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1.
Iatreia ; 34(4): 295-306, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350829

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo: describir las características sociodemográficas, clínicas y paraclínicas de los pacientes atendidos en el Hospital Universitario de Neiva, entre los años 2014 y 2018 e identificar los factores de riesgo que se asocien con la mortalidad. Materiales y métodos: estudio observacional analítico retrospectivo. Se calcularon las medias, la desviación estándar, frecuencias absolutas y relativas. Se realizó un análisis de normalidad con el Test de Shapiro-Wilk. Se evaluó la asociación de diferentes variables sociodemográficas y clínicas con el riesgo de mortalidad usando regresión logística. Resultados: se registraron 305 eventos, predominantemente leves (117 casos). El 2018 fue el año con mayor número de reportes (35,45 %). La mayoría eran personas jóvenes con una edad media de 17 años, principalmente de los 0 a 11 años (61 %). Más del 90% eran pacientes residentes del departamento Huila y más de la mitad (67 %) pertenecían al régimen subsidiado. La mayoría de las picaduras ocurrieron durante el día, siendo las extremidades la ubicación más frecuentemente reportada (82 %). Se encontró una asociación estadísticamente significativa entre un cuadro grave y la mayor necesidad de UCI. Conclusiones: el escorpionismo es un problema de salud pública infravalorado en Colombia. La población pediátrica tiene mayor riesgo de desarrollar complicaciones y síntomas graves en la escorpiotoxicosis. Un cuadro grave en cualquier edad aumenta la probabilidad de ingreso a una UCI, requerimiento frecuente de soporte hídrico e inotrópico y la necesidad de antihipertensivos, al igual que dosis elevadas de antiveneno.


SUMMARY Objective: To describe the sociodemographic, clinical and paraclinical characteristics of the patients treated at the Neiva University Hospital between 2014 and 2018, and identify risk factors that are associated with mortality. Materials and Methods: Observational, analytic retrospective, study. Absolute and relative frequencies were calculated. Normality analysis was performed with the Shapiro-Wilk Test. The relationship of different sociodemographic and clinical variables and the risk of mortality were evaluated using logistic regression. Results: 305 events were registered, predominantly mild (117 cases), being 2018 the year with the highest number of reports (35.45%). Most were young people, with a mean age of 17 years, mainly between 0-11 years (61%). More than 90% resided in the Huila department and more than half (67%) belonged to the subsidized regime. Most bites occurred during the day, with the extremities being the most frequently reported location (82%). A statistically significant association was found between a severe condition and an increased need for an ICU. Conclusions: Scorpionism is an undervalued public health problem in Colombia. The pediatric population is at increased risk of developing severe complications and symptoms in scorpiotoxicosis. A severe condition at any age increases the probability of ICU admission, more frequent requirement for inotropic and liquids supply, and the use of antihypertensive drugs and high doses of anti-venom.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mortality , Scorpion Stings , Scorpions , Signs and Symptoms , Bites and Stings , Public Health , Research Report
2.
Medisan ; 25(5)2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1346546

ABSTRACT

Se presenta el caso clínico de un anciano de 73 años de edad, que fue asistido en el Cuerpo de Guardia del Hospital General Docente Enrique Cabrera Cossío de La Habana por haber sido mordido en el rostro, en la región supraciliar derecha, por un perro, que le causó una herida avulsiva, con pérdida considerable de tejidos blandos, abundante sangrado y dolor. Luego de efectuar antisepsia del área y profilaxis con antibióticos, se practicó rápidamente el procedimiento quirúrgico, que consistió en desbridamiento de la herida y reconstrucción del defecto a través de plastia primaria con técnica de colgajos locales de avance y rotación, lo que permitió una evolución favorable, tanto estética como funcional, en el paciente.


The case report of a 73 years old man is presented. He was assisted in the Emergency Service of Enrique Cabrera Cossío Teaching General Hospital in Havana city, due to a dog bite in his face, in the right supraciliary region, that caused him a lacerated wound, with considerable loss of soft tissues, abundant bleeding and pain. After making antisepsis of the area and prevention with antibiotics, the surgical procedure was quickly practiced that consisted on debridement of the wound and reconstruction of the defect through primary plasty with technique of advance and rotation local flaps, that allowed a favorable clinical course in the patient, both cosmetic and functional.


Subject(s)
Bites and Stings/surgery , Aged , Dogs , Surgical Flaps , Debridement
3.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 73(2): e595, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347497

ABSTRACT

En el Perú los accidentes por mordedura de araña representan un problema de salud colectiva; de estos, el producido por la araña Loxosceles ha sido causa de numerosas muertes sobre todo en la costa. Esta tiende a ocasionar, ya sea una lesión cutánea o un cuadro sistémico, que puede llevar a la muerte del individuo si no es tratado a tiempo. Hasta la fecha no se cuenta con un protocolo de diagnóstico, predicción ni manejo a nivel internacional, por lo que se utilizan opciones terapéuticas sin respaldo de evidencia. Sin embargo, el manejo de soporte oportuno y adecuado es crucial para los cuadros severos. Se presenta el caso inusual de un loxoscelismo cutáneo-visceral o también llamado sistémico ocurrido en una zona rural. Hubo un compromiso renal severo que requirió hemodiálisis con un desenlace favorable a pesar del no uso de suero antiloxoscélico, lo que evidencia la importancia del manejo oportuno con las medidas de soporte adecuadas(AU)


