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1.
Rev. Odontol. Araçatuba (Online) ; 43(1): 41-44, jan.-abr. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1361662

ABSTRACT

Background: Glanzmann thrombasthenia (GT) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by platelet function impairment. Considering that the oral cavity is highly vascularized and performing some local hemostatic maneuvers may be difficult, GT patients are at high risk for hemorrhage related to invasive oral procedures. This study aimed to present an alternative method for periodontal surgery in a young GT patient. Case Report: A 15-year-old female GT patient with a recent history of excessive bleeding following dental surgeries was referred to a public dental center, presenting gingival hyperplasia. The procedure was performed using a high-power laser (HPL), and except for local anesthesia with epinephrine, no further hemostatic agent was necessary. Conclusion: According to the case, the HPL seems to be an efficient tool for preventing perioperative bleeding in GT patients submitted to minor oral surgeries(AU)


Introdução: A trombastenia de Glanzmann (TG) é uma doença autossômica recessiva rara caracterizada por comprometimento da função plaquetária. Tendo em vista que a cavidade oral é altamente vascularizada e a realização de algumas manobras hemostáticas locais pode ser difícil, pacientes com TG apresentam alto risco de hemorragia relacionada a procedimentos orais invasivos. Este artigo teve como objetivo apresentar uma técnica alternativa para cirurgia periodontal em um paciente jovem com TG. Relato de Caso: Paciente com TG, sexo feminino, 15 anos, com história recente de sangramento excessivo relacionado a cirurgias odontológicas prévias, foi encaminhada a um centro odontológico público apresentando hiperplasia gengival. O procedimento de remoção foi realizado com laser de alta potência e, com exceção da anestesia local com epinefrina, nenhum outro agente hemostático foi necessário. Conclusão: De acordo com o caso, o laser de alta potência parece ser uma ferramenta eficiente na prevenção de sangramento perioperatório em pacientes com TG submetidos a pequenas cirurgias orais(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Surgery, Oral , Thrombasthenia , Blood Coagulation Disorders , Laser Therapy , Lasers, Semiconductor , Gingival Hyperplasia
4.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 43(3): 280-286, July-Sept. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346270

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Transfusion in cirrhotic patients remains a challenge due to the absence of evidence-based guidelines. Our study aimed to determine the indication of transfusion and the associated transfusion thresholds in cirrhotic patients. Methods: This retrospective observational study was conducted in the Department of Transfusion Medicine at a tertiary care liver center from October 2018 to March 2019. The blood bank and patient records of cirrhotic patients admitted during the study period were retrieved and analyzed to determine the current transfusion practice. Results: A total of 992 cirrhotic patients were included in the study. Blood components were transfused to 402 (40.5%) patients. Sixty-nine (17.2%) patients were transfused to control/treat active bleeding, while 333 (82.8%) were transfused prophylactically. Packed red blood cells (65.4%) was the most commonly transfused blood component, followed by fresh frozen plasma (35.6%), among patients receiving transfusions (therapeutic & prophylactic). The mean pre-transfusion thresholds for: (i) packed red blood cell transfusion: hemoglobin less than 7 g/dL; (ii) fresh frozen plasma transfusion: international normalized ratio over 2.6; (iii) platelet concentrate transfusion: platelet count less than 40,700/µL, and; (iv) cryoprecipitate transfusion: fibrinogen less than 110 mg/dL. The average length of stay of the study population was 5 days (3-9. Conclusion: To conclude, 40.5% of our hospitalized cirrhotic patients were transfused, with the majority of the transfusions being prophylactic (82.8%). Separate guidelines are required for this patient population, as these patients have an altered hemostasis which responds differently to the transfusion of blood components.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Blood Coagulation Disorders , Blood Transfusion , Liver Cirrhosis , India
5.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(2): 209-214, mar.-abr. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279103

