Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 9 de 9
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935281


Objective: To investigate the influence and critical windows of prenatal exposure to pyrethroid pesticides (PYRs) on neurodevelopment of 2-year-old children. Methods: The subjects of this study were derived from the Xuanwei Birth Cohort. A total of 482 pregnant women who participated in the rural district of Xuanwei birth cohort from January 2016 to December 2018 were included. Maternal urinary concentrations of PYRs metabolites during 8-12 gestational weeks, 20-23 gestational weeks and 32-35 gestational weeks were measured with ultra high performance liquid chromatography system coupled with a tandem mass spectrometry detector. Child neurodevelopment was evaluated with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-Third Edition at 2 years of age. Multivariate linear regression models and binary logistic regression models were used to assess the association between PYRs exposure during pregnancy and children's neurodevelopment. Results: A total of 360 mother-child pairs had complete data on maternal urinary PYRs metabolites detection and children's neurodevelopment assessment. The detection rate of any one PYRs metabolites during the first, second and third trimester were 93.6% (337/360), 90.8% (327/360) and 94.2% (339/360), respectively. The neurodevelopmental scores of Cognitive, Language, Motor, Social-Emotional, and Adaptive Behavior of 2-year-old children were (102.3±18.9), (100.2±16.3), (102.0±20.3), (107.8±23.3) and (85.8±18.6) points, respectively. After controlling for confounding factors, 4-fluoro-3-phenoxybenzoic acid (4F3PBA, one of PYRs metabolites) exposure in the first trimester reduced Motor (β=-5.02, 95%CI: -9.08, -0.97) and Adaptive Behavior (β=-4.12, 95%CI:-7.92, -0.32) scores of 2-year-old children, and increased risk of developmental delay of adaptive behavior (OR=2.07, 95%CI:1.13-3.82). Conclusion: PYRs exposure during the first trimester of pregnancy may affect neurodevelopment of 2-year-old children, and the first trimester may be the critical window.

Birth Cohort , Child Development , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Pesticides/adverse effects , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Trimester, Third , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/chemically induced , Pyrethrins/metabolism
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 1096-1101, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-952413


Objective: To describe the epidemic characteristics of esophageal cancer mortality in Qidong from 1972 to 2016, and to provide baseline for making control measures and strategies for prevention. Methods: The cancer registry data were collected and analyzed on mortality of oesophagus cancer during 1972-2016 in Qidong in different sex, age and time. Indices of statistics included crude mortality rate (CR), China age-standardized rate (CASR), world age-standardized rate (WASR), 35-64 years truncated rate, 0-74 years cumulative rate, cumulative risk, average annual percentage change (AAPC), mortality by period and mortality in the birth cohort. Results: A total of 4 795 esophageal cancer cases (male: 3 315, female: 1 480) died during the 45 years, accounting for 4.85% of all cancer deaths. The crude mortality was 9.48/10(5) (CASR: 3.62/10(5,) WASR: 6.30/10(5)) from 1972 to 2016. The crude mortality was significantly increased with age. In 2016, the crude mortality was 11.61/10(5) (CASR: 2.64/10(5,) WASR: 4.89/10(5)), respectively. The average annual percentage change (AAPC) were 0.99%、-2.03%、-1.72%. The mortalities of esophageal cancer in all age groups from 35 to 74 have been decreasing since the 1980s. The age-birth cohort analysis showed a decline in mortality rates in age groups from 40 to 79. Conclusions: The crude mortality rate of esophageal cancer increases slightly in Qidong, while the China age-standardized rate and world age-standardized rate decrease significantly. However, esophageal cancer is still one of the malignant tumors that affects the health of residents and seriously threatens the people's lives and health. The situation of cancer prevention and control is still serious in Qidong.

