0. The cost of one litre of liquid medium was also reduced by 8 times to Rs. 6.29 as compared to solid medium. The cost of 20 mL medium was further reduced to Rs. 0.125.


Subject(s)
Biotechnology/economics , Biotechnology/methods , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Culture Media , Culture Techniques/methods , Malus/drug effects , Malus/growth & development , Plant Growth Regulators/pharmacology , Plant Roots/drug effects , Plant Roots/growth & development
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