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1.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 47: e20202595, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1136543

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The New Coronavirus Epidemic (2019-nCoV), discovered in the city of Wuhan, China, in December 2019, presents mainly with pulmonary pneumonia that is preceded by fever, cough and myalgia. However, as the disease spread globally and the number of hospitalizations increased exponentially, it was noted that most serious patients hospitalized by COVID-19 have laboratory changes worthy of attention, such as lymphopenia, neutrophilia, increased time of prothrombin and increased levels of D-dimer. Due to these changes proving to be crucial for the mortality and morbidity rates in this subset of infected people, several studies focusing on the pathophysiology, mainly hematological, of the disease appear every day. Deepening these studies, several published works have shown SarsCoV-2 infection to the installation of a prothrombotic state in hospitalized patients, which leads to the potential occurrence of thrombotic or arterial events in this cohort. Thus, in order to understand how the departments of Angiology and Vascular Surgery are acting in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, this work aims to gather studies that reveal from protocols applied in vascular services in the current situation, until to the role of vascular surgeons and angiologists in the clinical and surgical management of patients infected or not, as a way of helping and clarifying this specialty during the context of a pandemic due to the new coranavirus. For the selection of works, the following search criteria were used: "Coronavirus and venous thrombosis", "Coronavirus and thrombosis", "COVID-19 and venous thrombosis" and "COVID-19 Coronavirus and thrombosis".


RESUMO A epidemia pelo novo Coronavirus (2019-nCoV), surgido na cidade de Wuhan, na China, em dezembro de 2019, quando sintomática, apresenta-se majoritariamente por um quadro de pneumonia pulmonar que é precedida por febre, tosse seca e mialgia. No entanto, conforme a doença se espalhou globalmente e o número de hospitalizações aumentaram de forma exponencial, notou-se que a maior parte dos pacientes graves internados por COVID-19 possuem alterações laboratoriais dignas de atenção, como linfopenia, neutrofilia, aumento do tempo de protrombina e elevação dos níveis de D-dímero. Devido tais mudanças se mostrarem cruciais para a taxa de mortalidade e morbidade nesse subgrupo de infectados, diversos trabalhos com enfoque na fisiopatologia, principalmente hematológica, da doença surgem a cada dia. Aprofundando em tais estudos, variados trabalhos publicados evidenciaram a infecção pelo Sars-CoV-2 à instalação de um estado pró-trombótico em pacientes hospitalizados graves, o que acarreta em potencial ocorrência de eventos trombóticos venosos ou arteriais nessa coorte. Assim, para entender como os Departamentos de Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular estão atuando no contexto da pandemia de COVID-19, este estudo tem por objetivo reunir estudos que revelam desde protocolos aplicados nos serviços vasculares na atual conjuntura, até a atuação dos cirurgiões vasculares e angiologistas no manejo clínico e cirúrgico de pacientes infectados ou não, como forma de ajudar e esclarecer essa especialidade durante o contexto de pandemia pelo novo coronavírus. Para a seleção dos trabalhos foram utilizados os seguintes critérios de busca: "Coronavirus and venous thrombosis", "Coronavirus and thrombosis", "COVID-19 and venous thrombosis" e "COVID-19 Coronavirus and thrombosis".


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Thromboembolism/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy , Thromboembolism/therapy , Vascular Surgical Procedures/methods , Vascular Surgical Procedures/standards , Blood Coagulation/physiology , Clinical Protocols , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
2.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(3): 327-334, Jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013461

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The main goal of our study was to assess the impact of vascular procedures on the activity of hemostatic and fibrinolytic pathways. Methods: We enrolled 38 patients with ≥ 45 years old undergoing surgery for abdominal aortic aneurysm or peripheral artery disease under general or regional anesthesia and who were hospitalized at least one night after the procedure. Patients undergoing carotid artery surgery and those who had acute bypass graft thrombosis, cancer, renal failure defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate < 30 ml/min/1.73m2, venous thromboembolism three months prior to surgery, or acute infection were excluded from the study. We measured levels of markers of hemostasis (factor VIII, von Willebrand factor:ristocetin cofactor [vWF:CoR], antithrombin), fibrinolysis (D-dimer, tissue plasminogen activator [tPA], plasmin-antiplasmin complexes), and soluble cluster of differentiation 40 ligand (sCD40L) before and 6-12h after vascular procedure. Results: Significant differences between preoperative and postoperative levels of factor VIII (158.0 vs. 103.3, P<0.001), antithrombin (92.1 vs. 74.8, P<0.001), D-dimer (938.0 vs. 2406.0, P=0.005), tPA (10.1 vs. 12.8, P=0.002), and sCD40L (9092.9 vs. 1249.6, P<0.001) were observed. There were no significant differences between pre- and postoperative levels of vWF:CoR (140.6 vs. 162.8, P=0.17) and plasmin-antiplasmin complexes (749.6 vs. 863.7, P=0.21). Conclusion: Vascular surgery leads to significant alterations in hemostatic and fibrinolytic systems. However, the direction of these changes in both pathways remains unclear and seems to be different depending on the type of surgery. A study utilizing dynamic methods of coagulation and fibrinolysis assessment performed on a larger population is warranted.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Vascular Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Blood Coagulation/physiology , Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal/surgery , Peripheral Arterial Disease/surgery , Fibrinolysis/physiology , Postoperative Period , Reference Values , Blood Coagulation Factors/analysis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Biomarkers/blood , Pilot Projects , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Preoperative Period
3.
Clinics ; 74: e1222, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039547