Male , Humans , Female , Esophageal Neoplasms , China/epidemiology , Registries , Cohort Studies , Birth Cohort , Incidence , Rural Population , Mortality , Urban Population
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-949825


OBJECTIVES@#The prevalence rate of sleep problems in children in China is increasing in recent years. There are inconsistencies in the relationship between physical activity and sleep, and the impact of screen time on young children seems more obvious.This study aims to understand the current situation of outdoor activity time, screen time and sleep (total sleep duration, bedtime, and wake-up time) and the associations between outdoor activity time and screen time with sleep for children aged 36-54 months in Kaifu District of Changsha.@*METHODS@#Using the cluster sampling method, 1 286 newborns delivered in 3 community health service centers in Kaifu District, Changsha from January to December 2015 were selected as the research subjects to establish a prospective birth cohort. According self-designed questionnaire and household follow-up to select 36, 42, 48, 54 months Children's data. The mixed linear model was used to explore the associations of outdoor activity time and screen time with sleep.@*RESULTS@#The 36-54 months children's total sleep duration was decreased from 11.60 h/d to 10.92 h/d (P<0.001); bedtime time delayed from 21:58 to 22:00 (P=0.124); wake-up time advanced from 7:52 to 7:37 (P<0.001); outdoor activity time was decreased from 2.58 h/d to 1.94 h/d (P<0.001), and screen time was decreased from 1.28 h/d to 1.09 h/d (P<0.001). With aging, the prevalence of sleep <10 h/d and outdoor activity time <2 h/d was increased significantly, and the prevalence of screen time ≥1 h/d was decreased (P<0.05). Mixed linear models showed that longer outdoor activity time was related to increased total sleep duration (β=0.22, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.44) and delayed wake-up time (β=0.16, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.32), and longer screen time was related to delayed bedtime (β=0.22, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.39) and wake-up time (β=0.24, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.41). These associations were different in gender. Longer outdoor activity time was related to delayed wake-up time (β=0.37, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.59) in boys, but not in girls (β=-0.16, 95% CI -0.33 to 0.01). Longer screen time was associated with delayed bedtime (β=0.40, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.63) and wake-up time (β=0.33, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.51) in girls, but only related to delayed wake-up time (β=0.29, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.52) in boys, and the degree of association was lower than that of girls.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Among children aged 36-54 months in Kaifu District, Changsha, there are problems including going to bed late and getting up late, insufficient physical activity, and long screen time. Outdoor activity time and screen time are related to sleep. Increasing outdoor activity time and reducing screen time can help to improve children's sleep.

Infant, Newborn , Male , Child , Female , Humans , Child, Preschool , Screen Time , Cohort Studies , Birth Cohort , Prospective Studies , Sleep
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 27(7): 2729-2740, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, MMyP | ID: biblio-1384425


Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the association of sociodemographic factors, lifestyle, maternal reproductive profile and prenatal and childbirth care with neonatal near miss (NNM) morbidity in four birth cohorts. This study involved four population-based birth cohorts: Ribeirão Preto (RP) and São Luís (SL) (2010), Pelotas 2004 (PEL04) and 2015 (PEL15). NNM was defined when one or more of the following conditions were present: birthweight <1,500 g, 5-minute Apgar score <7, gestational age <32 weeks, and report of congenital malformations. The covariates were obtained with questionnaires applied to the puerperal women. Some particularities between cohorts were identified. In the RP and SL cohorts, factors of the more distal levels (sociodemographic, lifestyle, and reproductive profile) were associated with NNM. On the other hand, proximal factors related to healthcare were more significant for the occurrence of NNM in PEL. Only the absence of prenatal care was associated with NNM in all cohorts: RP (OR=4.27, 95%CI 2.16-8.45), SL (OR=2.32, 95%CI 1.09-4.94), PEL04 (OR=4.79, 95%CI 1.59-14.46), and PEL15 (OR=5.10, 95%CI 2.60-9.97).

Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a associação entre fatores sociodemográficos, estilo de vida, perfil reprodutivo maternos e atenção pré-natal e ao parto com a morbidade near miss neonatal (NMN), em quatro coortes de nascimento. Este estudo envolveu quatro coortes de nascimento: Ribeirão Preto (RP) e São Luís (SL) (2010), Pelotas 2004 (PEL04) e 2015 (PEL15). Foi considerado NMN quando presente uma ou mais das seguintes condições: peso ao nascer <1.500g, índice de Apgar <7 no quinto minuto de vida, idade gestacional <32 semanas e relato de malformações congênitas. As covariáveis foram obtidas por meio de questionários aplicados às puérperas. Para análise, foi utilizada regressão logística múltipla com abordagem hierarquizada. Algumas particularidades entre as coortes foram verificadas. Nas coortes de RP e SL foram observadas associações dos fatores dos níveis mais distais (sociodemográficas, estilo de vida e perfil reprodutivo) com o NMN. Por outro lado, em PEL os fatores proximais relacionados à atenção à saúde foram mais significativos para ocorrência de NMN. Apenas a não realização do pré-natal associou-se ao NMN em todas as coortes: RP (OR=4,27, IC95% 2,16-8,45), SL (OR=2,32, IC95% 1,09-4,94), PEL04 (OR=4,79, IC95% 1,59-14,46) e PEL15 (OR=5,10, IC95% 2,60-9,97).

