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1.
Rev. medica electron ; 43(2): 3249-3256, mar.-abr. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251942

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El Blastocystis sp. es un parásito frecuente en el humano, identificado por el laboratorio en muestras de heces fecales. Se presentó el caso de un paciente de 5 años atendido en consulta de Gastroenterología en el Hospital Pediátrico Docente Provincial Eliseo Noel Caamaño, de Matanzas, por presentar dolor abdominal, heces pastosas, náuseas y vómitos desde hacía un año. Llevó tratamiento con ranitidina, omeprazol y domperidona, sin mejoría clínica. Se realizó estudio coproparasitológico en muestras de heces fecales seriadas, con la presencia del Blastocystis hominis. Se indicó tratamiento con metronidazol, sin mejoría clínica, y posteriormente se indicó como alternativa la nitazoxanida. Se evaluó a los 15 días, sin sintomatología y con negativización de las heces fecales seriadas. Resulta frecuente el desconocimiento y la poca importancia que los profesionales sanitarios muestran ante esta infestación, aunque cada vez más se confirma la participación del parásito en manifestaciones clínicas (AU).


ABSTRACT Blastocystis sp. is a frequent parasite in humans, identified in the laboratory in samples of fecal feces. The case of a 5-year-old patient is presented; he assisted the consultation of Gastroenterology in the Provincial Teaching Pediatric Hospital Eliseo Noel Caamaño in Matanzas, suffering abdominal pain, mash feces, nauseas and vomits for one year, and was treated with ranitidine, omeprazole and domperidone without clinical improvement. A coproparasitological study was carried out in serial fecal feces samples with the presence of Blastocystis hominis. Treatment with metronidazole was indicated without clinical improvement and them, as an alternative, nitazoxanide was indicated. He was evaluated at 15 days without symptoms and with negative serial fecal feces. The ignorance and the little importance that health professionals show towards this infestation are frequent, although more and more frequently it is confirmed the participation of the parasite in clinical manifestations (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Abdominal Pain/diagnosis , Child , Blastocystis hominis/pathogenicity , Signs and Symptoms , Specimen Handling/methods , Clinical Diagnosis , Feces/parasitology , Gastroenterology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/complications
2.
Infectio ; 23(1): 33-38, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-975560

ABSTRACT

Abstract Intestinal parasitosis (IP) is a public health problem in developing countries affecting one fourth of the global population. IP are common studied in children, ne glecting the adults that are also at high risk and source of transmission. A screening study was performed with a convenience sample in three Colombian regions: Guachené (Cauca), Quibdó (Chocó), and Urabá (Antioquia). Feces samples from 284 volunteers (older than 18 years old) were tested by microscopy to identify para site ova and cysts. The IP frequency was 14.5%, and 52.1% were males. 63.2% of the parasitized patients exhibited diarrhea, and/or abdominal pain with significant association. 39.5% had single parasitic infection and 60.5% had multiple parasites: Blastocystis hominis (63.9%), Entamoeba hystolitica/dispar (39.4%), Endolimax nana (33.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (22.2%), Giardia lamblia (19.4%), Entamoeba coli (13.9%), Trichuris trichiura (11.1%), hookworm species (11.1%), Strongyloides stercolaris (5.6%), and Iodamoeba butschlii (2.8%). A multivariate approach was used to determine predictor factors for IP: male gender, rainwater as drinking sour ce, and feces disposal different to toilet, latrine or septic tank were positively associated with infection. This study evidences that adult population, not only children from vulnerable areas of Colombia, must have to include as a risk for intestinal parasitism.


Resumen La parasitosis intestinal (PI) es un problema de salud pública en países en desarrollo que afecta un cuarto de la población mundial. Las PI son comúnmente estudia das en niños, olvidando que los adultos están también en riesgo y a su vez pueden ser fuentes de transmisión. Se realizó un estudio de tamizaje con una muestra escogida por conveniencia en tres regiones de Colombia: Guachené (Cauca), Quibdó (Chocó) y Urabá (Antioquia). Las muestras de materia fecal de 284 voluntarios mayores de 18 años, fueron estudiadas por microscopía para identificar parásitos, huevos y quistes. La frecuencia de las PI fue del 14.5%, 52.1% de los positivos fueron hombres. 63.2% de los individuos parasitados tenían asociación significativa con diarrea, y/o dolor abdominal. 39.5% tuvieron infección por un solo parásito y 60.5% fueron positivos para varios parásitos: Blastocystis hominis (63.9%), Entamoeba hystolitica/dispar (39.4%), Endolimax nana (33.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (22.2%), Giardia lamblia (19.4%), Entamoeba coli (13.9%), Trichuris trichiura (11.1%), Strongyloides stercolaris (5.6%), y Iodamoeba butschlii (2.8%). Se realizó un aná lisis multivariado para determinar factores predictores para PI: el género masculino, el agua lluvia para consumo, y la disposición de excretas diferente a sanitario, letrina o pozo séptico, están asociados positivamente a la PI. Este estudio evidencia que la población adulta, no solo la infantil, residentes en áreas vulnerables de Colombia, deben incluirse como población de riesgo al parasitismo intestinal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Parasites , Parasitic Diseases , Mass Screening , Helminthiasis , Toilet Facilities , Ancylostomatoidea , Water , Abdominal Pain , Septic Tanks , Giardia lamblia , Blastocystis hominis , Ascaris lumbricoides , Colombia , Diarrhea , Drinking , Coliforms
3.
Epidemiology and Health ; : 2019009-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785777