Accidents caused by spider bites are a public health problem in Peru. Of these, those related to Loxosceles spider bites have been the cause of numerous deaths, mainly on the coast. These bites generally result in a cutaneous lesion or systemic involvement, which may threaten the person's life if not treated timely. An international protocol is not yet available for the diagnosis, prediction or management of Loxosceles spider bites. Therefore, therapeutic options are applied which are not supported by evidence. Still, timely and appropriate support management is crucial in severe cases. An unusual case of viscerocutaneous loxoscelism is presented, also known as systemic loxoscelism, which occurred in a rural area. The case was characterized by severe renal involvement requiring hemodialysis, but its outcome was favorable, despite not using antiloxoscelic serum, which shows the importance of timely management based on appropriate support measures(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Spider Bites , Bites and Stings , Peru/ethnology , Renal Dialysis
4.
Rev. argent. cir. plást ; 27(2): 67-70, 20210000. graf, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1357667

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Hasta un 90% de las mordeduras de animales son producidas por perros. Los niños son la población más vulnerable frente a las mordeduras ya que suelen afectar una mayor proporción de superficie corporal. Objetivo. Analizar la casuística de mordeduras de perro y su repercusión en nuestro entorno. Métodos. Estudio observacional, descriptivo, retrospectivo de un período de 8 años, que incluyó a todos los pacientes de 0 a 18 años con diagnóstico de mordedura de perro. Resultados. Se incluyeron 183 pacientes con diagnóstico de mordedura de perro. El promedio de edad fue de 6,1 años, y el grupo etario más afectado fue el de los niños de 3 a 5 años (38,3%). El tratamiento quirúrgico fue dividido en pacientes que requirieron rafia por planos (84,6%), colgajos (11,4%), injertos (3,4%) y puntos de aproximación (1%). Se reportaron 8 pacientes con complicaciones (4,4%). Conclusión. Los niños de 3 a 5 años son los más afectados por mordeduras de perro y la zona de cabeza y cuello es la más común. Un porcentaje importante de pacientes requirieron colgajos e injertos con buenos resultados.


Introduction. Up to 90% of animal bites are produced by dogs. Children are the most vulnerable population because bites tend to affect greater body surface area. Outcome. Analyze dog bites cases and their impact on our environment. Methods. An observational, descriptive, retrospective study during an 8 year period was carried out, which included all patients from 0 to 18 years with a diagnosis of dog bite. Results. A total of 183 patients with a diagnosis of dog bite were found. The average age was 6.1 years, and the age group most affected was children from 3 to 5 years old (38.3%). Surgical treatment was divided into: patients who required suture by planes (84.6%), flaps (11.4%) and grafts (3.4%) and approximation stitches (1%). Complications were reported in 8 patients (4.4%). Conclusion. Children from 3 to 5 years old are the most affected by dog bites, the head and neck area is the most common. A significant percentage of patients required flaps and grafts with good results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Wounds and Injuries/surgery , Bites and Stings/therapy , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Vaccination , Neck Injuries/therapy , Transplants/surgery , Lower Extremity/injuries , Upper Extremity/injuries , Dogs/injuries , Facial Injuries/therapy , Wound Closure Techniques , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
5.
Online braz. j. nurs. (Online) ; 20: e20216506, 05 maio 2021. graf, tab
Article in English, Spanish, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1290898

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: avaliar os fatores associados aos óbitos e ataques de tubarão no Brasil. MÉTODO: trata-se de um estudo transversal, quantitativo, realizado mediante acesso virtual ao website do Global Shark Attack File. A análise foi realizada no programa R, a partir de estatística descritiva e dos testes de Qui-quadrado de Pearson e Teste Exato de Fisher. RESULTADOS: ocorreram 86 ataques, dos quais 26 (30,2%) resultaram em óbito. Foi encontrada associação entre a ocorrência de ataque com o ano, estado, região, dia da semana, turno e espécie do tubarão, além da faixa etária, sexo da vítima e local do corpo acometido. Nenhuma variável apresentou associação com o óbito. O estado de Pernambuco computou o maior número de ataques (83,7%) e óbitos (96,2%). CONCLUSÃO: os ataques de tubarão estiveram associados com nove variáveis: três de caracterização da vítima e seis do perfil do acidente. Os óbitos não apresentaram associação significativa. Pernambuco sobressaiu como estado com maior ocorrência de ataque e óbitos.


OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the factors associated with shark attacks and deaths in Brazil. METHOD: this is a cross-sectional and quantitative study, carried out through virtual access to the Global Shark Attack File website. The analysis was performed in the R program, using descriptive statistics and the Pearson's chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. RESULTS: there were 86 attacks, of which 26 (30.2%) resulted in deaths. An association was found between occurrence of the attacks and year, state, region, day of the week, shift and shark species, in addition to the victim's age group and gender and to the part of the body affected. No variable was associated with death as outcome. The state of Pernambuco accounted for the largest number of attacks (83.7%) and deaths (96.2%). CONCLUSION: shark attacks were associated with nine variables: three related to the victim's characterization and six to the profile of the accident. The deaths did not present a significant association. Pernambuco stood out as the state with the highest occurrence of attacks and deaths.


OBJETIVO: evaluar los factores asociados con las muertes y los ataques de tiburones en Brasil. MÉTODO: se trata de un estudio transversal, cuantitativo, realizado a través del acceso virtual al sitio web Global Shark Attack File. El análisis se realizó mediante el programa R, utilizando estadística descriptiva y chi-cuadrado de Pearson y prueba exacta de Fisher. RESULTADOS: hubo 86 ataques, de los cuales 26 (30,2%) resultaron en muerte. Se encontró que hay asociación entre el ataque y el año, estado, región, día de la semana, turno y especie de tiburón, además del rango etario, sexo de la víctima y parte del cuerpo afectada. Ninguna variable se asoció con la muerte. El estado de Pernambuco tuvo el mayor número de ataques (83,7%) y muertes (96,2%). CONCLUSIÓN: los ataques de tiburones se asociaron con nueve variables: tres de la caracterización de la víctima y seis del perfil del accidente. Las muertes no mostraron una asociación significativa. Pernambuco se destacó como el estado con mayor número de ataques y muertes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sharks , Brazil , Death , Bites and Stings , Cross-Sectional Studies
6.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 73(1): e437, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280333