ABSTRACT

Resumen La infección por coronavirus 2 del síndrome respiratorio agudo grave (SARS-CoV-2) es la causante de la pandemia de enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19), con un índice de letalidad alto. La mayoría de los pacientes graves desarrollan un tipo especial de coagulopatía no descrito hasta ahora y la cual se considera ahora la principal causa de muerte. Por esta razón, el tratamiento anticoagulante se ha convertido en una de las piedras angulares del tratamiento de esta infección. Sin embargo, la velocidad con la que se genera la evidencia respecto al uso de anticoagulantes es muy rápida y, en ocasiones difícil de interpretar y contradictoria. Luego de hacer una revisión extensa de la literatura publicada, se hace esta propuesta para el uso del tratamiento anticoagulante tomando en cuenta los recursos disponibles en México.


Abstract Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is the cause of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which has a high case fatality rate. Most severely ill patients develop a special type of coagulopathy that had not been described before and that is now considered the main cause of death. For this reason, anticoagulant treatment has become one of the cornerstones of the treatment of this infection. However, the rate at which the evidence regarding the use of anticoagulants is generated is quite fast, and sometimes it is difficult to interpret and conflicting. After having performed an extensive review of the published literature, this proposal for the use of anticoagulant treatment is made, taking into account available resources in Mexico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/therapy , COVID-19/complications , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation Disorders/prevention & control , Algorithms , Guidelines as Topic , Mexico
6.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(1): e80-e83, feb. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1147283

ABSTRACT

La intoxicación por mordedura de serpiente es un problema de salud pública global. En la población pediátrica, la intoxicación por mordedura de serpiente presenta características diferentes que en los pacientes adultos. La Bungarus multicinctus es una especie de elápido sumamente venenoso. Las presentaciones clínicas documentadas después de la intoxicación por mordedura de Bungarus multicinctus son reacciones locales mínimas, insuficiencia respiratoria, dolor generalizado e hiponatremia potencialmente mortal. Presentamos el caso de una intoxicación por mordedura de Bungarus multicinctus en una niña con manifestaciones clínicas atípicas, incluidas necrosis tisular grave y trombocitopenia con coagulopatía.


Snakebite envenoming is a global public health problem. The pediatric population poisoned by snakebite envenoming has different features than adult patients. Bungarus multicinctus is a highly venomous species of the elapid snake. The documented clinical presentations following Bungarus multicinctus envenoming are minimal local reactions, respiratory failure, general pain, and life-threatening hyponatremia. We present an uncommon case of Bungarus multicinctus envenomation in a girl with unusual clinical findings, including severe tissue necrosis and thrombocytopenia with coagulopathy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Snake Bites , Necrosis , Poisoning , Thrombocytopenia , Blood Coagulation Disorders , China , Bungarus
7.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1582-1588, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922299

ABSTRACT

METHODS@#The clinical data of 53 COVID-19 patients were collected from a single center in Wuhan from February 8, 2020 to March 25, 2020. The patients were divided into severe type group (38 patients) and critical type group (15 patients). The clinical characteristics, indexes of liver function, coagulation function and inflammatory markers were analyzed retrospectively. According to the degree of abnormal liver function in the process of diagnosis and treatment, the patients were divided into three groups: combined liver injury, mild abnormal liver function and normal liver function group. Statistical analysis was performed by using Student t test, Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test and Chi-square test.@*RESULTS@#Among the 53 patients, 29 were male (54.7%) and 24 were female (45.3%), the median age was 57(27-80) years old. The time from onset to admission was (11.5±7.7) days. The levels of AST, TBIL, DBIL, ALP, GGT, LDH, D-dimer, PCT and hsCRP in critical patients were higher than those in severe patients (P<0.05). The levels of Alb in critical patients was lower than those in severe patients (P<0.05). Among the 53 patients, 34 (64%) patients showed abnormal elevation of ALT, AST or TBIL, while 4 (7.5%) patients showed the criteria of COVID-19 with liver injury. After the patients were grouping according to the degree of liver dysfunction, the levels of ALP, GGT and D-dimer of the patients in the liver injury group were significantly higher than those in the normal liver function group, D-dimer levels of the patients in the liver injury group was significantly higher than those in the mild abnormal liver function group, while the levels of ALP and GGT in the mild abnormal liver function group were significantly higher than those in the normal liver function group, and the differences were statistically significant(P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#In this group, the patients with COVID-19 severe/critical type have a certain proportion of liver injury accompanied by significantly increased D-dimer levels, critical type patients have more severe liver function and coagulation dysfunction, which may promote the progression of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Coagulation Disorders , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Liver , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1223884