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Blastocystis hominis is a very common large intestinal protozoan with global prevalence in humans and non-human hosts. No precise statistics exist regarding the geographical distribution of Blastocystis that would enable the identification of high-risk communities. Therefore, the current research aimed to characterize the spatial patterns and demographic factors associated with B. hominis occurrence in northern Iran.METHODS: The current study was performed among 4,788 individuals referred to health centers in Mazandaran Province, from whom stool samples were obtained. Socio-demographic data were gathered using a questionnaire. Samples were examined by a direct wet mount, the formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique, and trichrome staining. Moran local indicators of spatial association and a geographically weighted regression model were utilized to analyze the results.RESULTS: Generally, the infection rate of Blastocystis parasites was 5.2%, and was considerably higher in the age group of 10-14 years (10.6%) than in other age groups (p=0.005). Our data showed important associations between the occurrence of B. hominis and age, residence, job, contact with domestic animals, anti-parasitic drug consumption, and elevation above sea level (p<0.001).CONCLUSIONS: The current study characterized for the first time the infection rate and risk of B. hominis in the north of Iran, and produced a prediction map. It is expected that this map will help policymakers to plan and implement preventive measures in high-risk areas and to manage already-infected patients.


Subject(s)
Animals, Domestic , Blastocystis hominis , Blastocystis , Demography , Epidemiology , Geographic Information Systems , Humans , Iran , Parasites , Prevalence , Spatial Regression
4.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2019009-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763753

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Blastocystis hominis is a very common large intestinal protozoan with global prevalence in humans and non-human hosts. No precise statistics exist regarding the geographical distribution of Blastocystis that would enable the identification of high-risk communities. Therefore, the current research aimed to characterize the spatial patterns and demographic factors associated with B. hominis occurrence in northern Iran. METHODS: The current study was performed among 4,788 individuals referred to health centers in Mazandaran Province, from whom stool samples were obtained. Socio-demographic data were gathered using a questionnaire. Samples were examined by a direct wet mount, the formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique, and trichrome staining. Moran local indicators of spatial association and a geographically weighted regression model were utilized to analyze the results. RESULTS: Generally, the infection rate of Blastocystis parasites was 5.2%, and was considerably higher in the age group of 10-14 years (10.6%) than in other age groups (p=0.005). Our data showed important associations between the occurrence of B. hominis and age, residence, job, contact with domestic animals, anti-parasitic drug consumption, and elevation above sea level (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The current study characterized for the first time the infection rate and risk of B. hominis in the north of Iran, and produced a prediction map. It is expected that this map will help policymakers to plan and implement preventive measures in high-risk areas and to manage already-infected patients.


Subject(s)
Animals, Domestic , Blastocystis hominis , Blastocystis , Demography , Epidemiology , Geographic Information Systems , Humans , Iran , Parasites , Prevalence , Spatial Regression
5.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(5): 847-851, May 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-955422

ABSTRACT

The health monitoring and management systems of coturniculture can be deemed to be in a developmental phase when compared to the poultry industry. Studies regarding taxonomy and parasitic biology in quails (Coturnix japonica) has not been well conducted in Brazil. Most of the information is available from the autopsy case reports, in many ways the parasitic fauna of quails is still unknown. The aim of this study was to conduct a parasitological research in quails in order to contribute to ameliorate this situation. 31 quails, which were 12 months old, were used for the study. Their carcasses and viscera were sent to the Laboratory of Entomology and Tropical Diseases, INPA, Manaus/AM. The circulatory, nervous, respiratory, digestive and reproductive systems of these were studied separately. No blood parasites were found, however, nine species of endoparasites were registered which were distributed among the classes Cestoda, Nematoda and Protozoa. The helminths were distributed in the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum and oviduct. The cecum was found to be the most parasitized organ and contained a wide range of parasites having three species of protozoa and three species of nematodes. Six morphotypes of Eutrichomastix globosus were recorded, and some morphotypes were hyperparasitized with sporangia Sphaerita sp. in the cytoplasm. A large number of parasites were recorded in this study, as well as the protozoan Blastocystis hominis was first being observed for quail.(AU)