ABSTRACT

Introduction: From the medical point of view, only some ants are of special interest. Due to the diversity of ants and the growing contact with humans, it is necessary to have a better understanding of the factors and problems, which lead to adverse clinical outcomes. Objective: The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of published studies on ants and their impact on the medical field to synthesize fragmented knowledge and to inform the current state of this problem. Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted in Medline, EMBASE, SciELO and Google Scholar, with no time threshold. The search strategy was limited to articles published in Portuguese, English and Spanish. Eligible studies were case reports and case series that reported outcomes in humans caused by ant stings. Patient-level and study-level information was extracted. Results: The literature search yielded 1909 studies; of which 30 case reports and 16 case series reporting a total of 95 cases were included. Of these 48 patients were women (50.5 percent, and the median age was 36.1 ± 25.5 years old. The most frequently reported complications were severe pain, anaphylaxis and acute respiratory distress syndrome. The death of eighteen patients was documented (18.9 percent). Ants from the genera Solenopsis spp., Myrmecia sp., Paraponera clavata, Pachycondyla sennaarensis, Myrmecia rubra caused most of the accidents Conclusions: Severe allergic reactions caused by ants are a rare event, however, mortality can be high. An increase of ant related accidents is expected, a quick diagnosis and treatment is necessary to avoid fatalities(AU)


Introducción: Desde el punto de vista médico, solo algunas hormigas son de especial interés. Debido a la diversidad de hormigas y al creciente contacto con humanos, es necesario comprender mejor los factores y problemas que conducen a resultados clínicos adversos. Objetivo: Realizar una revisión sistemática de estudios publicados sobre las hormigas y su impacto en el campo médico para sintetizar conocimientos fragmentados e informar sobre el estado actual del problema. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica sistemática en Medline, EMBASE, SciELO y Google Scholar, sin límite de tiempo. La estrategia de búsqueda se limitó a artículos publicados en portugués, inglés y español. Se seleccionaron informes y series de casos sobre consecuencias de las picaduras de hormigas en humanos. Se extrajo información a nivel de paciente y a nivel de estudio. Resultados: La búsqueda bibliográfica obtuvo 1 909 estudios, de los cuales se seleccionaron 30 informes y 16 series sobre un total de 95 casos. De estos, 48 pacientes eran mujeres (50,5 por ciento) y la media de edad era 36,1 ± 25,5 años. Las complicaciones más frecuentes fueron dolor intenso, anafilaxia y síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda. Se documentó la muerte de 18 pacientes (18,9 por ciento). Hormigas de los géneros Solenopsis spp., Myrmecia sp., Paraponera clavata, Pachycondyla sennaarensis y Myrmecia rubra causaron la mayoría de los accidentes. Conclusiones: Las reacciones alérgicas graves provocadas por hormigas son un evento raro; sin embargo, la mortalidad puede ser alta. Se espera un incremento de los accidentes relacionados con las hormigas. Se requiere un diagnóstico y tratamiento rápidos para evitar muertes(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Ants , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Bites and Stings , Accidents , Mortality , Hypersensitivity , Anaphylaxis , Literature
7.
Med. U.P.B ; 40(1): 82-85, 03/03/2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1177504

ABSTRACT

El accidente apídico implica un bajo riesgo de morir por reacciones agudas como anafilaxia. Es frecuente que se desconozcan otros riesgos como el hepático y el neurológico. Dentro de las complicaciones menos conocidas está la polineuropatía aguda conocida como Guillain- Barré. La causa más ampliamente descrita es la reacción cruzada entre IgE y la proteína básica de mielina. A continuación, se reporta el primer caso en América Latina sobre la asociación entre Guillain-Barré y accidente por picadura de abejas. En este caso, hay criterios de causalidad como el nexo temporal, la plausibilidad biológica y la coherencia con otros artículos reportados en la literatura médica.


Bee sting accident usually implies a low risk of dying from acute reactions such as anaphylaxis. Other risks such as liver and neurological risks are often unknown. Among the lesser-known complications caused by this type of accident is the acute polyneuropathy known as Guillain-Barré. The most widely described cause is the cross reaction between IgE and myelin basic protein. The article reports the first case in Latin America on the association between Guillain-Barré and a bee sting accident. In this case, there are causality criteria such as temporal link, biological plausibility, and consistency with other articles reported in the medical literature


O acidente elapídico implica um baixo risco de morte por reações agudas, como anafilaxia. Outros riscos, como hepáticos e neurológicos, são frequentemente desconhecidos. Entre as complicações menos conhecidas está a polineuropatia aguda conhecida como Guillain-Barré. A causa mais amplamente descrita é a reação cruzada entre a IgE e a proteína básica da mielina. A seguir, é relatado o primeiro caso na América Latina sobre a associação entre Guillain-Barré e um acidente com picada de abelha. Nesse caso, há critérios de causalidade como vínculo temporal, plausibilidade biológica e consistência com outros artigos relatados na literatura médica


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Polyneuropathies , Bees , Bites and Stings , Immunoglobulin E , Accidents , Cross Reactions , Death , Anaphylaxis , Liver
8.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 7(1): 72-87, jan. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1147669

