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1.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e226585, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1393018

ABSTRACT

Aim: This study aimed to systematically review existing literature regarding the association between dental procedures­such as tooth extractions and periodontal therapy­and occurrence of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) in individuals using bone-modifying drugs. Methods: Search strategies were performed in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane Library for a timeframe ending in December 2021. Study selection, data extraction and risk of bias were analyzed independently by two researchers. Three meta-analyses were performed, estimating the crude risk ratio (RR), the adjusted odds ratio (OR) and the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for the association between tooth extraction and MRONJ. Results: Of the 1,654 studies initially retrieved, 17 were ultimately included. The majority of patients with MRONJ in these studies were female, with a mean age of 64 years. Zoledronic acid was the most commonly used drug among patients with MRONJ, and cancer was the most frequent underlying health condition. Regarding the performed meta-analyses, crude and adjusted analyses demonstrated that tooth extraction increased the risk for MRONJ by 4.28 (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 1.73­10.58), the OR for MRONJ by 26.94 (95%CI: 4.17­174.17), and the HR for MRONJ by 9.96 (95%CI: 4.04­24.55). Conclusion: It was concluded that performing dental procedures, especially tooth extraction, in patients using bone-modifying drugs increased the risk of MRONJ occurrence and, therefore, should be avoided. Further studies, using adjusted data, are warranted


Subject(s)
Surgery, Oral , Bone Density Conservation Agents , Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw/epidemiology , Mandible
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929151

ABSTRACT

The significant clinical feature of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is the exposure of the necrotic jaw. Other clinical manifestations include jaw pain, swelling, abscess, and skin fistula, which seriously affect the patients' life, and there is no radical cure. Thus, new methods need to be found to prevent the occurrence of BRONJ. Here, a novel nanoparticle, tFNA-KLT, was successfully synthesized by us, in which the nanoparticle tetrahedral framework nucleic acid (tFNA) was used for carrying angiogenic peptide, KLT, and then further enhanced angiogenesis. TFNA-KLT possessed the same characteristics as tFNA, such as simple synthesis, stable structure, and good biocompatibility. Meanwhile, tFNA enhanced the stability of KLT and carried more KLT to interact with endothelial cells. First, it was confirmed that tFNA-KLT had the superior angiogenic ability to tFNA and KLT both in vitro and in vivo. Then we apply tFNA-KLT to the prevention of BRONJ. The results showed that tFNA-KLT can effectively prevent the occurrence of BRONJ by accelerating angiogenesis. In summary, the prepared novel nanoparticle, tFNA-KLT, was firstly synthesized by us. It was also firstly confirmed by us that tFNA-KLT significantly enhanced angiogenesis and can effectively prevent the occurrence of BRONJ by accelerating angiogenesis, thus providing a new avenue for the prevention of BRONJ and a new choice for therapeutic angiogenesis.


Subject(s)
Angiogenic Proteins/therapeutic use , Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw/prevention & control , Endothelial Cells , Humans , Nanoparticles , Nucleic Acids/therapeutic use
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929144

ABSTRACT

Bacterial infection is a common finding in patients, who develop medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) by the long-term and/or high-dose use of anti-resorptive agents such as bisphosphonate (BPs). However, pathological role of bacteria in MRONJ development at the early stage remains controversial. Here, we demonstrated that commensal microbiota protects against MRONJ development in the pulp-exposed periapical periodontitis mouse model. C57/BL6 female mice were treated with intragastric broad-spectrum antibiotics for 1 week. Zoledronic acid (ZOL) through intravenous injection and antibiotics in drinking water were administered for throughout the experiment. Pulp was exposed on the left maxillary first molar, then the mice were left for 5 weeks after which bilateral maxillary first molar was extracted and mice were left for additional 3 weeks to heal. All mice were harvested, and cecum, maxilla, and femurs were collected. ONJ development was assessed using μCT and histologic analyses. When antibiotic was treated in mice, these mice had no weight changes, but developed significantly enlarged ceca compared to the control group (CTL mice). Periapical bone resorption prior to the tooth extraction was similarly prevented when treated with antibiotics, which was confirmed by decreased osteoclasts and inflammation. ZOL treatment with pulp exposure significantly increased bone necrosis as determined by empty lacunae and necrotic bone amount. Furthermore, antibiotics treatment could further exacerbate bone necrosis, with increased osteoclast number. Our findings suggest that the commensal microbiome may play protective role, rather than pathological role, in the early stages of MRONJ development.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw/prevention & control , Bone Density Conservation Agents , Diphosphonates , Female , Humans , Mice , Microbiota , Periapical Diseases , Zoledronic Acid
4.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 20(1): e3212, ene.-feb. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156683

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La osteonecrosis en los maxilares por medicación es una afección asociada al tratamiento con bifosfonatos, antireabsortivos y antiangiogénicos. Objetivo: Caracterizar clínica y terapéuticamente los pacientes diagnosticados de Osteonecrosis en los Maxilares relacionada con medicación. Material y Método: Se realizó una serie de casos de 19 pacientes, la totalidad de los diagnosticados con la entidad en el Servicio de Cirugía Maxilofacial. Facultad de Estomatología Raúl González Sánchez, enero 2018-enero 2019. Se identificó severidad, factores de riesgo y se estandarizó tratamiento que incluyó la curación con aceite ozonizado y la aplicación de láser infrarrojo. Se evaluó el tratamiento a los 90 días. Se operacionalizaron las variables: sexo, tipo de medicación, vía y tiempo de administración, localización y evaluación al tratamiento. Resultados: La edad promedio de los pacientes fue 69±8,5 años, un 52,63 por ciento fueron masculinos, el zolendronato fue el agente mas asociado en el 78,95 por ciento de los casos, la enfermedad periodontal fue el factor local preponderante (57,89 por ciento), la localización mandibular postero lateral y el estadio evolutivo 2 predominaron en el 63,16 por ciento y 52,63 por ciento de las lesiones. El 78,94 por ciento de los casos presentó evolución satisfactoria a los 90 días. Conclusiones: La medicación con bifosfosfonatos parenterales predominantemente con el zolendronato, fue la causa principal de las osteonecrosis, las cuales prevalecieron en el sector postero lateral de mandíbula y con el estadio 2. La variante de tratamiento de curación con aceite ozonizado e irradiación con láser fue la más implementada. Los valores de lesiones resueltas y mejoradas a los 90 días fueron satisfactorios(AU)