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Ischemic stroke (IS) or transient ischemic attack (TIA) history is present in 4-17% of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). This subgroup of patients is at high risk for both ischemic and bleeding events. The aim of this study was to determine the role of platelet aggregability, coagulation and endogenous fibrinolysis in patients with CAD and previous IS or TIA. METHODS: A prospective case-control study that included 140 stable CAD patients divided into two groups: the CASE group (those with a previous IS/TIA, n=70) and the CONTROL group (those without a previous IS/TIA, n=70). Platelet aggregability (VerifyNow Aspirin® and VerifyNow P2Y12®), coagulation (fibrinogen and thromboelastography by Reorox®) and endogenous fibrinolysis (D dimer and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1) were evaluated. RESULTS: Patients in the CASE group presented significantly higher systolic blood pressure levels (135.84±16.09 vs 123.68±16.11, p<0.01), significantly more previous CABG (25.71% vs 10%, p=0.015) and significantly higher calcium channel blocker usage (42.86% vs 24.29%, p=0.02) than those in the control group. In the adjusted models, low triglyceride values, low hemoglobin values and higher systolic blood pressure were significantly associated with previous IS/TIA (CASE group). Most importantly, platelet aggregability, coagulation and fibrinolysis tests were not independently associated with previous cerebrovascular ischemic events (CASE group). CONCLUSION: Platelet aggregability, coagulation and endogenous fibrinolysis showed similar results among CAD patients with and without previous IS/TIA. Therefore, it remains necessary to identify other targets to explain the higher bleeding risk presented by these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Blood Coagulation/physiology , Coronary Artery Disease/blood , Ischemic Attack, Transient/blood , Platelet Aggregation/physiology , Stroke/blood , Fibrinolysis/physiology , Platelet Function Tests , Blood Coagulation Tests , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Case-Control Studies , Ischemic Attack, Transient/physiopathology , Prospective Studies , Stroke/physiopathology
4.
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20170437, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-893715

ABSTRACT

Abstract Tissue bioengineering has been applied to Endodontics to seek a more biological treatment. The presence of blood vessels is crucial for cell nutrition during tissue formation. Objective This study analysed the application of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the angiogenesis of mature root canals. Material and methods Upper first molars of twelve 13-week old Wistar male rats were used. The root pulp of the mesiobuccal canal was removed and the root canal instrumented with K-files up to size #25. Periapical bleeding was induced into the root canal by introducing a #15 K-file beyond the apex. The teeth on the right side of the arch were filled up with blood clot (G1), whereas those on the left side were filled up with blood clot plus 50 ng/ml of VEGF (G2). Teeth were sealed with light-curing glass-ionomer cement and the animals were sacrificed after 60 days. The maxilla was dissected and fixed before obtaining serial sections for histological processing with haematoxylin-eosin (HE) and immunohistochemical factor-VIII. Immunohistochemical labelling was evaluated using scores for statistical analysis. Results Immunohistological analysis demonstrated the presence of angiogenesis in both groups, but with higher angiogenic maturation in G2 during the experimental period (p<0.05). HE staining showed connective tissue with absence of odontoblasts in all specimens. Conclusions It can be concluded that it is possible to obtain angiogenesis in mature root canals with or without the use of VEGF, although the latter tends to accelerate blood vessel formation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Neovascularization, Physiologic/drug effects , Dental Pulp Cavity/blood supply , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/pharmacology , Root Canal Therapy/methods , Time Factors , Blood Coagulation/physiology , Immunohistochemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Dental Pulp Cavity/drug effects , Bioengineering
5.
Rev. gastroenterol. Perú ; 35(1): 63-71, ene. 2015. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: lil-746995

ABSTRACT

La selección de un medicamento específico perteneciente a una clase farmacológica es bajo criterios de eficacia, seguridad, costo y conveniencia. Los Antiinflamatorios No Esteroideos (AINEs) actualmente se constituyen en uno de los medicamentos más consumidos en el mundo, por lo tanto es de gran importancia la revisión de los aspectos de seguridad de este grupo farmacológico. El presente trabajo tiene el objetivo de analizar bajo las evidencias disponibles hasta la actualidad, la seguridad de los AINES con 3 criterios principales: gastrolesividad, cardiotoxicidad y nefrotoxicidad.