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Acidentes causados por animais peçonhentos são considerados um problema de saúde pública, sendo responsáveis por considerável número de agravos à população mundial. Estudos acerca do tema são escassos no Maranhão, havendo a necessidade de investigação dos casos, visto que são de fundamental importância para as ações de vigilância epidemiológica e ambiental. Objetivo: Descrever o perfil epidemiológico dos acidentes com animais peçonhentos no Estado do Maranhão, Brasil. Metodologia: Trata-se de estudo ecológico, descritivo com abordagem quantitativa. Os dados foram coletados no Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação/Departamento de Informática do Sistema Único de Saúde ocorridos no período de 01 janeiro de 2009 a 31 de dezembro 2019 dos casos notificados de acidentes com animais peçonhentos. Resultados: Constou-se maior incidência de notificações de acidentes em 2019,nos meses de Fevereiro (10,14%), Março (9,96%) e Maio (9,89%). No que tange ao perfil das vítimas houve uma predominância no sexo masculino (68,16%), adultos jovens de 20 a 39 anos (36,24%) e autodeclarados pretos (75,03%). No que diz respeito à gestação a imensa maioria não se aplica a categoria gestante (77,71%). Em relação as características do acidente destacou-se o acidente escorpiônico (55,97%), seguido pelos acidentes com aranhas (30,66%) e ofídicos (4,09%). O tempo decorrido entre o acidente e o atendimento foi predominante no intervalo de 1 a 3 horas após o acidente (34,37%). Dos acidentes ocorridos 61,31% foram classificados como leves, 82,02% evoluíram clinicamente com cura e 0,6% para óbito. Conclusões: Os acidentes causados por animais peçonhentos são de relevância para que haja um planejamento com medidas intersetoriais de vigilância epidemiológica junto a outros órgãos ambientais para minimizar o número de mortes (AU).


Introduction:Acidents caused by venomous animals are considered a public health problem, being responsible for a considerable number of injuries to the world population. Studies on the theme are scarce, with the need to investigate the cases,since they are of fundamental importance for the actions of epidemiological and environmental surveillance.Objective:To describe the epidemiological profile of accidents with venomous animals in the state of Maranhão, Brazil. Methodology:This is an ecological, descriptive study with a quantitative approach. Data were collected at Information System for Notifiable Diseases / Informatics Department of the Unified Health System from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2019 of the reported cases of accidents with venomous animals. Results:There was a higher incidence of accident notifications in 2019 and in the months of February (10.14%), March (9.96%) and May (9.89%). Regarding the profile of the victims, there was a predominance of males (68.16%), young adults aged 20 to 39 years (36.24%) and self-declared blacks (75.03%). With regard to pregnancy, the vast majority does not apply to the pregnant category (77.71%). Regarding the characteristics of the accident, the scorpionic accident stood out (55.97%), followed by accidents with spiders (30.66%) and snakebites (4.09%). The time elapsed between the accident and the assistance was predominant in the interval from 1 to 3 hoursafterthe accident (34.37%). Of the accidents that occurred, 61.31% were classified as mild, 82.02% progressed clinically with cure and 0.6% died. Conclusions:Accidents caused by venomous animals are relevant for planning intersectoral measures for epidemiological surveillance with other environmental agencies to minimize the number of deaths (AU).


Introducción: Los accidentes ocasionados por animales venenosos son considerados un problema de salud pública, siendo responsable de un número considerable de lesiones a la población mundial. Los estudios sobre el tema son escasos,con la necesidad de investigar los casos, ya que son de fundamental importancia para las acciones de vigilancia epidemiológica y ambiental. Objetivo: Describir el perfil epidemiológico de accidentes con animales venenosos en el estado de Maranhão, Brasil. Metodología:Se trata de un estudio ecológico, descriptivo con enfoque cuantitativo. Los datos fueron recolectados en el Sistema de Información de Enfermedades Notificables /Departamento de Informática del Sistema Único de Salud que ocurrieron en el período del 01 de enero de 2009 al 31 de diciembre de 2019 de los casos notificados de accidentes con animales venenosos.Resultados: Hubo una mayor incidencia de notificaciones de accidentes en 2019 y en los meses de febrero (10,14%), marzo (9,96%) y mayo (9,89%). En cuanto al perfil de las víctimas,predominó el sexo masculino (68,16%), adultos jóvenes de 20 a 39 años (36,24%) y negros autodeclarados (75,03%). En cuanto al embarazo, la gran mayoría no aplica a la categoría de embarazadas (77,71%). En cuanto a las características del accidente, destacó el accidente escorpiónico (55,97%), seguido de los accidentes con arañas (30,66%) y las mordeduras de serpientes (4,09%). El tiempo transcurrido entre el accidente y la asistencia fue predominante en el intervalo de 1 a 3 horasposteriores al accidente (34,37%). De los accidentes ocurridos, 61,31% fueron clasificados como leves, 82,02% progresó clínicamente con curación y 0,6% fallecieron. Conclusiones: Los accidentes causados por animales venenosos son relevantes para planificar medidas intersectoriales de vigilancia epidemiológica con otras agencias ambientales para minimizar el número de muertes (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Health Surveillance , Bites and Stings , Brazil/epidemiology , Disease Notification , Animals, Poisonous , Snake Bites , Epidemiologic Studies , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Ecological Studies
9.
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 31: 31107, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291258

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A Febre Maculosa é uma doença febril aguda, causada pela bactéria Rickettsia rickettsii e transmitida pela picada de carrapatos infectados. Atualmente, ocorre um aumento da incidência e das mortes pela doença em diversas áreas do Brasil, o que pode significar um surto e a necessidade de alerta. Metodologia: Estudo quantitativo, descritivo, transversal, que embasou sua busca nas plataformas de notificações brasileiras (DATASUS e SINAN) e boletins epidemiológicos no período de 2007 a 2019. Resultados: O número de casos e a mortalidade demonstraram valores maiores nos meses correspondentes à fase de ninfa do carrapato vetor, com incidência maior na zona rural, na região sudeste e durante o lazer. Além disso, a faixa etária mais atingida foi de 40 a 59 anos, com predominância da população masculina. Os valores maiores apresentados nas zonas rurais, assim como grupo etário e sexo se devem às atividades realizadas que expõem mais os indivíduos ao ambiente natural dos vetores, à sazonalidade dos carrapatos e à presença da Mata Atlântica. Nota-se a presença de grande subnotificação no Brasil. Conclusão: Constata-se a necessidade de desenvolver de políticas de prevenção e disseminar informações sobre o ciclo da doença, manifestações clínicas, prevenção e tratamento.