Introduction: Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws is an affection associated with the treatment with bisphosphonates, antiresorptive agents or antiangiogenic medications. Objective: To perform a clinical and therapeutic characterization of patients with the diagnosis of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws. Material and Method: A case series of a total of 19 patients with the diagnosis of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws was carried out in the Department of Dental and Maxillofacial Surgery of ¨Raúl González Sánchez¨ Dental School of Havana from January 2018 to January 2019. The severity and risk factors were identified and the treatment including the healing with ozone oil and the application of infrared laser was standardized. The patients were evaluated in the 90 days after treatment. The operationalization of variables included: sex, type of medications, ways and time of administration, localization, and evaluation of treatment. Results: The average age of patients was 69±8,5 years and 52,63 percent of them were male. Zolendronate was the most associated agent in 78,95 percent of cases. Periodontal disease was the most identified local factor (57, 89 percent). The posterolateral area of the mandible and stage 2 disease evolution predominated in 63,16 percent and 52, 63 percent of lesions, respectively. Also 78, 94 percent of cases had a satisfactory evolution in the 90 days after treatment. Conclusions: The administration of intravenous bisphosphonates, particularly Zolendronate, was the main cause of osteonecrosis. These lesions were mainly located in the posterior lateral area of the mandible and presented stage 2 disease evolution. Healing with ozone oil and application of infrared laser was the most implemented alternative treatment. The values of resolved and improved lesions were satisfactory in the 90 days after treatment(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Osteonecrosis/chemically induced , Surgery, Oral , Oral Medicine , Bone Density Conservation Agents , Selection of the Waste Treatment Site , Aftercare , Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw/therapy
5.
Rev. ADM ; 78(1): 28-32, ene.-feb- 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177455

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Determinar el conocimiento y la conciencia que tienen los médicos sobre la osteonecrosis relacionada con bifosfonatos. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal, en el cual se encuestó a médicos generales y especialistas con la finalidad de identificar el nivel de conocimientos y conciencia que tienen sobre el tema. Resultados: Se entrevistó a un total de 475 médicos generales y especialistas, de los cuales 210 (44.2%) mencionaron prescribir bifosfonatos, de este grupo 58.1% no envía a los pacientes con el odontólogo para eliminar factores de riesgo, a pesar de que 61.8% de los mismos mencionó conocer las reacciones adversas; 36 médicos (17.4%) han visto a algún paciente con osteonecrosis por bifosfonatos. El 37% de los médicos que prescriben medicamentos consideran que no es necesario remitir a los pacientes al odontólogo. Conclusiones: La prescripción de bifosfonatos en la práctica médica va en aumento, los médicos deben tener el conocimiento adecuado sobre las reacciones adversas de estos medicamentos para así poder referir oportunamente al odontólogo, educar al paciente y poder prevenir complicaciones como la osteonecrosis relacionada con bifosfonatos (AU)


Objectives : To evaluate the knowledge and awareness of physicians about bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws. Material and methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out among general practitioners and specialized physicians to determine their knowledge and awareness of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws. Results: Of the 475 interviewed general practitioners and specialized physicians, 210 (44.2%) claimed to prescribe bisphosphonates. A total of 58.1% of these physicians did not refer their patients to the dentist for the elimination of risk factors, despite the fact that 61.8% of them reported knowledge of the adverse reactions of these drugs. Thirty-six physicians (17.4%) had seen some patient with bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws. A total of 37% of the physicians that prescribed drugs considered it not necessary to refer patients to the dentist. Conclusions: Bisphosphonate prescription is increasingly common in medical practice, and physicians must have adequate knowledge of the adverse reactions of these drugs in order to ensure opportune patient referral to the dentist, educate their patients, and avoid complications such as bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Physicians/psychology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Diphosphonates/adverse effects , Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw , Referral and Consultation , Awareness , Cross-Sectional Studies , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Risk Factors , Health Surveys , Mexico
6.
Rev. Ateneo Argent. Odontol ; 64(1): 22-27, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248381

ABSTRACT

La Asociación Americana de Cirugía Oral y Maxilofacial (American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons [AAOMS]): define el concepto de osteonecrosis maxilar asociada a drogas antirresortivas (MRONJ) como: «área ósea necrótica expuesta al medio bucal con más de ocho semanas de permanencia, en presencia de tratamiento crónico con bifosfonatos en ausencia de radioterapia en cabeza y cuello¼. El objetivo de este artículo es asociar la enfermedad oncológica en relación con las drogas antirresortivas consumidas por pacientes, la prescripción de dichas drogas y el depósito de ellas en el organismo. Al mismo tiempo, la interacción médico-odontológico debe implementarse en favor de la salud de nuestros pacientes (AU)


American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons AAOMS defined Medication Related of the Jaw (MRONJ) as «necrotic bone area exposed to the oral environment with more than eight weeks of permanence, in the presence of chronic treatment with BPs, in the absence of radiation therapy to the head and neck¼. The objective of this article is associate oncology antiresorptives treatments prescribed by physicians, their prescription and body accumulation in patients whose are treated with them. Interdisciplinary dental and physician clinical treatments must be implemented in patient favours (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Diphosphonates/adverse effects , Bone Density Conservation Agents/adverse effects , Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw , Radiotherapy/adverse effects , Breast Neoplasms/complications , Risk Factors , Diphosphonates/pharmacokinetics , Interprofessional Relations
7.
Actual. osteol ; 17(3): 95-104, 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1395543