Infant Mortality , Near Miss, Healthcare , Prenatal Care , Brazil , Maternal and Child Health , Birth Cohort , Sociodemographic Factors , Life Style
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 56: 79, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1395087


ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Assessing the regular consumption of ultra-processed foods by children at 24 months of age from the 2015 Pelotas Birth Cohort and the main demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral factors related to the consumption of these products. METHODS Population-based cohort in the city of Pelotas, RS, where 4,275 children were assessed at birth and 95.4% of them were followed up until 24 months of age. Food consumption was assessed by a questionnaire on regular consumption of ultra-processed foods, which collected information regarding sex, household income, maternal skin color, schooling level, and age, the child attending day care and having siblings, breastfeeding status, and obesity. The outcome was the sum of ultra-processed foods regularly consumed by a child. A multivariate Poisson regression analysis was used to calculate the association between the regular consumption of ultra-processed foods and exposure variables. RESULTS The mean number of ultra-processed foods consumed was 4.8 (SD = 2.3). The regular consumption of ultra-processed foods was positively associated with black skin color and having siblings, and negatively associated with household income and maternal schooling level and age. CONCLUSION The mean regular consumption of ultra-processed foods by children from the 2015 Pelotas Birth Cohort is high, which can negatively affect the children's diet. The risk of consuming this kind of food was higher among children from families of lower socioeconomic status, whose mothers present lower education level, black skin color, and younger age.

RESUMO OBJETIVO Avaliar o consumo habitual de alimentos ultraprocessados aos 24 meses de idade por crianças pertencentes à Coorte de Nascimentos de Pelotas de 2015 e os principais fatores demográficos, socioeconômicos e comportamentais relacionados ao consumo desses produtos. MÉTODOS Coorte de base populacional na cidade de Pelotas-RS, onde foram avaliadas 4.275 crianças ao nascimento, das quais 95,4% foram acompanhadas até os 24 meses. O consumo alimentar foi avaliado por meio de um questionário de consumo habitual de alimentos ultraprocessados, coletando informações sobre sexo, renda familiar, cor da pele, escolaridade e idade da mãe, frequentar creche, ter irmãos, status de amamentação e obesidade. O desfecho foi a somatória de alimentos ultraprocessados consumidos habitualmente pela criança. Análise multivariada por regressão de Poisson foi utilizada para estimar a associação entre consumo habitual de alimentos ultraprocessados e as variáveis de exposição. RESULTADOS O número médio de alimentos ultraprocessados consumidos habitualmente foi de 4,8 (DP = 2,3). O consumo habitual de alimentos ultraprocessados foi associado positivamente à cor da pele preta e ter irmãos e negativamente associado com renda familiar, escolaridade e idade materna. CONCLUSÕES A média de consumo habitual de alimentos ultraprocessados por crianças pertencentes à Coorte de Nascimentos de 2015 da cidade de Pelotas é elevada, o que pode causar um efeito negativo na dieta das crianças. O risco de consumo desses alimentos foi maior entre crianças de famílias de menor posição socioeconômica, filhas de mães de baixa escolaridade, de cor da pele preta, mais jovens e de baixa renda.

Child, Preschool , Socioeconomic Factors , Child , Demography , Eating , Birth Cohort , Food, Processed
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 38(7): e00168021, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394187