The choice of a specific medication belonging to a drug class is under the criteria of efficacy, safety, cost and suitability. NSAIDs currently constitute one of the most consumed drugs in the world, so it is very important review of the safety aspects of this drug class. This review has the objective of analyze the safety of NSAIDs on 3 main criteria: gastrolesivity, cardiotoxicity and nephrotoxicity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Mice , Macrophages/metabolism , Thromboplastin/metabolism , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/therapy , Apolipoproteins E/metabolism , Blood Coagulation/physiology , Thrombosis/prevention & control
6.
Rev. gastroenterol. Perú ; 35(1): 97-99, ene. 2015. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: lil-747001

ABSTRACT

Los pobladores del altiplano peruano-boliviano consumen una sustancia natural conocida como "chaco", muy difundida desde la época precolombina y apreciada por sus propiedades digestivas. El Chaco es una arcilla medicinal comestible que es usada en forma de suspensión con agua para cohibir molestias dispépticas o manifestaciones ácido-pépticas. En esta contribución damos a conocer aspectos físico-químicos de la composición del Chaco, estudios experimentales en animales que evalúan su efecto antiulceroso y una prueba in vitro que estudia su propiedad antiácida. El mecanismo de acción terapéutico propuesto se debe a una acción citoprotectora sobre la mucosa gástrica por mecanismos independientes de la inhibición de la secreción ácida, ya que no posee propiedad antiácida in vitro. Además tiene una capacidad de adsorción a distintas moléculas orgánicas debido a su gran superficie externa y carga tetraédrica que hace que interaccione con sustancias polares como el agua y toxinas. El otro propósito de esta contribución especial, es reconocer la coexistencia de la "Medicina Tradicional" y la "Medicina Occidental", situación que conlleva a la necesidad de la investigación preclínica de diversos recursos naturales.


The inhabitants of the peruvian-bolivian plateau consume a natural substance known as "Chaco", widespread since pre-Columbian era and appreciated for its digestive properties. The Chaco is an edible medicinal clay that is used as slurry with water to restrain dyspeptic discomfort or acid-peptic manifestations. In this contribution we present physicochemical aspects of the composition of the Chaco, experimental animal studies that evaluate its antiulcer effect and in vitro test that studies the antacid property. The proposed mechanism of therapeutic action is due to a cytoprotective effect on the gastric mucosa by independent mechanisms of acid secretion inhibition, as it has no antacid property in vitro. Also it has an adsorptivity to different organic molecules due to their large surface area and tetrahedral charge that makes it to interact with polar substances such as water and toxins. The other purpose of this special contribution is to recognize the coexistence of "Traditional Medicine" and "Western Medicine", a situation which leads to the need for preclinical research of various natural resources.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Blood Coagulation Tests/methods , Blood Coagulation/physiology , Obstetric Labor, Premature/blood , Cohort Studies , Partial Thromboplastin Time/methods , Prothrombin Time/methods , Prothrombin/metabolism
7.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 7(4): 137-142, oct.2014. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-789312

ABSTRACT

Although it has been treated in a limited way the relationship between diabetes and hematopoietic system, there is evidence demonstrating thedeleterious effect of hyperglycemia on the three cell lines: red blood cells, white cells and platelets. Different forms of anemia associated with hyperglycemia are analyzed and erythrocyte alterations observed in diabetes. In chronic decompensated patients have been demonstrated alterationsof monocytes, lymphocytes and polymorphonuclear particularly, with decreased chemotaxis, adherence, phagocytosis and opsonization. Hyperglycemia determines a prothrombotic state by platelet hyperreactivity, which is a marker of inflammation...