ABSTRACT

La pandemia COVID-19 provocada por el betacoronavirus SARS-CoV-2 exige rápidas respuestas desde el campo de la medicina. El riesgo de tromboembolismo venoso y arterial está aumentado durante la infección, especialmente en pacientes críticos. En ese contexto se destaca una coagulopatía caracterizada por niveles elevados de dímero D, con tendencia a la falla multiorgánica, y aumento de la mortalidad. Esas anormalidades de la hemostasia responden a varios mecanismos que deben tenerse en cuenta para la toma de decisiones terapéuticas. Analizamos la evidencia científica disponible en la que se fundamenta el enfoque terapéutico de la coagulopatía descripta y sus complicaciones, con el objetivo de diseñar recomendaciones terapéuticas realistas tendientes a disminuir la morbilidad y la mortalidad en pacientes con COVID-19


The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic requires rapid medical responses. The risk of venous and arterial thromboembolism increases in critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. There is a hypercoagulable state that includes elevated levels of D-dimer, with an increased risk of organ failure and increased mortality. The abnormalities described in hemostasis should be considered for therapeutic decision making. We analyzed the available scientific evidence for the therapeutic approach of coagulopathy in the course of the disease with the objective of designing realistic therapeutic recommendations aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality in patients with COVID-19


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Thromboembolism , Blood Coagulation Disorders , Cytokines , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation , Heparin
9.
Rev. méd. Maule ; 36(2): 44-49, dic. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1344614

ABSTRACT

This article describes a 19-y-old patient with abdominal pain and signs of malnutrition. She had been treated previously with an antibiotic for chronic diarrhea. Laboratory analyses showed the presence mild hypoalbuminemia, and considerably prolonged prothrombin time. Tests revealed that hemostasis improved after the patient received fresh frozen plasma and vitamin k. A coagulation profile showed a decrease in clotting factors V, VII, IX, and fibrinogen. Positive serology (immunoglobulin A antitissue transglutaminase and immunoglobulin A antiendomysial antibodies) and small bowel mucosal histopathology confirmed the presence of celiac disease (CD). The girl recovered completely after she was put on a gluten-free diet. Vitamin K­deficiency is a rare complication that occurs in celiac disease manifestations. In addition to antibiotic therapy, treatment with other drugs that influence vitamin K resorption and metabolism may increase the risk of bleeding in patients with CD with hypoprothrombinemia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Blood Coagulation Disorders/complications , Blood Coagulation Disorders/diagnosis , Celiac Disease/complications , Celiac Disease/epidemiology , Vitamin K Deficiency/complications , Blood Coagulation Disorders/epidemiology , Malabsorption Syndromes/diagnosis
11.
Prensa méd. argent ; 106(10): 575-587, 20200000. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1362520