A coturnicultura conta com um monitoramento sanitário e sistemas de manejo ainda em desenvolvimento quando comparado à avicultura industrial. Pesquisas de taxonomia e biologia parasitárias em codornas (Coturnix japonica) são pouco realizadas no Brasil, sendo a maioria das informações disponíveis referentes a relatos de caso em achados de necropsia, portanto, em muitos aspectos a fauna parasitária de codornas é ainda desconhecida. Este trabalho teve por objetivo realizar uma pesquisa parasitológica em codornas em fim de postura. Para pesquisa foram disponibilizadas 31 codornas com idades de 12 meses. As carcaças e suas vísceras foram encaminhadas ao Laboratório de Entomologia e Doenças Tropicais INPA, Manaus/AM. Foram estudados separadamente os sistemas circulatórios, nervoso, respiratório, digestivo e reprodutivo. Das 31 codornas examinadas nenhuma apresentou hemoparasitos, contudo, foram registradas nove espécies de endoparasitos distribuídas entre as classes Cestoda, Nematoda e protozoários. Os helmintos distribuíam-se pelo duodeno, jejuno, íleo, cecos e oviduto. O ceco foi o órgão mais parasitado e com maior diversidade de parasitas, sendo três espécies de protozoários e três de nematóides. Foram registrados seis morfotipos de Eutrichomastix globosus, sendo que, alguns morfótipos estavam hiperparasitados com esporângio Sphaerita sp. no citoplasma. Uma grande variedade de parasitos foi registrada nesta pesquisa, bem como, o protozoário Blastocystis hominis pela primeira vez sendo descrito para codornas.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Blastocystis hominis/pathogenicity , Coturnix/parasitology , Parabasalidea/pathogenicity , Farms/organization & administration
6.
Rev. cientif. cienc. med ; 21(2): 6-12, 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIBOCS | ID: biblio-1003792

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las parasitosis intestinales pueden provocar manifestaciones clínicas importantes, además que están relacionadas con desigualdades económicas y sociales. El objetivo de este estudio es describir la frecuencia, características macroscópicas, distribución etaria, de género y por estaciones del año de parásitos intestinales en exámenes coproparasitológicos directos simples procesados en el Laboratorio de Investigación Médica entre los años 2011 y 2015. Materiales y Métodos: Se trata de un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal. El universo corresponde a 3 728 muestras de exámenes coproparasitológicos directos simples que fueron procesadas en el Laboratorio de Investigación Médica de Cochabamba, Bolivia. Los datos recolectados, fueron procesados y analizados bajo estadística descriptiva con el programa Microsoft Office Excel® 2010. Resultados: Un 36,33% (n=1 328) de las muestras presentaron infección por parásitos intestinales, siendo el parásito más frecuente Blastocystis hominis con 44,5% (n=822); Giardia lamblia con 10,6% (n= 195) y Entamoeba histolytica/dispar con 8,1 % (n=149) representan los protozoarios intestinales patógenos. Entre los helmintos (3,41%), Hymenolepis nana es el más frecuente (2%). Según las características macroscópicas se reporta mayores frecuencias en muestras pastosas y semipastosas (53,69% y 38,33%, respectivamente). Los grupos etarios más parasitados fueron personas de 11-20 y 21-30 años (43% y 43,86%, respectivamente), afectando más al sexo femenino. Finalmente, en primavera se reportaron mayores frecuencias. Conclusión: Existe una considerable frecuencia de parásitos intestinales en la población que acude al laboratorio, cuyas características están acordes a las esperadas para las condiciones de nuestro medio.


Introduction: Intestinal parasites can cause important clinical manifestations, in addition they are related to economic and social inequalities. The objective of this study is to describe the frequency, macroscopic characteristics, age distribution, gender and seasonality of intestinal parasites in simple direct coproparasitological tests processed in the Medical Research Laboratory between 2011 and 2015. Materials and methods: It is a descriptive cross-sectional study. The universe corresponds to 3 728 samples of simple direct coproparasitological tests that were processed in the Medical Research Laboratory of Cochabamba, Bolivia. The data collected was processed and analyzed under descriptive statistics with the Microsoft Office Excel® 2010 program. Results: A 36,33% (n = 1 328) of the samples presented infection by intestinal parasites, being the most frequent parasite Blastocystis hominis with 44,5% (n = 822); Giardia lamblia with 10,6% (n = 195) and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar with 8,1% (n = 149) represent the pathogenic intestinal protozoa. Among the helminths (3,41%), Hymenolepis nana is the most frequent (2%). According to the macroscopic characteristics, higher frequencies are reported in pasty and semipastuous samples (53,69 and 38,33%, respectively).The most parasitized age groups were 11-20 and 21-30 years old (43 and 43,86%, respectively), affecting more the female sex. Finally, the spring year reported higher frequencies. Conclusion: There is a considerable frequency of intestinal parasites in the population that goes to the laboratory, whose characteristics are in line with those expected for the conditions of our environment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Parasites , Public Health , Blastocystis hominis
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742225