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetes Complications/physiopathology , Diabetes Complications/blood , Hematologic Diseases/etiology , Anemia/etiology , Blood Coagulation/physiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/blood , /physiopathology , /blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Erythrocytes/physiology , Hematopoiesis , Hemostasis/physiology
8.
Acta cir. bras ; 29(5): 320-327, 05/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-709238

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The failure of small-caliber vascular grafts still means a serious problem. Concerning the early postoperative complications we aimed to investigate the hemostaseological and hemorheological aspects of this issue in a canine model. METHODS: In the Control group only anesthesia was induced. In the Grafted group under general anesthesia a 3.5-cm segment was resected unilaterally from the femoral artery and replaced with a PTFE graft (diameter: 3 mm). On the 1st-3rd-5th-7th and 14th postoperative days the skin temperature of both hind limbs was measured, and blood sampling occurred for hematological, hemostaseological and hemorheological tests. RESULTS: The skin temperature of the operated versus intact limbs did not differ. In the Grafted group leukocyte count was elevated by the 1st postoperative day, while platelet count increased over the entire follow-up period. Fibrinogen concentration rose on the 1st-5th days, activated partial thromboplastin time increased on the 3rd-7th days. Erythrocyte aggregation was enhanced significantly on the 1st-5th days. In specimens taken on the 14th day, histologically we found matured thrombus narrowing the graft lumen. CONCLUSIONS: Small-caliber PTFE graft implantation into the femoral artery caused significant changes in several hemostaseological and hemorheological parameters. However, better clarifying the factors leading to early thrombosis of these grafts needs further studies. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Blood Coagulation/physiology , Erythrocyte Aggregation/physiology , Femoral Artery/transplantation , Models, Animal , Polytetrafluoroethylene/therapeutic use , Vascular Grafting/methods , Anastomosis, Surgical , Blood Cell Count , Blood Vessel Prosthesis , Fibrinogen/analysis , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Postoperative Complications , Postoperative Period , Prothrombin Time , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-121890

ABSTRACT

Mosquitoes secrete saliva that contains biological substances, including anticoagulants that counteract a host's hemostatic response and prevent blood clotting during blood feeding. This study aimed to detect heparin, an anticoagulant in Aedes togoi using an immunohistochemical detection method, in the salivary canal, salivary gland, and midgut of male and female mosquitoes. Comparisons showed that female mosquitoes contained higher concentrations of heparin than male mosquitoes. On average, the level of heparin was higher in blood-fed female mosquitoes than in non-blood-fed female mosquitoes. Heparin concentrations were higher in the midgut than in the salivary gland. This indicates presence of heparin in tissues of A. togoi.


Subject(s)
Aedes/metabolism , Animals , Anticoagulants/isolation & purification , Blood Coagulation/physiology , Female , Gastrointestinal Tract/metabolism , Heparin/isolation & purification , Male , Salivary Ducts/metabolism , Salivary Glands/metabolism
10.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(6): 679-685, set. 2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-685490

ABSTRACT

Leishmania parasites expose phosphatidylserine (PS) on their surface, a process that has been associated with regulation of host's immune responses. In this study we demonstrate that PS exposure by metacyclic promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis favours blood coagulation. L. amazonensis accelerates in vitro coagulation of human plasma. In addition, L. amazonensis supports the assembly of the prothrombinase complex, thus promoting thrombin formation. This process was reversed by annexin V which blocks PS binding sites. During blood meal, Lutzomyia longipalpis sandfly inject saliva in the bite site, which has a series of pharmacologically active compounds that inhibit blood coagulation. Since saliva and parasites are co-injected in the host during natural transmission, we evaluated the anticoagulant properties of sandfly saliva in counteracting the procoagulant activity of L. amazonensis . Lu. longipalpis saliva reverses plasma clotting promoted by promastigotes. It also inhibits thrombin formation by the prothrombinase complex assembled either in phosphatidylcholine (PC)/PS vesicles or in L. amazonensis . Sandfly saliva inhibits factor X activation by the intrinsic tenase complex assembled on PC/PS vesicles and blocks factor Xa catalytic activity. Altogether our results show that metacyclic promastigotes of L. amazonensis are procoagulant due to PS exposure. Notably, this effect is efficiently counteracted by sandfly saliva.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Blood Coagulation/physiology , Leishmania/metabolism , Phosphatidylserines/metabolism , Psychodidae/parasitology , Saliva/metabolism , Anticoagulants/metabolism , Cysteine Endopeptidases , Factor V/antagonists & inhibitors , Factor X/antagonists & inhibitors , Factor Xa/antagonists & inhibitors , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Neoplasm Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Phosphatidylcholines/metabolism , Psychodidae/metabolism , Thrombin/antagonists & inhibitors , Tissue Extracts/metabolism
11.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(4): 488-493, jun. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-678286