A utilização indiscriminada de antibacterianos no período gestacional pode aumentar a resistência antimicrobiana e colocar em risco a saúde da gestante e da criança. Atualmente, está em vigência no Brasil a Resolução da Diretoria Colegiada nº 20/2011, que controla a prescrição e fornecimento de antibacterianos. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar o uso de antibacterianos pelas gestantes participantes das coortes de nascimentos de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, de 2004 e 2015, considerando a regulamentação implementada entre as duas coortes. Foram utilizados dados coletados no período perinatal dos dois estudos. O desfecho principal foi o uso de antibacterianos na gestação. As prevalências de uso foram descritas a partir de variáveis independentes e diferenças em pontos percentuais (p.p.) entre as duas coortes. A prevalência do uso de antibacterianos foi de 41,9% (IC95%: 40,4; 43,3) em 2004 e 39,2% (IC95%: 37,7; 40,6) em 2015. Considerando-se as gestantes que relataram ter infecção durante a gestação, observou-se maior redução de uso em 2015, quando comparado a 2004, nas gestantes mais pobres (-15,4p.p., IC95%: 9,59; 21,20) e naquelas que foram a menos consultas (-17,1p.p., IC95%: 2,81; 31,36). Houve redução na proporção de antibacterianos usados, considerando o total de medicamentos de 20,6% (IC95%: 19,9; 21,4) em 2004 para 12,6% (IC95%: 12,1; 13,1) em 2015. As reduções encontradas, tanto nas prevalências de uso quanto na proporção dos antibacterianos sobre o total de medicamentos utilizados, podem ser reflexo da política de regulamentação implementada em 2011.

Indiscriminate use of anti-bacterial agents during pregnancy can increase antimicrobial resistance and endanger both the mother's and the children's health. Currently, Brazil has the Collegiate Directive Resolution n. 20/2011, which controls prescription and dispensation of anti-bacterial agents. Given this scenario, this study compared the use of anti-bacterial agents by pregnant women participating in the 2004 and 2015 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohorts, in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, considering the regulation issued between the two cohorts. Data were collected in the perinatal period of the two studies. The main outcome was the use of anti-bacterial agents during pregnancy. Prevalence scans were described based on independent variables and differences in percentage points (p.p.) between the two cohorts. The prevalence of anti-bacterial use was 41.9% (95%CI: 40.4; 43.3) in 2004 and 39.2% (95%CI: 37.7; 40.6) in 2015. Considering the pregnant women who reported having infection during pregnancy, a greater reduction in use was observed in 2015, when compared to 2004, in poor women (-15.4p.p., 95%CI: 9.59; 21.20) and in those who had less consultations (-17.1p.p., 95%CI: 2.81; 31.36). Considering total medications, the proportion of anti-bacterial used dropped from 20.6% (95%CI: 19.9; 21.4) in 2004 to 12.6% (95%CI: 12.1; 13.1) in 2015. The reductions found in both the prevalence of use and the proportion of anti-bacterial agents over total medications used may be a reflection of the regulatory policy implemented in 2011.

El uso indiscriminado de antibacterianos durante el embarazo puede aumentar la resistencia a los antimicrobianos y poner en riesgo la salud de la gestante y del niño. Actualmente, está vigente en Brasil la Resolución de la Dirección Colegiada nº 20/2011, que controla la prescripción y dispensación de antibacterianos. El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar el uso de antibacterianos por gestantes participantes de las cohortes de nacimientos de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, del 2004 y del 2015, considerando la regulación implementada entre las dos cohortes. Se utilizaron los datos recopilados en el período perinatal de los dos estudios. El resultado principal fue el uso de antibacterianos durante el embarazo. Las prevalencias de uso se describieron con base en las variables independientes y diferencias en puntos porcentuales (p.p.) entre las dos cohortes. La prevalencia de uso de antibacterianos fue del 41,9% (IC95%: 40,4; 43,3) en el 2004 y del 39,2% (IC95%: 37,7; 40,6) en el 2015. Teniendo en cuenta que las gestantes que reportaron haber tenido infección durante el embarazo, hubo una mayor reducción de uso en el 2015, en comparación con el 2004, en las gestantes más pobres (-15,4p.p., IC95%: 9,59; 21,20) y en las que consultaron menos (-17,1p.p., IC95% 2,81;31,36). Hubo una reducción en la proporción de antibacterianos usados, considerando la cantidad total de medicamentos del 20,6% (IC95%: 19,9; 21,4) en el 2004 al 12,6% (IC95%: 12,1; 13,1) en el 2015. Las reducciones encontradas, tanto en las prevalencias de uso como en la proporción de antibacterianos sobre la cantidad total de medicamentos utilizados, pueden ser reflejo de la política regulatoria implementada en el 2011.