ABSTRACT

La osteonecrosis maxilar relacionada con medicamentos (ONMM) es una patología de características clínicas objetivas con signo-sintomatología patognomónica. El criterio clínico aceptado es la presencia de hueso necrótico expuesto y visible sobre el reborde óseo maxilar que no ha cicatrizado luego de 8 semanas, en pacientes con antecedentes de tratamiento antirresortivo. La denominación "relacionada con medicamentos" se utiliza por el creciente número de casos asociados con otros fármacos antirresortivos como denosumab y con terapias antiangiogénicas, más allá de la conocida relación con bifosfonatos.Si bien la incidencia de ONMM en pacientes tratados por osteopatías metabólicas es muy baja, la situación se torna más compleja en pacientes oncológicos con altas dosis de antirresortivos para tratamiento de metástasis ósea. Varios in-formes de casos describen cuadros de ONMM en pacientes con cáncer que reciben terapias dirigidas, específicamente TKI (inhibidores de tirosina quinasa) y anticuerpos monoclonales-VEGF (anticuerpos dirigidos al factor de crecimiento del endotelio vascular). La ONMM afecta negativamente la calidad de vida del paciente oncológico y produce comorbilidad significativa. Resulta imperioso identificar a los pacientes en riesgo y diseñar un protocolo de atención odontológica específico para estos casos. En este artículo se presentan dos casos de ONMM asociado con altas dosis de denosumab y administración simultánea de anticuerpos monoclonales específicos para el tratamiento del cáncer. Ambos casos sorprenden por la prematura instalación de la necrosis y su cuadro insidio-so. El protocolo de tratamiento descripto permitió controlar el cuadro inicial, limitar el avance de la lesión, asegurar el control del dolor y la infección, y finalmente, la curación total de la lesión. (AU)


Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (MRONJ) is a pathology with objective clinical characteristics, with pathognomonic signs and symptoms. The accepted clinical criterion is the presence of exposed and visible necrotic bone on the maxillofacial region that has not healed after 8 weeks, in patients with history of antiresorptive treatment.The name "medication-related" is justified by the growing number of cases associated with other antiresorptive drugs such as denosumab and antiangiogenic therapies, beyond the known relationship with bisphosphonates. Although the incidence of MRONJ in patients treated for metabolic osteopathies is very low, the situation becomes more complex in cancer patients who receive high doses of antiresorptives for the treatment of skeletal metastases. Several case reports describe the presence of MRONJ in cancer patients receiving targeted therapies, specifically TKI (tyrosine kinase inhibitors) and monoclonal antibodies-targeting VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor). MRONJ negatively affects the quality of life in cancer patients and produces significant comorbidity. It is imperative to identify patients at risk and design a specific dental care strategy for these cases.In this article, we present two cases of MRONJ associated with high doses of Denosumab and simultaneous administration of specific monoclonal antibodies. Both cases are surprising due to premature onset of necrosis. The described treatment strategies made it possible to control the initial symptoms, limit the lesion progression, ensure pain and infection control, and finally, the total healing of the lesion. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Diphosphonates/adverse effects , Bone Density Conservation Agents/adverse effects , Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw/therapy , Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw/diagnostic imaging , Neoplasm Metastasis/diagnostic imaging , Ovarian Neoplasms/complications , Breast Neoplasms/complications , Radiography , Dental Care/methods , Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw/physiopathology , Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw/prevention & control
8.
Rev. bras. cancerol ; 67(2): e-02785, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1282759

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The inhibition of osteoclastic activity, associated with different treatment modalities in patients with head and neck cancer, make bones unable to respond to repair processes related to physiological traumas or infection and may result in bone necrosis. The present study aims to report a clinical case of osteoradionecrosis in mandible, and how its sequels were controlled by ozonotherapy. Case report: A 73-year-old female patient with infiltrative ductal breast carcinoma with mandibular metastasis was submitted to chemo and radiotherapy at head and neck region associated with bisphosphonate. Three years later, she was diagnosed with hemimandibular osteoradionecrosis that exhibited communication with oral cavity and with a chronic, suppurative and persistent associated infection. It was applied adjuvant therapy with ozone through the cutaneous fistula and the exposed and necrotic bone. Additionally, non-vital bone debridement was proceeded in two surgical steps. The patient is after a 1-year follow-up non-symptomatic. Conclusion: It is supposed that ozonotherapy, due to its antibacterial and immunoregulatory mechanism of action, was an important therapeutic agent for improving the patient's quality of life.


Introdução: A inibição da atividade osteoclástica, associada a diversas modalidades de tratamento utilizadas em pacientes com câncer de cabeça e pescoço, torna o osso incapaz de responder aos processos de reparo relacionados a traumas fisiológicos ou à infecção, e pode resultar em necrose óssea. O presente estudo tem como objetivo relatar um caso clínico de osteonecrose em mandíbula como consequência do uso de bisfosfonato associado à quimioterapia e à radioterapia para tratamento de câncer de mama com metástase para mandíbula, tendo suas sequelas controladas por meio do uso da ozonioterapia. Relato do caso: Paciente do sexo feminino, 73 anos, com história de carcinoma ductal infiltrante de mama com metástase óssea em mandíbula, a qual foi submetida ao tratamento de quimioterapia e radioterapia em região de cabeça e pescoço; três anos depois, foi diagnosticada com osteonecrose da hemimandíbula direita com exposição completa para a cavidade bucal e infecção crônica, supurativa e persistente. Foi realizada terapia adjuvante com aplicação de ozônio nas fístulas cutâneas e no remanescente ósseo exposto e necrosado, além do desbridamento dos sequestros ósseos em duas etapas cirúrgicas. Paciente encontra-se em acompanhamento há 1 ano, sem sintomatologia associada. Conclusão: Observou-se que a ozonioterapia, em razão da sua ação antibacteriana e cicatrizante, foi um importante agente terapêutico para a melhora da qualidade de vida da paciente.