ABSTRACT

The infectious process starts with an initial contact between pathogen and host. We have previously demonstrated that Paracoccidioides brasiliensis conidia interact with plasma proteins including fibrinogen, which is considered the major component of the coagulation system. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro capacity of P. brasiliensis conidia to aggregate with plasma proteins and compounds involved in the coagulation system. We assessed the aggregation of P. brasiliensis conidia after incubation with human serum or plasma in the presence or absence of anticoagulants, extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, metabolic and protein inhibitors, monosaccharides and other compounds. Additionally, prothrombin and partial thromboplastin times were determined after the interaction of P. brasiliensis conidia with human plasma. ECM proteins, monosaccharides and human plasma significantly induced P. brasiliensis conidial aggregation; however, anticoagulants and metabolic and protein inhibitors diminished the aggregation process. The extrinsic coagulation pathway was not affected by the interaction between P. brasiliensis conidia and plasma proteins, while the intrinsic pathway was markedly altered. These results indicate that P. brasiliensis conidia interact with proteins involved in the coagulation system. This interaction may play an important role in the initial inflammatory response, as well as fungal disease progression caused by P. brasiliensis dissemination.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood Coagulation/physiology , Extracellular Matrix Proteins/metabolism , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Paracoccidioides/physiology , Spores, Fungal/physiology , Cell Adhesion/physiology , Inflammation/parasitology
12.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 100(5): 404-411, maio 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-675601

ABSTRACT

FUNDAMENTO: Hiperglicemia na fase aguda do infarto do miocárdio é importante fator prognóstico. Entretanto, sua fisiopatologia não está completamente elucidada. OBJETIVO: Analisar simultaneamente correlação entre hiperglicemia e marcadores bioquímicos relacionados ao estresse,metabolismo glicídico e lipídico, coagulação, inflamação e necrose miocárdica. MÉTODOS: Oitenta pacientes com infarto agudo do miocárdio foram incluídos prospectivamente. Os parâmetros analisados foram: glicose, hormônios do estresse (cortisol e norepinefrina), fatores do metabolismo glicídico [hemoglobina glicada (HbA1c), insulina], lipoproteínas (colesterol total, LDL, HDL, LDL eletronegativa minimamente modificada e adiponectina), glicerídeos (triglicérides, VLDL e ácido graxo), fatores da coagulação (fator VII, fibrinogênio,inibidor do ativador do plasminogênio-1), inflamação (proteína C reativa ultrassensível) e necrose miocárdica (CK-MB e troponina). Variáveis contínuas foram convertidas em graus de pertinência por intermédio de lógica fuzzy. RESULTADOS: Houve correlação significativa entre hiperglicemia e metabolismo glicídico (p < 0,001), lipoproteínas (p = 0,03) e fatores de necrose (p = 0,03). Na análise multivariada, somente metabolismo glicídico (OR = 4,3; IC = 2,1-68,9 e p < 0,001) e necrose miocárdica (OR = 22,5; IC = 2-253 e p = 0,012) mantiveram correlação independente e significativa.Para análise da influência da história de diabetes mellitus , modelo de regressão, incluindo somente pacientes sem diabetes mellitus foi desenvolvido, e os resultados não alteraram. Finalmente, no modelo ajustado para idade, sexo e variáveis clínicas(história de diabetes mellitus, hipertensão arterial e dislipidemia), três variáveis mantiveram associação significativa e independente com hiperglicemia: metabolismo glicídico (OR = 24,1; IC = 4,8-122,1 e p < 0,001) necrose miocárdica (OR = 21,9; IC = 1,3-360,9 e p = 0,03) e história de DM (OR = 27, IC = 3,7-195,7 e p = 0,001). CONCLUSÃO: Marcadores do metabolismo glicídico e necrose miocárdica foram os melhores preditores de hiperglicemia em pacientes com infarto agudo do miocárdio.


BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia in the acute phase of myocardial infarction is an important prognostic factor. However, its pathophysiology is not fully understood. OBJECTIVE: To analyze simultaneously the correlation between hyperglycemia and biochemical markers related to stress, glucose and lipid metabolism, coagulation, inflammation, and myocardial necrosis. METHODS Eighty patients with acute myocardial infarction were prospectively included. The following parameters were analyzed: blood glucose; stress hormones (cortisol and norepinephrine); glucose metabolism factors [glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c); insulin]; lipoproteins (total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, minimally modified electronegative LDL, and adiponectin); glycerides (triglycerides, VLDL and fatty acids); coagulation factors (factor VII, fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1); inflammation (high-sensitivity C reactive protein); and myocardial necrosis (CK-MB and troponin). Continuous variables were converted into degrees of relevance using fuzzy logic. RESULTS: Significant correlation was observed between hyperglycemia and glucose metabolism (p < 0.001), lipoproteins (p = 0.03), and necrosis factors (p = 0.03). In the multivariate analysis, only glucose metabolism (OR = 4.3; CI = 2.1-68.9; and p < 0.001) and myocardial necrosis (OR = 22.5; CI = 2-253; and p = 0.012) showed independent and significant correlation. For the analysis of the influence of history of diabetes mellitus, a regression model including only patients without diabetes mellitus was developed, and the results did not change. Finally, in the model adjusted for age, gender, and clinical variables (history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia), three variables maintained a significant and independent association with hyperglycemia: glucose metabolism (OR = 24.1; CI = 4.8-122.1; and p < 0.001), myocardial necrosis (OR = 21.9; CI = 1.3-360.9; and p = 0.03), and history of DM (OR = 27; CI = 3.7-195.7; and p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Glucose metabolism and myocardial necrosis markers were the best predictors of hyperglycemia in patients with acute myocardial infarction.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Hyperglycemia/diagnosis , Myocardial Infarction/blood , Troponin/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Coagulation/physiology , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Epidemiologic Methods , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Hyperglycemia/blood , Inflammation/blood , Insulin/blood , Lipoproteins/blood , Myocardial Infarction/pathology , Necrosis , Stress, Physiological/physiology
13.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 19: 3-3, maio 2013. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-686616

ABSTRACT

Background: The venom of the family Viperidae, including the saw-scaled viper, is rich in serine proteinases and metalloproteinases, which affect the nervous system, complementary system, blood coagulation, platelet aggregation and blood pressure. One of the most prominent effects of the snake venom of Echis carinatus (Ec) is its coagulation activity, used for killing prey. Materials and methods: Subfractions F1A and F1B were isolated from Ec crude venom by a combination of gel chromatography (Sephadex G-75) and ion exchange chromatography on a DEAE-Sepharose (DE-52). These subfractions were then intravenously (IV) injected into NIH male mice. Blood samples were taken before and after the administration of these subfractions. Times for prothrombin, partial thromboplastin and fibrinogen were recorded. Results and conclusions: Comparison of the prothrombin time before and after F1A and F1B administrations showed that time for blood coagulation after injection is shorter than that of normal blood coagulation and also reduced coagulation time after Ec crude venom injection. This difference in coagulation time shows the intense coagulation activity of these subfractions that significantly increase the coagulation cascade rate and Causes to quick blood coagulation. The LD50 of the Ec crude venom was also determined to be 11.1 µg/mouse. Different crude venom doses were prepared with physiological serum and injected into four mice. Comparison of the prothrombin times after injection of subfractions F1A and F1B showed that the rate of mouse blood coagulation increases considerably. Comparing the partial thromboplastin times after injecting these subfractions with this normal test time showed that the activity rate of intrinsic blood coagulation system rose sharply in mice. Finally, by comparing the fibrinogen time after subfraction injections and normal test time, we can infer intense activation of coagulation cascade and fibrin production.(AU)


Subject(s)
Male , Mice , Blood Coagulation/physiology , Elapid Venoms/administration & dosage , Elapid Venoms/blood , Homeostasis/drug effects , Blood Coagulation Tests/methods , Chromatography, Ion Exchange/methods , Elapid Venoms/isolation & purification , Lethal Dose 50
14.
Clinics ; 68(4): 531-536, abr. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-674249

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the preoperative plasma antigenic concentration and activity of von Willebrand factor and its main cleaving protease ADAMTS-13 in pediatric patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease undergoing surgical treatment and investigate possible correlations with postoperative bleeding. METHODS: Plasma antigenic concentrations (von Willebrand factor:Ag and ADAMTS-13:Ag) were measured using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Collagen-binding assays were developed to measure biological activities (von Willebrand factor:collagen binding and ADAMTS-13 activity). The multimeric structure of von Willebrand factor was analyzed using Western immunoblotting. Demographic, diagnostic, and general and specific laboratory data and surgery-related variables were subjected to univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analysis for the prediction of postoperative bleeding. RESULTS: Forty-eight patients were enrolled, with ages ranging from 9 months to 7.6 years (median 2.5 years). The plasma concentrations of von Willebrand factor:Ag and ADAMTS-13:Ag were decreased by 65 and 82%, respectively, in the patients compared with the controls (p<0.001). An increased density of low-molecular-weight fractions of von Willebrand factor, which are suggestive of proteolytic degradation (p = 0.0081), was associated with decreased ADAMTS-13 activity, which was likely due to ADAMTS-13 consumption (71% of controls, p = 0.0029) and decreased von Willebrand factor:collagen binding (76% of controls, p = 0.0004). Significant postoperative bleeding occurred in 13 patients. The preoperative ADAMTS-13 activity of <64.6% (mean level for the group), preoperative activated partial thromboplastin time, and the need for cardiopulmonary bypass were characterized as independent risk factors for postoperative bleeding, with respective hazard ratios of 22.35 (95% CI 1.69 to 294.79), 1.096 (95% CI 1.016 to 1.183), and 37.43 (95% ...