Introduction: Spotted Fever is an acute febrile disease, caused by the bacteria Rickettsia rickettsii and transmitted by the bite of infected ticks. Currently, there is an increase in the incidence and deaths from the disease in several areas of Brazil, which may mean an outbreak and the need for alert. Methodology: Quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study that based its search on the Brazilian notification platforms (DATASUS and SINAN) and newsletters. Results: The number of cases and mortality showed higher values in months corresponding to the vector tick nymph phase (from June to September), with a higher incidence in countryside, in southeast region and at moments of leisure practice. In addition, the most affected age group was 40 to 59 years old, in male population. Higher values presented in countryside, as well as age group and sex are due to activities that expose individuals more to natural environment of vectors, the seasonality of the ticks and the presence of the Atlantic Forest. In addition, there is a large underreporting in Brazil. Conclusion: It´s necessary to develop prevention policies, as well as disseminate information about disease cycle, clinical manifestations, prevention and treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Health Profile , Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever , Rickettsia rickettsii , Signs and Symptoms , Ticks , Bites and Stings , Disease Notification , Amblyomma
10.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 45: e55, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252036

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives. To assess the productivity and visibility in research, clinical studies, treatment, use and production of antivenoms against poisonous snakes, scorpions and spiders. Methods. Bibliometric analysis of research and other activities. Articles on venoms and antivenoms published between 2000 and 2020 were retrieved from the Scopus database. The records were analyzed by bibliometric indicators including number of documents per year, journals, authors, and citation frequency. VOSviewer® v.1.6.13 was used to construct bibliometric networks for country co-authorships and co-occurrence of terms. Results. Australia, Brazil, Costa Rica and India were among the six top countries with most documents and were selected for more detailed analysis. Costa Rica was the country with the largest percentage of its publications dedicated to antivenom production and venomics. Only a few papers dealt with the issues of quality, safety, and efficacy of antivenoms or the role of the national regulatory authorities. The use of VOSviewer® allowed visualization through joint publications of networking between countries. Visualization by co-occurrence of terms showed differences in the research carried out. Conclusions. Working in a collaborative and coordinated manner these four countries could have a major impact on envenoming globally. Attention should be given not only to antivenom production but also to strengthening regulatory oversight of antivenom products.


RESUMEN Objetivos. Evaluar la productividad y la visibilidad en la investigación, los estudios clínicos, el tratamiento, el uso y la producción de antivenenos contra las picaduras de serpientes, arañas y escorpiones venenosos. Métodos. Análisis bibliométrico de la investigación y de las otras actividades. Se tomaron los artículos sobre venenos y antivenenos publicados entre el 2000 y el 2020 en la base de datos de Scopus. Estos documentos se analizaron mediante indicadores bibliométricos como el número de documentos por año, revistas, autores o frecuencia en las citas. Se utilizó VOSviewer® v.1.6.13 para crear una red bibliométrica para coautorías de países y coapariciones de términos. Resultados. Australia, Brasil, Costa Rica e India estaban entre los seis primeros países con más documentos y se seleccionaron para un análisis más detallado. Costa Rica fue el país con el mayor porcentaje de sus publicaciones dedicadas a la producción de antivenenos y la venómica. Solo unos pocos artículos trataban los temas de la calidad, la seguridad y la eficacia de los antivenenos, o la función de las autoridades regulatorias nacionales. Gracias a VOSviewer® pudimos visualizar las publicaciones conjuntas de las colaboraciones entre países. La visualización por la coaparición de términos arrojó diferencias en la investigación realizada. Conclusiones. Si estos cuatro países trabajasen de forma colaborativa y coordinada, podrían tener una repercusión mayor en los envenenamientos por picaduras en el mundo. El foco no debe ponerse solo en la producción de antivenenos, sino también en fortalecer la supervisión regulatoria de estos productos.


RESUMO Objetivos. Avaliar a produtividade e visibilidade em pesquisa, estudos clínicos, tratamento, uso e produção de antivenenos contra peçonhas de serpentes, escorpiões e aranhas. Métodos. Análise bibliométrica de pesquisas e outras atividades. Artigos sobre venenos e antivenenos publicados entre 2000 e 2020 foram obtidos da base de dados Scopus. O conteúdo foi analisado segundo indicadores bibliométricos, como número de artigos por ano, periódicos, autores e frequência de citação. Utilizou-se o software VOSviewer® v.1.6.13 para construir redes bibliométricas de coautoria de países e co-ocorrência de termos. Resultados. Austrália, Brasil, Costa Rica e Índia figuraram entre os seis principais países com o maior número de artigos e, assim, foram selecionados para uma análise mais aprofundada. A Costa Rica teve a maior porcentagem de publicações dedicadas à produção de antivenenos e pesquisa em venômica. Apenas um pequeno número de artigos tratou de questões relacionadas à qualidade, segurança e eficácia dos antivenenos ou ao papel das autoridades nacionais reguladoras. O software VOSviewer® permitiu visualizar, através das publicações conjuntas, as redes formadas entre diferentes países. A visualização por co-ocorrência de termos revelou diferenças nas pesquisas realizadas. Conclusões. Trabalhando de forma colaborativa e coordenada, esses quatro países tiveram uma influência importante em nível mundial no campo de acidentes por animais peçonhentos. Deve-se atentar não apenas à produção de antivenenos, mas também ao fortalecimento da fiscalização regulatória destes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Venoms/poisoning , Bites and Stings/therapy , Bibliometrics , Animals, Poisonous/classification , Antidotes , Periodicals as Topic , Scorpions , Spiders , Elapidae , Bibliometric Indicators , Newspapers as Topic
12.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 27: e20200188, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1279408