ABSTRACT

Intestinal parasitic infections remain a major public health problem in many parts of Thailand, particularly in rural areas. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and associated risk factors among the people living in Huai Sai sub-district, Bang Khla district, Chachoengsao Province, central Thailand. A cross-sectional survey was carried out from June 2017 to August 2017 which included a total of 224 participants. Stool samples were examined using a simple direct smear and formalin ethyl acetate concentration technique. Association between risk factors and intestinal parasitic infections was assessed using multivariate logistic regression analysis. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was 16.1%. Soil-transmitted helminth infections (14.3%) were more common than protozoan infections (1.8%). The most common intestinal parasites were hookworms (6.7%) followed by Strongyloides stercoralis, (5.0%), Ascaris lumbricoides (1.3%) and Trichuris trichiura (1.3%). Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (1.0%), Giardia intestinalis (0.4%), and Blastocystis hominis (0.4%) were the protozoans identified. A high prevalence of infections was found in male participants of ≥40 years who raised dogs in the households and did not wear boots while working fields. Multivariate analysis showed a significant association of intestinal parasitic infections with gender with the adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 2.4 and 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.1–5.2 (P=0.020). The results showed a high prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infections among adults in rural communities which were particularly apparent regarding the skin-penetrating species of nematodes. A greater focus on intervention is required by improving sanitation and personal hygiene to prevent the spread of intestinal parasitic infections.


Subject(s)
Adult , Ancylostomatoidea , Animals , Ascaris lumbricoides , Blastocystis hominis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dogs , Entamoeba , Entamoeba histolytica , Family Characteristics , Formaldehyde , Giardia lamblia , Helminths , Humans , Hygiene , Logistic Models , Male , Multivariate Analysis , Odds Ratio , Parasites , Prevalence , Protozoan Infections , Public Health , Risk Factors , Rural Population , Sanitation , Strongyloides stercoralis , Thailand , Trichuris
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-180610

ABSTRACT

A field survey studying intestinal parasites in humans and microbial pathogen contamination at environment was performed in a Laotian rural village to identify potential risks for disease outbreaks. A parasitological investigation was conducted in Ban Lak Sip village, Luang Prabang, Lao PDR involving fecal samples from 305 inhabitants as well as water samples taken from 3 sites of the local stream. Water analysis indicated the presence of several enteric pathogens, i.e., Aeromonas spp., Vibrio spp., E. coli H7, E. coli O157: H7, verocytotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC), Shigella spp., and enteric adenovirus. The level of microbial pathogens contamination was associated with human activity, with greater levels of contamination found at the downstream site compared to the site at the village and upstream, respectively. Regarding intestinal parasites, the prevalence of helminth and protozoan infections were 68.9% and 27.2%, respectively. Eight helminth taxa were identified in fecal samples, i.e., 2 tapeworm species (Taenia sp. and Hymenolepis diminuta), 1 trematode (Opisthorchis sp.), and 5 nematodes (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Strongyloides stercoralis, trichostrongylids, and hookworms). Six species of intestinal protists were identified, i.e., Blastocystis hominis, Cyclospora spp., Endolimax nana, Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar, Entamoeba coli, and Giardia lamblia. Questionnaires and interviews were also conducted to determine risk factors of infection. These analyses together with a prevailing infection level suggested that most of villagers were exposed to parasites in a similar degree due to limited socio-economic differences and sharing of similar practices. Limited access to effective public health facilities is also a significant contributing factor.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae , Aeromonas , Ancylostomatoidea , Ascaris lumbricoides , Blastocystis hominis , Cestoda , Cyclospora , Disease Outbreaks , Endolimax , Entamoeba , Entamoeba histolytica , Giardia lamblia , Helminths , Human Activities , Humans , Hymenolepis , Parasites , Prevalence , Protozoan Infections , Public Health , Risk Factors , Rivers , Shigella , Strongyloides stercoralis , Trichuris , Vibrio , Water
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-12375

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Because of a lack of quality control (QC) materials, stool examination has not been standardised. This study examined intestinal parasites in diarrhea specimens to manufacture and evaluate the performance stability of QC materials for stool examination. METHODS: This study examined diarrhea specimens submitted for stool culture. Microscopic examination was performed using the direct smear and formalin-ether concentration method (Military General Laboratory, MGL). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits (R-Biopharm AG, Germany) and xTAG Gastrointestinal Pathogen Panel (Luminex Corp., USA) were used for the three major protozoa: Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Entamoeba histolytica. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed for Dientamoeba fragilis and Blastocystis hominis. The QC materials for stool examination were generated using Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense ova. The manufactured QC materials were evaluated under different storage conditions, with varying preservatives, temperatures, and storage times. RESULTS: From November 2015 to April 2016, 82 diarrhea specimens were collected and tested. All results from microscopy and ELISA were negative; C. parvum (n=2) and G. lamblia (n=1) were detected by xTAG, while D. fragilis (n=10) and B. hominis (n=2) were detected by PCR. High- and low-concentration QC materials were manufactured. Using the high-concentration QC material, ova were observed in all storage conditions using MGL. Using the low-concentration QC material, the ova were observed until 14 days, but not after 3 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: It should be considered for making QC materials for stool examinations that focus on D. fragilis and B. hominis frequently found in Korea and with the caution to the low-concentration of QC materials could be unstable.