Humans , Child , Pregnant Women , Birth Cohort , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 38(7): e00180221, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384275


Nas investigações dos determinantes da duração do aleitamento materno exclusivo (AME), a variável trabalho materno remunerado é quase sempre dicotomizada em não e sim. Este estudo analisa possíveis associações entre características da ocupação materna e menor duração do AME. Foi realizado um estudo de coorte em uma amostra sistemática de nascimentos do Município de São Luís (Maranhão, Brasil) em 2010. As exposições tipo de ocupação materna, números de dias trabalhados/semana e de horas trabalhadas/dia, trabalha em pé a maior parte do tempo e levanta objetos pesados nesse trabalho foram coletadas com 5.166 mães de nascidos vivos. A amostra final desse estudo teve 3.268 observações. Foi utilizada análise de sobrevida para testar associações entre as exposições e os desfechos AME até 4 meses (AME4) e AME até 6 meses (AME6). Não ter trabalho remunerado foi a categoria de referência. Regressões ajustadas de Cox mostraram que mães com ocupações manuais semiespecializadas (intervalo de 95% de confiança, IC95%: 1,02-1,58 para AME4 e IC95%: 1,11-1,56 para AME6) e mães que trabalhavam 8 ou mais horas diárias (IC95%: 1,01-1,36 para AME4 e IC95%: 1,11-1,41 para AME6) mais frequentemente interromperam AME. Mães com ocupações em funções de escritório (IC95%: 1,07-1,46), que trabalhavam 4-5 dias (IC95%: 1,01-1,36) ou 6-7 dias/semana (IC95%: 1,09-1,40) e por 5-7 horas (IC95%: 1,03-1,43) também praticaram menos AME6. Trabalhar (IC95%: 1,08-1,40) ou não (IC95%: 1,03-1,34) em pé a maior parte do tempo e levantar (IC95%: 1,07-1,56) ou não (IC95%: 1,06-1,33) objetos pesados no trabalho diminuíram a duração de AME6. Tipos de ocupação e de jornada de trabalho interferiram mais frequentemente na duração de AME6.

In investigations determining the duration of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), the variable paid maternal work is mostly dichotomized into no and yes. This study analyzes possible associations between the characteristics of maternal occupation and shorter EBF duration. A cohort study was conducted in a systematic sample of births in the city of São Luís (State of Maranhão, Brazil), in 2010. The variables type of maternal occupation, numbers of days worked/week and hours worked/day, if they work while standing for most of the time, and if they lift heavy objects at work were collected with 5,166 mothers of live births. The final sample of this study had 3,268 observations. Survival analysis was used to evaluate associations between variables and EBF outcomes up to 4 months (EBF4) and EBF up to 6 months (EBF6). Not having paid work was the reference category. Adjusted Cox regressions showed that mothers with semi-specialized manual work (95% confidence interval, 95%CI: 1.02-1.58 for EBF4 and 95%CI: 1.11-1.56 for EBF6) and mothers who worked 8 or more hours daily (95%CI: 1.01-1.36 for AME4 and 95%CI: 1.11-1.41 for ESA6) more frequently discontinued EBF. Mothers with in-office occupations (95%CI: 1.07-1.46), who worked 4-5 days (95%CI: 1.01-1.36) or 6-7 days/week (95%CI: 1.09-1.40) and for 5-7 hours (95%CI: 1.03-1.43) also practiced less EBF6. Working (95%CI: 1.08-1.40) or not (95%CI: 1.03-1.34) while standing for most of the workday and lifting (95%CI: 1.07-1.56) or not (95%CI: 1.06-1.33) heavy objects at work decreased the duration of EBF6. Types of occupation and working time interfered more frequently in the duration of EBF6.