ABSTRACT

Accidents caused by the bites of brown spiders (Loxosceles) generate a clinical condition that often includes a threatening necrotic skin lesion near the bite site along with a remarkable inflammatory response. Systemic disorders such as hemolysis, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure may occur, but are much less frequent than the local damage. It is already known that phospholipases D, highly expressed toxins in Loxosceles venom, can induce most of these injuries. However, this spider venom has a great range of toxins that probably act synergistically to enhance toxicity. The other protein classes remain poorly explored due to the difficulty in obtaining sufficient amounts of them for a thorough investigation. They include astacins (metalloproteases), serine proteases, knottins, translationally controlled tumor proteins (TCTP), hyaluronidases, allergens and serpins. It has already been shown that some of them, according to their characteristics, may participate to some extent in the development of loxoscelism. In addition, all of these toxins present potential application in several areas. The present review article summarizes information regarding some functional aspects of the protein classes listed above, discusses the directions that could be taken to materialize a comprehensive investigation on each of these toxins as well as highlights the importance of exploring the full venom repertoire.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Spider Venoms/toxicity , Spiders , Serpins , Serine Proteases , Bites and Stings
13.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 27: e20200110, 2021. mapas, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1279404

ABSTRACT

Background: Although scorpionism is recorded worldwide, some regions such as Iran present a higher incidence. Due to the great prevalence of scorpion stings in Khuzestan province, southwestern Iran, the present study examined the relationship between different climate parameters and the scorpion sting rate in this area from April 2010 to March 2015. Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive-analytical study, we considered all scorpion sting cases recorded in the Department of Infectious Diseases, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences. Data were analyzed using statistics, frequency distribution and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: A total of 104,197 cases of scorpion stings was recorded from 2010 to 2015. The cumulative incidence of scorpion sting was 2.23%. The spatial distribution of scorpion stings showed that most cases occurred in the Dehdez district (4,504 scorpion stings/100,000 inhabitants) and the Masjed Soleyman county (4,069 scorpion stings/100,000 inhabitants). A significant association was found between climate factors (temperature, evaporation rate, sunshine duration, humidity, and precipitation) and the scorpion sting rate. An increase in rainfall and humidity coincided with a reduction in scorpion stings whereas an increase in temperature, evaporation, and sunshine duration was accompanied by a growth of scorpion stings. No significant correlation was found between wind velocity/direction and the incidence rate of stings. Moreover, the seasonal peak incidence of scorpion stings was recorded in summer (an average of 8,838 cases) and the lowest incidence was recorded during winter (an average of 1,286 cases). The annual trend of scorpion sting cases decreased during the period from 2010 to 2015. Conclusion: Climate variables can be a good index for predicting the incidence of scorpion stings in endemic regions. Since they occur mostly in the hot season, designing preventive measures in the counties and districts with a high incidence of scorpion stings such as Dehdez and Masjed Soleyman can minimize mortality and other burdens.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Seasons , Bites and Stings , Climate , Scorpion Stings
14.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 389-393, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922703

ABSTRACT

Leopard attacks on humans are reported most often from the Indian subcontinent. The bite wounds are complex injuries infected with polymicrobial inoculum and may present as punctures, abrasions, lacerations or avulsions. The presentation and acceptable treatment of these injuries vary according to the wound. We hereby describe the clinical presentation and treatment of a male victim with leopard bite injuries on the head and neck region. As bite injuries are commonly found on and around the face, maxillofacial surgeons should be familiar with the therapy. Through thorough clinical and radiological examination, it is essential to prevent missing any hidden injuries, which can easily turn lethal. To benefit the rural population, more health facilities need to be established in remote areas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bites and Stings/therapy , Facial Injuries/therapy , Head , Humans , Male , Neck Injuries/therapy , Panthera
15.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 401-403, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922352

ABSTRACT

Shark attacks are rare unique pathological processes. Some of them represent devastating injuries with a high morbidity and significant mortality. Related published articles are limited. The increased human interaction within the environment of sharks is the cause of rising incidence of such attacks. This study reported a case of level 4 shark injuries (shark-induced trauma scale) in a 33-year-old male patient, who presented with an extensive injury of the right lower limb with the characteristic features of shark bite. At admission the patient was in a state of shock with profuse bleeding that was controlled by tourniquet. The patient was resuscitated according to the advanced trauma life support. Clinical examination showed hard signs of vascular injury with absent pedal pulse, associated neurological deficits and severance at the knee joint. Prompt vascular intervention after resuscitation was performed to manage the major vascular injuries, together with proper washout and debridement of all the necrotic tissues under strong antibiotic coverage to prevent infection. After that, the patient underwent sequenced plastic, orthopedic, and neurological interventions. Strict follow-up was conducted, which showed that the patient was saved and achieved a functioning limb. This study aims to highlight the management of level 4 shark injuries, which are considered serious and challenging with a high fatality rate and a great risk of amputation due to the associated major vascular injuries. Immediate well organized management plan is crucial. Prompt resuscitation and surgical intervention by a highly-skilled medical team are required to improve the chance of patient survival and limb salvage.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Bites and Stings/complications , Humans , Limb Salvage , Male , Retrospective Studies , Sharks , Vascular System Injuries/surgery
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(3): 529-534, July-Sept. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132425

ABSTRACT

Abstract Wildlife rehabilitation facilities in the Caribbean region are limited, yet they can provide relevant information on wild populations. Didelphis marsupialis insularis is a popularly hunted, under-studied, neo-tropical marsupial species that is increasingly being admitted for rehabilitation. The aim of this study was 1. To record the experiences of rehabilitating D. marsupialis insularis in the neo-tropical island of Trinidad and Tobago and 2. To extract and highlight information on the biology of this opossum sub-species. Using admission records, obtained over a roughly four year period, two breeding periods (February to March and August to October) were illustrated. Litter sizes averaged five individuals, with a range of 1 to 8 young. This species was found to be common in urban areas of the country, with dog attacks reported as the major cause for admission. Thus the information recorded by this wildlife rehabilitation facility has provided great insight on the sparsely studied opossum, D. marsupialis insularis.