ABSTRACT

En diciembre de 2019 se descubrió un nuevo coronavirus, asociado a pacientes que sufrían un cuadro de neumonía en Hubei provincia de China, desde ese momento se estudia las características del virus, como también de la patología que produce. En los pacientes graves, se observó un estado proinflamatorio y procoagulante que provocó la disfunción multiorgánica, y, en muchos de ellos, la muerte. El objetivo de este trabajo consiste en describir la fisiopatología de la coagulopatía que esta infección, sorprendentemente, provoca. Es importante remarcar la relación que existe entre los estados inflamatorios y la cascada de la coagulación, cuyas disfunciones ocurren en situaciones de gravedad, como es la sepsis. El SARS-CoV-2 entrara a la célula mediante el receptor de la enzima convertidora de angiotensinógeno. En los estadios avanzados o críticos de la enfermedad, el estímulo hiperinflamatorio y el ambiente protrombótico provocarán un daño multiorgánico. El enfoque de los pacientes en estadios avanzados o críticos debe ser de soporte vital, junto a una terapia anticoagulante completa


In December 2019, a new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, was discovered in patients suffering from pneumonia. In critically ill patients, a proinflammatory and procoagulant state was observed: this led to multiorgan dysfunction, and, in many patients, to death. The objective of this work is to describe the pathophysiology of coagulopathy that this infection, surprisingly, causes. It is important to highlight the cross-talk between inflammation and coagulation in serious situations, such as sepsis. SARS-CoV-2 will enter the cell via the angiotensinogen converting enzyme receptor. In the advanced or critical stages of the disease, the hyperinflammatory stimulus and the prothrombotic environment will cause multi-organ damage. The approach of patients in advanced or critical stages should be life support, together with full anticoagulant therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia/pathology , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Blood Coagulation Disorders/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Immunity/physiology
12.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 27(5): 446-460, sep.-oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1289255

ABSTRACT

Introducción estudios recientes han reportado fenómenos trombóticos o coagulopatía en pacientes con COVID-19. Hay posiciones divergentes en cuanto a la prevención, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de estos fenómenos, y la práctica clínica actual está basada únicamente en deducciones por extensión a partir de estudios retrospectivos, series de casos, estudios observacionales y guías internacionales desarrolladas previas a la pandemia. Objetivo establecer una serie de recomendaciones sobre prevención, diagnóstico y manejo de las complicaciones trombóticas asociadas a COVID-19. Métodos se desarrolló una guía rápida en la que se aplicó el marco de la evidencia a la decisión (EtD) de GRADE y un sistema de participación iterativo, con análisis estadísticos y cualitativos de sus resultados. Resultados se generaron 31 recomendaciones clínicas enfocadas a: a) Pruebas de coagulación en adultos sintomáticos con sospecha de infección o infección confirmada por SARS-CoV-2; b) Tromboprofilaxis en personas adultas con diagnóstico de COVID-19 (escalas de riesgo, tromboprofilaxis de manejo ambulatorio, intrahospitalario y duración de tromboprofilaxis después del egreso de hospitalización), c) Diagnóstico y tratamiento de las complicaciones trombóticas y d) Manejo de personas con indicación previa a usar agentes anticoagulantes. Conclusiones las recomendaciones clínicas de este consenso orientan la toma de decisiones clínicas respecto a prevención, diagnóstico y tratamiento de fenómenos trombóticos en pacientes con COVID-19, y representan un acuerdo que ayudará a disminuir la dispersión en las prácticas clínicas acorde con el desafío que impone la pandemia.


Abstract Introduction: recent studies have reported the occurrence of thrombotic phenomena or coagulopathy in patients with COVID-19. There are divergent positions regarding the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of these phenomena, and current clinical practice is based solely on deductions by extension from retrospective studies, case series, observational studies, and international guidelines developed prior to the pandemic. Objective: to generate a group of recommendations on the prevention, diagnosis and management of thrombotic complications associated with COVID-19. Methods: a rapid guidance was carried out applying the GRADE Evidence to Decision (EtD) frameworks and an iterative participation system, with statistical and qualitative analysis. Results: 31 clinical recommendations were generated focused on: a) Coagulation tests in symptomatic adults with suspected infection or confirmed SARS CoV-2 infection; b) Thromboprophylaxis in adults diagnosed with COVID-19 (Risk scales, thromboprophylaxis for outpatient, in-hospital management, and duration of thromboprophylaxis after discharge from hospitalization), c) Diagnosis and treatment of thrombotic complications, and d) Management of people with previous indication of anticoagulant agents. Conclusions: recommendations of this consensus guide clinical decision-making regarding the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of thrombotic phenomena in patients with COVID-19, and represent an agreement that will help decrease the dispersion in clinical practices according to the challenge imposed by the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Consensus , Diagnosis , COVID-19 , Blood Coagulation Disorders , Embolism and Thrombosis , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Anticoagulants
13.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 42(4): 300-308, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142978