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , ADAM Proteins/blood , Heart Defects, Congenital/blood , Postoperative Hemorrhage/blood , von Willebrand Factor/analysis , ADAM Proteins/physiology , Analysis of Variance , Blotting, Western , Blood Coagulation/physiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Heart Defects, Congenital/surgery , Predictive Value of Tests , Postoperative Hemorrhage/etiology , Reference Values , Risk Factors , von Willebrand Factor/physiology
15.
18.
Med. U.P.B ; 30(2): 163-169, jul.-dic. 2011. Ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: lil-613112

ABSTRACT

Actualmente se acepta de forma categórica que el evento iniciador principal de la coagulación sanguínea es la exposición del factor tisular (FT), lo cual da lugar a la formación del complejo factor VIIa/FT que activa a los factores IX y X en la superficie de las células que expresan el FT y, por último, la producción de trombina. A continuación se revisarán los aspectos relacionados con la nueva teoría celular que trata de explicar de una forma más fisiológica todos los eventos que ocurren durante la coagulación y al final se tocarán algunos aspectos relacionados con los trastornos de la coagulación en el paciente traumatizado.


It is now accepted categorically that the main initiating event of blood coagulation is exposure of tissue factor (TF), which leads to the formation of the complex factor VIIa / TF that activates factors IX and X on the surface of cells expressing the FT, and finally the production of thrombin. Below is a detailed review of all aspects related to the new cell theory tries to explain in a more physiological all events that occur during the coagulation process and at the end some aspects of coagulation disorders in the trauma patient will be displayed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hemostasis , Thromboplastin , Thrombin , Blood Coagulation/physiology , Multiple Trauma
19.
West Indian med. j ; 60(5): 513-518, Oct. 2011. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-672776

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Hypothermia has been associated with coagulation defects. The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the effect of mild hypothermia on clinically used coagulation tests and on haemodynamic variables. METHODS: Νine New Zealand rabbits were subjected to mild core hypothermia by administration of general anaesthesia and exposure to room temperature of 22°C for 60 minutes. Blood samples were obtained at normothermia and mild hypothermia for measurement of prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen levels, platelet count and haemoglobin concentration. Hypothermic values were compared to the normothermic values. Additionally, the progressive temperature drop and haemodynamic changes (blood pressure, heart rate) were recorded. RESULTS: Core temperature decreased significantly over time changing from 39.4 ± 0.27 to 36.6 ± 0.28°C (p = 0.0001). Prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time decreased at hypothermia, but the changes were not statistically significant (p = 0.203 and p = 0.109, respectively). Platelet count, fibrinogen levels and haemoglobin concentration decreased significantly (p = 0.0001, p = 0.03 and p = 0.027) but remained within normal limits. Mean arterial pressure and heart rate declined significantly over time (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.0001, respectively). CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that short term mild hypothermia may affect the coagulation mechanism to a clinically nonsignificant extent, while haemodynamic responses are significantly suppressed.


OBJETIVO: La hipotermia ha sido asociada con defectos de coagulación. El propósito de este estudio experimental fue investigar el efecto de la hipotermia leve sobre las pruebas de coagulación de uso clínico, así como sobre las variables hemodinámicas. MÉTODOS: Nueve conejos de Nueva Zelanda fueron sometidos a hipotermia central leve mediante la administración de anestesia general y exposición a una temperatura ambiente de 22°C durante 60 minutos. Se obtuvieron muestras de sangre en condiciones de normotermia e hipotermia leve para medir el tiempo de protrombina, el tiempo de tromboplastina parcial activada, los niveles de fibrinógeno, el conteo de plaquetas, y la concentración de hemoglobina. Se compararon los valores hipotérmicos con los valores normotérmicos. Además, se registraron la caída progresiva de la temperatura y los cambios hemodinámicos (presión sanguínea, frecuencia cardíaca). RESULTADOS: La temperatura corporal central disminuyó significativamente con el tiempo, cambiando de 39.4 ± 0.27 a 36.6 ± 0.28°C (p = 0.0001). El tiempo de protrombina y el tiempo de tromboplastina parcial activado disminuyeron en la hipotermia, pero los cambios no fueron estadísticamente significativos (p = 0.203 y p = 0.109, respectivamente). El conteo de plaquetas, los niveles de fibrinógeno y la concentración de la hemoglobina disminuyeron significativamente (p = 0.0001, p = 0.03 y p = 0.027) pero permanecieron dentro de los límites normales. La presión arterial promedio y la frecuencia cardíaca disminuyeron significativamente con el tiempo (p = 0.0001 y p = 0.0001, respectivamente). CONCLUSIÓN: Los resultados de este estudio sugieren que la hipotermia leve a corto plazo puede afectar el mecanismo de la coagulación hasta un punto clínicamente no significativo, mientras que respuestas hemodinámicas se suprimen significativamente.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Anesthesia, General , Blood Coagulation/physiology , Hemodynamics , Hypothermia, Induced , Analysis of Variance , Blood Coagulation Tests , Blood Pressure/physiology , Heart Rate/physiology , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Statistics, Nonparametric
20.
Invest. clín ; 52(1): 35-47, mar. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-630918