En las investigaciones sobre los determinantes de la duración de la lactancia materna exclusiva (LME), la variable trabajo materno remunerado casi siempre se dicotomiza en no y sí. Este estudio analiza las posibles asociaciones entre las características de la ocupación materna y la menor duración de la LME. Se realizó un estudio de cohorte sobre una muestra sistemática de nacimientos en el Municipio de São Luís (Maranhão, Brasil), en el 2010. Se recopilaron las exposiciones tipo de ocupación materna, número de días trabajados/semana y horas trabajadas/día, trabajo de pie la mayor parte del tiempo y levantamiento de objetos pesados en el trabajo con 5.166 madres de nacidos vivos. La muestra final de este estudio contó con 3.268 observaciones. Se utilizó el análisis de sobrevida para probar las asociaciones entre las exposiciones y los desenlaces LME hasta 4 meses (LME4) y LME hasta 6 meses (LME6). No tener trabajo remunerado fue la categoría de referencia. Las regresiones ajustadas de Cox mostraron que las madres con ocupaciones manuales semiespecializadas (intervalo del 95% de confianza, IC95%: 1,02-1,58 para LME4 y IC95%: 1,11-1,56 para LME6) y las madres que trabajaban 8 horas o más al día (IC95%: 1,01-1,36 para LME4 y IC95%: 1,11-1,41 para LME6) interrumpieron con más frecuencia la LME. Las madres con ocupaciones en funciones de oficina (IC95%: 1,07-1,46), que trabajaban 4-5 días (IC95%: 1,01-1,36) o 6-7 días/semana (IC95%: 1,09-1,40) y durante 5-7 horas (IC95%: 1,03-1,43) también redujeron la LME6. Trabajar (IC95%: 1,08-1,40) o no (IC95%: 1,03-1,34) estar de pie la mayor parte del tiempo y levantar (IC95%: 1,07-1,56) o no (IC95%: 1,06-1,33) objetos pesados en el trabajo redujo la duración de la LME6. Los tipos de ocupación y la jornada laboral interfirieron con mayor frecuencia en la duración de la LME6.

Humans , Female , Infant , Breast Feeding , Birth Cohort , Brazil , Cohort Studies , Mothers , Occupations
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 38(3): e00117221, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374806


Medication use is an important part of the health process and prevalence of its use among infants can reach up to 65% in their first months of life. The excessive use of medication could lead to an increase in their potential harm, surpassing their benefits. Considering this, this study aimed to describe medication use in children aged 3, 12, 24, and 48 months. Standardized questionnaires were applied to assess patterns and covariables of medication use. Medication use was investigated as an outcome and defined as the receipt of any medication within 15 days before the interview. Prevalence of medication use and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were described using chi-squared tests. Prescription source and frequency of use were also reported, along with the most frequent medication in each follow-up. Medication use prevalence was 67.2% (95%CI: 65.8; 68.6), 68.2% (95%CI: 66.8; 69.6), 52.4% (95%CI: 50.9; 54.0), 47.2% (95%CI: 45.7; 48.8), at 3, 12, 24, and 48 months, respectively. We observed a decrease in the proportion of medically prescribed medications and an increase in self-medication over the years. Drugs for gastrointestinal disorders (A03), vitamins (A11), analgesics (N02), anti-inflammatories (M01), and nasal formulations (R01) were the most frequently used medications. We found that children under four years of age comprised over 50% of the total use of medications and self-medication. These results highlight the need to warn caregivers on the importance of proper professional examination and prescription before they administer medications to children.

O uso de medicação é parte importante do processo de saúde, e a prevalência de uso entre lactentes pode chegar a 65% nos primeiros meses de vida. O uso excessivo de medicação pode levar a um aumento dos danos potenciais em relação aos benefícios. Levando isso em conta, o estudo atual buscou descrever o uso de medicação em crianças aos 3, 12, 24 e 48 meses. Foram aplicados questionários padronizados para avaliar os padrões de uso de medicação e covariáveis. O uso de medicação foi investigado enquanto desfecho, e definido como história de ter recebido qualquer medicação nos 15 dias anteriores à entrevista. A prevalência do uso de medicação e os intervalos de 95% de confiança (IC95%) foram descritos através do teste de qui-quadrado. Também foram relatadas a fonte da prescrição e a frequência de uso, junto com a medicação mais frequente em cada consulta. A prevalência do uso de medicação foi de 67,2% (IC95%: 65,8; 68,6), 68,2% (IC95%: 66,8; 69,6), 52,4% (IC95%: 50,9; 54,0) e 47,2% (IC95%: 45,7; 48,8), aos 3, 12, 24 e 48 meses, respectivamente. Ao longo dos anos, foram observados uma diminuição na proporção de medicamentos com prescrição médica e um aumento na automedicação (indicação pelos pais ou responsáveis). Os medicamentos mais frequentes eram para transtornos gastrointestinais (A03), vitaminas (A11), analgésicos (N02), anti-inflamatórios (M01) e formulações nasais (R01). Encontramos mais de 50% de uso total e de automedicação (indicação pelos pais/responsáveis) em crianças abaixo de 4 anos de idade. Os resultados destacam a necessidade de alertar os cuidadores sobre a importância do exame profissional e prescrição adequados antes da administração de medicamentos a crianças.