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Hemostatic abnormalities and thrombotic risk associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are among the most discussed topics in the management of this disease. The aim of this position paper is to provide the opinion of Brazilian experts on the thromboprophylaxis and management of thrombotic events in patients with suspected COVID-19, in the sphere of healthcare in Brazil. To do so, the Brazilian Society of Thrombosis and Hemostasis (BSTH) and the Thrombosis and Hemostasis Committee of the Brazilian Association of Hematology, Hemotherapy and Cellular Therapy (ABHH) have constituted a panel of experts to carefully review and discuss the available evidence about this topic. The data discussed in this document was reviewed by May 9, 2020. Recommendations and suggestions reflect the opinion of the panel and should be reviewed periodically as new evidence emerges.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Venous Thromboembolism/therapy , COVID-19 , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation
14.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 32(3): 474-478, jul.-set. 2020. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138507

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Este relato de caso detalha um caso grave de febre amarela complicada por insuficiência hepática e coagulação intravascular disseminada. A tromboelastometria foi capaz de identificar os distúrbios da coagulação e orientar o tratamento hemostático. Relatamos o caso de um homem com 23 anos de idade admitido na unidade de terapia intensiva com quadro com início abrupto de febre e dor muscular generalizada associados a insuficiência hepática e coagulação intravascular disseminada. Os resultados dos exames laboratoriais convencionais revelaram trombocitopenia, enquanto a tromboelastometria sugeriu coagulopatia com discreta hipofibrinogenemia, consumo de fatores de coagulação e, consequentemente, aumento do risco de sangramento. Diferentemente dos exames laboratoriais convencionais, a tromboelastometria identificou o distúrbio de coagulação específico e, assim, orientou o tratamento hemostático. Administraram-se concentrados de fibrinogênio e vitamina K, não sendo necessária a transfusão de qualquer componente do sangue, mesmo na presença de trombocitopenia. A tromboelastometria permitiu a identificação precoce da coagulopatia e ajudou a orientar a terapêutica hemostática. A administração de fármacos hemostáticos, incluindo concentrados de fibrinogênio e vitamina K, melhorou os parâmetros tromboelastométricos, com correção do transtorno da coagulação. Não se realizou transfusão de hemocomponentes, e não ocorreu qualquer sangramento.


Abstract This case report a severe case of yellow fever complicated by liver failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Thromboelastometry was capable of identifying clotting disorders and guiding hemostatic therapy. We report the case of a 23-year-old male admitted to the Intensive Care Unit with sudden onset of fever, generalized muscle pain associated with liver failure, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. The results of conventional laboratory tests showed thrombocytopenia, whereas thromboelastometry suggested coagulopathy with slight hypofibrinogenemia, clotting factor consumption, and, consequently, an increased risk of bleeding. Unlike conventional laboratory tests, thromboelastometry identified the specific coagulation disorder and thereby guided hemostatic therapy. Both fibrinogen concentrates and vitamin K were administered, and no blood component transfusion was required, even in the presence of thrombocytopenia. Administration of hemostatic drugs, including fibrinogen concentrate and vitamin K, improved thromboelastometric parameters, correcting the complex coagulation disorder. Blood component transfusion was not performed, and there was no bleeding.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Young Adult , Yellow Fever/complications , Blood Coagulation Disorders/diagnosis , Liver Failure/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Thrombelastography/methods , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/therapy , Hemostatics/administration & dosage , Liver Failure/virology
15.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(5): 505-511, ago. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287203