Subject(s)
Blastocystis hominis , Cryptosporidium parvum , Diarrhea , Dientamoeba , Diphyllobothrium , Entamoeba histolytica , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Giardia , Giardia lamblia , Korea , Methods , Microscopy , Ovum , Parasites , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Quality Control
10.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 33(3): 268-274, jun. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-791018

ABSTRACT

El síndrome de intestino irritable (SII) es un trastorno funcional digestivo de etiología multifactorial. En su fisiopatología se describen diversos factores, tanto biológicos, como psicológicos y ambientales, que afectan el estado de activación de células inmunes en la mucosa intestinal. Entre los factores ambientales se incluye la presencia de alguna parasitosis intestinal. El síndrome de intestino irritable post-infeccioso (SII-PI) es reconocido como un subgrupo de estos trastornos, cuya aparición de los síntomas es posterior a una infección intestinal provocada por agentes microbianos. A pesar de que en Chile hay pocos estudios respecto a la relación entre SII y parasitosis intestinal, se ha descrito la existencia de una asociación positiva entre SII e infecciones por Blastocistis hominis, uno de los parásitos prevalentes en Chile. En otros países, se ha descrito además una relación entre SII, amebiasis y giardiasis. Por la alta prevalencia de parasitosis en nuestro país, existe la necesidad de ampliar los estudios para clarificar la fuerza de la asociación entre parasitosis y SII.


Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional disorder of the gastrointestinal tract characterised by multi-factorial aetiology. In IBS physiopathology are involved diverse factors between them biological, psychosocial, and environmental components which affect the immune activation status of gut mucosa. Among these factors is recognized the intestinal parasitosis. Post-infection IBS (PI-IBS) is recognised as a subgroup of functional disorders whose symptoms onset appear after a symptomatic intestinal infection caused by microbial agents. There are few studies regarding of relationship between IBS and intestinal parasitosis in Chile. However, is has been well described a positive association between IBS and Blastocystis hominis infections, one of prevalent parasites in Chile. In other countries, is also described a relationship between IBS and amebiasis and giardiasis. Both, characterized by a common mode of transmission through water as well as contaminated food. Because the high prevalence of parasitosis in our country it is necessary to expand the association studies to clarify the strength of the parasites ethiology in IBS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/parasitology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/complications , Chile , Giardiasis/complications , Giardia lamblia/pathogenicity , Blastocystis Infections/complications , Blastocystis hominis/pathogenicity , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/physiopathology , Entamoeba histolytica/pathogenicity , Entamoebiasis/complications , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/physiopathology , Intestinal Mucosa/parasitology
12.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-162079

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Blastocystis hominis (B. hominis) is an obligate anaerobic protozoan found in the human large intestine, and is the most common eukaryotic organism reported in human fecal samples. Method: Multiple stool samples from 460 children (53.9% male and 46.07% female) were collected and examined for the presence of Blastocystis hominis in Parasitology Laboratory of International Centre for Diarrhoeal Diseases Research, Bangladesh during the period of 9th January to 28th December, 2011. Among them, 255 were diarrheal patients (56.47% male and 43.53% female). Direct microscopy was done for each of the samples and each sample was cultured in vitro for 48 hours and observed again for the presence of the pathogen. Th e aim of the study was to develop a sustainable technique to identify the pathogen. Results: In culture, several morphological forms were observed. Th rough microscopy, various morphological forms were clearly observed. Within 5679 tested samples, 795 samples (0.14%) were positive for B. hominis. As multiple forms were observed in the same sample, the most prevalent was cyst (0.125%) whereas least prevalent was granular (0.0072%). Th e highest percentage for all the morphological forms was observed in age group 25-36 months. In direct microscopy from fresh samples, children from 37-48 months showed the highest percentage (22.9%) of infection (p=0.000). In culture, the same age group showed the most infection rate (p=0.000). Among the diff erent morphological forms observed in culture, the highest prevalence of cyst was in age group 37-48 months (p=0.000). Th e highest prevalence of vacuolar form(5.7%) was observed in the same age group (p=0.015). In contrast, the amoeboid forms were mostly observed in children of 25-36 months (p=0.002).Th e children aged in between 37 to 48 months are at the most risk of the infection. Conclusion: Th e sensitivity of direct microscopy was found only 38.46% in respect to in-vitro culture which strongly suggests that in-vitro culture is the gold standard for the diagnosis of this parasite.


Subject(s)
Axenic Culture/methods , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Blastocystis hominis/analysis , Blastocystis hominis/isolation & purification , Child, Preschool , Dysentery/epidemiology , Dysentery/etiology , Feces/analysis , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Male , Poverty Areas
13.
Rev. eletrônica enferm ; 15(4): 1043-1051, out.-dez. 2013. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-717991

ABSTRACT

Realizou-se uma revisão sistemática da literatura com o objetivo de identificar a ocorrência de parasitos entéricos oportunistas em pacientes nefropatas crônicos submetidos à hemodiálise. A revisão consistiu de busca de artigos publicados nas bases de dados MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO, PubMed entre 1991 e 2013. Foram identificados 178 artigos, dos quais dez foram considerados relevantes para o presente trabalho. Nos trabalhos os pesquisadores demonstraram que os pacientes imunossuprimidos submetidos à hemodiálise são potencialmente infectados por agentes entéricos oportunistas. Há necessidade de maior quantidade de estudos sobre o tema uma vez que existe uma ocorrência mundial crescente das doenças renais crônicas e o potencial acometimento de doenças oportunistas nesta população podendo, inclusive, ocasionar a contaminação de ambientes hospitalares por protozoários entéricos oportunistas.