Introducción: La inhibición de la actividad osteoclástica, asociada con las diversas modalidades de tratamiento utilizadas por los pacientes con cáncer de cabeza y cuello, hace que el hueso no pueda responder a los procesos de reparación relacionados con traumas o infecciones fisiológicas y puede provocar necrosis ósea. El presente estudio tiene como objetivo informar un caso clínico de osteonecrosis mandibular como consecuencia del uso de bisfosfonato asociado con quimioterapia y radioterapia para tartar el cáncer de mama con mandíbula metastásica, controlando sus secuelas mediante el uso de la terapia con ozono. Relato del caso: Paciente de 73 años con antecedentes de carcinoma ductal mamario infiltrante con metástasis en la mandíbula ósea fue sometida a quimioterapia y radioterapia en la región de la cabeza y el cuello. Tres años después, le diagnostica con osteonecrosis hemimandibular derecha con exposición completa a la cavidad oral e infección crónica, supurativa y persistente. La terapia adyuvante se realizó con la aplicación de ozono en las fístulas cutáneas y en el remanente óseo expuesto y necrótico, además del desbridamiento de los secuestros óseos en dos etapas quirúrgicas. El paciente ha estado bajo seguimiento durante 1 años in síntomas asociados. Conclusión: Debido a su acción antibacteriana y curativa, la ozonioterapia fue un importante agente terapéutico para mejorar la calidad de vida del paciente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Ozone/therapeutic use , Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw/diagnosis , Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw/therapy , Breast Neoplasms , Mandibular Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast , Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw/radiotherapy , Mandible/pathology
9.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2020186, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142410

ABSTRACT

Although uncommon in patients under oral therapy, bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) can be a very severe issue. Early intervention with surgical resection should be the preferable method of treating any stage of the disease, resulting in better outcomes and decreasing the morbidity of this condition. A 77-year-old female patient attended the Special Care Dentistry Centre of the University of São Paulo Faculty of Dentistry (CAPE FOUSP) complaining mainly of "an exposed bone that appeared after tooth extraction performed six months earlier". The patient was diagnosed with osteonecrosis associated with bisphosphonate (sodium ibandronate) and surgically treated with removal of bone sequestration and antibiotic therapy. The patient was followed up for six years (a total of 6 appointments), presenting good general health and no sign of bone exposure. Imaging findings showed no changes related to BRONJ either.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw , Ibandronic Acid/therapeutic use , Osteoporosis
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878439

ABSTRACT

The morbidity rate of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (MRONJ) increased rapidly in recent years. Thusfar, the mechanism of MRONJ has no consensus. The possible mechanisms may include bone remodeling inhibition theory, angiogenesis inhibition theory, oral microorganism infection theory, immunosuppression theory, cytotoxicity-targeted oral epithelial cells, microcrack formation of maxillary or mandibular bone, and single nucleotide polymorphism. However, the efficacy of prevention and treatment based on a single mechanism is not ideal. Routine oral examination before MRONJ-related drug treatment, treatment of related dental diseases, and regular oral follow-up during drug treatment are of great significance for the prevention of MRONJ. During the treatment of MRONJ, the stage of MRONJ must be determined accurately, treatment must be standardized in accordance with the guidelines, and personalized adjustments must be made considering the specific conditions of patients. This review aimed to combine the latest research and guidelines for MRONJ and the experiences on the treatment of MRONJ in the Maxillofacial Surgery Department of West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, and discuss the strategies to improve the clinical process.


Subject(s)
Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw/prevention & control , Bone Density Conservation Agents , Bone Remodeling , China , Humans , Jaw
11.
Rev. Ateneo Argent. Odontol ; 63(2): 13-17, nov. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1150415

ABSTRACT

La acción terapéutica favorable que los antirresortivos (bifosfonatos BPs, denosumab DS) y drogas antiangiogénicas ocasionan en el tejido óseo en aquellos pacientes que presentan como causa etiológica cáncer o discrasias óseas incluyen hipercalcemias malignas o ­si requieren el consumo de dicha droga a baja concentración­ como ser: osteoporosis, osteopenia, enfermedad de Paget, displasia fibrosa, Osteogénesis Imperfecta. (1) La presente actualización pretende relacionar el tratamiento odontológico con prescripción crónica y drogas antirresortivas, para lo cual American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons AAOMS: define el concepto de Osteonecrosis Maxilar Asociada a drogas Antirresortivas (MRONJ) como: «Área ósea necrótica expuesta al medio bucal con más de ocho semanas de permanencia, en presencia de tratamiento crónico con bifosfonatos en ausencia de radioterapia en cabeza y cuello¼. La AAOMS estableció los siguientes grupos de acuerdo con sus características clínicas en 4 estadios (0, 1 ,2 y 3) de acuerdo con el aspecto clínico y radiológico de la lesión osteonecrótica. Estadío 0: lesión osteonecrótica sin evidencia de hueso necrótico en pacientes bajo consumo de drogas antirresortivas. Estadío 1: lesión osteonecrótica con signos clínicos y ausencia de sintomatología clínica. Estadío 2: lesión osteonecrótica con signo y sintomatología clínica evidente. Estadío 3: lesión osteonecrótica con signo y sintomatología evidente que compromete a estructuras nobles: fracturas patológicas, anestesia del nervio dentario inferior, comunicación buco-nasal, comunicación buco-sinusal, fístulas cutáneas (2) (AU)