ABSTRACT

Resumen La pandemia COVID-19 provocada por el betacoronavirus SARS-CoV-2 exige rápidas respuestas desde el campo de la medicina. El riesgo de tromboembolismo venoso y arterial está aumentado durante la infección, especialmente en pacientes críticos. En ese contexto se destaca una coagulopatía caracterizada por niveles elevados de dímero D, con tendencia a la falla multiorgánica, y aumento de la mortalidad. Esas anormalidades de la hemostasia responden a varios mecanismos que deben tenerse en cuenta para la toma de decisiones terapéuticas. Analizamos la evidencia científica disponible en la que se fundamenta el enfoque terapéutico de la coagulopatía descripta y sus complicaciones, con el objetivo de diseñar recomendaciones terapéuticas realistas tendientes a disminuir la morbilidad y la mortalidad en pacientes con COVID-19.


Abstract The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic requires rapid medical responses. The risk of venous and arterial thromboembolism increases in critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. There is a hypercoagulable state that includes elevated levels of D-dimer, with an increased risk of organ failure and increased mortality. The abnormalities described in hemostasis should be considered for therapeutic decision making. We analyzed the available scientific evidence for the therapeutic approach of coagulopathy in the course of the disease with the objective of designing realistic therapeutic recommendations aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Thromboembolism/complications , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus , Pandemics , Argentina/epidemiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/diagnosis , Blood Coagulation Disorders/prevention & control , Blood Coagulation Disorders/epidemiology , Cytokines , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation , Betacoronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
16.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(4): 340-347, Jul.-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249922

ABSTRACT

Abstract SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19) has become a pandemic with a high case fatality rate that mainly affects adults. Most severely ill adult patients develop a coagulopathy that was not described until recently, and which is currently considered a main cause of death. Everything indicates that a similar phenomenon also occurs in children with COVID-19. Anticoagulant treatment has become one of the therapeutic foundations for this infection; however, its implementation in children can be difficult since, until recently, it was not considered in the pediatric population. Evidence regarding the use of anticoagulants in COVID-19 is rapidly generated, changes constantly, it is often difficult to interpret, and can be contradictory. After an extensive review of the published literature, a proposal was generated that offers suggestions for anticoagulant treatment, considering available resources in Mexico.


Resumen La infección por SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) se ha constituido en una pandemia con alto índice de letalidad que afecta principalmente a los adultos. La mayor parte de los pacientes adultos graves desarrolla una coagulopatía que no estaba descrita, la cual actualmente se considera la principal causa de muerte. Todo indica que un fenómeno parecido ocurre también en el niño con COVID-19. El tratamiento anticoagulante se ha convertido en uno de los fundamentos terapéuticos de esta infección; sin embargo, su establecimiento en el niño puede ser difícil ya que, hasta hace poco, no estaba considerado en la población pediátrica. La evidencia respecto al uso de anticoagulantes en COVID-19 se genera con rapidez, cambia constantemente, con frecuencia es difícil de interpretar y puede ser contradictoria. Después de una extensa revisión de la literatura publicada, se generó una propuesta que ofrece sugerencias para el tratamiento anticoagulante en la que se consideran los recursos disponibles en México.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adult , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index , Blood Coagulation Disorders/drug therapy , Blood Coagulation Disorders/epidemiology , Age Factors , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19 , Mexico
18.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(6): 842-848, June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136295