Resumo As instalações de reabilitação e assistência à vida selvagem na região neotropical do Caribe são limitadas, mas informações relevantes sobre populações selvagens podem ser obtidas nesses locais. Didelphis marsupialis insularis é uma espécie de marsupial neotropical, subestimada e popularmente caçada; no entanto, essa espécie está sendo cada vez mais admitida para a reabilitação. Os objetivos deste estudo foram: 1. Registrar as experiências de reabilitação de D. marsupialis insularis na ilha neotropical de Trinidad e Tobago; e 2. Extrair e destacar informações sobre a biologia dessa subespécie de gambá. Utilizando registros de admissão, obtidos ao longo de um período de aproximadamente quatro anos, foram mostrados dois períodos de reprodução, de fevereiro a março e de agosto a outubro. O tamanho da ninhada foi em média de cinco indivíduos, variando de um a oito jovens. Comumente encontrado em áreas urbanas do país, os ataques de cães foram relatados como a principal causa de internação dessa espécie. Assim, a informação registrada por essa instalação de reabilitação de vida selvagem forneceu uma grande visão sobre o gambá D. marsupialis insularis, que tem sido pouco estudado.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Bites and Stings , Didelphis , Opossums , Trinidad and Tobago , Caribbean Region , Animals, Wild
17.
Buenos Aires; GCBA. Gerencia Operativa de Epidemiología; 4 sept. 2020. a) f: 20 l:23 p. graf.(Boletín Epidemiológico Semanal: Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, V, 211).
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, InstitutionalDB, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1282570

ABSTRACT

El aislamiento social, preventivo y obligatorio (ASPO) es una medida excepcional que el Gobierno Nacional adopta en un contexto crítico. Con el fin de proteger la salud pública frente a la propagación de la Covid-19, se dispuso que todas las personas que habitan, o se encuentren temporalmente, en las jurisdicciones donde rige esta normativa deberán permanecer en sus domicilios habituales, sólo pudiendo realizar desplazamientos mínimos e indispensables para aprovisionarse de artículos de limpieza, medicamentos y alimentos (Decreto Nacional 297/2020). En la Ciudad de Autónoma de Buenos Aires (CABA) rige desde el 20 de marzo el ASPO, y se ha ido flexibilizando a lo largo del tiempo. En este contexto se modificaron conductas, actividades e incluso asistencia a los centros de salud para consultas no relacionadas con Covid-19. En este informe pretendemos dar cuenta de la situación en relación a la denuncia de accidentes por mordeduras de animales de compañía. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Cats , Dogs , Rabies/prevention & control , Social Isolation , Bites and Stings/prevention & control , Bites and Stings/veterinary , Bites and Stings/epidemiology , Accidents, Home/statistics & numerical data , Pets , Animals, Domestic
18.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 838-844, Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124863

ABSTRACT

La Tafonomía, concepto reconocido en paleontología y antropología, permite estimar tiempo y circunstancias de muerte mediante el estudio de condiciones post-mortem y factores relativos a la supervivencia de restos óseos. Entre las diferentes variables tafonómicas, Binford (1981) propuso una categorización de marcas de mordedura, hoy reconocido estándar para estos estudios. Sin embargo, su diseño original en inglés podría llevar a malinterpretaciones o informes erróneos por no poseer una traducción validada. Se realizó una revisión con búsqueda sistemática de artículos en español, sin límite temporal, que citaran a Binford ("Bones: Ancient Men and Modern Myths") en Google Scholar. Fueron incluidos aquellos que mencionaran esta metodología para categorizar marcas de mordedura como agente tafonómico. Se excluyeron tesis, libros, pósters y resúmenes de congresos. Se identificaron 349 documentos y se seleccionaron 83 según criterios. El 65,12 % refirió sólo a huellas de mordedura animal sin especificar categorías; el 26,51 % mostró traducciones libres o categorizaciones parciales, y el 8,43 % realizó categorizaciones sin traducción. La mayor cantidad de citas fueron realizadas por autores de Argentina y España (54,22 % y 24,10 % respectivamente, como única filiación). Las categorías con más traducciones libres fueron "pitting" y "puncture" (11 y 8 términos diferentes respectivamente). Si bien la categorización de Binford es citada profusamente en países de habla hispana para definir las marcas de mordedura animal en hueso, la ausencia de transculturización conlleva falta de consenso para la comunidad científica. Más allá de una traducción literal, la adaptación y estandarización de estos términos es necesaria para validar esta metodología.