It is known the favourable action which antiresorptive (Bisphosphonates BPs, Denosumab: DS) and Antiangiogenic drugs produce in bone tissue. High concentrations are primarily used as an effective treatment in the management of cancer-related disorders, including hypercalcemia of malignant. Besides, low concentrations are used for other metabolic bone diseases including Osteoporosis, Osteopenia, Paget's Disease, Fibrous Dysplasia, Imperfect Osteogenesis. (1) The update relate relationship between dentistry and chronic treatment with antiresorptive drugs. According to the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (AAOMS), MRONJ is defined as exposed or necrotic bone in the maxillofacial region that has persisted for more than 8 weeks in association with current or previous BPs or DS therapy and with a lack of head and neck radiotherapy. AAOMS divided the MRONJ into 4 stages (0,1, 2 and 3) according to the clinical and radiological aspect of the osteonecrotic lesion: Stage 0: osteonecrotic lesion without sign-pathognomonic evidence of osteonecrosis. Stage 1: osteonecrotic lesion with clinical signs and absence of clinical symptoms. Stage 2: osteonecrotic lesion with sign and evident clinical symptoms. Stage 3: osteonecrotic lesion with signs and evident symptoms that involve noble structures: pathological fractures, anaesthesia of the lower dental nerve, oral-nasal communication, oral-sinus communication, skin fistulas (2) (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Bone Resorption , Diphosphonates/adverse effects , Bone Density Conservation Agents , Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw , Bone Diseases , Dental Care for Chronically Ill , Angiogenesis Inhibitors , Denosumab , Mouthwashes/therapeutic use
12.
Rev. ADM ; 77(4): 197-202, jul.-ago. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1129803

ABSTRACT

La osteonecrosis de los maxilares está definida como la exposición de hueso necrótico en la región maxilofacial al menos por ocho semanas en pacientes que están recibiendo medicamentos antirresortivos para el tratamiento del cáncer primario o metastásico hacia el hueso, osteoporosis o enfermedad de Paget, sin historia previa de radiación. Desde el año 2003, la terminología utilizada estaba en relación con los bifosfonatos, en la actualidad ha sido introducido el término osteonecrosis de los maxilares relacionada por medicamentos (OMAM). La cirugía oral (implantología o cirugía periapical) incrementa el riesgo de OMAM, así como los desbalances concomitantes de la salud oral (inflamación dental y formación de abscesos). Las estrategias conservadoras en el tratamiento varían desde el cuidado local conservador hasta la resección quirúrgica radical del hueso necrótico. En el presente artículo se expone un análisis sistemático retrospectivo de la literatura en páginas como PubMed, ScienceDirect y Springer, Cochrane Library. Con el objetivo de resaltar el aumento de la incidencia de OMAM a nivel mundial con el uso de antirresortivos y otros medicamentos asociados en su patogenia en el Hospital Regional «General Ignacio Zaragoza¼ del ISSSTE, UNAM, en la Ciudad de México (AU)


Osteonecrosis of the jaws is defined as the exposure of necrotic bone in the maxillofacial region for at least 8 weeks in patients receiving antiresorptive medications for the treatment of primary or metastatic cancer towards the bone, osteoporosis, or Paget's disease, without previous history of radiation. Since 2003, the terminology used was related to bisphosphonates, the term medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws has now been introduced. Oral surgery (implantology or periapical surgery) increases the risk of avascular necrosis, as well as concomitant imbalances in oral health (dental inflammation and abscess formation). Conservative strategies in treatment vary from conservative local care to radical surgical resection of the necrotic bone. In this article, a systematic retrospective analysis of the literature is presented on pages such as PubMed, Science Direct and Springer, Cochrane Library. And in which the objective is to highlight the increase in the incidence of medication related osteonecrosis of the jaws worldwide with the use of antiresorptive, and other associated medications in its pathogenesis at the Hospital Regional «General Ignacio Zaragoza¼ ISSSTE, UNAM in Mexico City (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Diphosphonates/adverse effects , Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw , Osteoporosis , Bone Neoplasms , Angiogenesis Inhibitors , Dental Service, Hospital , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases , Bevacizumab , Sunitinib , Mexico
13.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 138(4): 326-335, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1139704

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is still the most prevalent type of osteonecrosis with clinical relevance. In Brazil, bisphosphonate use is high but there is a lack of epidemiological studies on BRONJ. OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical profile of BRONJ in a Brazilian population through an integrative review. DESIGN AND SETTING: Integrative review of BRONJ in a Brazilian population. METHODS: Cases and clinical research on Brazilians with BRONJ between 2010 and 2019, indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science and LILACS were reviewed. Age, sex, type and time of bisphosphonate intake, administration route, related diseases, region of the BRONJ, diagnostic criteria, staging, triggering factor and type of treatment were analyzed. RESULTS: Fifteen articles on 128 subjects were included. Most patients were women (82.03%); the mean age was 63 years. Intravenous zoledronic acid was mostly used (62.50%), for breast cancer treatment (46.87%). The main localization of BRONJ was the mandible (54.68%), associated mainly with tooth extractions (45.98%). The diagnostic criteria were clinical (100%) and radiographic (89.06%), mostly in stage II (68.08%). The surgical treatments were sequestrectomy (37.50%) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) (36.71%). Microbial control was done using chlorhexidine (93.75%) and infection control using clindamycin (53.90%). CONCLUSIONS: BRONJ had higher prevalence in Brazilian women receiving treatment for breast cancer and osteoporosis. The mandible was the region most affected with a moderate stage of BRONJ, particularly when there were histories of tooth extraction and peri-implant surgery. Sequestrectomy with additional drugs and surgical therapy was the treatment most accomplished.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Tooth Extraction , Diphosphonates/adverse effects , Bone Density Conservation Agents/adverse effects , Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw/surgery , Osteoporosis/drug therapy , Brazil , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Dental Care , Treatment Outcome , Angiogenesis Inhibitors , Diphosphonates/administration & dosage , Bone Density Conservation Agents/administration & dosage , Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw/etiology , Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw/diagnostic imaging
14.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(7): 983-991, jul. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139400

ABSTRACT

Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw is a disease where there is necrotic bone exposed or that can be explored by means of a fistula in the maxillofacial region. It has been associated with the use Biphosphonates and denosumab for osteoporosis. Although its etiology is unclear, it may be related to a decrease in bone turnover produced by these drugs, rendering the bone more prone to generate cell necrosis during invasive dental procedures, especially in the posterior region of the jaw. There is no consensus about the prevention and treatment of this condition. The aim of this paper is to present a review of the literature with the main characteristics of osteonecrosis of the jaws associated with drugs, together with a proposal for prevention and treatment for these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Osteonecrosis/chemically induced , Osteonecrosis/prevention & control , Jaw Diseases/chemically induced , Jaw Diseases/prevention & control , Osteoporosis/drug therapy , Diphosphonates/adverse effects , Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw/prevention & control , Denosumab/adverse effects
15.
Braz. dent. sci ; 23(1): 1-6, 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1049815