The objective of this systematic literature review was to identify the occurrence of opportunistic enteric parasites in chronic kidney patient undergoing hemodialysis. The review consisted on searching articles published on MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO, and PubMed databases between 1991 and 2013. A total 178 articles were identified, ten of which were considered relevant for the present study. In the referred studies, the researchers demonstrated that immunosuppressed patients undergoing hemodialysis are potentially infected by opportunistic enteric agents. Further studies are needed on this topic, as there is a growing global concern with chronic kidney diseases and the potential for these patients contracting opportunistic diseases, which, inclusively, could contaminate hospital environments with opportunistic enteric protozoa.


Se realizó revisión sistemática de la literatura con el objetivo de identificar la ocurrencia de parásitos entéricos oportunistas en pacientes de nefropatía crónica sometidos a hemodiálisis. La revisión consistió en la búsqueda de artículos publicados en las bases de datos MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO y PubMed, entre 1991 y 2013. Fueron identificados 178 artículos, de los cuales diez fueron considerados relevantes para el presente estudio. En los trabajos, los investigadores demostraron que los pacientes inmunosuprimidos sometidos a hemodiálisis son potencialmente infectados por agentes entéricos oportunistas. Hay necesidad de mayor cantidad de estudios sobre el tema, toda vez que existe presencia creciente a nivel mundial de enfermedades renales crónicas y el potencial agravamiento por enfermedades oportunistas en ésta población, pudiendo, inclusive, dar lugar a la contaminación de ambientes hospitalarios por protozoarios entéricos oportunistas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blastocystis hominis , Cryptosporidium , Cyclospora , Isospora , Renal Dialysis
14.
An. Fac. Med. (Perú) ; 73(1): 47-49, ene.-mar. 2012. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: lil-656502

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: Pruebas de susceptibilidad antiparasitaria in vitro para Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba histolytica-E. dispar y Balantidium coli, así como el cultivo para protozoarios intestinales, han sido publicados escasamente en la literatura médica. En nuestro medio aún no se ha comunicado pruebas de susceptibilidad in vitro para los parásitos mencionados. Objetivos: Plantear una alternativa de prueba de susceptibilidad antiparasitaria in vitro y conocer su resistencia frente a los antimicrobianos. Diseño: Estudio prospectivo, descriptivo. Instituciones: Instituto de Medicina Tropical "Daniel Alcides Carrión", Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, e Instituto Especializado de Salud del Niño, Lima, Perú. Material biológico: Cultivos de Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba histolytica-E. dispar y Balantidium coli frente a cinco antimicrobianos. Métodos: Se trabajó con 64 cultivos de Blastocystis hominis, 16 de Entamoeba histolytica-dispar y 16 de Balantidium coli, frente a cinco antimicrobianos: metronidazol, cotrimoxazol, tetraciclina, furazolidona y ciprofloxacina. Las cepas de B. hominis, E. histolytica-E. dispar fueron cultivadas en el medio de Pavlova modificado, de 500 muestras de heces de niños con diagnóstico de parasitosis intestinal y las de B. coli de heces de cerdo. Las pruebas de susceptibilidad in vitro se realizaron con el método de microcultivos en el medio de Pavlova modificado, en pocitos con 200 uL del medio sin antiparasitarios (control) y con antiparasitarios en 10 concentraciones, desde 128 ug/mL hasta 0,25 ug/mL; luego de incubación a 36º C por 48 horas, la lectura por examen microscópico directo comparó el desarrollo en el medio control con el desarrollo en los pocitos conteniendo los antimicrobianos. Principales medidas de resultados: Concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM). Resultados: Se encontró para B. hominis, con metronidazol CIM 90: 64 ug/mL y CIM 50: 2 ug/mL; para E. histolytica-E. dispar con metronidazol, CIM 90: 1 ug/mL y CIM 50: 0,5 ug/mL; para B. coli con tetraciclina, CIM 90: 0,25 ug/mL y CIM 50: 0,25 ug/mL. Conclusiones: Estos datos preliminares, a ser validados, muestran un comportamiento de las cepas de los parásitos mencionados, y es una alternativa de utilidad potencial (en caso de ser validada) para su aplicación en el tratamiento dirigido contra los protozoarios estudiados, así como en la vigilancia de resistencia.