Taphonomy, a concept recognized in paleontology and anthropology, allows the estimation of time and circumstances of death by studying post-mortem conditions and factors related to the survival of bone remains. Among the different taphonomic variables, Binford (1981) proposed a categorization of bite marks, now recognized as standard for these studies. However, its original design in English could lead to misinterpretations or erroneous reports for not having a validated translation. A scoping review was conducted for articles in Spanish, without a time limit, that cited Binford ("Bones: Ancient Men and Modern Myths") in Google Scholar. Those who mentioned this methodology to categorize bite marks as taphonomic agent were included. Theses, books, posters and conference proceedings were excluded. We identified 349 documents, and 83 were selected according to criteria. 65.12 % referred only to animal bite marks without specifying categories; 26.51 % showed free translations or partial categorizations, and 8.43 % made categorizations without translation. The largest number of citations were made by authors from Argentina and Spain (54.22 % and 24.10 % respectively, as the only affiliation). The categories with the most free translations were "pitting" and "puncture" (11 and 8 different terms respectively). While Binford's categorization is widely cited in Spanish-speaking countries to define animal bite marks in bone, the absence of transculturation implies a lack of consensus for the scientific community. Beyond a literal translation, the adaptation and standardization of these terms is necessary to validate this methodology.


Subject(s)
Animals , Paleontology , Bites and Stings/classification , Bone and Bones/pathology , Terminology as Topic , Forensic Anthropology , Cultural Diffusion
19.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(3): s69-s106, jun. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1117409

ABSTRACT

La relación de un niño con un animal doméstico, bajo circunstancias debidamente controladas, es beneficiosa para ambos. Las mascotas establecen vínculos de apego con los niños y la relación resulta positiva en aspectos afectivos, en refuerzo de la personalidad y promoción de autoestima, y en desarrollo cognitivo.Sin embargo, existen riesgos en la convivencia de niños y mascotas: mordeduras, lesiones diversas, transmisión de enfermedades. Los factores de riesgo pueden ser inherentes a los niños (edades, conductas inoportunas, falta de supervisión), al medioambiente (hogares pequeños, espacios inadecuados) o a los perros (razas no recomendables, conductas agresivas).En este consenso, se insiste en pautas para una tenencia responsable y una convivencia segura. Se recomiendan perros y gatos como mascotas, y se desaconsejan especies exóticas y animales no tradicionales. Se brindan pautas de tratamiento de mordeduras y se esbozan las principales zoonosis de las que pueden ser transmisores los animales de compañía.


The relationship of a child with a pet, under duly controlled circumstances, is beneficial for both. Pets establish emotional attachments to children, and the relationship turns out positive in terms of affective aspects, in reinforcement of the child ́s personality and promoting self-esteem, and in cognitive development, among many other advantages.Nevertheless, there are real risks in the coexistence of kids and pets: trauma, bites, several injuries and also disease transmission. Risk factors of injuries can be inherent in children (age, improper behavior, lack of supervision), in the environment (small houses, inadequate spaces), or in dogs (big or not recommended breeds, aggressive behaviors).This consensus insists on some guidelines for a responsible tenure and safe coexistence. Dogs and cats are recommended as pets, discouraging exotic species and non-traditional animals. Guidelines for bites treatment are provided and the main zoonoses of which pets can be carriers and transmitters are outlined


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Child , Human-Animal Bond , Pets , Bites and Stings/prevention & control , Zoonoses , Child Development , Animal Assisted Therapy , Object Attachment
20.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 72(1): e457, ene.-abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126699

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las mordeduras de perro afectan fundamentalmente a pacientes en la edad pediátrica, estas engendran peligros como secuelas estéticas y la posibilidad implícita de transmisibilidad del virus de la rabia a seres humanos. Objetivo: caracterizar el comportamiento clínico-epidemiológico de las mordeduras de perro en niños. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, longitudinal y prospectivo en pacientes con diagnóstico de mordedura de perro con necesidad de inmunización pasiva y activa, ingresados en el Servicio de Miscelánea del Hospital Infantil Sur Antonio María Béguez César de Santiago de Cuba, del 1ro de enero de 2017 al 31 de diciembre de 2018. Resultados: En los pacientes incluidos en el estudio predominaron los del sexo masculino (57,7 por ciento), los grupos de edades de 1 a 5 años 11 meses y 29 días, y de 6 a 10 años 11 meses y 29 días fueron los de mayor incidencia. Aunque no existió asociación estadística entre la localización anatómica de las lesiones y la edad, fueron las de miembros inferiores las más frecuentes en todas las edades con 63 pacientes (40,4 por ciento); destacándose como complicaciones la celulitis, las lesiones óseas y las secuelas estéticas; ningún niño presentó infección rábica. En el 50 por ciento de los casos la mordedura ocurrió en el horario nocturno y los perros de otro domicilio causaron la mayor parte de las agresiones. Conclusiones: El diagnóstico de mordeduras de perro se realizó con mayor frecuencia en niños del sexo masculino de uno y más años, en el horario nocturno y la principal complicación fue la celulitis(AU)


Introduction: Dog bites mainly affect patients in pediatric ages. They pose dangers such as esthetic sequels and the implicit possibility of transmission of the rabies virus to human beings. Objective: Characterize the clinical-epidemiological behavior of dog bites in children. Methods: An observational longitudinal prospective study was conducted of patients diagnosed with dog bite requiring passive and active immunization admitted to the Miscellany Service of Antonio María Béguez César South Children's Hospital in Santiago de Cuba from 1 January 2017 to 31 December 2018. Results: Among the patients included in the study there was a predominance of the male sex (57.7 percent). The age groups 1 to 5 years 11 months and 29 days and 6 to 10 years 11 months and 29 days showed the greatest incidence. Though no statistical association was found between anatomical location of the injuries and age, bites on the lower limbs were the most common at all ages with 63 patients (40.4 percent). Outstanding complications were cellulitis, bone lesions and esthetic sequels. No child had rabies infection. In 50 percent of the cases the bite occurred in the night hours. Most of the attacks were performed by dogs from other households. Conclusions: Dog bite diagnosis was more common among male children aged one year and over. Most bites occurred in the night hours. The main complication was cellulitis(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Bites and Stings/complications , Bites and Stings/diagnosis , Dogs , Rabies virus/physiology , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Observational Study
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