ABSTRACT

En el presente trabajo se estudió el proceso de formación y disolución de la malla de fibrina y la generación de plasmina en un grupo de pacientes con aborto recurrente (AR) debido a la presencia de anticuerpos antifosfolipídicos (N= 10), mujeres con AR sin el síndrome antifosfolipídico (SAF) (N= 6) y se comparó con un grupo de mujeres sanas (N= 8). Del grupo de pacientes estudiadas con SAF, nueve fueron positivas para anticuerpos anticardiolipina (aCL), cinco para la anti-b2-glicoproteína I (anti-b2GPI), cuatro para ambos anticuerpos, una para anticuerpos antiprotrombina (aPT) y anticoagulante lúpico (AL). El proceso de formación de la fibrina y su disolución fue estudiado por turbidimetría y la generación de plasmina mediante sustrato cromogénico S2251. Las curvas de polimerización de la(s) paciente(s) con AR sin SAF y AL presentaron un incremento en la pendiente y turbidez final, comparado con las del grupo control de mujeres sanas. La velocidad de disolución del coágulo fue mayor en la paciente con AL (21 ± 0) 10-4 DDO/seg y en las AR sin SAF (19,6 ± 5,7) 10-4 DDO/seg, comparado con el grupo control (14,5 ± 2,8) 10-4 DDO/seg. La generación de plasmina estuvo incrementada solamente en las AR sin SAF (85 ± 24%) comparado con 52 ± 3% en el grupo control, p= 0,005. Los cambios observados en el proceso de polimerización y fibrinólisis de la(s) paciente(s) con AR sin SAF y AL pudieran estar relacionados con el incremento en los niveles de fibrinógeno, mientras que los de la generación de plasmina con la entidad mórbida.


The present work was intended to study the process of fibrin formation and lysis and plasmin generation in a group of patients with recurrent miscarriage (RM), due to the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (N= 10); as well as in women with RM without the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) (N= 6), compared with those of a group of healthy women (N= 8). In the group of patients with APS, nine were positive for antibodies against cardiolipin (aCL), five for anti-b2-glycoprotein I (anti-b2GPI), four for both antibodies, and one for antibodies against prothrombin (aPT) and lupus anticoagulant (LA). Fibrin formation and lysis was followed by turbidity and plasmin generation using chromogenic substrate S2251. The polymerization curves from RM patients without APS and the LA patient showed an increased slope and maximum turbidity compared to those of the control group. The speed of lysis was higher in the LA patient (21 ± 0) 10-4 DOD/seg and the RM patients without APS (19.6 ± 5.7) 10-4 DDO/seg, compared to that of the control group (14.5 ± 2.8) 10-4 DDO/seg. Plasmin generation increased only in RM patients without APS (85 ± 24%) against the control group (52 ± 3%), p= 0.005. The changes observed in the fibrin polymerization and lysis process of women with RM without APS and LA seem to be related to their higher fibrinogen levels, while the increased plasmin generation was related to the patients´ morbidity.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Young Adult , Abortion, Habitual/blood , Antibodies, Antiphospholipid/immunology , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/blood , Fibrin/metabolism , Fibrinolysin/biosynthesis , Abortion, Habitual/immunology , Antibodies, Anticardiolipin/immunology , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/immunology , Autoantigens/immunology , Biopolymers , Blood Coagulation/physiology , Enzyme Activation/drug effects , Fibrinolysis/physiology , Lupus Coagulation Inhibitor/blood , Nephelometry and Turbidimetry , Plasminogen/metabolism , Streptokinase/pharmacology , Thrombin/biosynthesis , Thrombophilia/etiology , /immunology
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