Background: In vitro antiparasite susceptibility test for Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba histolytica-E. dispar y Balantidium coli, as well as intestinal protozoaria cultures, have rarely been reported in the medical literature. In vitro susceptibility tests for those parasites have not been published locally. Objectives: To determine an alternative in vitro antiparasite susceptibility test and its resistance to antimicrobials. Design: Prospective, descriptive study. Settings: Instituto de Medicina Tropical "Daniel Alcides Carrion", Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, and Instituto Especializado de Salud del Niño, Lima, Peru. Biologic material: Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba histolytica-E. dispar and Balantidium coli cultures against five antimicrobials. Methods: Sixty-four Blastocystis hominis, 16 Entamoeba histolytica-E. dispar and 16 Balantidium coli cultures were used against five antimicrobials: metronidazole, cotrimoxazole, tetracycline, furazolidone and ciprofloxacin. B. hominis, E. histolytica-E. dispar strains were cultured in modified PavlovaÆs media, from 500 feces samples of children with intestinal parasitosis diagnosis, and B. coli from pig feces. In vitro susceptibility tests were done by microculture methods in modified PavlovaÆs media, in 200 uL media little pools without antiparasites (control) and with antiparasites in 10 concentrations going from 128 ug/mL through 0,25 ug/mL; after incubation at 36º C for 48 hours, direct microscope exam reading compared development in control media and pools containing antimicrobials. Main outcome measures: Minimum inhibiting concentration (MIC). Results: For B. hominis with metronidazole CIM 90 was 64 ug/mL and CIM 50: 2 ug/mL; for E. histolytica-E. dispar with metronidazole, CIM 90: 1 ug/mL and CIM 50: 0.5 ug/mL; for B. coli with tetracicline, CIM 90: 0.25 ug/mL and CIM 50: 0.25 ug/mL. Conclusions: This preliminar information to be validated showed strains behavior of mentioned parasites, and represents a potential alternative use (in case of validation) in treatment of studied protozoa, as well as in resistance surveillance.


Subject(s)
Balantidium , Blastocystis hominis , Entamoeba histolytica , Eukaryota , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
15.
Rev. cient. (Guatem.) ; 21(2): 62-69, 2012. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-655681

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la prevalencia de parasitismo intestinal en los niños escolares de nivel primario de cuatro escuelas públicas de la ciudad de Quetzaltenango, así como estimar la frecuencia de los parásitos en base a género y especie, en la población escolar estratificada por grado escolar. Para ello, se evaluaron las muestras fecales de alumnos de 5 a 14 años, de 4 escuelas públicas...


Subject(s)
Blastocystis hominis , Endolimax , Entamoeba histolytica , Giardia lamblia , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Prevalence
16.
Kasmera ; 39(1): 31-42, ene.-jun. 2011. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-654003

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la frecuencia de parasitosis intestinales en el área de influencia del Ambulatorio Urbano Tipo II de Cerro Gordo, Barquisimeto, Estado Lara, realizando un estudio descriptivo transversal. Se evaluaron 106 niños entre 1 y 12 años de edad, realizando a cada uno examen de heces directo y concentrado con la técnica de Ritchie, demostrándo se parasitosis intestinal en 42,5%, predominando en escolares (48,9%), sin diferencias según el género. El agente más frecuente fue B. hominis (42,2%), seguido de G. lamblia (37,8%), Complejo Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (13,3%), H. nana (11,1%) y A. lumbricoides (4,4%). Se encontró parasitado 41,7% de niños con estado nutricional normal y 35,7% de malnutridos. La presencia de parasitos intestinales mostró relación con la disposición inadecuada de basura (p=0.048). El lavado inadecuado de las manos se relacionó con prurito anal (p=0.008). La calidad inadecuada del agua se relacionó con Blastocistosis (p= 0,025) y comensales (p= 0,035). No hubo relación entre parasitosis intestinales y síntomas gastrointestinales, estrato social, disposición de excretas, presencia de vectores en el hogar, lavado y conservación de alimentos, frecuencia de recolección de basura, lavado de manos, antecedente de tratamiento antiparasitario y familiar parasitado


A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine intestinal parasitism in children treated at the “Cerro Gordo” Type II Urban Outpatient Clinic in Barquisimeto, Lara. Feces samples were collected from 106 children (1-12 years old) and analyzed using both direct and Ritchie´s technique analyses, demonstrating intestinal parasitism in 42.5% of the children, predominantly of school age (48.9%), but independent of gender. The most frequent agent was Blastocystis hominis (42.2%), followed by Giardia lamblia (37.8%), Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar Complex (13.3%), Hymenolepis nana (11.1%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (4.4%). For children with a normal nutritional condition, 41.7% had parasites, while this value was 35.7% for nutritionally undernourished children. The presence of intestinal parasites showed relations to the community’s trash collection management program status (p=0.048). Poor hand washing habits were significantly associated with anal pruritus (p=0.008). Inadequate water quality was related to blastocystosis (p= 0.025) and comensals (p= 0.035). The presence of parasites was not associated with specific gastrointestinal symptoms, socioeconomic status, disposition of excreta, presence of vectors in the home, food washing and storage, frequency of garbage collection, washing of hands, family parasitism history and anti-parasite treatment antecedents


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Feces/parasitology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/parasitology , Ascaris lumbricoides/parasitology , Blastocystis hominis/parasitology , Entamoeba histolytica/parasitology , Giardia lamblia/parasitology , Hymenolepis nana/parasitology
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-820077