ABSTRACT

Objective: Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is a challenging complication of chronic bisphosphonate (BP) use. The hormone relaxin is able to induce the multistep differentiation process of human osteoclastogenesis, exhibits antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory actions, and promotes vasodilatation, wound healing, and angiogenesis. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of relaxin in the prevention and management of BRONJ. Material and Methods: Thirty-six male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups. Rats in group 1 (n = 10) received relaxin and BP simultaneously for 12 weeks. Rats in group 2 (n = 10) received injections of BP for 12 weeks, followed by relaxin for another 12 weeks. Rats in group 3 (n = 10) received only BP injections, and those in group 4 (control, n = 6) received only saline. Necrosis and inflammation in the rats' mandibles were evaluated as indicators of BRONJ. Results: Necrosis and inflammation were not detected in group 1 (BP + relaxin). In group 3 (BP only), incidence rates of necrosis and inflammation were 90% and 60%, respectively. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that relaxin may be potently effective in preventing BRONJ and have some benefit in the treatment of existing BRONJ (AU)


Objetivo: A osteonecrose da mandíbula relacionada ao bisfosfonato (BRONJ) é uma desafiadora complicação do uso crônico de bisfosfonato (BP). O hormônio relaxina é capaz de induzir o processo múltiplo de diferenciação da osteoclastogênese humana, exibe ações anti-fibróticas e anti-inflamatórias e promove vasodilatação, cicatrização de feridas e angiogênese. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos da relaxina na prevenção e tratamento do BRONJ. Material e Métodos: Trinta e seis ratos Sprague Dawley machos foram divididos aleatoriamente em quatro grupos. Os ratos do grupo 1 (n = 10) receberam relaxina e BP simultaneamente por 12 semanas. Os ratos do grupo 2 (n = 10) receberam injeções de BP por 12 semanas, seguidos de relaxina por mais 12 semanas. Os ratos do grupo 3 (n = 10) receberam apenas injeções de BP e os do grupo 4 (controle, n = 6) receberam apenas solução salina. Necrose e inflamação nas mandíbulas dos ratos foram avaliadas como indicadores de BRONJ. Resultados: Necrose e inflamação não foram detectadas no grupo 1 (BP + relaxina). No grupo 3 (somente BP), as taxas de incidência de necrose e inflamação foram de 90% e 60%, respectivamente. Conclusões: Nossos resultados sugerem que a relaxina pode ser potentemente eficaz na prevenção do BRONJ e ter algum benefício no tratamento do BRONJ existente.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Relaxin/therapeutic use , Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw/therapy , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Models, Animal , Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw/prevention & control , Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw/drug therapy , Jaw/pathology
16.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 6(2): 205-219, 2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1100329

ABSTRACT

Introdução:Os bifosfonatos são medicamentos que objetivam reduzir a reabsorção óssea por provocarem a apoptose de osteoclastos. Por essa razão, são frequentemente empregados em pacientes com osteoporose e no tratamento do câncer. Contudo, apesar dos benefícios associados ao tratamento com bifosfonatos, esses medicamentos vêm sendo relacionados a osteonecrose maxilo-mandibular, materializando-se como um preocupante quadro de interesse à saúde pública. Objetivo:Apresentar um caso clínico de osteonecrose mandibular associada ao uso de bifosfanato, após extração de um elemento dentário, bem como contribuir com as discussões sobre as possibilidades terapêuticas desta enfermidade.Descrição do caso:Paciente do sexo masculino,com59 anosidade, encaminhado ao serviço de Cirurgia e Traumatologia Bucomaxilofacial,dois meses após a extração do elemento dentário 45.O diagnóstico foi de Osteonecrose Maxilomandibular Relacionada a Bifosfonatos, sendo realizado,inicialmente, a remoção dos traumas existentes, como também o cuidado com a área exposta. Posteriormente,optou-se pela remoção do segmento ósseo necrótico.Conclusões:A complexafisiopatologiado tipo de osteonecrose estudadaexige dos CirurgiõesDentistas a tomada de medidas em tempo oportuno e que cause o mínimo transtorno à vida dos pacientes.Assim, deve-se avaliar o estado da lesão, havendo indicação de terapia conservadora para os achados precoces. O desbridamento cirúrgico é aconselhado para o tratamento da doença avançada e não responsiva (AU).


Introduction:Bisphosphonates are medications that aim to reduce bone resorption by causing osteoclast apoptosis. For this reason, they are often used in patients with osteoporosis and in the treatment of cancer. However, despite the benefits associated with treatment with bisphosphonates, these drugs have been linked to maxillomandibular osteonecrosis, materializing as a worrying picture of public health concern. Objective:To present a clinical case of mandibular osteonecrosis associated with the use of bisphosphateafter extraction of a dental element, as well as to contribute to the discussions about the therapeutic possibilities of this disease. Case description:Male patient, 59 years old, referred to the Buccomaxillofacial Surgery and Traumatology service, two months after extraction of the dental element 45. The diagnosis was Bisphosphonate-Related Maxillomandibular Osteonecrosis, initially performed, the removal of existing traumas, as well as care for the exposed area. Subsequently, it was decided to remove the necrotic bone segment. Conclusions: The complex pathophysiology of the type of osteonecrosis studied requires that dental surgeons take measures in a timely manner and cause the least disturbance to patients' lives. Thus, the condition of the lesion should be assessed, with an indication for conservative therapy for early findings. Surgical debridement is recommended for the treatment of advanced and unresponsive diseases (AU).