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY INTRODUCTION Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a newly described virus responsible for the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), named by the World Health Organization (WHO) in February/2020. Patients with Covid-19 have an incidence of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) of 15.9-29% and sepsis is observed in all deceased patients. Moreover, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is one of the major underlying causes of death among these patients. In patients with DIC, there is a decrease in fibrinogen and an increase in D-dimer levels. Some studies have shown that fibrinogen and one of its end products, D-dimer, might have a predictive value for mortality in patients with non-Covid sepsis secondary to complications of DIC. Therefore, anticoagulation, considering its mortality benefits in cases of non-Covid sepsis, may also have an important role in the treatment of Covid-19. METHODS We reviewed the literature of all studies published by April 2020 on patients infected with Covid-19. Our review was limited to D-dimer and fibrinogen changes and anticoagulation recommendations. RESULTS Anticoagulation therapy can be started following the DIC diagnosis in Covid-19 patients despite the bleeding risks. In addition, the current evidence suggests a routine use of anticoagulation, particularly in patients with higher D-dimer levels (> 3.0 μg/mL). CONCLUSION Covid-19 is a systemic, hypercoagulable disease requiring more studies concerning treatment. Aanticoagulation is still an issue to be studied, but D-dimer rise and disease severity are the indicative factors to start treatment as soon as possible.


RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO O coronavírus da síndrome respiratória aguda grave 2 (SARS-CoV-2) é o vírus responsável pelo surto recentemente batizado de doença pelo coronavirus 2019 (Covid-19) pela Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS) em fevereiro/2020. Os doentes com Covid-19 têm uma incidência de síndrome de dificuldade respiratória aguda (SDRA) de 15,9-29% e sepse é observada em todos os pacientes que vêm a óbito. Além disso, a coagulação intravascular disseminada (DIC) é uma das principais causas subjacentes de morte entre esses pacientes. Em pacientes com DIC, ocorre com uma diminuição do fibrinogênio e um aumento dos níveis de dímero D. Alguns estudos mostraram que o fibrinogênio e um dos seus produtos finais, o dímero D, podem ter um valor preditivo para a mortalidade em pacientes com sepse não relacionada à Covid-19 decorrente de complicações da DIC. Portanto, a anticoagulação, considerando seus benefícios quanto à mortalidade na sepse não relacionada à Covid-19, pode também ter um papel importante no tratamento da Covid-19. MÉTODOS Realizamos uma revisão de todos os estudos publicados até abril de 2020 sobre pacientes infectados com Covid-19. A nossa revisão limitou-se a alterações no dímero D, nos fibrinogênios e recomendações de anticoagulantes. RESULTADOS A terapêutica anticoagulante pode ser iniciada após o diagnóstico de DIC em pacientes com Covid-19 apesar dos riscos de hemorragia. Além disso, a evidência atual sugere o uso rotineiro da anticoagulação, principalmente em pacientes com níveis mais elevados de dímero D (> 3, 0 µg/mL). CONCLUSÃO A Covid-19 é uma doença sistêmica e hipercoagulável que requer mais estudos em relação ao tratamento. A anticoagulação ainda é uma questão a ser estudada, mas o aumento de dímeros D e a gravidade da doença são os fatores indicativos para o início do tratamento o mais rápido possível.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Blood Coagulation Disorders/therapy , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , Fibrinogen/analysis , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus , Pandemics , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Biomarkers/analysis , Coronavirus Infections , Betacoronavirus
19.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(3): 385-390, jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126176

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: El Sangrado Menstrual Excesivo (SME) es un problema frecuente en la adolescencia. La prevalencia de trastornos hereditarios de la coagulación (THC) como causa del SME no está bien establecida y la participación de defectos de la vía fibrinolítica ha sido poco explorada. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de THC y defectos de la fibrinólisis en adolescentes con SME. Pacientes y Método: Se incluyeron 93 adolescentes, edad 11 a 18 años. Los antecedentes personales y familiares de sangra do se obtuvieron con un cuestionario estandarizado. Se controló exámenes: tiempo de protrom- bina (TP), tiempo de tromboplastina parcial activada (TTPa), estudio del factor Von Willebrand, recuento y función plaquetaria. Los pacientes que no fueron diagnosticados como THC, se evaluaron adicionalmente con el tiempo de lisis del coágulo. Resultados: 41 pacientes (44%) fueron diagnos ticados como THC: Enfermedad de Von Willebrand n = 28, defectos de la función plaquetaria n = 8, hemofilia leve n = 5. Se confirmó disminución del tiempo de lisis del coágulo en 31 pacientes. El 54% de pacientes diagnosticado como THC, tuvo SME como la primera manifestación hemorrágica. Conclusión: Estos resultados apoyan la necesidad de evaluación de la coagulación, incluyendo la vía fibrinolítica, en el estudio de adolescentes con SME.