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To determine the magnitude of opportunistic and non-opportunistic intestinal parasitic infections among HIV/AIDS patients in Bahir Dar.@*METHODS@#Cross-sectional study was conducted among HIV/AIDS patients attending Gambi higher clinic from April1-May 30, 2009. Convenient sampling technique was employed to identify the study subjects and hence a total of 248 subjects were included. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data of patients. Stool samples were examined by direct saline, iodine wet mount, formol-ether sedimentation concentration and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique.@*RESULTS@#Out of 248 enrolled in the study, 171(69.0%) (90 males and 81 females) were infected with one or more intestinal parasites. The highest rate of intestinal parasites were observed among HIV/AIDS patients (80.3%, 151/188), and the infection rate of HIV negative individuals was 33.3% (20/60). Cryptosporidum parvum (43.6%), Isospora belli (15.5%) and Blastocystis hominis (10.5%) were opportunistic parasites that were found only in HIV/AIDS patients.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Opportunistic parasite infections are common health problem among HIV/AIDS patients in the study area. Therefore, early detection and treatment of these parasites are important to improve the quality of life of HIV/AIDS patients.


Subject(s)
AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections , Epidemiology , Parasitology , Virology , Adult , Blastocystis hominis , Physiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cryptosporidium parvum , Physiology , Ethiopia , Epidemiology , Feces , Parasitology , Female , HIV , Physiology , HIV Infections , Epidemiology , Parasitology , Virology , HIV Seropositivity , Allergy and Immunology , Histocytochemistry , Humans , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic , Epidemiology , Parasitology , Virology , Isospora , Physiology , Male , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
Iranian Journal of Public Health. 2011; 40 (1): 80-85
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-103757

ABSTRACT

The main goal was to address the prevalence of enteric protozoan parasites in rural areas of Bandar-Abbas, southern Iran and to compare the results with the only conducted study in 1978. This descriptive study was performed from 2009 through 2010 on the 565 fecal samples. Formalin-ether concentration technique was performed and the analysis was carried out using Chi-square test in SPSS software version 13.5. Finally, the comparison of our results with the only previous study which was accomplished by Sheiban and Rezaeian in 1978 was done. The overall prevalence of the protozoan parasites was 48.8%. However, the prevalence of pathogen parasites was 23%. Previous research in 1978 showed 80.4% infectivity. The most protozoan parasites were Blastocystis hominis [25.53%], Giardia lamblia [17.2%] and Entamoeba coli [15.95%]. Previous study in 1978 found Entamoeba coli as the most common protozoa. Our finding revealed that the rate of single infectivity was much higher compared to previous research. The most frequency of infection was in children. The remarkable decrease of protozoan parasites is mainly due to progress in health care in the villages; however more effort should be done with the goal of eradicating infectious agents


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic , Parasites , Rural Population , Prevalence , Blastocystis hominis , Giardia , Entamoeba
19.
Arab Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2011; 4 (5): 115-120
in Arabic | IMEMR | ID: emr-109332

ABSTRACT

708 stool samples were collected from children in elementary educational level in Kalamoon area [Nabek-Deratiah-Kara], in rural of Damascus-Syria, and were examined. That was done between November-January of 2009-2010. The aim of this study is to find out the species of intestinal parasites spread in this area [This study is done as the first time in this area]. We found that 125 samples contain parasite, which equals to 17.65%, and 65 samples contain human pathogenic parasites 52%. The pathogenic parasites according to their prevalence: Giardia lambilia 6.07%, Chilomastix mesnili 0.14% and Candida SP 2.96%. While the nonpathogenic parasites prevalence: Entamoeba coli 1.27%, Blastocystis hominis 8.05%, Endolimax nana 0.98%. It is worthy to mention that no case of intestinal worm ova such as Ascaris lumbricoides and Entamoeba histolytica has been diagnosed in our study


Subject(s)
Humans , Prevalence , Child , Giardia lamblia , Feces/analysis , Retortamonadidae , Rural Health , Rural Population , Candida , Entamoeba histolytica , Entamoeba , Blastocystis hominis , Endolimax , Ascaris lumbricoides
20.
PUJ-Parasitologists United Journal. 2011; 4 (1): 101-108
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-125322

ABSTRACT

Blastocystis hominis is a protozoan parasite that inhabits the human intestinal tract. Various epidemiological surveys have recorded 50-60% prevalence in developing countries. Until now, the most commonly recommended drug is metronidazole [MTZ] which can cause undesirable side effects and failures in treatment. To investigate the in vitro and in viva effects of Quillaja saponaria [QS] against clonal cultures of B. hominis and to demonstrate its implemented ultrastructural changes. Two fresh stool isolates of B. hominis were processed for in vitro cultivation using Jones media. In comparison to MTZ, different concentrations of QS were added to assess its lethal dose; QS [500 micro g] was used to assess programmed cell death for both isolates, using transmission electron microscopy [TEM]. Experimental infection of rats was performed to assess QS induced intestinal histopathological changes as compared to treatment with MTZ. With isolate I. QS [1000 micro g/ml] produced a high significant reduction [P

Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Quillaja/chemistry , Plant Extracts , Feces , Rats , Blastocystis hominis/ultrastructure , Microscopy, Electron , Treatment Outcome
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