El consumo de medicamentos es una parte importante del proceso de salud y la prevalencia de su uso entre bebés puede llegar a un 65% durante los primeros meses de vida. El excesivo consumo de medicamentos podría conducir a un incremento en sus perjuicios potenciales frente a sus beneficios. Teniendo esto en cuenta, el objetivo de este estudio fue describir el uso de la medicación en niños de 3, 12, 24, y 48 meses. Se aplicaron cuestionarios estandarizados para evaluar los patrones de uso de la medicación y sus covariables. Se investigó el uso de la medicación como un resultado y se definió como haber recibido alguna medicación en los últimos 15 días antes de la entrevista. Se describieron la prevalencia del IC95%uso de la medicación y los intervalos de 95% de confianza (IC95%), usando tests chi-cuadrado. También se informó de la fuente de prescripción y frecuencia del consumo, junto a la medicación más frecuente en cada seguimiento. La prevalencia en el uso de la medicación fue de un 67,2% (IC95%: 65,8; 68,6), 68,2% (IC95%: 66,8; 69,6), 52,4% (IC95%: 50,9; 54,0), 47,2% (IC95%: 45,7; 48,8), a los 3, 12, 24, y 48 meses, respectivamente. Se observó una disminución en la proporción de medicamentos recetados médicamente y un incremento en la automedicación a lo largo de los años. Los medicamentos más frecuentemente usados fueron los destinados para desórdenes gastrointestinales (A03), vitaminas (A11), analgésicos (N02), antiinflamatorios (M01), y preparados nasales (R01). Descubrimos que más de un 50% del total y automedicación en el consumo de medicinas en niños menores de 4 años. Estos resultados subrayan la necesidad de avisar a los cuidadores sobre la importancia de un examen profesional apropiado y la receta antes de la administración del medicamento a niños.

Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Self Medication , Birth Cohort , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires
Rev. bras. estud. popul ; 39: e0209, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387860


Analisamos comparativamente informes demográficos de qualidade aceitável acerca dos escravizados nascidos na África para Minas Gerais, São Paulo e Maranhão de 1804 a 1848. As parcelas dos nascidos na África em relação aos escravizados e às razões de sexo de todos os cativos, de acordo com as idades, auxiliaram-nos a remontar a dinâmica retrospectiva da chegada dos africanos às regiões. Supondo certas hipóteses e procedimentos, a partir das coortes etárias, estimamos as proporções de africanos e as razões de sexo da população cativa para os períodos anteriores aos das listas nominativas de habitantes. A dinâmica retrospectiva da introdução de africanos reconstruída mostrou-se bastante correlacionada à história econômica das diferentes regiões estudadas.

We compare the surviving enslaved people present in demographic censuses of acceptable quality for Minas Gerais, São Paulo and Maranhão from 1804 to 1848. The share of those born in Africa in relation to slaves and the sex ratio of all captives according to their ages helped us find the retrospective dynamics of the arrival of Africans to these regions. When using age cohorts, we estimate, assuming certain hypotheses and procedures, the proportions of Africans and the sex ratios of the captive population for periods prior to those of the nominative lists of inhabitants. The retrospective dynamics of the reconstructed introduction of these Africans proved to be closely correlated with the economic history of the different regions analyzed.

Analizamos comparativamente a los sobrevivientes esclavizados presentes en los informes demográficos evaluados como de calidad aceptable para Minas Gerais, São Paulo y Maranhão entre 1804 y 1848. La proporción de los nacidos en África en relación con los esclavizados y la proporción de sexos de todos los cautivos, según las edades, nos ayudaron a trazar la dinámica retrospectiva de la llegada de africanos a estas regiones. Utilizando las cohortes de edad, estimamos, asumiendo ciertas hipótesis y procedimientos, las proporciones de africanos y las proporciones de sexos de la población cautiva para períodos anteriores a las listas nominativas de habitantes. La dinámica retrospectiva de la introducción reconstruida de africanos demostró estar altamente correlacionada con la historia económica de las diferentes regiones estudiadas.

Humans , Demography , Africa , Enslaved Persons , Birth Cohort , Brazil , Sex Distribution , Censuses , Exportation of Products