Abstract: Introduction: Heavy Menstrual Bleeding (EMB) is a frequent problem in adolescence. The prevalence of inherited bleeding disorders (IBD) as a cause of EMB is not well established and the involvement of fibri nolytic pathway defects has been poorly explored. Objective: To determine the prevalence of IBD and fibrinolysis defects in adolescents with EMBs. Patients and Method: 93 adolescents (11 to 18 years old) were included. Personal and family history of bleeding were obtained through a standard ized questionnaire. The following lab tests were performed: prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), von Willebrand factor quantification, and platelet count and function. Those patients who were not diagnosed with IBD were further evaluated with clot lysis time assay. Results: 41 patients (44%) were diagnosed as IBD (Von Willebrand disease n = 28, platelet func tion defects n=8, mild hemophilia n = 5. Decreased clot lysis time was found in 31 patients. 54% of patients diagnosed with IBD had EMB as the first hemorrhagic manifestation. Conclusion: These results support the need to evaluate the coagulation process, including the fibrinolytic pathway in the study of adolescents with EMB.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Adolescent , Blood Coagulation Disorders, Inherited/complications , Blood Coagulation Disorders, Inherited/diagnosis , Fibrinolysis , Menorrhagia/etiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/complications , Blood Coagulation Disorders/diagnosis , Blood Coagulation Tests , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Blood Coagulation Disorders, Inherited/physiopathology , Blood Coagulation Disorders, Inherited/epidemiology
20.
Rev. ADM ; 77(1): 28-36, ene.-feb. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087974

ABSTRACT

Las alteraciones hematológicas pueden tener el primer signo en la cavidad oral y los signos varían dependiendo de la línea celular que se encuentre afectada: eritrocitos, leucocitos y plaquetas. La formación de las células sanguíneas se lleva a cabo en la médula ósea a través de un proceso denominado hematopoyesis que se encarga de la formación, desarrollo y especialización de todas sus células sanguíneas funcionales, pasan de células troncales pluripotenciales a células hematopoyéticas maduras que emergen a la sangre periférica. El odontólogo debe ser capaz de identificar los distintos signos en la cavidad oral que podrían sugerir que el paciente padece un trastorno hematológico, el cual podría complicar el tratamiento dental. La identificación oportuna de estos signos a través de una minuciosa exploración física y la historia clínica completa evita que se presenten complicaciones en el paciente y que éstas puedan poner en riesgo su vida, por lo que al encontrar algún signo sugerente de un trastorno hematológico debe referirse al paciente con el hematólogo (AU)


Hematological alterations may be the first sign in the oral cavity and symptoms vary depending on the cell line that is affected: Erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets. The formation of blood cells are held in the bone marrow through a process called hematopoiesis, which is responsible for training, development and specialization in all its functional blood cells, they move from pluripotent stem cell to hematopoietic cells mature emerging to peripheral blood. The dentist must be able to identify the different signs in the oral cavity that could suggest that the patient has a haematological disorder, which could complicate dental treatment. The timely identification of these signs through a thorough physical examination and the complete clinical history prevents complications from occurring in the patient and may put their lives at risk, so when finding any sign suggestive of a hematological disorder should refer to the patient with the hematologist (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Oral Manifestations , Blood Coagulation Disorders/classification , Hematologic Diseases , Periodontal Diseases , Blood Platelets , Dental Care for Chronically Ill , Oral Ulcer , Erythrocytes , Leukocytes
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