Introducción: Los bisfosfonatos son medicamentos que tienen como objetivo reducir la resorción ósea al causar apoptosis de osteoclastos. Por esta razón, a menudo se usan en pacientes con osteoporosis y en el tratamiento del cáncer. Sin embargo, a pesar de los beneficios asociados con el tratamiento con bisfosfonatos, estos medicamentos se han relacionado con la osteonecrosis maxilomandibular, materializándose como un escenario preocupante de interés para la salud pública. Objetivo: Presentar un caso clínico de osteonecrosis mandibular asociada con el uso de bisfosfanato después de la extracción de un elemento dental, así como contribuir a las discusiones sobre las posibilidades terapéuticas de esta enfermedad. Descripción del caso: un paciente masculino de 59 años fue derivado del Departamento de Traumatología y Cirugía Buccomaxilofacial después de meses de extracción dental 45. El diagnóstico era de Osteonecrosis Maxilomandibular Relacionada con Bifosfonatos, inicialmente eligiendoeliminar los traumas existente, bien como delcuidado con el área expuesta. Posteriormente, elegimos eliminar el segmento óseo necrótico.Conclusiones: La compleja fisiopatología del tipo de osteonecrosis estudiada requiere que los cirujanos dentales tomen las medidas adecuadas y causen el menor inconveniente a la vida de los pacientes. Por lo tanto, se debe evaluar el estado de la lesión, con terapia conservadora indicada para hallazgos tempranos. El desbridamiento quirúrgico se recomienda para el tratamiento de enfermedades avanzadas y que no responden (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Osteonecrosis , Diphosphonates , Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw , Mandible , Brazil , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/instrumentation
17.
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20200204, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1134802

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective This study aims to evaluate bone repair and the development of the medication related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) associated with the use of zoledronic acid in Wistar rats. Methodology 48 male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: ZA, treated with intraperitoneal zoledronic acid, 0.6 mg/kg every 28 days, totaling five doses; control (C), treated with 0.9% sodium chloride; ZA-surgical (SZA) and C-surgical (SC), submitted to extraction of the right upper molars 45 days after the first application. Alveolar bone repair was evaluated by macroscopic and histological analysis. Protein expression evaluations were performed by qPCR. Results Macroscopic evaluation showed that 91.66% (11) of the animals in the SZA group and 41.66% (5) from the SC group presented solution of epithelium continuity (P<0.05). All animals in the SZA group and none in the SC group had bone sequestration. The area of osteonecrosis was higher in the SZA group than in the SC group (P<0.05). In molecular evaluation, the SZA group presented changes in the expression of markers for osteoclasts, with increased RANK and RANKL, and a decrease in OPG. Conclusion The results highlighted strong and evident interference of zoledronic acid in bone repair of the socket, causing osteonecrosis and delayed bone remodeling.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Bone Density Conservation Agents/adverse effects , Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw/physiopathology , Zoledronic Acid/adverse effects , Tooth Extraction/adverse effects , Rats, Wistar
18.
Actual. osteol ; 16(3): 232-252, 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254060

ABSTRACT

La osteonecrosis maxilar asociada a medicamentos (ONMM=MRONJ como se conoce en la literatura en inglés) se define como un área ósea expuesta al medio bucal con más de ocho semanas de permanencia, en pacientes tratados con antirresortivos y/o antiangiogénicos y sin antecedentes de radioterapia en cabeza y cuello. Las fracturas ocasionan una morbimortalidad significativa y los antirresortivos son drogas eficaces y seguras para prevenirlas. Se utilizan principalmente en osteoporosis, pero también en enfermedades oncológicas como mieloma múltiple o metástasis óseas de tumores sólidos. La posología varía según el contexto clínico, siendo mayor la dosis y frecuencia de administración en oncología. Los antirresortivos actualmente más utilizados son los bifosfonatos (BF) y el denosumab (Dmab). Si bien los BF persisten largo tiempo en el tejido óseo, el Dmab tiene un mecanismo de acción reversible y su suspensión abrupta conlleva importante pérdida de masa ósea y riesgo aumentado de fracturas vertebrales múltiples. Ninguna droga puede ser suspendida ni espaciada sin autorización médica, dado que no es de competencia del odontólogo. El diagnóstico presuntivo de ONMM debe ser confirmado clínicamente por un odontólogo, quien solicitará imágenes radiológicas para establecer el estadio de la lesión. La anamnesis correcta permite establecer un diagnóstico diferencial entre ONMM, osteomielitis y osteorradionecrosis. La presentación clínica es variable y puede mostrar distintos estadios. La mayoría de los casos están precedidos por un procedimiento quirúrgico odontológico. Suele ser asintomática, aunque puede haber dolor si se localiza cerca de una estructura neuronal. La localización es variable: 62,3% se produce en el maxilar inferior. La incidencia de ONMM es baja, en un rango de 0,001 a 0,01% y tiene relación con las dosis y el tiempo de administración. La remoción de caries, la operatoria dental, la endodoncia y la rehabilitación protética fija o removible no se asocian a riesgo de ONMM. Con menos de 3 años de tratamiento antirresortivo se pueden efectuar terapéuticas quirúrgicas como exodoncias, apicectomías, cistectomías, tratamientos periodontales de raspaje y alisado subgingival sin riesgo. Con más de 3 años se aconseja evitar la realización de exodoncias y manipulación de tejido óseo. Ante la necesidad de realizar un procedimiento odontológico, no hay evidencia que avale que la suspensión transitoria del tratamiento antirresortivo pueda reducir el riesgo. Tampoco la medición de marcadores de remodelado óseo aporta datos de utilidad. Existen pocos datos en la literatura sobre la colocación de implantes dentales en pacientes que reciben drogas antirresortivas en dosis bajas; si bien existe ONMM asociada, su incidencia sería baja. Antes de iniciar un tratamiento antirresortivo se recomienda realizar interconsulta con el odontólogo para evaluar potenciales necesidades quirúrgicas. Quienes reciben antirresortivos deben realizar controles orales periódicos (semestrales) y, ante cualquier síntoma compatible con un estadio incipiente de ONMM, deben consultar a su odontólogo. El trabajo conjunto del médico y el odontólogo puede prevenir la aparición de la ONMM, un evento infrecuente, pero que puede generar elevada morbilidad en los pacientes. La comunicación fluida entre profesionales tenderá a evitar no solo la incertidumbre y desconfianza de los pacientes, sino también que se produzcan lesiones con la consecuente necesidad de tratamientos de mayor complejidad. (AU)


Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw (MRONJ) is defined as a bone area exposed to the oral environment lasting more than eight weeks, in patients treated with antiresorptive and/or antiangiogenic drugs and without a history radiation therapy to the head and neck. Fractures cause significant morbidity and mortality, and antiresorptives are effective and safe drugs to prevent them. They are used to treat not only osteoporosis but also oncological diseases such as multiple myeloma or bone metastases from solid tumors. The dosage varies according to the clinical context; doses and frequencies of administration are higher in oncology. The most commonly used antiresorptive medications are bisphosphonates (BP) and denosumab (Dmab). Whereas BP persist for a long time in bone tissue, Dmab has a reversible mechanism of action and its discontinuation leads to significant loss of bone mass and an increased risk of multiple vertebral fractures. No drug can be suspended or spaced without medical authorization. Dentists should not take decisions about antiresorptive prescription. The presumptive diagnosis of MRONJ must be clinically confirmed by a dentist, who will order radiological studies to establish the stage of the injury. The correct anamnesis helps differentiate MRONJ from osteomyelitis and osteoradionecrosis. Clinical presentation is variable and can present different stages. Most of the cases are preceded by a dental surgical procedure. Usually MRONJ is asymptomatic although patients may feel pain if it is located near a neuronal structure. The location is variable: 62.3% occurs in the lower jaw. The incidence of MRONJ is low, in the range of 0.001 to 0.01%, and is related to the dose and time of administration. Caries removal, dental surgery, endodontics, fixed or removable prosthetic rehabilitation are not associated with risk of MRONJ. With less than 3 years of antiresorptive treatment, surgical therapies such as extractions, apicectomies, cystectomies, periodontal scaling treatments and subgingival smoothing can be performed without risk. With more than 3 years, it is advisable to avoid performing extractions and manipulating bone tissue. Given the need to perform a dental procedure, there is no evidence to support that the temporary suspension of antiresorptive treatment can reduce the risk. Nor does the measurement of bone turnover markers provide useful information. There are few data in the literature on the placement of dental implants in patients receiving antiresorptive drugs at low doses; although there might be an associated risk of MRONJ, its incidence appears to be low. Before starting antiresorptive treatment, consultation with the dentist is recommended to evaluate potential surgical needs. Patients receiving treatment with antiresorptive agents should undergo periodic oral controls (every six months) and in the event of any symptoms compatible with an early MRONJ stage, they should consult their dentists. The collaboration between physician and dentist can prevent the appearance of MRONJ, that is an infrequent event, but can generate high morbidity in patients. Fluid communication between professionals will tend to avoid, not only the uncertainty and distrust of patients, but also the occurrence of injuries needing complex treatments. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental Care , Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw/diagnosis , Incidence , Risk Factors , Diphosphonates/adverse effects , Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw/physiopathology , Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw/prevention & control , Denosumab/adverse effects
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880846

ABSTRACT

Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) is a serious side effect of bone-modifying agents and inhibits angiogenesis agents. Although the pathogenesis of MRONJ is not entirely clear, multiple factors may be involved in specific microenvironments. The TGF-β1 signalling pathway may have a key role in the development of MRONJ. According to the clinical stage, multiple variables should be considered when selecting the most appropriate treatment. Therefore, the prevention and management of treatment of MRONJ should be conducted in patient-centred multidisciplinary team collaborative networks with oncologists, dentists and dental specialists. This would comprise a closed responsibility treatment loop with all benefits directed to the patient. Thus, in the present review, we aimed to summarise the pathogenesis, risk factors, imaging features, clinical staging, therapeutic methods, prevention and treatment strategies associated with MRONJ, which may provide a reference that can inform preventive strategies and improve the quality of life for patients in the future.


Subject(s)
Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw/prevention & control , Bone Density Conservation Agents/adverse effects , Humans , Quality of Life , Risk Factors
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811273

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Pentoxifylline (PTX) is a methylxanthine derivative that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of peripheral vessel disease and intermittent lameness. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of PTX and tocopherol in patients diagnosed with osteoradionecrosis (ORN), bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ), and chronic osteomyelitis using digital panoramic radiographs.MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was performed in 25 patients who were prescribed PTX and tocopherol for treatment of ORN, BRONJ, and chronic osteomyelitis between January 2014 and May 2018 in Seoul National University Dental Hospital. Radiographic densities of the dental panorama were compared prior to starting PTX and tocopherol, at 3 months, and at 6 months after prescription. Radiographic densities were measured using Adobe Photoshop CS6 (Adobe System Inc., USA). Blood sample tests showing the degree of inflammation at the initial visit were considered the baseline and compared with results after 3 to 6 months. Statistical analysis was performed using the Mann–Whitney test and repeated measurement ANOVA using IBM SPSS 23.0 (IBM Corp., USA).RESULTS: Eight patients were diagnosed with ORN, nine patients with BRONJ, and the other 8 patients with chronic osteomyelitis. Ten of the 25 patients were men, average age was 66.32±14.39 years, and average duration of medication was 151.8±80.65 days (range, 56–315 days). Statistically significant increases were observed in the changes between 3 and 6 months after prescription (P<0.05). There was no significant difference between ORN, BRONJ, and chronic osteomyelitis. Only erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was statistically significantly lower than before treatment (P<0.05) among the white blood cell (WBC), ESR, and absolute neutrophil count (ANC).CONCLUSION: Long-term use of PTX and tocopherol can be an auxiliary method in the treatment of ORN, BRONJ, or chronic osteomyelitis in jaw.


Subject(s)
Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw , Blood Sedimentation , Humans , Inflammation , Jaw , Leukocytes , Male , Methods , Neutrophils , Osteomyelitis , Osteoradionecrosis , Pentoxifylline , Prescriptions , Radiography, Panoramic , Seoul , Tocopherols
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